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saqarTvelos semiotikis

sazogadoeba
semiotikis kvleviTi centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

XIV
SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
2014

UDC 8122

mTavari redaqtori
cira barbaqaZe

Editor-in-Chief
Tsira Barbakadze

redaqtorebi

Editors

Tamar berekaSvili
guram Yyifiani
marina giorgaZe
gia joxaZe
daviT andriaZe

Tamar Berekashvili
Guram Kipiani
Marina Giorgadze
Gia Jokhadze
David Andriadze

semiotikis kvleviTi centri 2014

ISSN 1512-2409

dagvikavSirdiT:
E-mail: semiotics@iliauni.edu.ge

Sinaarsi
etaforebis samyaro da samyaro metaforebSi
(, )
............................................................... 7
(,
)

yofna da arara: eduard hoperis modernistuli


metaforebi ............................................................................. 22
(, )
frazeologiuri metaforebi: dapyroba da
monadireba .............................................................................. 28
(Telavi, iakob gogebaSvilis
saxelmwifo universiteti)

dro, rogorc metafora da rogorc sinamdvile ............ 34


(,
)

_ ..................................... 41
(, )
.......................... 46
(, )
.......................... 67
(, )
- ....................... 74

4
(, )
....... 80
(, ,
)
.... 87
(,
)

........................................................ 96
(, ,
)

- ................................................................. 106
(, )
, ...................................... 117
(,
)

sindisis metafora hesiodes poemaSi _ samuSaoni da


dReni....................................................................................... 124
(, - )
, .......................................... 131
(, )
... 142
- ( , ,
)

an
......................................................... 147

5
(, ,
)

- ............................................................ 151
mariam marjaniSvili (quTaisi, saxelmwifo istoriuli muzeumi)
metamorfoza TaobaTa azrovnebaSi..................................... 159
(,
)

- ........................................ 165
(,
)

.............................. 172
(, )
, ..................... 179
(,
)


................................................................................ 185
(,
)

........... 190
(, )
................ 196
(,
)
.................................. 201

6
(,
)

, .................................................. 208
(,
)

......... 215
(,
, )

.................................... 222
(, )
................................................ 231
( )
- .......................................... 238
( )
-
....................................................................................... 247
Tamar berekaSvili (, fo )
fentezis literaturuli da filosofiuri
safuZvlebi .............................................................................. 256
irakli mWedliSvili (damoukidebeli mkvlevari)
metaforis samkvidro _ xora da dro-sivrciTi
virtualoba............................................................................. 263
nana trapaiZe
`sparsuli ambis~ enigma .......................................................... 276

Tamaz gabisonia

metaforebi musikaSi
ritorikuli figurebis paralelebi
qarTul tradiciul musikaSi
musika yvelaze mouxelTebeli,
iracionaluri xelovnebaa, siyvaruliviT
auxsneli. Sopenhaueris sityvebiT, musikaSi ver Seicnoba msgavseba, asaxva Cveni
samyaros romelime arsebisa. igi ara ideis, aramed nebis anabeWdia (Sopenhaueri
1919:3). ki, vzomavT, vaanalizebT, vasinTezebT, magram vzomavT mxolod Sedarebis meSveobiT. musikaluri enis obieqtivaciasac verbaluris, maTematikuris, arqiteqturulis asociaciiT vcdilobT.
Tanamedroveobis erT-erTi mowinave eTnomusikologis izali zemcovskis azriT,
musikis Sedareba metyvelebasTan, meore
mxriv ki _ xelovnebis sxva dargTa niSanTa sistemebTan musikismcodneobas diletantizmisken eqaCeba (zemcovski 1996:
98), wminda, substanciuri musika uprogramoa.
lakofis azriT, metafora enas
ki ar unda ganvakuTvnoT, aramed mas, Tu
rogor mimdinareobs erTi mentaluri
sivrcis (mental domain) Canacvleba meoriT (Lakoff, 1993: 203) da musikaluri
metaforac SeiZleba gaigebodes, mxolod
rogorc bilingvisturi movlena. da am
or enaSi, umetes SemTxvevaSi, mxolod

Tamaz gabisonia

erTia - musika. es meqanizmi gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria swored


tradiciul, me vityodi - fundamentur musikaSi. magaliTad, simRera Sav SaSvSi ZaRlis yefis bgerweriTi gadmocema yoveldRiurobis metaforaa musikaSi, xolo glovis gamauqmebeli, Weris axdis mizniT fanduris gatexva, - erTi-orjer fandurze
simebis Camokvra - musikaluri metaforaa yoveldRiurobaSi.
iSviaTia musikaluri metafora musikaSive, magaliTad, xuxunaiSvilebis xasanbeguraSi krimanWulis gadakiskisebiT Secvla, rac, SesaZloa, erTgvar hiperbolur metaforadac CaiTvalos. amave dros, metafora musikaSi zogjer predikatia (specifikatori), zogjer ki _ subieqti (dominanti).
musikis asaxsnelad adamiani yovelTvis aramusikalur instruments moixmobda. ratomRac Cvenamde naklebadaa moRweuli
musikis fenomenologiuri kvlevis cdebi. piTagoras, aristoteles, boeciusis da Suasaukeneebis moRvaweTa gverdiT, musikaluri azris aramusikalur koordinatze proeqciis mxriv, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ipyrobs gviani aRorZinebisa da borokos
epoqaSi musikaSi ritorikuli figurebis Ziebisadmi miZRvnili
traqtatebi.
me-17 saukunis miwuruls evropaSi gamoCndnen musikaluri
kompoziciis Sesaxeb mecnierebis Seqmnaze orientirebuli Semoqmedebi, e.w. musicus poeticus. erTi _ maT Soris _ kirxeri 1650
wels werda: Cvens musikaSi figurebi igivea, rac kazmulsityvaoba, tropebi da gamosaxvis sxva xerxebi ritorikaSi (xananovi
2001:1). marTlac, musikaluri ritorika Caisaxa, rogorc oratoruli xelovnebis pirdapiri analogi. sainteresoa, rom Tema,
ZiriTadi hangi musikaluri nawarmoebisa burmaisterTan (1606),
wodebulia affectio-d, anu afeqtis gamomwvevad - es reaqcia
musikis erT-erT ZiriTad daniSnulebad miiCneoda aRniSnuli periodis musikalur elitaSi. marTlac, ZiriTadi mizezi barokos
musikis swrafvisa ritorikisken emociuri afeTqebis - afeqtis
gamowvevaa. es tendencia antikuri da bizantiuri eTosebis tradicias aaRorZinebs. sityva lazeriviT erT wertilSi axdens
emociis koncentracias, riTac maqsimalurad qmediTs xdis mas.
musika moklebulia amgvari mZlavri afeqtaciis unars, da barokos nawarmoebebic, sxvaTa Soris, ar gamoirCevian masStaburi
afeqturi kontrastebiT.

metaforebi musikaSi

marTlac, barokos paradigmis mTavari maxasiaTebeli isaa,


rom masSi Tanabradaa ganviTarebuli musikaluri Sinaarsis sami
mxare - emocia (aucilebeli), gamomsaxveloba da simbolo/pirsis
- xati-indeqsi- simbolos triadis paralelurad (xolopova
2002: 55).
musikaluri ritorikis wesebi ar iyo erTgvarovani da
SeTanxmebuli, rac sruliad bunebrivia iseTi iracionaluri xelovnebisTvis, rogoric musikaa. amasTan, msgavsad verbaluri ritorikisa, sadac laTinuri mWevrmetyveleba TandaTan evropuli
enebis ganzomilebaSi gadaiTargmna, musikaSic TandaTan moxda ritorizmis ideis proeqcia sxvadasxva eTnikur musikalur enebze.
amis magaliTia ukraineli nikolai dileckis mier SemoTavazebuli , (xananovi 2001:4) romelsac
mtruli gamoxmaureba mohyva evropuli musikismcodnuri isTebliSmentisagan.
swored kultura-barbarosobis msgavs binarulobaze
yuradRebis gamaxvilebis gamo musikaluri ritorika, rogorc
principi, mogvianebiT erTgvar daqancul paradigmad rCeba, romelsac Seuferxeblad evleba Tavze romantizmisa da sxva momdevno musikaluri mimdinareobebis talRebi. Tumca ritorikuli
figurebis gamoZaxili, rogorc musikis daprogramebis idea,
kvlavdakvlav iCenda Tavs mogvianebiTac - SonbergTan, hindemitTan, stravinskisTan. es ukanaskneli miiCnevda, rom ritorizmi
musikaSi erTgvari gamowvevaa kompozitorisaTvis da sruliadac
ar zRudavs mas.
marTlac, ritorikul figurebs musikis TeoriaSi, rogorc gaazrebul, kanonizebul struqturaSi, garkveuli relativizmis niavic Semoaqvs. magaliTad, disonansis, rogorc mWaxexmianobis cneba, mdidrdeba Teatraluri disonansis semantikiT (hainixenis traqtatSi), garkveuli azrobrivi datvirTvis mqone
legalizebuli movleniT (xananovi 2001:2).
asea Tu ise, SeiZleba iTqvas, musikaluri ritorika iyo
musikaluri semiozisis, dRevandeli gamoTqmiT, seriozuli
praqtika, romelic, marTalia, SeiZleba iTqvas, damarcxda
(radgan artaxebSi ver moaqcia mouxelTebeli musikaluri sub-

10

Tamaz gabisonia

stancia), magram Tavisi gabrZolebiT musikaluri logika didad


daawinaura.
ratom davinteresdi qarTul tradiciul musikaSi ritorizmis SesaZlo gamovleniT? albaT - im gamowvevis sapasuxod,
romelic folkloris izolirebul arxSi dinebis koncefciidan
momdinareobs. erTi SexedviT, barokos musika marTlac xalxuris
sruli antipodia, opoziti, rogorc, Tundac, elita da masa. baroko musikas tvirTavs pragmatuli programiT, xolo folklori piriqiT, - yoveldRiurobas tvirTavs emociuri programiT.
magram sulac ar vizraxav, konkretuli ritorikuli figurebi, melodiuri, ritmuli Tu harmoniuli modelebi, dafiqsirebuli aRorZinebisa da barokos musikismcodneobaSi, rogorme
mivusadago qarTul eTnomusikalur sinamdviles. CemTvis mniSvnelovania qarTuli tradiciuli musikis speqtridan zogadmusikaluri ferebis-kodebis abstrahireba, rac, imedia, Tundac mcirediT, qarTuli eTnomusikaluri sistemis simwyobres ufro gamokveTs.
garkveulwilad, musikalur ritorizms da folklors
simboluroba aerTianebT kidec. esaa musikis formalizaciisken
miswrafeba, oRond, pirvel SemTxvevaSi mizanmimarTulad, avtoriseuli koncefciiT, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi - koleqtiuri Semoqmedebis principebiT, umeteswilad - gaucnobiereblad, araintencionalurad.
marTlac, metafora SeiZleba Semsrulebelma gvaniSnos,
magram SesaZloa, metafora adresatma mediumis gareSe, Tavad moniSnos. es aris musikaluri saxis subieqturi xedva, subieqturi
interpretanta. rogorc ritoristi matezoni Tvlida, ritorikuli xerxebi ufro xSirad warmoiqmnebian msmenelis azrovnebis bunebrivi moTxovnilebidan, da amitom ritorikis roli
ufro metad Teoriulia, post factum axsniT (zaxarova 1983:244).
marTalia, xalxur musikaSi metaforis gamorCeviT ormxrivad
ver mivmarTavT informaciis nakads ukan - Tavad mediumsa da obieqtze, ver mivaniWebT mas konvencionalobas, magram metaforis
obieqtivacia, Tundac, mxolod msmenelis mier, Cveni azriT, mis
legalizaciasac niSnavs. msmenelebi xom musicirebis procesis

metaforebi musikaSi

11

ganuyofeli wevrebi varT, miT umetes - koleqtiuri, tradiciuli, xalxuri musikisa.


amgvarad, qarTuli musikaluri metaenis am TvalsazrisiT
gasaanalizeblad, Sevecade, movlenebi damelagebina figura-kodis
(imave niSani-simbolo-metaforis) pragmatikuli ganzomilebis mixedviT, Semdeg iarusebad:

1. figura atrofirebuli mniSvnelobiT;


2. figura Semsruleblismieri mniSvnelobiT;
3. figura msmenelismieri mniSvnelobiT;
amave dros, simbolo-metafora qarTul tradiciul musikaSi, iseve, rogorc barokoSi, SesaZloa, gamomJRavndes rogorc
motivur, aseve - mTeli nimuSis masStabiT.
1. qarTul simReraSi sainteresoa glosolaliis roli,
rogorc atrofirebuli interpretantas niSnisa. glosolaliebi
nanina, harale, dila da a.S. iqceva araverbalur semantikur
fonemebad, leqsemebad, artikulaciur masalad, ris gamoc masze
gawyobili musikaluri teqsti gansakuTrebuli improvizaciiT
gamoirCeva - sapirispirod sityvieri teqstis musicirebisagan,
roca reCitaciuli mxarea dawinaurebuli. SeiZleba iTqvas, formaSi minamReri/misamReri, sadac erT-erTi maTgani glosolaliazea gamRerebuli, erTgvari binaruloba gamosWvivis - emociuri
da logikuri, sityvieri da musikaluri arsisa. SeiZleba iTqvas,
glosolaliebi, Sinaarsdakarguli morfemebi, qarTul simReraSi
Seuqcevadad usicocxlo simboloebia da mxolod diaqronul
WrilSi aRiqmeba.
qarTul sagalobelSi glosolaliebis gamRerebis paraleluri movlenaa evqaristiuli usityvo fragmentebi, romlebic
dasavlurevropul iubilaciebs enaTesaveba. erT marcvalze am
xangrZliv gamRerebaSi erTgvarad wminda musikaluri, usityvo
locvaa warmodgenili. es fragmentebi qarTul tradiciul musikaSi wminda musikaluri metaforis erT-erTi iSviaTi SemTxvevaa,
esaa metafora, romelic aRniSnavs qerubimTa (gavixsenoT - ro-

12

Tamaz gabisonia

melni qerubimTa) da sxva zeciur ZalTa aramaterialur samlocvelo-sadidebel enas.


yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT Wianurze, rogorc sulebTan
mosaubre, simebian-xemian, sakravze. sityva gaWianurebac miuTiTebs imaze, rom am sakravs uwyveti bgeris aReba SeuZlia, rac
mas adamianis unarze zeviT ayenebs da erTgvarad udroobis,
transcedentulis simbolod aqcevs. iqneb swored amitomaa Wianuri xSirad micvalebulTan dakavSirebuli ritualebis aqtiuri
figuranti?
yuradRebas ipyrobs krimanWuli - erTgvari yivili, araamqveyniuri xma, romelic aSkarad magiuri Sinaarsisaa. krimanWulis warmomavlobis da mniSvnelobebis versiebs (sabrZolo yiJina, mwyemsebis gadaZaxili, mgalobeli Citebis mimsgavseba) davumatebdiT maRali tesiturisken swrafvas, romelic imave ritorikuli figurebis mixedviT, zecas mianiSnebs, dabali xmis miwieri
mniSvnelobis sapirispirod. SesaZloa, garkveuli korelaciac
movniSnoT guruli simRerebis, zogadad, maRal tesituraSi artikulaciis tendenciasa da sagaloblidan momdinare guruli
simRerebis aseve did raodenobas Soris.
tesiturasTan dakavSirebiT gamovyofdiT katabazisis
ritorikuli figuris paralels - daRmaval intonacias aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTiblurebsa da datirebebSi. aq ki urTierTobaa qvesknelTan. amave konteqstSi aRiqmeba wyvili daRmavali sekundebis ritorikuli figura - mwuxarebis amsaxavi, rac
ase xSirad gvxvdeba TuSuri simReris (romelSic xSiria naRvliani teqstebi) sekvenciur daRmasvlaSi.
zogadad unda aRiniSnos, rom lirizmi, da Sesabamisad,
melodiis primati, romelic saqarTveloSi yvelaze mkafiod megrul, lazur da TuSur simRerebSia gamovlenili, zogadmusikalur praqtikaSi minoruli mixrilobiTaa umetesad gamoxatuli.
qarTuli sacekvao da saferxulo simRerebi SeiZleba aRviqvaT ori ritorikuli figuris - kiklosis (anu trialis)
(circulatio), romelic aRniSnavs wriul moZraobas) da anaforas
(ganmeorebis) erTobliv Tanaqmedebad, rac emociis intensiur
xazgasmas da, amave dros, wrebrunvas, rogorc maradiulobis

metaforebi musikaSi

13

simbolos, aRniSnavs. gansakuTrebiT mkafiod es meTodi simRera


hariraSi ikveTeba.
gaucnobierebul metaforad gamovyofdi aseve qarTuli
sasimRero artikulaciis gansakuTrebiT mkafio individualobiT
aRbeWdil saxeobebs: megrul mkvnesare, Civilis intonacias, guruli kbenismagvar, e.w. piCikatur ieriSs, mTis simRerebSi
glisandirebas - bgeridan bgeraze ukontrasto gadasvlas. Znelia
am metaforebis axsna-dadastureba. me mainc gavbedavdi da maT Sesabamisad - megruli glexobis gansakuTrebiT mZime istoriul
beds, guruli simReris saeklesio sagalobelTan axlo kontaqts
da mTis regionebis macxovrebTaTvis damaxasiaTebel xmamaRali,
Seyovnebuli akorduli bgeraTwarmoqmnis teqnikas davukavSirebdi. aq gvaxsendeba aseve ritorikuli figura simploka, anu SeerTeba (complexus) - musikaluri nageboba, xmebi roca ise erTiandebian, TiTqosda, saidumlo SemTqmulebas awyoben. sainteresoa, rom svanur mravalxmianobas didi xania, swored kompleqsuri mravalxmianobiT moixsenieben.
garkveuli metaforis mniSvnelobas vxedavT aseve gurul
trioSi - sami gamocdili momRerliT. TiTqosda maTi statusi
maT mier namReris yovelTvis rTuli, ganviTarebuli musikaluri
teqstis garanti unda iyos, magram trios gundTan Tanaqmedebisas es xSirad ase ar aris. trios momRerlebi gundTan antifonSi, umetesad, teqsts amboben. teqsti da statusi aq ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre _ gamJRavnebuli musikaluri virtuozuloba.
maSasadame, gurul trio-gundis antifonSi mJRavndeba, erTi
mxriv, trios, xolo meore mxriv - verbaluri teqstis prioriteti. gavixsenoT gamoTqma: simReris Tqma (da ara _ mRera).
trios am ierarqiul gamorCevaSi ki im sakralur triadasac
SevniSnavdi, romlebzec qveviT visaubreb.
2. garkveul metaforad SegviZlia aRviqvaT infeqciuri
saxadis dros Sesasrulebeli simRera/dasakravis esTetikur aspeqtze aqcenti. es musika unda moswonebodaT batonebs, raTa
avadmyofs Tavs daxsnodnen. SeiZleba iTqvas, qarTuli tradiciuli musikisaTvis es uprecedento motivia. sxvagan ase arsad
zrunavs Semsrulebeli msmenelSi afeqtis miRwevaze. sainteresoa, rom iavnanas, sabodiSos, batonebis arqaulad miCneul
hangSi TiTqmis yvelagan anabazisis ritorikuli figuris para-

14

Tamaz gabisonia

leli _ aRmavali moZraoba _ gvxvdeba, sxvaTa Soris, _ metad


iSviaTi qarTul arqaul motivebSi.
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom metaforis erT-erTi yvelaze konkretuli magaliTi qarTul simReraSi gadidebuli sekundaa. es
motivi, zogadad, dResac cneba aziuris aziatobis metonimad
aRiqmeba, misi kvintesencia, eTnikuri bgera-idealia _ cxadia,
qarTveli SemsruleblisTvis. amis gamo, cnobili momRerali vano
mWedliSvili gasuli saukunis Sua wlebSi Tavis namRerSi mizanmimarTulad Zirkvavda am SemorCenil intonacias, ramac sakmaod
warmatebuli nayofi gamoiRo. dRes qarTl-kaxur simReraSi gadidebul sekundas aRaravin mimarTavs.
msgavsi semantikisaa evropuli harmoniis simbolod qceuli T-D-is funqcionaluri tandemi, romelic gansakuTrebiT dasavleT saqarTveloSi da, gansakuTrebiT, imereTSi, qalaqur simRerebSia gamovlenili. dominantidan tonikaSi naxtomiT gadawyveta simReras uSualod qalaqurad aqcevs, xolo igive svla
Sevsebulad, Sefarulad mocemul nimuSs hibridul anu glexur-qalaqur simRerad warmogvidgens.
3. msmenelis mier aRmoCenili programa qarTul tradiciul musikaSi, ZiriTadad, sagalobelSi iZebneba, rac SesaZloa,
kargad daviwyebuli Zvelis efeqtis gamoZaxilic iyos.
msgavsad musikaluri interpretaciis performatuli da
hermenevtikuli interpretaciisa (vermaieri 2006:106), musikis
sametyvelo interpretaciisas, vfiqrob, SegviZlia mivmarToT rogorc struqturuli, aseve - semantikuri analizis meTods. qarTul sagalobelSi metaforis saZiebeli interpretaciisas swored hermenevtikul meTods mivmarTav da, miuxedavad arasasuliero wodebisa da gamocdilebisa, amas mkrexelobad ar miviCnev.
sainteresoa, rom ioane petriwis metafora samebis erTianobis ideis gamosaxatad dRes qarTul samgaloblo TeoriaSi
sakmaod aqtiurad ganixileba. me am mosazrebas erTgvari `gverdiTa~ argumentiTac ganvamtkicebdi: kaTolikur praqtikaSic
gvxvdeba samxmianobis, kerZod ki - samxmovanebis wminda samebad
moazrebis praqtika, romelic, msgavsad qarTuli sagaloblis

metaforebi musikaSi

struqturisa,
mTavrdeba.

15
bolos

unisoniT

erTarsebis

simboloTi

sainteresoa, rom samxmovaneba gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria


yvelaze arqaul qarTul mravalxmianobaSi - svanurSi. svanuri
himnuri simRerebis prototipi rom savaraudod sagalobelia,
amis Taobaze adreul moxsenebaSic aRvniSnavdi (gabisonia, 2012).
davubrundeT petriws: zeda xma mzaxria, mzraxveli. vin
aris igi? logosis gagebiT, Ze unda iyos, magram amave dros, igi
damwyebis konotaciisacaa. qveda xma bamia, rogorc Tanmxlebi,
da amave dros - bma, dambmeli, gamaerTianebeli, iseve, rogorc
suli wminda eklesiaSi. Jiri - meore, Sua xmaa. ratom iwodeba igi ricxviT? iqneb meore hipostass miuTiTebs? maSasadame,
Cven winaSea: damwyebi, mimyoli (esec qarTuli Sua xmis saxelia)
da damasrulebeli. iqneb es qronologia qarTul galobaSic
RmrTis gamocxadebis Tanmimdevrobas uCvenebs? petriwTanacaa es
mimdevroba dadasturebuli: mamisa mamisasa da Sobasa Zisasa da
gamovlenasa sulisa wmidisasa ... erTobai Seyovlebisai (petriwi
1940: 220; fircxalava 2003:114).
sainteresoa, rom qarTl-kaxur, karbelaanT kiloSi Sua
xma moZravia, xolo, zogadad, moZraoba ufro materializebulia,
vidre uZraoba. igi aqac, SesaZloa, Zis simbolod aRiqmebodes,
romelic gamodis sagaloblis mTavari (kanonikuri) melodiidan - zeda xmidan. Sua xma, igive moZaxili, marTlacda zeda xmis
paraleluri gameorebaa, Tumca gamSvenebuli,
xorcSesxmuli,
moZravi (kacTa Soris iqceoda), xolo burdonuli, gabmuli
bani udroobis, mudmivobis aRmniSvnelia, gavixsenoT, rom bizantiur izokratemas gabmul banSi suliwmindad moiazreben.
gavixsenoT qarTluri simRera metivuri, SeiZleba iTqvas, erTaderTi qarTul musikalur folklorSi, romelSic Tavidan bolomde erTsafexuriani, gabmuli bani gvxvdeba, TiTqosda
mtkvris mdore dinebas asaxavs. aqac suliwmindis asociacias vxedavT (suli RmrTisai iZvroda wyalTa zeda).
xmis miyolis cocxali STabeWdilebis Seqmnas SeiZleba
emsaxurebodes qarTuli galobis kadansSi banis Seyovnebuli sinkopa. yvela xma Tanazomierad miemarTeba unisonisaken. magram ai,

16

Tamaz gabisonia

bani Cerdeba da TiTqos zeda xmebs usmens-elodeba - Tu saiT


wavlen. sainteresoa, rom kirxeri maRali rigis sami ritorikuli figuridan erT-erTs sinkopas gamoyofda (SeerTebasa da fugasTan erTad): (nasonovi, 2009:9; Kircher A. Musurgia universalis...
Roma, 1650. MU I, :366-368).
sainteresoa qarTuli sagaloblis musikaluri teqstis
mimarT koncepti Wreli, romelic, ZiriTadad, erTgvari kodia
- motivuri kompleqsis aRmniSvneli. amave dros, igi mnemonuri
niSnis - nevmas ufro gviandeli, gamartivebuli versiaa. amasTan
Wreli garkveulad, konotaciur mniSvnelobas - gamSvenebulsac
aRniSnavs. SeiZleba iTqvas, Wreli qarTuli tradiciuli musikis
sivrceSi yvelaze pirdapiri gagebiT aRniSnavs cneba ritorikul
figuras.
ZiriTadi ganmasxvavebeli Tavisebureba qarTul da dasavleTevropul sagalobels Soris imitaciaa - motivis sxvadasxva
xmaSi ganTavseba (ritorikuli fugura fuga). imitacia ar aris
qarTul galobaSi. igi arc dasavlurSi iyo Tavidanve, magram
SemdgomSi igi evropuli polifoniis mTavar muxtad iqca. nuTu
qarTuli galoba ver ganviTarda imitaciamde? Cven viciT, rom
me-18 saukuneSi qarTuli galoba 5-6 xmianic ki iyo. arsebobs
garkveuli varaudebi am sakiTxze, magram maTze msjelobas dRes
spekulaciis (cudi gagebiT) Janrs ufro ganvakuTvnebdi.
aseve saxasiaToa, rom qarTulma sagalobelma ar Semoinaxa rva-xmis eTosebi - ritorikuli fugurebis prototipebi,
Tumca zogierTi mkvlevari mis kvalze mianiSnebs: magaliTad, suxiaSvili aRniSnavs didi marxvis sagaloblebSi me-6 xmis gansakuTrebiT xSir xmarebas, rac, am xmis eTosis mixedviT, sinanuls
gamoxatavs.
sxva romeli metafora SeiZleba daiZebnos qarTul galobaSi?
xmaTa paralelizmi - rogorc samebis erTi neba; frazaTa
akinZvis principi, igive - ganumeorebloba - rogorc gankacebis
uqceveloba; Sesvladis Sida kadansSi oqtavuri anabazisi - rogorc amaRleba. xmaTa gadajvaredineba, rogorc jvari, xolo am
gadajvaredinebisas zeda xmis Sua xmaze qveviT Casvla da Semdeg

metaforebi musikaSi

17

- kadansSi - zeviT amosvla - rogorc jojoxeTad STasvla da


aRdgoma. evropul polifoniaSi msgavsi xmaTa gadajvaredineba me11 saukuneSi (gvido darecosTan) iCens Tavs, isic kadansSi, qarTuli sagaloblis msgavsad (SuRliaSvili 2001:106). sainteresoa isic, rom qarTul galobaSi xSiria Sida kadansireba kvintaze - or xmaSi, xolo saboloo - unisonSi. TiTqosda, sagaloblis ganmavlobaSi, qadagebisas qristes orbunebovnebazea miniSneba, xolo kadansis unisonSi - wminda samebis erTarsebaze.
amasTan, qarTuli sagaloblis kadansi, umetesad, zeda tesiturazea orientirebuli, rac, gansakuTrebiT, banis zeasvliTaa
gamoxatuli. es svla gvaxsenebs ritorikul figura klimaqss,
anu graduatios (gradatio), romelic nagebobebis zeviT sekventuri aRmasvliT RmerTTan miaxloebas miuTiTebs.
calkea aRsaniSni qarTul sagalobelSi tonis SemomRerebis yvelaze gavrcelebuli da ekonomiuri saqcevi - grupetoa
(bizantiurad - sirmatiki, ebraulad - carka), romelic jer kidev ebrauli RvTismsaxurebisas iyo cnobili. grupeto qarTl-kaxur galobaSi aseve xSirad Segvxvdeba Taviseburi kadansis saxiT
- tonikaluri safexuris SemomRerebiT. es moZraoba TiTqos epasuxeba omoiontotons - figuras, romelic erTnairi damTavrebiT aRniSnavs sazeimo mtkicebas (an gakicxvas).
dasasrul, erTmaneTs Sevudareb barokos musikaluri ritorikisa da qarTuli tradiciuli musikis zogad principebs:

Tamaz gabisonia

18

()

+/-

+/-

metaforebi musikaSi

19

+/-

+/-

rogorc vxedavT, funqcionaluri prioritetebis mniSvnelovani gansxvavebis miuxedavad, SemoqmedebiTi xerxebis mxriv,
barokosa da xalxur musikas aqvT garkveuli Tanxvedris wertilebic - im sferoSi, romelic ar ukavSirdeba mizanmimarTul saavtoro dagegmvas.
barokosa da xalxur musikas kidev erTi iribi, araarsobrivi saerTo niSani axasiaTebT: dRevandeli gadasaxedidan orive
am sivrceSi aqtualuria avTentikuri Sesrulebis problema,
radgan orive maTgani is cocxali praqtikaa, romelsac warsulis, siZvelis Zlieri konotacia aqvT.
es ritorikuli figurebisa da qarTuli tradiciuli musikis intonaciuri formulebis erTgvarad kaleidoskopuri,
uwesrigo mimoxilva badebs STabeWdilebas, rom metafora da
simbolo qarTul simRera-sagalobelSi mxolod SemTxveviTi xasiaTisaa da sistemas ver qmnis. da es marTlac asea - yovel SemTxvevaSi - dRes. magram erTi ram SegviZlia davaskvnaT: rogorc
barokos ritorikas, aseve qarTul musikalur-folklorul indeqsebs zogadmusikaluri asociaciuri, xatobrivi azrovnebis
urTierTmsgavsi, formalizebuli, logikuri figurebi aqvT, rac
kidev erTxel gvacnobierebinebs musikis, rogorc msoflio enis,
humanizmis enis rols sakacobrio komunikaciaSi.

Tamaz gabisonia

20
literatura

gabisonia 2012: gabisonia Tamaz. qristianuli kvali svanur himnur simRerebSi. ilias saxelmwifo universitetis
pirveli eTnologiuri konferencia arqauli elementebi saqarTvelos mTis eTnokulturaSi (ibeWdeba);
vermaieri 2006: .
- .
. . .
, 2006. . 104 - 112.
zaxarova 1983: ..
XVII XVIII . .,
1983.
zemcovski 1996: , .. ;
: . .
" ", . 8. - ,
1996.
lakofi 1993: Lakoff, G. The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor / G.
Lakoff // Metaphor and Thought. Second Edition. Ed. By
Andrew Ortony. Cambridge: CUP, 1993. P. 202-251.
morisi 1982: , ..
//. . . . .
. .: , 2002 (1 . 1982). .
45 96.
nasonovi 2009: ..
: //
XXI : , ,
, :
,
40- / . . . . , .. . . . , 2009. . 115121.
fircxalava 2003: fircxalava, nino. petriwis filosofia da
qarTuli mravalxmianoba. wurwumia, rusudan da Jordania, ioseb (red.). tradiciuli mravalxmianobis
pirveli saerTaSoriso simpoziumi. (gv. 109-126).
Tbilisi: Tbilisis saxelmwifo konservatoriis tra-

metaforebi musikaSi

21

diciuli mravalxmianobis kvlevis saerTaSoriso centri (qarTul da inglisur enebze) 2003.


Sopenhaueri 1919: . .
. . -.
. . . ,
, 1919.
SuRliaSvili 2001: SuRliaSvili, daviT. qarTuli galobis unisonuri `mravalxmianoba~. krebulSi: wurwumia, rusudan (p/m red.). sasuliero da saero musikis mravalxmianobis problemebi. qristeSobis 2000 da saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis 3000 wlisTavisadmi
miZRvnili saerTaSoriso samecniero konferenciis
moxsenebebi. (gv. 101-118). Tbilisi: Tbilisis v. sarajiSvilis saxelobis saxelmwifo konservatoria;
fondi `Ria sazogadoeba _ saqarTvelo~ (qarTul
enaze, inglisuri reziumeTi) 2001.
xananovi 2001: . :

[
]. :
http://www.ruthenia.ru/logos/number/2001_3/12_3_2001.htm
xolopova 2002: ; . .
: :
.
- 4-5-
2000 ., .. //-, , 2002.
.55-76

Kkonstantine bregaZe

yofna da arara - eduard


hoperis modernistuli
metaforebi
modernizmma, rogorc istoriulma
epoqam, romelic gansazRvrulia metafizikuri ryeviTa (nicSe) da teqnikuri
civilizaciis progresiT, am metafizikuri ryevidan gamomdinare, gamoiwvia
Taviseburi modernistuli mgrZnobeloba, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia samgvari, sammagi krizisi _ Semecnebis, subieqturobisa da enis (Vietta 2001: 11-15).
Semecnebis krizisi gulisxmobs da
afiqsirebs yofierebis gonebiT/racioTi
Semecnebis apriorul SeuZleblobas, vinaidan modernizmis epoqaSi ganviTarebuli scientizmisa da teqnologiebis Sedegad yofiereba ukve Camoyalibda mravalferovan da rTul struqturad, rac,
mag., gamoaaSkarava tradiciuli niutonisturi fizikis farglebSi SemuSavebuli naivuri meqanikis ukugdebam atomuri (e. rezerfordi), kvanturi (m. planki, n. bori) da fardobiTobis (a. ainStaini) Teoriebis mier (Andreotti 2009:
102). amas daerTo subieqturobis krizisic, romelic gulisxmobs subieqtis anTropologiur arsSi gonebis instanciaze aracnobieri fsiqikis dominirebas da
subieqtis, rogorc gonebiT, TiTqosda
apriorulad moqmedi arsis,
gauqmebas

yofna da arara - eduard hoperis modernistuli metaforebi

23

(mravlobiToba/Vielheit, fr. nicSe). xolo am viTarebaSi ena


aRar aris is TviTkmari mocemuloba, romelsac ZaluZs mravalSriani yofierebis fenomenTa adekvaturi asaxva da gadmocema.
amavdroulad, destruirdeba enis sakomunikacio funqciac, rac
Semdgom erT-erTi mniSvnelovani xelSemwyobi faqtoria modernizmis epoqaSi dominirebuli totaluri gaucxoebis (Sdr., e. w.
venis modernizmis avtorebis, artur Sniclerisa da peter altenbergis novelebi da miniaturebi, an miqelanjelo antonionis
filmebi dabneleba da Blow Up/axlo xediT).
am pirobebSi ki viTardeba egzistencialuri SiSi, identobis
mopovebisa da komunikaciis SeuZlebloba, gaucxoeba, fuZndeba
yofis sazrismoklebuloba da istoriis procesSi teleologiurobis gauqmeba. Cemi azriT, es modernistuli mgrZnobeloba modernistul mwerlobaSi Tavisi absoluturi saxiT gamovlenilia
franc kafkas prozaSi, xolo XX saukunis modernistul musikaSi _ The Rolling Stones-sa da The Doors-is kompoziciebSi _
Gimme Shelter (1969) da The End (1967).
eduard hoperis (1882-1967), rogorc modernisti xelovanis, ferweraSi zedmiwevniT asaxulia am samgvari, sammagi krizisiT gamowveuli egzistencialuri gamouvaloba da mis mxatvrobaSi Tanamedrove adamianis yofa emsgavseba yofnas ararasebul
ganzomilebaSi.
am viTarebis gadmocemisas hoperi, misTvis damaxasiaTebli
maabstragirebeli intenciis safuZvelze, xSirad mimarTavs didi
qalaqis topossa da mis markerebs, romlebic imTaviTve fuZndebian ikonur metaforebad: ofisebi, kinoTeatrebi, sastumroebi,
barebi, restornebi, matareblebis kupeebi, Tanamedrove sacxovrebeli korpusebis binebi/oTaxebi da am sivrceebSi gamoketili gaucxoebuli, martosuli, Tanamedrove adamianebi. Sdr., Semdegi
ferweruli tiloebi: restoran-avtomati [1927], ofisi niuiorkSi [1962], oTaxi niu-iorkSi [1932], kino niu-iorkSi
[1939], sastumros fanjara [1952], zafxulis saRamo [1947],
Rameulebi (Nighthowks) [1942].
hoperis personaJebi swored modernistuli mgrZnobelobiT Sepyrobili melanqolikebi arian (iseve, rogorc _ Tavad
hoperi) (Iversen 2004: 53), romelTa melanqolia gamowveulia
transcendirebis aprioruli ganuxorcieleblobiT da mdabal yofierebaSi saboloo CarCeniT, rac hoperis tiloebze metaforulad gadmocemulia protagonistTa daxuruli sivrcidan gauR-

24

konstantine bregaZe

wevlobiT - iqneba es sakuTari binis oTaxi, sastumros foie,


restornis darbazi, ofisi, bari Tu sxva (Sdr., gauRwevlobis
toposi franc kafkasa prozaSi _ metamorfoza, soflis eqimi, ganaCeni da sxv., an federiko felinis 8-1/2-Si).
e. hoperis ferweraSi mudmivad mocemulia modernizmis epoqis adamianis disocirebuli, darRveuli/ganrRveuli egzistencialuri viTareba, J. bodriaris analogiiT Tu vityviT, mocemulia
Taviseburi modernistuli mgrZnobeloba gaucxoebis procesi, paradizuli yofierebisa da egzistenciis saboloo dakargva,
egzistencialuri SiSiT Sepyrobiloba, TviTidentobis vermopoveba, komunikaciis SeuZlebloba da saganTsamyaros ganzomilebebiT
saboloo TviTSemosazRvra. yovelive amis metaforebad hoperis
tiloebze mocemulia sicivis, siCumisa da sicarielis toposebi
(Sdr. saxli rkinigzasTan [1925], an eqskursia filosofiaSi
[1959]) (Renner 2009: 85):
hoperTan asaxulia martooba, aseve martoobisgan mogvrili saSinelebis gancda. hoperi afiqsirebs adamianebs Soris arsebul mdumare, amouvseb distancias, gaqvavebul
mdgomareobaSi myof adamians, romelic gamoketilia Tavis
sasrulobaSi, romelic maradisobad evlineba mas. [...] misi
subieqturoba am cariel sivrceSi/oTaxSi sakuTar TavTanaa darCenili da igi am sicarieleSi qreba (Targmani Cemia _ k. b.) (Schmid 1999: 19, 25).
amitomac, romantikosebTan da, maT Soris, fridrihis ferwerul tiloebze dominirebuli dinamikuri da cxovelmyofeli
sivrce, rogorc transcendirebis toposi da transcendenturobis simbolo, hoperis tiloebze ukve darRveuli da gauqmebulia: hoperis tiloebze sivrce ki ar ixsneba, aramed igi xSirad
CamoWrilia, izRudeba da viwrovdeba, rac simbolurad ganasaxierebs romantizmiseuli usasrulobis rRvevasa da adamianis empiriul sasrulobaSi apriorul moqcevas. Sesabamisad, es daviwroebuli sivrce arc protagonistSi da arc mayurebelSi aRar
iwvevs transcendirebas, aramed aintensivebs modernizmis epoqis
adamianis sasrulobaSi saboloo determinebulobas.
SemTxveviTi araa, rom sivrcisaken miqceuli hoperis protagonistebis mzera mudmivad exleba gareT myof funqcionalur Senobebs, anu modernizmis epoqis mier motanil konstruqciebs,

yofna da arara - eduard hoperis modernistuli metaforebi

25

romlebic abrkoleben protagonistis mzeras transcendenturobisaken _ Sdr. hoperis Semdegi ferweruli tiloebi: kvira dila [1930], oTaxi bruklinSi [1932], oTaxi zRvis piras
[1951], dilis mze [1952], sastumro rkinigzasTan [1952],
ofisi patara qalaqSi [1953], mzis Suqi kafeteriaSi [1958],
eqskursia filosofiaSi [1959]) da sxva.
hoperis ferwerisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Tavisebureba, rodesac TiTqosda yofiTi situacia apriorulad iRebs abstragirebul niSan-Tvisebas da ikonur datvirTvas. amas hoperi aRwevs
mayureblis mzeris mijaWvulobiT, dabmiT, rac hoperTan ganviTarebulia daviwroebuli SezRuduli sivrcis intensivobiT, Taviseburi CarCos efeqtiT: kerZod, hopers mayureblis mzera
iZulebiT Semohyavs Tavis suraTebze da mayureblis mzeras miajaWvavs, erTi mxriv, an Signidan ganaTebul, izolirebul oTaxebze, ofisebze, restornebze, barebze, romelTa garSemoc arara
sufevs, an, meore mxriv, mayureblis mzeris dabma xorcieldeba
sivrcis/scenis mizanmimarTuli moWriT, kadrirebis principisa da
Taviseburi geometrizebis, gaCarCoebis safuZvelze. mayureblis mzeris
ganaTebaze an CarCoze iZulebiTi fokusirebiT
ara marto protagonistebi, aramed Tavad suraTis mayureblebic
gadaiqcevian am araras da modernizmis melanqoliis Tanamonawileebad.
amasTan, hoperi sagnis/sagnebis minimaluri deformaciiTa da
mxolod misTvis damaxasiaTebeli ferTametyvelebiT - vulgaruli ferebi, romlebic, erTi SexedviT, TiTqosda gamoyenebiT,
funqcionalur, maliarul saRebavebs mogvagonebs - aintensivebs konkretuli sagnis an scenis ikonurobasa da abstragirebulobas (Sdr., saxli rkinigzasTan [1925], an oTaxi niu-iorkSi [1932]).
hoperis tiloebis dispoziciaSi mniSvnelovania ori sivrcis
dapirispireba: Sida - kameruli sivrcisa da gare - bneli sivrcis. aq ganxorcielebulia romantikul ferweraSi mocemuli
romantizebis, samyaros garomantiulebis (novalisi) postulatis
Taviseburi dekonstruqcia: Tuki romantikosi personaJebi apriorulad iswrafian Signidan gareT, gadian SezRuduli sivrcidan
da maTi swrafvis sagani aris swrafva transcendenturobisaken
(Sdr., kaspar david fridrihis tilo qali fanjarasTan [1818]),
maSin hoperis personaJebi apriorulad moklebulni arian transcendirebis, samyaros garomantiulebis unars, ramdenadac Signi-

26

konstantine bregaZe

dan ganaTebuli daxuruli sivrce, sadac imyofebian hoperis personaJebi, imTaviTve garSemortymulia araraseuli sivrciT hoperTan es gadmocemulia Savi feris saxismetyvelebiT. es garemoeba
ki imTaviTve gamoricxavs hoperis personaJTa unars, sakuTar
cnobierebaSi ganaviTaron samyaros garomantiuleba, rac gulisxmobs SezRudul biurgerul da warmaval yofaSi usasrulobis
mignebasa da misken swrafvas (magiuri idealizmi, novalisi),
vinaidan hoperis protagonistTa mzera imTaviTve exleba Cabnelebul sivrces, rac araras, egzistencialuri finalobis simboloa.
hoperis suraTebSi aseve erTmaneTs upirispirdeba ori sxva
sivrcec _ bunebiseuli da civilizaciiseuli. Tuki imTaviTve
cxadia, rom hoperTan civilizaciis sivrce disociaciuri sivrcea, sadac mocemulia sruli gaucxoeba da sasowarkveTa, aqve
irkveva isic, rom hoperTan TviT bunebac aRar aris paradizuli
yofis simbolo, rogorc es, mag., imave romantikos k. d. fridrihTanaa buneba, bunebiseuli sivrce hoperTan aseve simbolurad
ganasaxerebs araraseul sivrces, egzistencialuri finalobis
sivrces da amdenad, bunebisken swarfva ukve aRar aris RvTaebrivi transcendenturobis damkvidrebis procesis simboluri gansaxiereba: Sdr., saRamo keip-kodSi [1939], dilis Svidi saaTi
[1948], gazis gasamarTi sadguri [1940], dila samxreT karolinaSi [1955], martooba [1944] da sxva.
hoperTan buneba (da masTan erTad, mTeli yofiereba) gvevlineba Sopenhaueriseul an nicSeanur brma, bnel nebad, STanmTqmel, bnel wiaRad (Sdr., Rrma SuaRame/tiefe Mitternacht _
nicSe), gvevlineba erTi da imaves maradiuli dabrunebis (nicSe) sivrced, romelSic yovel calkeul subieqts sruli egzistencialuri gaqroba, araraSi STanTqma moelis, gamomdinare iqidan, rom samyaros, yofierebis pirvelsawyisi hoperisTvisac (rogorc es SopenhauerTan da nicSesTanaa) brma iracionaluri
pirvelsawyisia _ neba/sicocxle/Zala (Wille /Leben/Kraft), romelic mudmivad, usasrulod da yovelgvari mizanmimarTulebisa da
teleologiis gareSe vlindeba yofierebasa, adamianur yofasa
(Dasein) da yofnaSi (Sein). es ki hoperisaTvis mudmivad erTi da
igive, maradiulad ganmeorebadi aprioruli ontologiuri mocemulobaa.
Sesabamisad irkveva, rom modernizmis epoqis adamianis yofna
(Sein) sabolood eqceva araraseuli ganzomilebis tyveobaSi. am-

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27

gvarad, formaluri dapirispirebis miuxedavad, rogorc civilizatoruli, ise naturaluri sivrce gaucxoebis sivrcea da
imTaviTve gamoricxavs transcendirebis SesaZleblobas.
modernisti hoperi Tavisi ferweriT erTgvarad upirispirdeba mis Tanamedrove amerikaSi (me-20 s. 20-ian-30iani w.w.) dominirebul mzardi urbanizaciis procesebiT aRfrTovanebul biurgerul optimizms, upirispirdeba e. w. progresis rwmeniT aRvsil amerikel biurgerobas, romelic mxolod reklamebiT ganaTebul vitrinebSi Wvretda kacobriobis WeSmarit ganviTarebas.
amavdroulad hoperi daupirispirda e. w. amerikul civilizatorul realizms, mag., precizionist Carlz Siles (Charles
Sheeler), romelic Tavis socrealizmis tipis, garkveulwilad,
ideologizebul ferweraSi aRmerTebs teqnikur progress, Tayvans scems manqanur civilizacias da swams e. w. mecnieruli
progresisa (Sdr., C. Siles Semdegi suraTebi: amerikuli landSafti [1930], klasikuri landSafti [1931], mgoravi Zala
[1939]). amis sapirispirod ki, hoperi Tavis mxatvrobaSi aviTarebs srul antiteqnokratul, anticivilizatorul diskurss,
rac, zogadad, modernisti xelovanebisaTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli
(Tu ar CavTliT futuristebs). amas adasturebs hoperis saxli
rkinigzasTan [1925], qalaqi [1927], qalaqSi Sesvla [1946],
manheten briji [1928] da sxv., vinaidan hoperisaTvis urbanuli
sivrce imTaviTve ganasaxierebs modernistuli mgrZnobelobisa
da egzistencialuri gamogdebulobis (Geworfenheit) (m. haidegeri) apriorul toposs.
D
literatura
Andreotti, Mario. 2009. Die Struktur der modernen Literatur,
Bern/Stuttgart: Haupt Verlag.
Iversen, Margaret. 2004. Hoppers melancholischer Blick (S. 5268); in: Edward Hopper, hrsg., von
Sh. Wagstaff, Ostfildern-Ruit: Hatje Kantz Verlag.
Renner, Rolf. 2009. Edward Hopper (1882-1967), Transformation
der Wirklickeit, Kln: Taschen.
Schmid, Wilhelm. 1999. Philosophie der Lebenskunst. Eine
Grundlegung, 4. Aufl., Frankfurt/M.: Shurkamp.
Vietta, Silvio. 2001. sthetik der Moderne. Literatur und Bild,
Mnchen: Fink Verlag.

cira barbaqaZe

frazeologiuri
metaforebi _ Dapyroba
da monadireba
rogorc yvelasTvis cnobilia, am
or leqsemas (dapyroba da monadireba)
pirdapiri mniSvnelobebis garda gadataniTi, metaforuli mniSvnelobebic aqvT
SesityvebaSi: qalis (mamakacis) dapyroba,
qalis (mamakacis) monadireba.
ra Tqma unda, frazeologiuri tipis metaforebi SemoqmedebiTi xasiaTis ar
aris, magram maTi gaanalizeba saintereso
daskvnebs gagakeTebinebT.
metaforebi (maT Soris, enobrivi) iqmneba
analogiis safuZvelze... sagnis saganTan,
movlenis _ movlenasTan, faqtisa _ faqtTan da, sulac ar aris SemTxveviTi.
frazeologiuri metaforebi konceptualuri xasiaTisaa da dakavSirebulia am
enaze molaparakeTa mentaluri sivrcis
struqturebTan: msoflaRqmasTan, xedvasTan, gemovnebasTan da sxv.
am mxriv, frazeologiuri metaforebi _
dapyroba da monadireba _ ar aris mxo-

frazeologiuri metaforebi dapyroba da monadireba

29

lod qarTuli kulturis sakuTreba. arsebobs universaluri


enobriv-frazeologiuri metaforebic. sxvaTa Soris, enebis kvleva universaluri metaforebis gamovlenis mizniT gacilebiT met
informacias mogvcemda kulturebze. vfiqrob, rom es momavlis
saintereso da sasargeblo kvlevebi iqneba.
mkiTxvelma minda gaixsenos, roca Tavad warmouTqvams an sxvisgan mousmenia frazebi: qali (mamakaci) davipyari, an qalis (mamakacis) guli movinadire... Tqveni azriT, ramdenad aris es frazebi siyvarulTan dakavSirebuli da ras niSnavs vinmes dapyroba da
monadireba...?
mecnierebis mier dadgenilia, rom metaforebs aqvT mamodelirebeli funqcia, rac imas niSnavs, rom is, rac metaforaSia mocemuli _ ori sagani, faqti, movlena... _ erTmaneTTan rezonansSia,
anu erT movlenas Cven vxedavT meore movlenis TvalebiT da
semantikuri veli erTidan meoreze ucvlelad SeiZleba gadavitanoT.
maSasadame, roca vambobT davipyari _ niSnavs, rom me var dampyrobeli, qali (kaci) aris teritoria da vaxden mis okupacias
da amiT var bednieri da dapyrobilic, savaraudod, bednieria...
Sesabamisad, me vaxorcieleb yvela im moqmedebas, rasac dampyrobeli: vzverav, vadgen gegmas, viCen Tanamoazreebs, gadavdivar Setevaze da ase Semdeg... fsiqologebic ar ayovneben da gTavazoben:
rogor daipyroT sasurveli qali (mamakaci) _ 9 gza, 7 meTodi,
6 rCeva da sxva... me mxolod metaforebSi Cadebul azrs veZeb,
Torem dapyrobili qalebi da kacebi, rogorc teritoriebi, ar
mainteresebs...
roca dampyrobeli xarT, elodeT axal dampyrobelsac... sxva da
ucxo dampyroblis gamoCena Tqvengan uciloblad Zalas moiTxovs, romlis gareSec Tqvens teritorias sxva miiTvisebs. xolo im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ori dampyrobeli erTmaneTs Seakvdeba,

30

cira barbaqaZe

teritoria sxva arCevans gaakeTebs. am azris klasikuri nimuSia xalxuri balada: Semomeyara yivCaRi, romlis finalis erTi
varianti ase sruldeba:
aqeT is kvdeba, iqiT _ me, qali _ wavida sxvisasa.
mkvlevarma da mweralma giorgi SatberaSvilma es dasasruli bunebrivad ar miiCnia, radgan qarTveli qalisTvis Seuferebel qcevad CaTvala, magram teqsts qmnian avtorebi (am SemTxvevaSi, xalxi) da ara mkvlevrebi. vfiqrob, damatebiTi variantebi swored
am damokidebulebis gamo gauCnda baladas.
da ra xdeba, rodesac Tqven viRacis guls inadirebT? metaforuli kavSiri aseTia: guli _ nadiria... amitom is unda daamarcxo, gangmiro da nanadirevad aqcio, mxolod amis Semdeg
xdeba is Seni sakuTreba, Sen gekuTvnis, raki moinadire. am metaforis SemTxvevaSic isev fizikur ZlasTan gvaqvs saqme. unda iyo
kargi meomari, raindi, rom gamudmebulad ibrZode imisTvis, rac
ginda da SeiZleba, rom Senic iyos... an rac SeiZleba, gadmogeces, rogorc jildo, rogorc gamarjvebuls... magaliTad, qali...
bevr qals (kacs) unda, rom misTvis ibrZodnen, mas moipovebdnen,
misTvis sisxls Rvridnen, sxvebs amarcxebdnen... radgan, aseT SemTxvevaSi, qali Seefareba Zliers sxva Zlieris, an yivCaRis
sapirispirod. aseT SemTxvevaSi, msxverpls moswons, rodesac
misTvis ibrZvian...
metaforuli kavSiri siyvaruli brZolaa gamomdinareobs ufro
didi metaforuli kavSiridan: cxovreba brZolaa...
bunebrivia, es erTaderTi metafora ar aris arc cxovrebis da
arc siyvarulis... Tqven SegiZliaT, Tqveni metafora aRmoaCinoT...
SecvaloT kidec, Tu dainaxavT, rom ar mogewonaT is paradigma,

frazeologiuri metaforebi dapyroba da monadireba

31

romelSic uneburad aRmogaCinaT cxovrebis Cvevebma, enobrivma


Cvevebma... kulturam (Tu ukulturobam)...
siyvarulis amgvari frazeologiuri metaforebis wyalobiT, mopoveba-monadirebis paradigma mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSic grZeldeba... radgan zemoT ukve giTxariT, rom metaforebs aqvT mamodelirebeli funqcia da isini xSirad Cvengan damoukideblad, Cvens
qvecnobierSi ganagrZoben axali da msgavsi modelebis agebas ukve
arsebul fundamentze... amis dasturad uamravi nimuSis moyvana
SeiZleba: erTi avtoris sul bolos wakiTxuli leqsis fragments davimowmeb:
Salva ramiSvili
lamazi qali qalaqia
lamazi qali qalaqia,
kaci ki Saragzis yaCaRebis xrova
lamazi qalis monadireba qalaqis aRebas udris.
aha...
vdgavarT da vuyurebT am patara koxta qalaqs,
Cans zurmuxtisferi bastionebi,
firuzis galavanic Cans,
miwaTxrilia garSemo...
naxe, ra kargad icaven qalaqs?!
magram, unda SeviWraT!....

32

cira barbaqaZe

da ase Semdeg... grZeldeba es baladac, vidre qalaqis (qalis),


rogorc teritoriis, dapyrobamde da misi gulis monadirebamde...
(srulad naxeT aq: http://www.bu.org.ge/x3210?lang=geo)
didi mwerlebi aseT rCevebsac iZlevian: Tu qalis monadireba
ginda, mometebuli yuradReba ar unda miaqcio (konstantine gamsaxurdia).
vTqvaT da, moinadire... mere...? mere eqcevi ise, viT nanadirevs...
dahkideb, gaatyaveb da miirTmev...

literatura
aruTinova 1999: .. . .
barbaqaZe 2003: cira barbaqaZe, qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis pragmatika; Tbilisi.
uilraiti 1990: . , , :
, .

frazeologiuri metaforebi dapyroba da monadireba

33

jonsoni da lakofi 2003: George Lakoff and Mark Johnsen (2003)


Metaphors we live by. London: The university of
Chicago press.
rifateri 1984: Michael Riffaterre. Semiotics of Poetry. Bloomington:
Indiana University Press.

Eelizbar elizbaraSvili

dro, rogorc metafora


da rogorc sinamdvile
Tavidanve naTlad unda gavmijnoT
Semdegi sakvlevi mimarTulebebi erTmaneTisgan: erTi aris sakiTxi drois bunebis
Sesaxeb _ ra aris dro, ra aris drois
arsi, rogoria drois struqtura; meore
sakiTxia imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor iqceva dro, rogori formiT moqmedebs:
wriulad brunavs
(cikluri), sworxazobrivia
(linealuri) Tu rizomorfulia
(mravlobiTi dro). am kuTxiT SeiZleba daiweros drois istoriac,
romelSic naCvenebi iqneba Zvel samyaroSi aTaswleulebis manZilze rogor brunavda dro wreze; Semdgom, Sua saukuneebis dasawyisidan XX saukunis pirvel
naxevramde, dro rogor amoZravda linealurad da dRes rogor gamravlda igi,
mraval drod iqca da miiRo rizomorfuli saxe; xolo mesamea istoriis gaazrebis paradigmebi, sakacobrio civilizaciis istoriis manZilze rom mogvepoveba. esenia istoriis wrebrunvis, istoriidan gasvlis, istoriis maradiuli
winsvlis, istoriis spiraluri ganviTarebis, istoriis dasasrulis, istoriis
turbulenturi
bzrialis,
istoriis
Sewyvetis paradigmebi.

dro, rogorc metafora da rogorc sinamdvile

35

Cven am SemTxvevaSi gvainteresebs mxolod drois buneba, _


ra aris dro realurad, rogoria misi arsi. amisTvis ki winaswar ganvmartoT ori ram _ cneba da metafora: cneba aris raime
sagnis, movlenis, fenomenis arsebiTi niSnebis erToblioba da igi
pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT asaxavs sinamdviles. metafora ki aris
berZnuli sityva (metaphora), romelic niSnavs gadatanas. igi ar
asaxavs sinamdviles, aramed mxolod gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT mianiSnebs raimeze.
f, nicSes filosofiis ingliseli mkvlevari jon harTmani
1996 wels gamoqveynebul statiaSi nicSes mier metaforaTa gamoyeneba (Nietzsches use of metaphor) saubrobs metaforebis
arsze da maT ganmartavs miaxloebiT, arazust, mosaxerxebel
tyuilad, romlebic ar Seesabamebian sinamdviles. magram avtoris
azriT, yvela cnebas (koncepts) aseve metaforuli warmomavloba
aqvs. cnebebic mxolod metaforuli konceptualizaciebia da ar
Seesabamebian sinamdviles, ar asaxaven realobas. Tuki aristoteles mixedviT, metaforebi miiRebian cnebaTa gardaqmniT da transformirebiT, nicSesTan piriqiT cnebebi metaforebis mumificirebis Sedegia. (Hartmann 1996). meore ingliseli mkvlevari
sara kofmanic analogiur poziciaze dgas 1993 wels gamoqveynebul statiaSi nicSe da metafora ((Nietzsche and Metaphor),
romelSic igi wers: cnebas ara aqvs ufro didi Rirebuleba
vidre metaforas da is aris metaforaTa kondensireba (Kofman
1993).
j. harTmanis azriT, f. nicSem genealogiis meTodi swored
imitom SemoiRo, rom eCvenebina, rogor mumificirdebian metaforebi cnebebSi da TiToeul am
mumificirebas aqvs Zalze
grZeli istoria.
maSasadame, ingliseli mkvlevrebis meTodologiaze dayrdnobiT, SegviZlia, gamovyoT sami ram:
1) cnebebi arsebiTi niSnebis erToblioba, romelic asaxavs realobas
2) metaforebi - gadataniTi mniSvnelobebi
3) cnebebi, romlebic sinamdvileSi kondensirebuli anu
mumificirebuli metaforebia da ar asaxaven aranair realobas,
magram jer kidev Tavs gviCveneben ise, TiTqos asaxavdnen realobas.
axla CavataroT mokle istoriuli eqskursi da vnaxoT,
sxvadasxva epoqebSi romeli metaforebi gamoiyeneboda imis aRsa-

36

elizbar elizbaraSvili

niSnavad, rasac Cven dros veZaxiT. daviwyoT Zveli vedebidan.


rig-veda II mandala:
mdinareebi varunas samyarouli kanonis mixedviT moZraoben,
ar iRlebian da ar isveneben isini.
swrafad, rogorc Citebi ise frenen wreze.
vxedavT, rom imis aRsaniSnad, rasac Cven dros veZaxiT,
gamoyenebulia mdinaris metafora.
IV mandalaSi mavadevi umReris RmerT savitars, romelic
marTavs diad gzas. es mzis gzaa, anu samyarosa da drois maradiuli wrebrunvis gza.
aq drois metaforad mzis gzaa gamoyenebuli, rogorc _
monakveTi mzis amosvlidan mis Casvlamde.
I mandala: usasrulod anTebulia adre RvTaebrivi uSasi,
da axlac ainTo igi guluxvi,
da ainTeba igi yvela momdevno dRes.
uSasi rigvedaSi ganTiadis, aisis qalRmerTia, romlis
monacvleoba ganasaxierebs drois dinebas.
VII mandalaSi ki saubaria erT-erT RmerTze, romelzec
naTqvamia rom
man Seqmna mZlavri kalapotebi dReebis dinebisaTvis
aq dros metaforad gvevlineba mdinareTa kalapotebi,
romelSic miedinebian dReebi.
rigvedas X mandalaSi ki vkiTxulobT, Tu ra xdeboda
samyaros Seqmnamde:
mas Sina ar iyo ra: arca yofna da arca aryofna...
ar iyo maSin arc sikvdili da arc sicocxle,
ar iyo maSin dRisa da Ramis sxvadasxvaoba,
mxolod sunTqavda TavisTavad erTi, urxev niavTagan,
ara ra iyo Tvinieri misa.
vxedavT, rom aq dro arsebobda Tavad samyaros Seqmnamde da misi metafora TavisTavad erTis sunTqvaa.
axla Tu gadavinacvlebT antikurobaSi, heraklitesTan
vxvdebiT drois reliefur
metaforebs. berZeni filosofosi
wers: erTsa da imave mdinareSi Sesuls yovel wams axal-axali
talRa exeTqeba tans.
(Jurn. lari. 1991. 101) - aq drois metafora mdinarea,
romelic yvelaze gavrcelebulia istoriaSi.

dro, rogorc metafora da rogorc sinamdvile

37

sxva fragmentSi vkiTxulobT: es samyaro - erTi da igive


yvela arsisTvis ar Seuqmnia arc RmerTTagans da arc kacTagans,
aramed yovelTvis iyo, aris da kvlav iqneba, rogorc marad cocxali cecxli (Jurn. lari. 1991. 103).
aq cvalebadobisa da drois gamomxatveli metaforaa
marad cocxali cecxli.
heraklitesTan mzesac vxvdebiT, rogorc maradiuli ganaxlebisa da drois metaforas mze ara marto maraddRe axalia,
aramed marad _ axalic (Jurn. lari. 1991. 101).
berZeni filosofosi demokrite realur fenomens - rigis
monacvleobas - iyenebs drois gamomxatvel metaforad. igi wers:
qveyana cvalebadobaa, cxovreba _ rigi (demokrite, 1959, 147).
platonTan Taviseburi metafora gvaqvs drois gamosaxatavad - gamoqvabulis kedelze Suq-Crdilebis monacvleoba. dialog
saxelmwifoSi platons aRwerili aqvs moCvenebiTi samyaro gamoqvabulis saxiT, romelSic adamianebi gvevlinebian saxiT kedlisken mijaWvul tusaRebad. isini am kedelze xedaven Suq-Crdilebis mudmiv monacvleobas, romelic gamoqvabulSi maT zurgs
ukan danTebuli koconisa da maT Soris mosiarule adamianebisagan iqmneba: sxvadasxva sagnebi uWiravT xelSi. Crdilebis es monacvleoba aRiqmeba maT mier erTaderT realur procesad, mTeli
cxovreba umzeren. es procesi, es monacvleoba platonTan metaforulad gamoxatavs dros. adamian-tusaRebs eWvic ara aqvT imaze, romelsac maT zurgs ukan arsebobs realuri samyaro
( 1971 321).
romaul filosofiaSi markus avreliuss ekuTvnis yvelaze
mkafio metafora imis saxatad, rasac Cven veZaxiT dros. fiqrebSi (wigni IV) igi wers:
dro mdinarea qmnadisa da Smagi nakadi, warmoCindeba Tu
ara raime, meyseulad waritacebs drois dineba. uCinarqmnils
meore mosdevs, magram male isic miefareba Tvals (avreliusi
1973. 43).
Cven SegviZlia, kidev mravali magaliTi moviyvanoT istoriidan, Tu rogor gadmoscemdnen metaforulad dros sxvadasxva
epoqebSi sxvadasxva moazrovneebi, magram xSir SemTxvevaSi isev
imave an msgavs metaforamde mivalT.
rom SevajamoT Cvens mier Catarebuli mokle istoriuli
eqskursi, davinaxavT, rom mdinare, mzis gza, ganTiadis monacvleoba, TavisTavad erTis sunTqva, mze, marad cocxali cecxli,

38

elizbar elizbaraSvili

Suq-Crdilebis monacvleoba, cvalebadobis rigi - es yvelaferi


aris sxvadasxva kulturasa da erSi imisi metaforuli miniSneba,
rasac Cven veZaxiT dros. yvelaferi es metaforebia, romlebic
mxolod gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT mianiSneben sinamdvileze da,
jon harTmanis eniT, mxolod miaxloebiTi, arazusti, mosaxerxebeli tyuilia. es gasagebia.
axla ki davsvaT mTavari kiTxva - ra aris Tavad dro, ra
aris drois cneba, drois koncefti, rogorc awmyoSi monacvle
wertilebis erTganzomilebiani linealuri kontiniumi? (drois
cnebaSi swored es Sinaarsi devs) igi is cnebaa, romelic pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT asaxavs sinamdviles Tu (kofmaniseuli da
harTmaniseuli gagebiT) metaforaTa kondensirebaa da maTi mumificirebiT iqmneba, arsobrivad, isic metaforaa da ki ar asaxavs
simandviles, aramed miaxloebiTi, arazusti, mosaxerxebeli tyuilia.
amisTvis unda gavaanalizoT dros cneba. Tu dadgindeba,
rom is, rasac drois cneba gadmoscems, SeuZlebelia realurad
arsebobdes, maSin mtkicdeba, rom drois cneba sinamdvileSi is
cneba ki ar aris, romelic sinamdviles asaxavs, aramed kondensirebuli, mumificirebuli metaforaa.
aristotelem yvelaze pirvelad is gaakritika, rasac drois cneba gadmoscems. fizikaSi igi wers: is, rom dro saerTod ar arsebobs, an TiTqmis ar arsebobs, rogorc raRac gaurkveveli, dgindeba Semdegis safuZvelze. misi erTi nawili iyo da
ukve aRar arsebobs, meore momavalSia da jer kidev ar aris, am
nawilebisgan ki Sedgeba usasrulo dro. xolo is, rac ararsebulebisagan Sedgeba, SeuZlebelia, arsebobasTan iyos kavSirSi.
stagireli moazrovnis teqstebSi fragments wavawydebiT, romlebSic igi amgvari logikiT akritikebs drois arss (
1937. 91).
netari avgustine iziarebs drois arsis aristoteleseul
kritikas da naSromSi - WeSmarit religiaze wers: me ar SemiZlia momavlis gazomva, radganac igi jer ar aris, ar SemiZlia
gavzomo awmyo, radganac masSi ar aris xangrZlioba da ar SemiZlia gavzomo warsuli, radganac is ukve aRar aris. sidide
ki, romelic ar izomeba, ar arsebobs (. 1992. 174).

dro, rogorc metafora da rogorc sinamdvile

39

axali moazrovneebidan frang filosofos anri bergsons


gamovyofT, romelic zustad Caswvda drois absurdulobas. igi
wers: Cveuli Semecneba iZulebulia, rogorc mecnieruli Semecneba, sagnebi ganixilos pulvelizirebul droSi, romelSic
xangrZliobis armqone momentebi Seenacvlebian erTmaneTs rigis
mixedviT... moZraoba misTvis - mdebareobebis cvlilebebis rigia Tvisebebis rigia da saerTod qmnadoba - mdgomareobebis rigi. is
amodis uZraobebidan. da am uZraobebis xelovnuri kombinaciiT,
is qmnis moZraobebis imitacias, sanacvlod Tavad namdvili moZraobisa: es operacia praqtikulad mosaxerxebelia, magram Teoriulad absurdulia (. 1997. 17).
vilhelm dilTai aseve akritikebs drois Cveul koncepts,
rodesac wers, rom dro ar SeiZleba, gaazrebuli iqnes, rogorc garkveuli xazi, romelic Sedgeba TanabradRirebuli nawilebisgan... awmyo arasodes araa (Gegenwart ist niemals) da is, rasac Cven ganvicdiT awmyod, yovelTvis Tavis TavSi Seicavs gaxsenebas imaze, rac es-es aris ukve iyo awmyo (W.Dilthey BD. VII.
194)
Jak derida ki pirdapir wers: dro Sedgeba axlis momentebisgan... momenti aris erTdroulad is, rac ukve aRaraa, da is,
rac jer ar damdgara. Tuki is, rac miiCneva drod, aRiarebuli
iqneba arsebulad, maSin dro ar arsebobs, Tu es marTlac droa,
maSin SeuZlebelia is arsebobdes (Jacques Derrida 1972. 144).
filosofiis istoriidan Cven mravlad SegviZlia moviyvanoT drois cnebis analogiuri kritika. yvela es kritika Tavs
iyris im erT azrSi, romelic Semdegnairad SegviZlia CamovayaliboT:
drois cneba gulisxmobs sam Semadgenel struqturul
elements: warsuls, awmyos da momavals. warsuli aRar arsebobs, momavali jer ar arsebobs, xolo awmyos arseboba mouxelTebelia, awmyos arsebobac ar dgindeba. aqedan gamomdinare, Tuki
raime cnebis Semadgeneli struqturuli elementebidan arc erTi
es elementi ar arsebobs, maSin es cneba absurdulia da SeuZlebelia, gamoyenebul iqnas sinamdvilis pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT amsaxvel cnebad.
amitom, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom drois cneba ar asaxavs
raime realurs, ar gvatyobinebs raimes namdvil sinamdvileze, is
aris metaforaTa kondensireba, aTaswleulebis manZilze mumifi-

40

elizbar elizbaraSvili

cirebuli, gamyarebuli metafora, romelic sinamdvileze gadmogvcems mxolod miaxloebiT, arazust, mosaxerxebel tyuils.
aqedan gamomdinare, nicSes genealogiis meTodis gamoyenebiT, SesaZlebeli iqneba imisi Cveneba, Tu rogor kondensirda da
mumificirdagaqvavda Cvens mier zemoT moyvanili metaforebi
drois tradiciul cnebaSi.
literatura
demokrite, epikure, 1959 fragmentebi, werilebi, sabWoTa saqarTvelo, Tbilisi
markus avreliusi. 1972 fiqrebi, Tbilisi
Jurn. lari 1991 #1, xelovneba, Tbilisi
1992 ,
1937 ,
. 1997 . .
.. internet vedas/rigveda.htm
1971 3
W.Dilthey. Gesammeltte schiften. BD. VII
Hartmann John 1996 Nietzsches use of metaphor internet
http://www.yahoo.com
S. Kofman, 1993 Nietzsche and Metaphor, internet
http://www.yahoo.com
Jacques Derrida, 1972 Ousia et gramme`: Note sur une note de Sein
und. Zeit. ... Minuit,

salome omiaZe

metafora - taqsonomiuri
Secdoma
metaforis sakiTxi ori aTas welze metia, moazrovneTa interesis sagania.
am xnis ganmavlobaSi, bunebrivia, metaforis mravalgvari ganmarteba gaCnda, Tumca es definiciebi aristoteleseul ganmartebas didad ar daSorebia. metaforas, rogorc erT-erT yvelaze ucnaursa
da amoucnob enobriv movlenas, yvelaze
xSirad stilistikur xerxad, mxatvrul
saSualebad ganixilavdnen. ukanaskneli
ori aTeuli welia, rac lingvistebis,
fsiqologebisa da filosofosebis yuradReba metaforis ontologiis kvlevisaken aris mimarTuli.
meoce saukunis bolomde metaforas Tu mxolod gamoxatvis saSualebad
miiCnevdnen, ocdameerTe saukunis kvlevebSi igi Semecnebis erT-erT ZiriTad
xerxadaa saxeldebuli. dadgenil iqna,
rom metaforebi cnobierebis universaliebia. samyaros metaforul xedvas Tanamedrove fsiqologebi adamianis, adamianuri kulturis geneziss ukavSireben da
savsebiT SesaZleblad esaxebaT mosazreba, rom TviT protoena iyo metaforuli, xolo protokomunikacia swored metaforul doneze xorcieldeboda.
metaforis Teoriis Seqmnisas lakofi da jonsoni aRniSnavdnen: metafo-

42

salome omiaZe

ra msWvalavs Cvens yoveldRiurobasa da ara mxolod enas, aramed azrsac da qmedebasac. konceptualuri sistema, romlis terminebiTac vfiqrobT da vmoqmedebT, Tavisi bunebiTaa metaforuli (Lakoff, Johnson 1980, 3). maTi Teoriis Tanaxmad, adamianebi
metaforebs imisaTvis mimarTaven, rom TavianT cnobierebaSi ufro zustad moaxdinon rogorc arsebuli, aseve ararsebuli abstraqtuli konceptis realizeba. mecnierebi metaforas samyaros Semecnebis fundamentur grZnobas uwodeben, realobis gamaformebel saSualebad ganixilaven. metafora Semecnebis mZlavri
iaraRia, roca axali konceptis wvdoma ukve nacnob konceptTan
misi Sedarebis gziT xorcieldeba. analogiis meqanizmebi fiqciurobis princips eyrdnoba. metaforas es principi udevs safuZvlad, am principiT arsebobs igi da arsebobas maSin wyvets, rodesac saxeldebis Sinagan formaSi fiqciuroba aRar Seicnoba
( 1988, 26-51).
droTa ganmavlobaSi metaforebi moulodnelobis efeqts,
esTetikur Rirebulebas kargaven, metaforulad rom vTqvaT, xundebian. magaliTad, Sesityvebebi doqis tuCi, Wiqis fexi, maRali azri, tkbili sityva, Tbili salami Tu sxv. mxatvruli zemoqmedebis TvalsazrisiT aRar gamoirCevian, maTs Sinagan
formaSi fiqciuroba gamqralia da, amdenad, metaforebadac aRar
aRiqmebian. warmoSobiT metaforaa mecnierebaSi damkvidrebuli
Cven mier zemoT naxsenebi termini Sinagani formac, Tumca
aRarc am ori sityvis kavSiri eucnaureba dRes vinmes. arada
leqsema forma misive saleqsikono definiciiT garegnuli
moxazulobiT rom SevcvaloT, Sinagan garegnul moxazulobas miviRebT, riTac terminologiuri Sesityvebis fiqciuroba
aRdgeba da metaforis mTavari maxasiaTebeli ucnaurobac
naTlad SesagrZnobi gaxdeba.
da mainc, rogor iqmneba es ucnauroba, rogoria metaforaTa Semqmneli meqanizmebi? S. bali werda: Cven abstraqtul cnebebs grZnobiTi samyaros sagnebs vadarebT, radgan es erTaderTi
xerxia, SevicnoT da sxvebsac gavacnoT isini. amgvaria metaforis
warmoSoba. metafora sxva araferia, Tu ara Sedareba, romlis
drosac goneba abstraqtuli cnebisa da konkretuli sagnis damaaxloebeli tendenciis gavleniT maT erT sityvaSi aerTianebs
( 1961, 221). marTalia, Sedareba mniSvnelovani xerxia, romlis saSualebiTac SegviZlia, abstraqtuli ram advilad aRsaqmeli da gasagebi gavxadoT, magram Sedareba ufro axlosaa empiri-

metafora taqsonomiuri Secdoma

43

ul sinamdvilesTan, metafora ki
poeturTan. Sedarebisas
orive Sesadarebeli erTeuli inarCunebs SefardebiTs avtonomiurobas, metaforaSi ki ori erTeulis Seuqcevadi gardasaxva xdeba mesame, poetur realobad.
metaforaTa Semqmneli meqanizmebis gamovlena-aRwera konceptualur metaforebze metad xatovan metaforebze dakvirvebiTaa SesaZlebeli, radgan enis kreatiuli funqcia yvelaze naTlad swored poetur teqstebSi vlindeba. mxatvrul enaSi, erTi
mxriv, warmodgenilia enobrivi erTeulebi, rogorc poeturi
struqturebis samSeneblo masala, xolo meore mxriv azris
niSnismieri ageba, romelic iTvaliswinebs transformaciis, igiveobis, mezoblobisa da kontrastulobis operaciebs, rac enobriv
erTeulebs saxeobriv struqturebSi aerTianebs. amasTanave, arsebiTi aq struqturis elementTa urTierTSesatyvisobis realoba
ki ar aris, aramed im mesame mniSvnelobis aqtualizaciis procesi, romelic aRniSnul elementTa urTierTmimarTebiT Cndeba. magaliTad, oTar WilaZis poeturi striqonis Semzaravia eWvis
oboba komponentebs Soris urTierToba gramatikuli, ufro
zustad, sintaqsuri TvalsazrisiT Tu gamarTulia, logikuri
klas-kategoriebis mixedviT, taqsonomiur Secdomad unda Sefasdes, rogorc _ SeuZlebeli Sexameba.
leqsikuri sintagmatikis fuZemdeblis, valter porcigis
mier SemoRebuli elementaruli velis cneba, romelic or sityvas Soris Sinaarsobriv mimarTebas efuZneba, sintaqsur erTeulTa komponentebis semantikur Tavsebadobis gamovlenas gulisxmobs. swored amgvar arsobriv semantikur mimarTebaTa rRveviT,
SeuTavsebelTa SeTavsebiT iqmneba metafora.
isev WilaZiseul metaforas davubrundeT: ratom eWvis
oboba da Tanac ratom Semzaravi, ram daakavSirebina poets
isini? am Sesityvebis komponentTa semantikuri dakavSirebis motivacia is saerTo ramaa maT Soris, rac Sedarebis safuZvels
iZleva: obobaca da eWvic msxverpls ipyrobs da sisxls swovs,
pirveli pirdapiri, xolo meore gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT. iqmneba axali azri, sxvaTa Soris, enaSi ukve arsebuli msgavsi gamoTqmisa eWvis Wia (eWvis Wia SeuCnda, eWvis Wia RrRnis).
faqtobrivad, eWvis oboba niSnavs eWvs, romelic obobasaviT
moqmedebs da amitom
aris Semzaravi. individualur-saavtoro
metafora imiTacaa gamorCeuli, rom misi aRqmisas sxvadasxva rigis asociaca Cndeba. im sityvebis semantikis miRma, romlebic

44

salome omiaZe

mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi metaforul sazriss qmnis, aRmocendeba


savsebiT subieqturi, damatebiTi asociaciebi, romlebic aRmqmelis fsiqikursa da inteleqtualur wyobas ukavSirdeba.
metaforebze msjelobisas aqtualuria kidev erTi sakiTxi:
Tuki metafora taqsonomiuri Secdomis Sedegia, Tuki misi amoxsna logikuri wesebiT SeuZlebelia, maSin rogor aRwevs misiT
gamoxatuli saTqmeli adresatamde? am kiTxvas ramdenime pasuxi
SeiZleba hqondes: metaforuli azrovnebis unari zogadamianuri
Tvisebaa; metafora ara mxolod gamoxatvis saSualebaa, aramed _
Semecnebis erT-erTi xerxic; metafora fundamentur kulturul
Rirebulebebs asaxavs erovnul-kulturul msoflxedvas efuZneba; metafora axali codnis wvdomisaTvis warsulSi mopovebul
codnas iyenebs, igi axal koncepts sityvaTa pirveladi mniSvnelobebisa da maTi Tanmxlebi mravalricxovani asociaciis gamoyenebiT qmnis. aqve Cndeba kidev erTi kiTxva: saWiroa Tu ara metaforis amoxsna? poeturi metafora ar saWiroebs interpretacias, misi daniSnuleba esTetikuri zemoqmedebaa. mxatvruli metaforis amoxsna mxolod poeziis ganadgurebiTaa SesaZlebeli. yoveli amgvari metafora poeturi aRmoCenaa, romelSic samyaro
moulodneli kuTxiT, esTetikuri poziciidan Cans. rac Seexeba
konceptualur metaforebs, maTi Seqmnis meqanizmebi universaluria da mniSvnelobis gadatanas efuZneba, amdenad, amgvar metaforaTa wvdoma calkeuli enobrivi pirovnebis lingvokulturul
donezea damokidebuli.
gavrcelebuli da advilad gasaziarebeli azria, rom poetur enaSi praqtikulad ar arsebobs semantikurad SeuZlebeli
Sesityveba da rom poeziis ena is sferoa, sadac yovelgvari moulodneloba mosalodnelia. Tumca naklebad popularulia mosazreba, rom yofiTi diskursi metaforulobiT mxatvruls ar
Camouvardeba da miT ufro, imis mtkiceba, rom gadmocemis sizustiTa da zedmiwevniTi logikurobiT gamorCeuli samecniero
ena xSirad iyenebs metaforebs. arada, marTlac asea: metic, metafora universaluri enobrivi movlenaa da yovel enas axasiaTebs.
misi universaluroba vlindeba sivrcesa da droSi, enis struqturasa da mis funqciobaSi. bevri lingvisti imasac amtkicebs,
rom mTeli Cveni ena metaforebis sasaflaoa. mecnierTa es xatovani formulireba ena metaforebis sasaflao, Tavis mxriv,
imis nimuSia, rom adamianis xedvaa metaforuli da, amdenad, me-

45

metafora taqsonomiuri Secdoma

taforisTvis enis funqciobis SemosazRvruli ubnebi ar arsebobs.


literatura
, . 1961. . :-
. .
, .1988.
- //
. : .
Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson. 1980. Metaphors We Live By.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Tengiz verulava

`uxilavi xelis metafora


da adam smiTi
uxilavi xeli - adam smiTis cnobili metaforaa. igi gulisxmobs, rom
TiToeuli adamiani moqmedebs mxolod
piradi interesebiT, sakuTari keTildReobisaTvis, xolo am qmedebebiT uxilav
xels igi mihyavs iseTi Sedegebisken,
romlebic saerTod ar Sedioda mis ganzraxvaSi da Sesabamisad, misdauneburad
ganapirobeben sazogadoebis keTildReobas.
dReisaTvis smiTis metafora sayovelTaod aRiarebulia, Tumca, meoce saukunis Sua periodamde misTvis aravis miuqcevia gansakuTrebuli yuradReba. amas
adasturebs is garemoeba, rom uxilavi
xelis metafora ar aris moxseniebuli
rogorc smiTis Tanamedrove, ise Semdgomi periodis cnobil moazrovneTa SromebSi. igi ar gvxvdeba britaneli saxelmwifo moRvawis Tomas paunelis (17221805) adam smiTisadmi gagzavnil werilebSi (T. Pownall 1776), arc Tomas malTusis (Malthus 1798), devid rikardos
(Ricardo, 1817), jon stiuart milis
(Mill 1849), karl marqsis (Marx 1887),
makkuloCis (McCulloch 1863) naSromebSi.
"uxilav xelze" miniSnebas ver vpoulobT 1876 welsac, rodesac aRiniSna
wignis gamokvleva xalxTa simdidris

uxilavi xelis metafora da adam smiTi

47

bunebisa da mizezebis Sesaxeb gamoqveynebidan 100 wlis zeimi.


"uxilavi xelis" citirebas axdens ingliseli istorikosi henri
Tomas bakli Tavis cnobil SromaSi civilizaciis istoria inglisSi (Buckle 1885 vol 1, 218-219), magram Tavad metafora saerTod ignorirebulia. aseve, august onkeni (August Onken 1874)
citirebs uxilav xels yovelgvari komentaris gareSe.
fraza uxilavi xeli farTod gavrcelda da popularuli
metafora gaxda mxolod meoce saukunis meore naxevridan
(Rothschild 2001, 117-18). Tanamedrove ekonomistebi udides rols
aniWeben uxilavi xelis Teorias (Stiglitz 2002, 460, 477; Stiglitz
2000, 1448, 1457). amerikeli ekonomisti, nobelis premiis laureati ekonomikis dargSi, kenet erou Tvlis, rom metaforam uxilavi xeli WeSmaritad yvelaze mniSvnelovani inteleqtualuri
wvlili Seitana ekonomikur azrovnebaSi (Arrow 1987, 71; Arrow
& Hahn 1971, 1). amerikeli ekonomist jeimz tobinis mixedviT,
igi "erT-erTi udidesi da yvelaze gavleniani ideaa istoriaSi"
(Tobin 1992, 117).
me-20 saukunis meore naxevridan uxilavi xelis cneba ubralo metaforidan Tavisufali bazris "principad", "Teoriad" da
"paradigmad, sabazro ekonomikis simbolod iqca (Ylikoski 1995).
uxilavi xelis Teoriis mimarT pozitiurad ganwyobilni mas
axasiaTeben, rogorc "faqizs" (Harris 1998), "brZens" da "SorsmWvretels (Joyce 2001), romelic "adamianTa cxovrebas aumjobesebs" (Bush 2002), xolo misi sapirispiro, "xiluli xeli" saxelmwifos mtacebeli xelia", "mkvdari xelia," "rkinis muStia",
romlis "uxilavi fexi Telavs adamianTa imedebs da angrevs maT
ocnebebs" (Shleifer da Vishny 1998, 3-4; Lindsey 2002; Bush 2002).
milton fridmanis azriT, uxilavi xeli Tavisufali bazris
kooperaciuli, TviTmaregulirebeli Zalis "mTavari gasaRebia...
Cveni sakvebis da tansacmlis sawarmoeblad, biniT uzrunvelsayofad (Friedman and Friedman 1980, 1). adam smiTis "xedva, Tu ra
gziT unda moxdes milionobiT adamianTa nebayoflobiTi qmedebebis koordinacia fasTa sistemis meSveobiT, centraluri mmarTvelobis gareSe, uaRresad rTuli da daxvewilia" (Friedman 1978,
17; Friedman 1981). avstriuli ekonomikuri skolis mimdevari,
leonard ridi Tavis cnobil werilSi "me, fanqari," uxilavi xelis qmedebas fanqris SeqmnaSi axasiaTebs, rogorc "saidumlos"
da "saswauls" (Read, 1999 [1958], 10-11). milTon fridmenic
msgavs gamoTqmebs iyenebs (Friedman da Friedman 1980, 3, 11-13).

48

Tengiz verulava

uxilavi xelis mimarT kritikulad ganwyobilni mas iyeneben Tavisufali bazrisadmi TavianTi uaryofiTi damokidebulebis
gamosaxatavad (Brennan and Pettit 1993; Hahn 1982). maTTvis igi
"dambladacemuli" (Stiglitz 2001, 473), "sisxliani" (Rothschild
2001, 119) da "rkinis muStebis konkurenciaa" (Roemer 1988, 2-3).
frenk hani aRniSnavs, rom uxilavi xelis koncefcia gulisxmobs
"xarbi da egoisti adamianebis pirvelyofili codvis grZnobas"
(Hahn 1982, 1, 5). Tumca, miuxedavad aseTi damokidebulebisa,
TviT keinzianeli ekonomistebic ki xazs usvamen "uxilav xelis
saocar unars, gaumklavdes uzarmazar masStabebSi arsebul koordinaciis problemas" (William Baumol and Alan Blinder. 2001,
214). frank hani wers: "rac unda kritikulad viyo ganwyobili
am Teoriis mimarT, igi erT-erTi udidesi inteleqtualuri miRwevaa... uxilavi xeli ganapirobebs harmonias da adamianTaTvis sasurveli gamosavlis zrdas" (Hahn 1982, 1, 4, 8). jorj stigleri
uxilav xels uwodebs mTavar ganZs. misive TqmiT, "smits hqonda erTi Zalze mniSvnelovani miRweva: ekonomikis yuradRebis
centrSi man daayena adamianTa qcevis sistemuri analizi, romlebic konkurenciis pirobebSi moqmedeben sakuTari, piradi interesebiT" (Stigler 1976, 1201).
uxilavi xelis Sesaxeb adreuli cnobebi
uxilavi xeli didi xania, aRiarebulia smiTis metaforad,
Tumca, es fraza ar aris misi gamogoneba. araerT adreul literaturul wyaroSi ixsenieba igi. cnobilia, rom smiTs hqonda
mdidari biblioTeka: savaraudod, igi icnobda am literaturul
wyaroebs da iyenebda maT Tavis Sromebze muSaobisas (Rothschild
2001, 116-56; Force 2003, 69-71; Buchan 2006, 1; Andriopoulos 1999,
739n-758; Bonar 1966).
termini "uxilavi xeli" jer kidev
homerosis iliadaSi
(Zv. w. VIII s.) ixsenieba: da uknidan zevsma hkra mas [heqtors]
metad Zlieri xeliT da gamoiwvia maspinZeli masTan erTad
(iliada. qeba XV. 695). cnobilia, rom smiTs homerosis sxvadasxva gamocema hqonda Tavis biblioTekaSi.
smiTi kargad icnobda horaciusis (Zv. w. 65-8) odebs, romlebSic gvxvdeba mexTamtexeli iupiteris Zlieri xeli (odebi
3.3.6). uxilavi xeli moixsenieba agreTve romaeli poetis ovidius nazonis (Zv. w. 43 - 17) metamorfozebSi.

uxilavi xelis metafora da adam smiTi

49

netari avgustine (354-430) Tavis nawarmoebSi RvTis qalaqi saubrobs RvTis uxilav xelze, romelic kurnavs da qmnis
yvelafers. igi aRniSnavs: RvTis xeli misi Zalaa, romelic xiluls qmnis uxilavad (wigni 12, Tavi 23). uxilavi xeli ganixileba RmerTis aRsaniSnavadac. bibliaSi gangebas xSirad uwodeben uxilav RmerTs. pavle mociquli Tavis epistoleSi timoTes mimarT wers: xolo saukuneTa meufes, uxrwnels, uxilavsa
da erTaderT RmerTs - pativi da dideba ukuniTi ukunisamde (1
timoTes mimarT 1:17). kolaselTa mimarT epistoleSi aRniSnavs:
vinc aris xati uxilavi RvTisa, yvela qmnilebaze uwinaresi,
radganac masSi Seiqmna yoveli, miwieric da zecieric; xiluli
Tu uxilavi, saydarni Tu uflebani, mTavrobani Tu xelmwifebani
- yvelaferi mis mier da misTvis Seiqmna (kolaselTa mimarT 1:
15-16).
frangi benediqteli petrus kelensisi (1115-1183 ww.) mianiSnebs RvTis "uxilavi xelis mniSvnelobaze mucladyofnisas adamianis sulis formirebaSi.
meCvidmete saukunidan iwyeba frazis uxilavi xeli ufro
xSirad gamoyeneba. igi sxvadasxva konteqstSi Cndeba qadagebebSi,
religiur nawerebSi, bibliis komentarebsa da literaturul nawarmoebebSi. demonebis da da angelozebis saqmianoba gadmocemulia uxilavi xelis qmedebebad. zogierT qadagebaSi saubaria,
ufro zogadad, sikvdilis uxilav xelze, romelic sabolood
yvelas Seexeba. am periodis nawarmoebebis mixedviT, RmerTis
uxilavi xeli SeiniSneba msoflio istoriaSi, rodesac xdeba
boroti Zalebis SeCereba da qristianuli mrwamsis SenarCuneba
da ayvaveba.
uxilavi xeli gvxvdeba uiliam Seqspiris tragediaSi makbeti: mag uxilavis, mosisxle xeliT Sua gasWer, wvrilad dahglije sicocxlis Zafi, raic SiSis Jruantelsa mgvris (uiliam
Seqspiri, makbeti, moqmedeba mesame, suraTi meore, 46-50). aq
makbeti Rames mimarTavs, dafaros misi sisxliani saqmeebi. eqspertTa azriT, es pasaJi smiTis mier uxilavi xelis gamoyenebis
erTi SesaZlo wyaroa (Rothschild, E. 2001. 118-120).
ingliseli mwerali, filosofosi jozef glenvili (1636
1680) Tavis naSromSi dogmatizmis amaoeba (1661) werda: buneba moqmedebs uxilavi xeliT yvelaferSi. uxilav xels ixseniebs volteri Tavis piesaSi oidiposi (1718): ZrwodeT, ubeduro mefe, Tqveni mefoba dasrulda. uxilavi xeli gmarTavT, vid-

50

Tengiz verulava

re _ Tavi (volteri oidiposi, mesame moqmedeba). daniel defo Tavis romanSi mol flendersi (1722) ambobs: TiTqmis
uxilavi xelisagan moulodnelma dartmam aafeTqa mTeli Cemi
bedniereba. Sveicarieli mwerali, filosofosi Carlz bone
(1720-1793), romelsac piradad icnobda adam smiTi (Sexvda JenevaSi 1765 wels), Tavis erT cnobil nawarmoebSi werda: igi miiyvana dasasrulamde uxilavma xelma.
amgvarad, adam smiTamde arsebuli literaturuli wyaroebis
analiziT, fraza uxilavi xeli" yvelaze xSirad miewereba
RmerTs, romelic yvelasagan farulad akontrolebs samyaros,
mis ganviTarebas, kacobriobis istoriis msvlelobas. uxilavi
RmerTi Tavisi miznis misaRwevad farulad axdens gavlenas adamianis qmedebebze. RvTis uxilavi xeli aZlevs biZgs adamianTa
brZnul gadawyvetilebebsa da samecniero-teqnikur miRwevebs,
progress. RmerTis yovlismcnobelobis da yvelganmyofobis koncefcia yvelaze metad gamoiyeneboda meCvidmete da meTvramete
saukuneebSi da, aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom
igi adam smiTis miznebis gamoxatulebis yvelaze Sesabamis foni
iyo (Harrison, 2011).
uxilavi xeli smiTis naSromebSi
maT, vinc ar icnobs smiTis naSromebs, SeiZleba ifiqros,
rom uxilav xels Zalian didi adgili uWiravs mis nawarmoebebSi. Tumca, smiTma Tavis naSromebSi mxolod samjer gamoiyena
es metafora, mxolod samjer gaielvebs igi im milionze met
sityvaTagan, romelic daiwera 1744 wlidan 1790 wlamde periodSi, da rac TvalSisacemia, samive SemTxvevaSi uxilav xels
gakvriT moixseniebs avtori.
zogierTi mkvlevris azriT, smiTs saerTod ar hqonda "uxilavi xelis Teoria, xolo Tavad fraza sxva araferia, Tu ara
18-e saukunis sakmaod cnobili literaturuli metafora; maTi
mtkicebiT, smiTs konkurentunariani bazrebis TeoriaSi aranairi
roli ar miuniWebia uxilavi xelisTvis da mxolod 1950-iani
wlebis Semdeg aqcies igi ekonomistebma smiTis moZRvrebis umTavres metaforad (Kennedy, 2008). zogi eqspertis mixedviT,
uxilavi xelis metaforas arc Tavad adam smiTi aniWebda did
mniSvnelobas (Tobin 1992 cf Schneider 1979, 51).
miuxedavad aRniSnulisa, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom uxilavi xelis metaforiT gamoxatuli ideiT gamsWvalulia adam smiTis

uxilavi xelis metafora da adam smiTi

51

mTeli Semoqmedeba. swored uxilavi xelis meSveobiT SeZlo


smiTma ekonomikis funqcionirebis erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili Teoriis SemuSaveba.
smiTi uxilavi xelis metaforas pirvelad moixseniebs Tavis naSromSi astronomiis istoria (1982, gv. 33-105), romelic 1751-1758 wlebSi daiwera (gamoqveynda 1795 wels). SromaSi
adam smiTs mohyavs iupiteris uxilavi xeli (1982, gv. 49-50).
iupiters, rogorc RvTaebas, Tayvans scemdnen romis moqalaqeni.
isini aRiarebdnen iupiteris uxilav xels, romelic warmarTavda
da wesrigs inarCunebda samyaroSi, erTmaneTs uxamebda kerZo da
sazogadoebriv interesebs. romaelebi iupiters qandakebebSi, naxatebze, monetebze xSirad gamosaxavdnen elvis mexTamtexeli
RmerTis saxiT. mas xelSi eWira mexTamtexeli, romlis gasroliT unda damarcxebuliyvnen romis mtrebi, an imperatoris winaaRmdeg amboxebuli SeTqmulebi. romaelTaTvis "uxilavi xeli"
ar iyo metafora. igi iyo realuri, xiluli da hadesis yvela
Zalas flobda.
smiTi aRwers veluri adamianis damokidebulebas Cveulebrivi, bunebrivi da uCveulo movlenebis mimarT. Cveulebriv movlenebs miekuTvneba sagnebis bunebrivi Tvisebebi: cecxli wvavs,
wyali agrilebs da a.S. bunebis uCveulo movlenebi miewerebaT
RmerTebs: cereras wyalobiT uxvi mosavlis miReba, misi ukmayofilebis dros ki - cudi mosavali, an iupiteris uxilavi xelis meSveobiT - elva da Weqa-quxili (Smith, 1982. gv. 49-50).
smiTi ambobs, rom aseTi saxis azrovnebas warmoSobs poliTeizmi (mravalRmerTianoba) da vulgaruli crurwmena, romelic
yvela uCveulo bunebis movlenas miawers romelime uxilavi
RmerTis wyalobas an ukmayofilebas. adamianebi crurwmenis gamo
miawerdnen bunebis movlenebs RmerTebs (mag. iupiteris xels),
radgan maT ar hqondaT bunebriv procesebze saTanado codna. aseve, uxilavi xelis qmedeba ukavSirdeba crurwmenas, romelsac ar
aqvs realuri safuZveli, da gamoxatavs bunebis Seucnobadi movlenebisadmi SiSs (Peukert, 2002).
romauli RvTaebis, iupiteris uxilavi xeli sabazro ekonomikis konteqstSi SeiZleba Semdegnairad avxsnaT: adamianebs iseve
ar esmiT sabazro meqanizmebis muSaobis, rogorc bunebis movlenebis mizezebi. Sesabamisad, rogorc auxsneli bunebis movlenebis
mimarT uviTardebaT crurwmenebi, aseve garkveuli SiSs ganicdian
bazarze ganviTarebuli SesaZlo Sedegebis mimarT (mag., umuSev-

52

Tengiz verulava

roba). Sedegad, sabazro meqanizmebSi xedaven gangebis uxilav


xels, iseve, rogorc bunebis movlenebSi iupiteris RvTaebis
uxilavi xelis gamovlinebas (Peukert, 2002).
meore naSromi, romelSic smiTi moixseniebs termins uxilavi xeli, aris zneobrivi grZnobebis Teoria (1759 w.). paradoqsulia, magram sabazro urTierTobebis eTikuri principebisagan formaluri uaryofis safuZvlebs vxedavT nawarmoebSi, romelic eZRvneba zneobriv filosofias. naSromis istoriuli konteqstia Sua saukuneebis evropis memamuleebi, mosamsaxureebi,
glexebi da ZiriTadad, feodaluri politikuri wyobis struqturebi. smiTi gviCvenebs, Tu rogor uwyobs xels simdidrisa da
fufunebisaken adamianTa miswrafeba maT Sromismoyvareobasa da
mwarmoeblurobas. igi werda, rom isini, romlebic TavianTi Zalisxmevis Sedegad gaxdnen mdidrebi, SedarebiT ukeTes mdgomareobaSi arian, vidre maTTvis momuSave Raribi adamianebi. mdidar
miwis mesakuTres, magaliTad, surs meti fufuneba, magram SeuZlia moixmaros im sakvebis mxolod mokrZalebuli wili, romelsac am miswrafebebis Sedegad moipovebs. danarCeni unda gadaeces
maT, vinc mas emsaxureba.
saerTo masidan mxolod mdidrebi irCeven imas, rac yvelaze Zvirfasi da iSviaTia. faqtobrivad, isini imaze mets ar moixmaren, ramdensac Raribebi. miuxedavad TavianTi gaumaZRrobisa da
egoizmisa, miuxedavad imisa, rom isini (mdidrebi - T.v.) mxolod
pirad sargebels eswrafian, miuxedavad imisa, rom cdiloben, daikmayofilon mxolod sakuTari, carieli da gaumaZRari survilebi, risTvisac iyeneben aTasobiT adamianTa Sromas, isini ukanasknel RaribTan erTad iziareben maTi brZanebebiT warmoebuli
samuSaoebis Sedegebs. rogorc Cans, raRac uxilavi xeli aiZulebs maT monawileoba miiRon sicocxlisaTvis aucilebeli sagnebis gadanawilebaSi... amdenad, yovelgvari winaswari ganzraxvis
gareSe, mdidari emsaxureba sazogadoebriv interess da adamianTa
modgmis gamravlebas... gangebas, romelmac gadaunawila miwa ramdenime mesakuTres, daviwyebia isinic, romlebsac ar gaaCniaT memkvidreoba. ase rom, isinic iReben TavianT wils imisgan, rasac
awarmoebs miwa (Smith, 1969. 184-185).
moyvanil nawyvetSi "uxilavi xeli" ukavSirdeba gangebas.
smiTi aRniSnavs: uZvelesi stoikosebi gamoTqvamdnen azrs, rom,
rogorc msoflios marTavs brZeni, Zlieri da keTili RmerTis
gangeba, aseve yoveli SemTxveva unda ganvixiloT samyaros gegmis

uxilavi xelis metafora da adam smiTi

53

aucilebel, Semadgenel nawilad, rogorc universaluri wesrigisa da sayovelTao bednierebis xelSemwyobi: kacobriobis mankierebani iseTive aucilebeli nawilia am gegmis, rogoric misi sibrZne da igi Tanabrad emsaxureba bunebis diadi sistemis keTildReobas da srulyofas (Smith 1982 [1759], 36).
am nawyvetSi smiTi ar moixseniebs uxilav xels, Tumca, igi
SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rogorc gangebis uxilavi xeli. smiTi nawarmoebSi am RmerTs uwodebs bunebis Semoqmeds, mis mSenebels,
arqiteqtors, gulTa did msajuls, samyaros yvelganmxed mosamarTles.
sainteresoa, rom maqs veberi adam smiTis da martin luTeris Sexedulebebis Sepirispirebisas, aRniSnavs, rom luTerTan
"amqveyniuri saqmianoba xasiaTdeba moyvasis mimarT qristianuli
siyvarulis gamoxatulebad. amasTan, luTeris mtkicebulebebi
sakmaod Sorsaa smiTis cnobili mtkicebisgan. Sromis danawileba
TiToeul adamians aiZulebs, imuSaos sxvis sasargeblod. ...amqveyniuri valdebulebebis Sesruleba ki nebismier SemTxvevaSi emsaxureba erTaderT mizans - iyo RvTisaTvis misaRebi (veberi,
1990).
wignSi gamokvleva xalxTa simdidris bunebisa da mizezebis
Sesaxeb, romelic, daaxloebiT, 900 gverdiania, fraza uxilavi
xeli SeiZleba vipovoT mxolod erTgan, meoTxe nawilis TavSi:
calkeuli saqonlis importis SezRudvebi. wignis am nawilSi
smiTi cdilobs axsnas, Tu ratom ar aris importze SezRudvebi
aucilebeli. igi wers: yoveli individi cdilobs, iseTnairad
aamoqmedos sakuTari kapitali, rom man maqsimaluri mogeba moitanos. Cveulebriv, mas ganzraxva ara aqvs, zemoqmedeba moaxdinos
sazogadoebriv interesebze da ar icis, ramdenad zemoqmedebs igi
maTze. individi miiswrafis mxolod sakuTari usafrTxoebisa da
sargeblobisaken, da mas uxilavi xeli warmarTavs, raTa bolos
da bolos zegavlena moaxdinos imaze, rasac is ar izraxavda. sakuTari interesebis dacviT igi (individi) xSir SemTxvevaSi didad uwyobs xels sazogadeobis ayvavebas, vidre im SemTxvevaSi,
Tuki amas Segnebulad Seecdeboda.
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom, smiTis mTeli wignia "uxilavi xelis"
metafora. miuxedavad imisa, rom mTel am sqeltanian naSromSi
fraza uxilavi xeli mxolod erTxel gvxvdeba, konteqstSi
misi arseboba pirveli gverdebidan igrZnoba. sakmarisia, moviyvanoT ukve tradiciadqceuli citata meore Tavidan: "civilize-

54

Tengiz verulava

bul sazogadoebaSi adamians mudamJams esaWiroeba mraval adaminTa daxmareba da TanamSromloba... da igi amaod iqneboda amis momlodine marto maTi keTilganwyobilebisagan. igi ufro male miaRwevs Tavis mizans, Tu moaxerxebs maTi egoizmi daainteresos
Tavis sasargeblod da daanaxvos maT, rom maTTvisve sasargebloa
gaakeTon misTvis is, rasac igi magaTgan moiTxovs... momeci, rac
mesaWiroeba, da Sen miiReb imas, rac gesaWiroeba, aseTia yoveli amgvari SeTavazebis azri... ara yasbis, ludis mxdelis an mepuris keTilganwobilebisagan moveliT Cven Cvens sadils, aramed
maT mier maTi sakuTari interesebis dacvisagan. Cven mivmarTavT
ara maT humanobas, aramed maT egoizms, da maT arasodes ar velaparakebiT Cvens saWiroebaze, aramed maTs sargeblobaze (smiTi,
1938. gv. 13).
IV wignSi smiTi mkacrad akritikebs merkantilizms, romelic me-16 saukunidan iRebs saTaves. britaneTis koloniebi CrdiloeT amerikaSi eqvemdebarebodnen britaneTis savaWro monopolias, rogorc importis, aseve eqsportis mxriv. amisaTvis SemoRebul iqna specialuri sanavigacio kanonebi, romlebic moqmedebdnen msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeSi farTod ganfenil britaneTis
koloniebSi. smiTi akritikebs koloniuri vaWrobis monopolizebiT gamowveul simaxinjeebs da aseTi vaWrobis dasacavad warmoebul omebs, rac britaneTis ekonomikis mniSvnelovan xarjebTan
iyo dakavSirebuli.
smiTi aRniSnavs: britaneTis udidesi imperia Seiqmna erTaderTi mizniT gaezardaT momxmarebelTa raodenoba, romlebic
iZulebuli iqnebodnen Cveni mwarmoeblebisagan SeeZinaT yvela is
saqoneli, rasac isini awarmoebdnen. fasze im mciredi nametisTvis, romelic amdagvar monopolias SeuZlia, rom Cven mwarmoeblebs misces, adgilobriv momxmareblebs unda etvirTaT imperiis
SenarCunebisa da dacvis mTeli xarjebi. mxolod da mxolod am
mizniT, bolo or omSi, as samocdaaTi milioniT meti daixarja,
vidre amave mizniT warmoebul wina RonisZiebebSi. am davalianebis procenti bevrad meti iyo aramarto im mogebaze, romelsac
iZleoda zemomgebiani kolonialuri vaWroba, aramed vaWrobis
mTel brunvaze anu im saqonlis mTlian Rirebulebaze meti, romelic gasaSualoebuli gaTvlebiT koloniebSi iqna yovelwliurad eqsportirebuli (gamokvleva xalxTa simdidris bunebisa da
mizezebis Sesaxeb, wigni IV, Tavi VIII).

uxilavi xelis metafora da adam smiTi

55

smiTi aRniSnavs, rom vaWrobis monopolizeba privilegiebs


aniWebs mrewvelobis garkveul dargebs, rac ganapirobebs mrewvelobis bunebrivi balansis darRvevas. igi wers: SotlandiaSi,
minis saTburebisa da kondensatebis saSualebiT, SesaZlebelia,
miviRoT kargi yurZeni, saidanac Zalian kargi Rvino dadgeba. is
ocdaaTjer Zviri iqneba sazRvargareTidan importirebul, TiTqmis iseTive xarisxis RvinosTan SedarebiT. gana Wkvianurad moviqceodiT, rom migveRo iseTi kanoni, romelic yvela ucxouri
Rvinis imports akrZalavda, mxolod im mizniT, rom SotlandiaSi bordos wiTeli da burgundiuli Rvinis warmoeba wagvexalisebina?... aqsiomaa, rom yvela keTilgonieri ojaxis ufross, wesad aqvs saxlSi ar gaakeTos is, rac mza nawarmis yidvaze Zviri
daujdeba. is, rac kerZo ojaxis xelmZRvanelobisaTvisaa keTilgonieri, keTilgonieria didi saxelmwifosTvisac. Tu sxva qveyanas Cveni imaze iafi saqonliT uzrunvelyofa SeuZlia, vidre
Cven misi warmoeba dagvijdeboda, umjobesia, is viyidoT da Cvens
qveyanaSi is vawarmooT, raSic upiratesoba gagvaCnia... imis molodini, rom did britaneTSi odesme Tavisufali vaWroba srulad aRdgeba, iseTive sisulele iqneboda, rogorc utopiis ganxorcieleba. amas, aramarto sazogadoebis urwmunoba, aramed, rac
ufro Znelad gadasalaxia, mraval kerZo pirTa interesi aRudgeba win (gamokvleva xalxTa simdidris bunebisa da mizezebis Sesaxeb, wigni IV, Tavi II)
smiTis mixedviT, Sida produqciis stimulireba ganapirobebs kapitalis gadamisamarTebas dasaqmebis daucveli seqtoridan
dacul seqtorSi. importis mimarT Semcirebuli, an aRmofxvrili konkurencia amcirebs samamule momwodeblebis fasTa konkurenciaze zewolas. Sedegad, maRali fasebis gamo, momxmareblebi
ver yiduloben maTTvis saWiro produqcias. es wminda mogeba da
zarali amaxinjebs sazogadoebaSi kapitalis gadanawilebas.
uxilavi xelis koncefciis winamZRvrebi
SemTxveviTi, ganusazRvreli, winaswar daugegmavi wesrigis
koncefcia, romelic safuZvlad udevs uxilavi xelis metaforas, ar warmoadgenda axals. igi gvxvdeba XVII saukuneSi petisa
da lokis naSromebSi. zogi ekonomisti amtkicebs, rom adam
smiTma Tavisi "uxilavi xelis"koncefcia ganaviTara holandieli
fsiqiatrisa da publicistis bernar mandevilis (1670 - 1733)
skandaluri naSromis igavi futkrebze (1714) gavleniT.

56

Tengiz verulava

nawarmoebis pirvel versiaSi mandevili mogviTxrobs ambavs


futkris mzard skaze, romelmac erT dRes ganizraxa zneobriv
sazogadoebad gadaqceva, ris Sedegadac gaRaribda da ganadgurda.
meore gamocemaSi mandevilma aRwera ayvavebuli Tanamegobroba,
romelSic yvela moqalaqem gadawyvita, uari eTqva iseT Cvevebze,
romlebic moiTxovdnen maRal xarjebs. Sedegad, maT ganuviTardaT depresia, Cavarda vaWroba. amiT, mandevili askvnis, piradi
interesi, mankierebani, gaumaZRroba, fufunebisadmi swrafva, sixarbe xels uwyoben sazogadoebriv sikeTes, zrdian socialur
sargebels. "rodesac boroteba qreba, sazogadoeba degradirdeba
da, SesaZloa, ganadgurdes kidec (Bernard Mandeville, The Fable
of the Bees. 1714).
wignma gamocemisTanave azrTa sxvadasxvaoba gamoiwvia. ori,
sruliad gansxvavebuli moazrovne _ fridrix haieki da jon meinard keinsi dadebiTad gamoexmaurnen mandevilis igavs. haiekis
mixedviT, adam smiTi ukeT erkveoda Sromis danawilebis, piradi
interesis, ekonomikuri Tavisuflebis sakiTxebSi. mas kargad esmoda mandevilis idea windawin daugegmavi, gauTvaliswinebeli
Sedegebis Sesaxeb (haieki, 1984, 184-85). Tumca, cnobilia, rom
Tavis zneobrivi grZnobebis TeoriaSi smiTi ar eTanxmeboda mandevils, wigns uwodebda "sruliad damRupvels" da "mcdars".
smiTi uaryofda mandevilis ideas, rom ekonomikuri progresi miiRweva gaumaZRrobiT, amaoebiT da sakuTar Tavze gadaWarbebuli
siyvaruliT. Tumca, misi Semoqmedebis mTavari idea is iyo, rom
individualur qmedebebs SeiZleba hqondes sazogadoebisaTvis sasikeTo Sedegi. misi azriT, egoizmi da gaumaZRroba ar aris erTmaneTis msgavsi, igiveobrivi cnebebi. smiTis mixedviT, mandevili
erTmaneTisagan ver asxvavebs mankierebas da saTnoebas (Smith 1982
[1759], 308-10).
smiTis Tanamedrove, adam fergiusoni (1723-1816) kerZo sakuTrebas da politikur institutebs ganixilavda, rogorc
adamianuri qmedebebis Sedegs, da ara _ vinmes konkretuli ganzraxvis Sesrulebis Sedegs" (a. fergiusoni. samoqalaqo sazogadoebis istoriis gamocdileba, 1767). devid iumi (1711 - 1776)
gamoTqvamda imave mosazrebas. igi marTlmsajulebis sistemis
warmoSobas ganixilavda rogorc individualuri egoisturi gadawyvetilebebis Sualedur Sedegs, romlebic mimarTulia konkretuli davis mosagvareblad. igi amtkicebda, rom iseTi institutebi, rogorebicaa fuli da ena, warmoiSvnen adamianTa qmede-

uxilavi xelis metafora da adam smiTi

57

bebis Sedegad, romlebic mimarTulia sxva miznebisaken (d. iumi.


adamianuri bunebis traqtati, 1740).
uxilavi xelis koncefcia
imis gansaxilvelad, Tu ras gulisxmobda adam smiTi metaforaSi uxilavi xeli, vnaxoT, rogor aRwers igi metaforis
rols Tavis leqciebSi ritorikaze (1763 w.). Seqspiris metaforebs ganxilvisas smiTi uwodebs "sityvis saxebas, roca erTi
obieqti sxvaze aniSnebs", da metafora, SesaZloa, gaxdes mSveniereba, Tu igi imdenad Sesaferisia, rom obieqts aZlevs saTanado gamoxatvis Zalas da, amave dros, mas gadmogvcems ufro naTeli da saintereso formiT" (Smith 1983, 29-32).
am Zalis SemweobiT, erTi adamianis piradi interesi ganapirobebs sxvaTa keTildReobas. mandevilis, fergiusonis da iumis
msgavsad, adam smiTma Tavis sistemas safuZvlad daudo dakvirveba, rom TiToeul adamians mxolod piradi interesebia, adamiani
moqmedebs mxolod piradi interesebidan gamomdinare. smiTi wers:
Cven sakuTar purs viRebT ara puris mcxoblis (xabazis) mowyalebiT, aramed misi egoisturi interesebidan gamomdinare. egoizmi, piradi interesebis dakmayofilebisaken swrafva adamianis
Tandayolili Tvisebaa. adamianis bunebidan gamomdinare, mas mxolod piradi, angarebiTi interesebi amoZravebs. adamianis piradi
interesebiT moqmedebas aqvs dadebiTi mxare. igi gamosaxavs adamianis zrunvas rogorc materialuri keTildReobisadmi, aseve
swrafvas sakuTari Rirsebis amaRlebisaken. smiTis azriT, iseve,
rogorc niutonis fizikaSi miziduloba iyo moZraobis mizezi,
asevea piradi interesi, sazogadoebis funqcionirebis mamoZravebeli Zala. vinc fiqrobs, rom saxelmwifom unda daadginos sazogadoebis cxovrebis maregulirebeli nebismieri kanonebi, smiTis azriT, ar esmis adamianis bunebis ZiriTadi Tvisebebi.
sakuTari keTildReobis ganmtkicebiT, adamiani, saboloo angariSiT, xels uwyobs saerTo keTildReobis gaumjobesebas. amgvarad, piradi interesi exmianeba sazogadoebriv interesebs. ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, adamiani moqmedebs racionalurad, mas
yovelTvis amoZravebs piradi interesebi, gazardos sakuTari materialuri keTildReoba. swored piradi miswrafebebi ganapirobeben adamianTa yvela qmedebas da, rogorc am qmedebaTa Sedegi,
ayalibeben samarTlian da racionalur wesrigs sazogadoebaSi. es
gulisxmobs harmonias kerZo da sazogadeobriv interesebs So-

58

Tengiz verulava

ris. amgvarad, sazogadoebrivi interesebi, iseve, rogorc piradi


interesebi, gamomdinareobs adamianis bunebidan.
smiTi aseve aRniSnavs, rom adamianis piradi interesebi mxolod maSin ganapirobeben sazogadoebriv sikeTes, rodesac amas
konkurentul bazarze sCadian, da rom sazogadoeba mxolod maSin isargeblebs, rodesac es simdidre inaxeba qveynis SigniT. es
ori piroba yovelTvis ar aris warmodgenili. ufro metic, smiTis mixedviT, adamianebi yovelTvis ar moqmedeben sakuTari interesiT (Wealth of Nations. 346, 123, 907).
uxilavi xeli fasismieri meqanizmia. uxilav xels, fasis meqanizmis meSveobiT, bazrebi mohyavs harmoniis, saerTo wonasworobis mdgomareobaSi, xolo ekonomikas warmarTavs ise, rom
zrdis xalxTa simdidres (Grampp 1948, 334; Gordon 1968, 8: 548;
Hahn 1982; Coase 1994, 82-83). myidvelebi da gamyidvelebi, romlebic moqmedeben mxolod sakuTari interesebisaTvis, bazarze
axdenen gacvla-gamocvlas im pirobiT, rom orive mxare darCes
kmayofili (Wealth of Nations, 26-27). Sedegad, myardeba wonasworobis mdgomareoba. amisaTvis saWiroa, rom myidvelsa da gamyidvels Soris gacvla konkurentul bazarze moxdes.
uxilavi xeli adamianis gauTvaliswinebeli, ganuzraxveli
qmedebebis Sedegad warmoSobs socialur wesrigs. uxilavi xeli ar aris iZuleba. igi aravis arafers aiZulebs, ar avaldebulebs. ekonomikuri subieqtebi saerTod ver amCneven misi rame
saxiT gavlenas. es metafora migvaniSnebs adamianis qmedebebis gauTvaliswinebel Sedegebze. adamianTa motivaciebi ar aris maTi
qmedebebis socialuri Sedegebis identuri.
radgan adamianebi sxvadasxva SesaZlo qmedebebs axorcieleben TavianTi motivaciebis da piradi ineterebis sapasuxod, CvenTvis ucnobia, ra Sedegebi SeiZleba mohyves maT. Sedegebi SeiZleba iyos rogorc dadebiTi, ise _ uaryofiTi. cxadia, cudi Sedegebi axdenen uxilavi xelis komprometirebas. smiTs Tavis
naSromis xalxTa simdidre I da II wignebSi mohyavs piradi interesebiT qmedebis uaryofiTi Sedegebis 60 -ze meti SemTxveva
(Kennedy. 2008).
smiTi acxadebs, rom uCinari xeli yovelTvis warmarTavs
individualur ekonomikur gadawyvetilebebs, romelTa Sedegebi,
misdauneburad, xels uwyobs sazogadoebis keTildReobas, ise,
rom es arc aris winaswar ganzraxuli. magram arsad arsebobs
miniSneba, rom individualuri kerZo interesebi yovelTvis, yve-

uxilavi xelis metafora da adam smiTi

59

la SemTxvevaSi ganapirobeben sazogadoebis keTildReobis amaRlebas. smiTi arasodes Tvlida, rom arsebobs bazris universaluri keTili wesrigi (Kennedy. 2008; Fleischacker 2004, 139).
konkurencia. uxilavi xeli aris konkurencia. konkurencia
dadebiT Sedegebs ganapirobebs, radgan igi aiZulebs adamianebs,
gonivrulad gamoiyenon TavianTi resursebi, Semosavali, rac Tavis mxriv, xels uwyobs sazogadoebis keTildReobas (Rosenberg
1979, 24). Tumca, uxilavi xeli ar aris warmodgenili yvela
konkurentul bazarze. aseve, konkurencias ar SeuZlia yvelafris uzunvelyofa, magaliTad, qveynis Tavdacva. smiTi ambobs:
"dacva aris bevrad ufro mniSvnelovani, vidre simdidre
(Wealth of Nations, 464-65).
uxilavi xeli xels uwyobs qveynis usafrTxoebas. garemo,
romelSic uxilavi xeli imyofeba, aris SemTveviToba, bediswera,
sadac erTi adamianis pirad, gansakuTrebul interessa da sxva
adamianTa sakmaod gansxvavebul, magram SeTavsebad interess Soris, SesaZloa, arsebobdes mudmivi iRblianoba, magram ara _ yovelTvis (Grampp, 2000). vaWari debs garigebas, romelic zrdis
mis simdidres, rac udavod mis interesSia. amasTan, es garigeba
ar amcirebs sxvaTa keTildReobas, aramed zrdis mas, rac aseve
maT interesSia. mewarme inaxavs Tavis damatebiT kapitals saxlSi, da es aseve yvelas interesSia, maT Soris _ Tavad mewarmisac. amis mizezia is garemoeba, rom Sida simdidre aris resursi,
romelsac qveyana iyenebs yvelas usafrTxoebisaTvis, TavdacvisaTvis. mewarme rodesac zrunavs sakuTar Tavze, zrunavs yvelaze, amasTan mas arc ganuzraxavs sxvaTa keTildReobaze zrunva
da arc hqonda es gacnobierebuli (Grampp, 2000).
Tanamedrove ekonomikis enaze usafrTxoeba, Tavdacva aris
sazogadoebrivi sikeTe da damokidebulia Sida kapitalis fondze. arseboben garkveuli savaWro garigebebi, romlebic zrdian
fondis marags. zrda garigebebis Sedegad miRebuli dadebiTi gare faqtoria, da xels uwyobs sazogadoebrivi sikeTis moculobis kidev ufro gafarToebas. adamianebs, romlebic CarTulebi
arian aseT operaciebSi, ar aqvT ganzraxuli, TavianTi wvlili
Seitanon qveynis Tavdacvis saqmeSi, magram, miuxedavad amisa, uneblieT, isini akeTeben amas. maTi qmedebebi gviCvenebs, rom erTi
mxriv, rac erTi adamianisTvis aris kargi, meore mxriv, SeiZleba
yvelasTvis kargi aRmoCndes. aseT SemTxvevaSi, kerZo interesebi,

60

Tengiz verulava

kerZo garigebebi ganapirobeben dadebiT garefaqtors, rac zrdis


sazogadoebriv sikeTes (Grampp, 2000).
zemoaRniSnulidan SeiZleba gamovyoT smiTis oTxi idea: (1),
dacva ekonomikuri politikis mizania, rac imas niSnavs, rom politika ar unda iqnas Sefasebuli mxolod keTildReobaze Tavisi gavleniT. (2) keTildReoba aris erT-erTi resursi, romelsac qveyana iyenebs TavdacvisaTvis, da qveynis SigniT warmoebuli
simdidre misTvis gacilebiT meti usafrTxoebaa, aqedan gamomdinare, ufro mniSvnelovania TavdacvisaTvis, vidre _ sazRvargareT warmoebuli simdidre. (3) adamianTa kerZo interesebs, SesaZloa, Tavisi wvlili Sehqondes qveynis TavdacvaSi, Tu es qmedebebi konkurentunariania. (4) adamianebi, romlebic CarTulni
arian konkurentul saqmianobaSi, arc fiqroben, rom maTi qmedebebis Sedegebi yvelasaTvis sasargeblo iqneba, maT arc aqvT igi
gacnobierebuli (Grampp, 2000).
smiTis azriT, uxilavi xelis politika universaluri meqanizmia. ra rolsac asrulebs samyaroSi msoflio mizidulobis
kanoni, imave rols TamaSobs adamianTa piradi interesi sazogadoebaSi. Tu yovel adamians miecema saSualeba imuSaos sakuTari
sargeblobisaTvis, misi Sedegebi sikeTis momtania mTeli sazogadoebisaTvis (Todua, 2004. gv. 601).
uxilavi xeli, rogorc literaturuli metafora
nawarmoebSi aris adgilebi, romlebic yvelaze ukeT gadmogvcemen uxilavi xelis Sinaarss, magram arsad aris naxsenebi fraza "uxilavi xeli", rac zogierT mkvlevars afiqrebinebs, rom
smiTma igi gamoiyena rogorc mxolod literaturuli metafora,
raTa daexmaros mkiTxvels ZiriTadi sakiTxis ukeT garkvevaSi,
da ara _ rogorc axali Teoria (Macfie 1967, 81; cf Schneider
1979, 53). smiTi cdilobda, daerwmunebina Tavisi studentebi, kolegebi, kanonmdeblebi, politikosebi, mkiTxvelebi, SeecvalaT
britaneTis savaWro sistema, risTvisac iyenebda yvelanair xerxs,
maT Soris _ metaforebsac.
uxilavi xeli da bunebiTi wesrigi
sistemaSi, sadac bazarze moqmed ekonomikur subieqtebs aqvT
maqsimaluri Tavisufleba, xolo adamianebs amoZravebT mravalferovani motivaciebi, _ arsebobs wesrigi. yoveli gonivruli individualuri arCevanis miRma dgas logika, sistema, wesrigi. qao-

uxilavi xelis metafora da adam smiTi

61

turi bazris miRma dgas misi Semqmneli ekonomikuri subieqtebis


racionaluri gaangariSeba. individualuri arCevanis racionalizmi, Tundac mravalferovani saqmianobis miznebis pirobebSi, ganapirobebs ekonomikuri qcevis formebis mowesrigebas, prognozirebad, zogadad aRiarebul praqtikas. cxadia, sabazro wesrigi
Sorsaa srulyofilebisagan. magram ekonomikis organizaciis sxva
sistemebTan SedarebiT aseTi wesrigi yvelaze metad inarCunebs
mravalferovnebas, radgan efuZneba individebis Tavisufal arCevans, maTi saqmianobis nebayoflobiT xasiaTs. miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis xarisxi damokidebulia informaciis moculobaze da
sizusteze, romelTac adamiani flobs. novaki aRniSnavs, rom
wesrigi, romelsac ganasaxierebs sabazro ekonomika, meore
mxriv ki _ misi mamoZravebeli Zalebi da masSi CarTuli adamianebis miswrafebebi, sxvadasxva sibrtyeze arian (Novak, 1982).
bazris spontanuri, nebayoflobiTi racionaloba warmoadgens ekonomikuri saqmianobis koordinaciis ufro efeqtur saSualebas, vidre dagegmili ekonomikis meqanizmebi. uamravi erTmaneTTan SeuTavsebeli individualuri gadawyvetilebebiT Seqmnili
wesrigi ufro racionaluria, vidre centralizebuli dagegmviT
adamianebze Tavsmoxveuli wesrigi. uxilavi xeli niSnavs, rom
bazris keTilgoniereba mdgomareobs ara mis mbrZaneblur xasiaTSia, aramed _ nebayoflobiTobasa da spontanurobaSi (Novak,
1982).
Tavisufal bazarze, sadac moqmedebs uxilavi xeli, arc
erT adamians ar SeuZlia gavlena moaxdinos bazris struqturaze. swored aseT gzas SeuZlia sazogadoebis keTildReobis amaRlebis maqsimalurad xelsayreli pirobebis uzrunvelyofa. decentralizebuli ekonomika, smiTis Tanaxmad, uzrunvelyofs "saWiroebebis maqsimalur dakmayofilebas. ekonomikis aseTi modeli miaCnda adam smiTs optimalurad. smiTi werda: "srulyofili
samarTlianobis, srulyofili Tavisuflebis da srulyofili Tanasworobis damyareba yvela fenisaTvis keTildReobis yvelaze
efeqturi uzrunvelyofis martivi saidumloa.
ekonomikuri Tavisufleba adam smiTma Zalian mokled da gasagebad Camoayaliba: imisaTvis, rom saxelmwifo Tavisi ganviTarebis dabali, barbarosuli safexuridan amaRldes keTildReobis
umaRles donemde, saWiroa mxolod mSvidoba, martivi gadasaxadebi da tolerantuli marTva, danarCens uzrunvelyofs sagnebis
bunebrivi wesrigi".

62

Tengiz verulava

niSandoblivia, rom adam smiTis moZRvrebas gamoexmaura


ilia WavWavaZe Tavis naSromSi satamoJno politika evropaSi.
fritederoba da proteqcionoba, romelic gamoqveynda 1887
wels. ilia WavWavaZem mkafiod gviCvena Tavisi damokidebuleba
adam smiTis da misi moZRvrebis mimarT, sadac fritreiderobas,
anu aReb-micemobis Tavisuflebas aniWebda upiratesobas. igi
wers: [fritrederulma] moZRvrebam fexi aidga evropaSi adam
smiTis mecadineobiTa. adam smiTi mamamTavrad iTvleba sapolitiko ekonomiis mecnierebisa. ra Tqma unda, pirvel xanebSi es moZRvreba Tmas yalyze uyenebda kacobriobas da kacobriobis svebedis gamgebelTa, romelTac Cveuli Wiri urCevniaT SeumCnevels
lxinsa. miT adam smiTis moZRvrebas bevri ara daaklda - ra da
TandaTan ufro Zlier fexs ikidebda (WavWavaZe, i. 1887).

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Menger, . 1963. [1883]. Problems of Economics and Sociology.
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Novak, M. 1982. The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism. Simon and
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Taxation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Read, Leonard E. 1999. I, Pencil. Irvington, NY: Foundation for
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Roemer, John E. 1988. Free to Lose. Cambridge, MA: Harvard


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Bryce. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.
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metamorfozebis erT-erTi redaqcia (The Loeb edition) moicavs


Semdeg Targmans: there in his vitals twisted and plied his invisible
hand [Caecamque in viscera movit versavitque manum vulnusque in
vulnere fecit.] Ovid, Metamorphoses XII. 492-4, Targmani frank mileris, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958-60), tomi. 4,
215. smiTi flobda ovidiusis Sromebis 1661-2 ww. Leidenis la1

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Tinur gamocemas. nax. Adam Smiths Library: A Catalogue, .


Hiroshi Mizuta (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000), 183, 1237.
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Library of Latin Texts, Series A.
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John Flavel, Divine conduct, or, The mysterie of Providence


(London, 1693), 6; Matthew Henry, An Exposition of all the books
of the Old Testament, 6 vols., (London 1721-25), vol. 2, 185, 392;
John Scott, The Christian life, Part II (London, 1687), 480.

Ggrigol joxaZe

`meore ca~
daviT aRmaSeneblis
narativSi
ebrauli warmoSobis rusma da amerikelma Jurnalistma da mweralma fiTer uailma (1949-2009) erTxel, saberZneTSi yofnisas, SeamCnia, rom sabargo
manqanaTa Zarebze ewera iseTi araprozauli da, erTi SexedviT, iseTi aramanqanuri sityva, rogoric ,,metaforaa. SeamCnia da kulturis faqtadac aqcia igi:
pirvelma manve CagvaRima imaze, rom es
berZnuli sityva qarTulad, sityvasityviT, ,,gadatanas niSnavs.
movindomeT, davkvirvebodiT, rogor daxriginebs Deus ex machina bibliur da misgan inspirirebul teqstebSi
da rogor gadaaqvs azri da mniSvneloba
erTi toposidan meoreSi. aq droebiT
(da, iqneb, samudamodac!) unda gamovemSvidoboT rwmenas, rom radgan wminda
weriliT RmerTi gvelaparakeba, is orazrovnebas ar dauSvebs. swored rom - piriqiT.
jer erTi, ara RmerTisa Tu RmerTTan laparaki, aramed
yoveldRiuri
adamianuri mixla-moxlac ki warmoudgenelia umetaforod.
metic: bibliur teqstebSi TiTqmis
saerTod ver vxvdebiT katexizmosaTvis
niSandobliv xist formulirebebs, ro-

68

grigol joxaZe

melSic yvelaferi, rogorc ityvian, dagvil-dasufTavebuli da


Cawikwikebulia. Tumc, faqtia, rom wminda werili swored metaforebiT gajerebul teqsts ewoda da ara - katexizmos. metafora, SeiZleba iTqvas, umal adamianis guls elaparakeba da alaparakebs, vidre - gonebas. igavuri metyveleba aiZulebs adamianis
Sinagan samyaros, Seicvalos is, Tumc, isec xdeba, rom swored
religiuri adamiani gardaqmnis xolme metaforas formulad.
qarTuli naratiuli wyaroebis umravlesoba iseTi uzado,
daxvewili, mxatvruli tradiciis iseTi erTguli da amitomac iseTi daujerebelia, uneblieT, gaviwydeba Sua saukuneTa literaturuli kanoni da TviT iseTi figurac ki, rogoric daviT
aRmaSenebelia, Sesabamisad _ mTeli misi istoriac, metafora
ggonia.
gasakviric ar aris, rom ,,qarTlis cxovrebaSi Semavali
teqstis _ ,,cxovreba mefeT-mefisa daviTisis _ gelaTis agebisadmi miZRvnili fragmentis metaforika araerTxel gamxdara samecniero refleqsiis sagani.
gavixsenoT es pasaJi.
wyaroSi weria, rom daviTi, RmerTis mier misdami saTnoebis gamomJRavnebis sanacvlod (,,RmerTi esreT ganagebda saqmeTa
daviTisTa... warumarTebda yovelTa gzaTa misTa... moscemda JamadJamad ZlevaTa sakvirvelTa... uZRoda ZaliTi-Zalad... (qarTuli
proza 1982: 124), ar iRleboda ,,talantTa gamravlebad, aramed
sruliTa guliTa msaxurebda da maT iqmoda, romelni nebisa
RmrTisad daamtkicnis da saTnoyofilad misda aRuCndis.
talantebis igavi maTes saxarebaSi (Tavi 25-e), sakuTriv,
didi metaforaa da mas, SesaZloa, calke moxseneba daeTmos. amitom mokled vityviT, rom es igavi Segvagonebs, rogor emsaxuros ufals yoveli WeSmariti morwmune Tavisi nebiT, mTeli Tavisi saqmianobiT. aq zarmaci monis xvedri ganikiTxavs Cvens uzrunvelobasa da usulgulobas, aRvasruloT Cveni mowodeba, movemsaxuroT moyvass RvTis mier boZebuli niWiTa da talantiT
(maTes saxarebis ganmarteba).
RvTis keTilganwyobis talanti daviTs sagangebod ar dauflavs da uflisTvis monastris aSenebiT upasuxia; metic, im
madls gamourCevia adgili, romelic misTvis RmerTs uboZebia:
(,,gamoirCia madlman saRmrToman) _ yovlad mSvenieri da yovliTurT unaklulo. Tu zedmet skrupulozurobaSi aravin CamogvarTmevs, vityviT rom aq mogvesmis 22-e fsalmunis eqo: ,,ufal-

meore ca daviT aRmaSeneblis narativSi

69

man mmwysos me da me ara makldes. adgilsa mwuanviloansa mun


damamkvidra me.
Semdeg laparakia imaze, rom es taZari aRemateboda adre
aSenebulT yovelgvari parametriT: sivrciT, nivTebiT, siwmideebiTa da patiosani nawilebiT, taxtebiTa da saydrebiT, sasanTleebiTa da moxatuli kedlebiT, datyvevebuli mtrebisTvis warTmeuli gvirgvinebiTa da maniakebiT, fialebiTa da sasmisebiT; aseve
- mefis mier mowveuli sulierad da xorcielad gamorCeuli
wminda mamebiT. daviTs gaZevebuli liparitis mamuli sarCod miucia monastrisTvis, ase vTqvaT, uzrunveli trapezi ganuCenia.
gelaTi gamxdara mTeli aRmosavleTis meore ierusalimi da sxva
aTeni (qarTuli proza 1982: 124-125).
amis darad, ioane SavTeli gelaTs ,,axal roms uwodebda
da saberZneTs adarebda: ,,axalo romo, SenTvis Tqves, romo ufros iqmneso myofTa yovelTa: vnatri eladsa, TviT mas gelaTsa,
sad rom dahkrZalven wmidaT sxeulTa (,,abdulmesiani).
zemoT moxmobili fragmentidan yvelaze popularulia imis
aRniSvna, rom daviTma gelaTi ,,meored ierusalemad da ,,sxvad
aTinad aqcia. barem davurToT: saswavlod yovlisa keTilisad,
moZRvrad swavlulebisad, friad uaRres missa saRmrToTa Sina
wesTa (qarTuli proza 1982: 125).
popularulia amgvari interpretacia: gelaTi iyo iseTi
religiuri centri, iseTi donis sasuliero savane, rogoric ierusalimia, qristianuli kulturis TvalsazrisiT, da, meore
mxriv, antiuri elinuri sibrZnis iseTi udidesi kera, rogoric
iyo aTeni; Tan - ,,friad uaRres missa anu masze didi, radgan
aTeni warmarTuli gaxldaT, xolo gelaTi - saRvTo wesebiT
gamdidrebuli da aRzevebuli (gamsaxurdia 1990: 90).
Tu gavixsenebT me-2 saukunis wminda mamis, naxevrad eretikosi tertulianes ritorikul kiTxvas: ,,ra saerTo aqvs aTensa
da ierusalims, akademias da eklesias?, meore interpretacias
mis pasuxadac ki miviCnevT, romlis Tanaxmadac, swored gelaTSi
Seerwya erTmaneTs antiuri da qristianuli ganaTlebis sistema;
aq Caeyara safuZveli bizantiuri neoplatonizmis formiT gadmocemuli elinuri filosofiis Seswavlasa da neoplatonikosTa
mier damuSavebuli aristoteleseuli ,,logikis gamoyenebas
qristianuli moZRvrebis dasasabuTeblad (d. meliqiSvili
2006:23-34).

70

grigol joxaZe

magram aravis ucdia im adgilis gaazreba, romelic Cvenc


sagangebod gamovtoveT saqveynod cnobili pasaJidan. TviT korneli kekeliZesac ki, mariam dedofliseul ,,qarTlis cxovrebaze
dayrdnobiT, CvenTvis saintereso citata ase mohyavs: daviTma
,,moigona aRSeneba monastrisa da daamtkica, romelica gamoarCia
madlman saRmrToman adgilsa yovlad Sueniersa da yovliTurT
unaklulsa, romelsa Sina merme cai gardaarTxa, taZari yovlad
wmidisa RmrTismSobelisa... da a. S. (kekeliZe 1980: 108).
saqme isaa, rom ,,qarTlis cxovrebis 1955 wlis gamocemaSi, romelic Sedarebulia yvela sxva arsebul teqstTan, fraza:
,,romelsa Sina merme cai gardaarTxa, ar gvxvdeba. ,,romelsa Sina merme, rac, TavisTavad, Suasaukuneobriv teqstSi, rbilad
rom vTqvaT, aradekvaturobis gancdas hbadebs, Secvlilia metaforuli fraziT; ,,romelsa Sina, viTarca meore ca, gardaarTxa
taZari... da a.S.
taZris casTan Sedareba axali, cxadia, ar aris: taZari saxea rogorc uxilavi, ise - xiluli qveynisa. arqiteqturuladac
ki, taZris erTi nawili - sakurTxeveli - rogorc umaRlesi Zalebisadmi miZRvnili mRvdelmsaxurebis aRsasrulebeli asparezi,
uxilav zecas gamoxatavs. erTi TvalsazrisiT, sakurTxeveli ganasaxierebs xelTuqmnel zesTasofels, Sua taZari - cas, stoa
ki - miwas. taZari caa qveyanasa zeda, uflis saxlia, romelic
mTel gadarCenil da gadarCenis mnebebel qveynierebas moicavs.
gumbaTiT dasrulebuli taZaric cas gamosaxavs, da a. S.
amgvarad, yovlad Sveniersa da yovlad unaklulo adgilze, saRvTo madls rom gamourCevia, daviTis mier taZris, rogorc meore cis, gadafena, gadaWimva Tu gadakvra (swored am
zmnebs vxvdebiT ,,gardarTxmis sinonimad Zveli qarTuli enis
cnobarebSi), gasakvirad ar unda dagvrCenoda.
Cveni yuradReba miipyro epiTetma ,,meore: ,,viTarca meore
ca; daviT aRmaSeneblis mematianes uyvars daviTis amgvari daxasiaTebani: axali aleqsandre, sxva ptolemeosi da sxva misdarni,
romlebic ,,meoris konotacias iTavseben. sxva rom araferi, ukve ganxiluli ,,meore ierusalemica da ,,sxva aTinac amas adasturebs.
magram epiTeti ,,meoris axsna ufro rTuli aRmoCnda cis
mimarT, vidre _ ierusalimisa da aTenisa.
saqme is gaxlavT, rom ioane damaskelis azriT, ebrauli
enisTvis damaxasiaTebelia cis mravlobiTad wodeba (Samaiim;)

meore ca daviT aRmaSeneblis narativSi

71

(,,cani caTani; ,,ganvla cani; ,,TviT maT caTa da sxv.) da, SesaZloa, cis Svidi sartyeli sulac Svid cad miviCnioT, rogorc es gviandel iudaizmSia (wminda ioane damaskeli
http://www.orthodoxy.ge/gvtismetkveleba/damaskeli/20.htm#sthash.XBlozeum.dpuf).
Tumc, bibliaSi Svidi ca ar ixsenieba. magaliTad, pavle
mxolod mesame cas axsenebs: ,,aRitaca... kaci vidre mesamed cadmde (2 korinTelTa mimarT, 12, 2).
sulxan-saba orbeliani sityva ,,cis , rogorc ,,ze aRsaxedis, uwyinari ganmartebisas cxra cas asaxelebs. Tumc, statiis dasawyisSi metad sagulisxmo informacias gvawvdis, romlis Tanaxmadac, mxolobiTi ricxvis ,,cai gareSeicavs yovelTa
dabadebulTa da SeqmnilTa nivTierTa, xolo ,, cani - sasufevels, sada ars sayofeli angelozTa da wmidaTa (sulxan-saba
orbeliani 1993:329).
amgvarad, Tu ,,cxra cis adeptebi gavxdebiT, daviT aRmaSeneblis Sesaxeb dawerili teqstis ,,meore ca, egeb, sabaseul
coranod anu hermesis cad migveCnia, romelic yovelTa dabadebulTa da SeqmnilTa gareSemcveli yofila, vinaidan daviTis narativSi ,,ca swored mxolobiT ricxvSi ixsenieba.
magram aqve naTqvamia, rom daviTma RvTis mier gamorCeul
adgilas ,,viTarca meore ca, gardaarTxa taZari.
sityva ,,gardarTxma qarTlis cxovrebis pirveli tomisaTvis darTul leqsikonSi, zemoTqmulisamebr, ,,gadafenad, gadakvrad ganimarteba (qarTlis cxovreba 1955: 435). gardarTxma ,,gardafenasaviTo, - gvauwyebs arc Tu mTlad darwmunebuli
sulxan-saba orbeliani (sityvis kona 1991: 147).
gasakviri ar iyo, rom gulma wminda werilisaken gagviwia,
romelSic marTlac mivageniT orive figurants: ,,casac da ,,gardarTxmasac, da, rac mTavaria, saZiebel konteqstSi: 103-e fsalmuni ufals ugalobs: ,,gardaarTxen cani, viTarca karavni; esaias winaswarmetyvelebaSia: ,,ase ambobs RmerTi, ufali, caTa Semoqmedi da maTi gardamTxmeli (esaia 42,5).
metic: TiTqos erTxel da samudamod gamokvleulma enigmam
- ,,axali ierusalimi - gagvikvala gza im varaudisaken, rom daviTis narativSi moxseniebuli ,,meore ca ,,meore, ,,sxva, ,,ucxo imdenadaa, ramdenadac is manamde uxilavs, mxolod meored
mosvlisas ,,gardarTxmul cas gulisxmobs.

72

grigol joxaZe

saqme is gaxlavT, rom cas bibliaSi Tavisi narativi aqvs:


misi Seqmnidan vidre mis warxdomamde, samoseliviT daZvelebamde,
kvamliviT ganqarebamde... axdeba uflis mier esaiasTvis naTqvami
sityvebi: aha, Sevqmni axal cas... axal aRTqmaSi swored amas mieltvian: ,,axalTa caTa da axalsa qveyanasa msgavsad aRTqumisa
misisa moveliT. da, erTxelac, ca - daxsnilTa, gadarCenilTa
samyoflad gadaiqceva. igulisxmeba uxilavi ca, uzenaesis taxtis damteveli, romelsac wminda werilSi ramdenime saxeli
hqvia: samoTxe, sasufeveli caTa, uflis samefo, zeciuri samSoblo... da bolos: axali da zeciuri ierusalimi.
ioanes gamocxadebaSi es naTlad Cans, ramdenadac ki SeuZlia kacs RvTiuri sinaTlisTvis Tvalis gasworeba: ,,da vixile
cai axali da queyanai axali, rameTu pirvel igi cai da pirvel
queyanai warxdes (ioane, gamocxadeba, 21, 1); ,,da qalaqi igi
wmidai, ierusalimi axali vixile, gardamomavali zeciT RmrTisagan, ganmzadebuli viTarca sZali, Semkuli qmrisa mimarT Tvisisa (iqve, 2).
amgvarad, daviT aRmaSeneblisadmi miZRvnil teqstSi ,,axali
cis _ ,,samkvidreblisa RmrTisa kacTa Tana _ gamoCena, imas unda moaswavebdes, rom gelaTis agebiT daviTma, rogorc gansxeulebulma RmerTma (amas araerTxel aRmoTqvams mematiane), daasrula, waraxdina, ganaqarva Zveli, codvili, dacemuli samyaro
da aq - miwaze axali saRvTo qalaqi, axali ierusalimi daadgina.
,,meore ca da ,,axali ierusalimi aq, lamis, erTurTis sinonimebia.

literatura
1. qarTuli proza, w.3. Tb., 1982, gv. 124
2. maTes saxarebis ganmarteba wmida mamebis swavlebis Tanaxmad,
http://www.orthodoxy.ge/tserili/zosime/25_1430.htm#sthash.inYTy6gf.dpuf
3. z. gamsaxurdia, saqarTvelos sulieri missia, Tb., 1990, gv.
90
4. d. meliqiSvili, gelaTi-"sxua aTina da meore ierusalimi" :
gelaTi-900 , Tb., 2006, gv.23-34
5. k. kekeliZe, Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, t. 1,
Tb., 1980, gv. 108

meore ca daviT aRmaSeneblis narativSi

73

6. wminda ioane damaskeli, marTlmadidebeli sarwmunoebis zedmiwevniTi


gadmocema,
Tavi
meoce,
cis
Sesaxeb,
http://www.orthodoxy.ge/gvtismetkveleba/damaskeli/20.htm#sthash
.XBlozeum.dpuf).
7. sulxan-saba orbeliani, leqsikoni qarTuli, II, Tb., 1993,
gv. 329
8. qarTlis cxovreba, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier, Tb., 1955, gv. 435
9. sityvis kona qarTuli, romel ars leqsikoni, Tb., 1991, gv.
147

Gguram yifiani

harmoniis metafora
_ mcxeTis jvris taZari
taZars, romelic mdinareebis _
mtkvrisa da aragvis xerTvisis marcxena
kideze wamomarTul mTazea agebul araerTi naSromi mieZRvna1 da mis mimarT yuradReba ar wydeba, aseve mravali naSromi mieZRvna TviT taZris arqiteqturul
tipologiur models.2 calkea ganxiluli taZris proporciebi3 da a. S.
am weriliT mkiTxvelis yuradReba
minda mivapyro im kldovan masivs, romelzec taZaria wamomarTuli, anu mocemulobisa
da
adamianis
qmnilebis
(struqturis) urTierTkavSirs.
im mTis Zveli saxelwodeba, romelzedac wminda ninos jvris saxelobis
taZaria aRmarTuli, dakargulia. mas gaaqrobda TviT taZari, rogorc mTis dagvirgvineba.

me aq mxolod sawyissa da erT-erT


ukanasknel gamocemas vuTiTeb . . , , . 1948.
gv. 3 da Smd; T. CoCua, mcxeTis jvari,
Tbilisi 1998. gv. 5 da Smd.
2
. . , , , 1955, gv.
5 da Smd.
3
. , , II ,
. 1977, gv. 1 da Smd.

harmoniis metafora _ mcxeTis jvris taZari

75

yvela safuZveli gvaqvs vifiqroT, rom es gaxlavT is mTa,


romelzec qarTlis mexuTe mefe farnajomi aRmarTavs RvTaeba
zaden-s. ,,moqceva qarTlisa-Si araerTxel, dawyvilebulad ixsenieba erTmaneTis sapirispiro mTebze aRmarTuli warmarTuli
kategoriebi - ,,armaz da ,,zaden: ,,... xolo amas queyanisa qarTlisasa iyvnes orni mTani da maT zeda orni kerpni; armaz da
zaden, romelni iynosdes sulmyralobiT aTassa sulsa pirmSoTasa. an ,,.... esera RmerTni, ... armaz da zaden.4 garda amisa: ,,warmoiqceodes orni ese mTani - armaz da zaden. am ori mTis ,,warmoqcevis Sedegad ,,... reca Tu esreT CamoirRuevodes, da daayenes orTave wyalni igi. da Semdgom ganmartebacaa mocemuli,
rom es ori wyali mtkvari da aragvia.5 aq ,,moqceva-s geografia savsebiT Seesabameba mTa zadens, rogorc jvris taZris mier
dominirebul garemos. isedac, ,,moqceva-s teqstis mixedviT
Cans, rom teqstSi moxsenebuli ,,borcvi, romelzec ganmanaTlebeli jvars aRmarTavs, RvTaeba zadenis samyofelia, xolo is
,,qva, romelic ninos brZanebiT ,,gadainaTla mTavarepiskoposis
mier, da masze, rogorc bazisze daafuZnes xis jvari, swored am
zaden-kerpis kvarcxlbeki iyo. termini ,,qva ,,moqceva-s teqstSi gadahfaravs samsxverplos, kerpis pedestals: ,,...orTa maTTa SeCuenebulTa _ armazs da zadens, romelTa qvanica daulpian
sisxliTa CvilTaTa _ aq ,,qva, bazisi _ samsxverploa, sxvanairad _ ise gamodis, rom armazisa da zadenis garSemo usistemo
qva-RorRze mimdinareobda msxverplTSewirvis rituali. saistorio wyaro upirispirebs ,,qvas _ ,,lods. ganmanaTlebelma rom
faravnis tbis napiras Rame gaaTia, TavqveS ,,lodi daido: ,,moviRe lodi erTi da davidev sasTunelad Tavsa.6
TviT wminda ninos jvris saxelobis taZari Tavisufali
jvris logikuri, diagonaluri ganviTarebis Sedegia, esaa ,,varduli, Tavisi sawyisi sqemiT, an ,,varskvlavi, en fase rvafurcla
sxeuli. sawyisi modelis (jvris) ganviTarebis Sedegad Camoya-

Satberdis krebuli X saukunisa. gamosacemad moamzades b.


gigineiSvilma da el. giunaSvilma. Tb. 1979. 337-338, 340, 344 da
sxv.
5
,,Satberdis krebuli, 344.
6
,,Satberdis krebuli, 333.

75

76

guram yifiani

libda ,,mxatvruli kanoni,7 romelic Semdgom ganviTarebas, gegmarebiTi sqemis garTulebas, garsisa da moculobebis cvlilebas
aRar eqvemdebareba. centralurgumbaTovani taZris (da misi sqemis) ganviTarebis es gza radikalurad gansxvavdeba saqarTvelos
(da _ ara marto saqarTvelos) jvargumbaTovani taZrebis warmomqmneli sistemebisagan. maTi sawyisi sqemaa ,,kvadrati kvadratis centrSi (es geometriuli Temaa, romelic, cxadia, pastoforiumebs, romlebic, tradiciis mixedviT, gankveTilni arian
sivrcobrivi kompoziciidan, ar gulisxmobs). A
xazgasmiTaa aRsaniSnavi isic, rom saqarTveloSi jvris taZris sawyisi geometriuli sqema _ ,,varduli SenarCunebulia
gegmarebiT kompoziciaSi (tab. I) yvela mis Semdgom ZeglSi, romlebic am ,,mxatvrul kanons imeorebs (atenis sioni, Zveli SuamTa, martvili da drandac ki, sadac, misi gegmis ukiduresi garTulebis miuxedavad, sawyisi sqema namdvilad SeigrZnoba (tab. II,
1-2-3-4)),8 gansxvavebiT, TiTqosda, amave modelis somxuri Zeglebisagan, sadac maTi sivrceebi ugamonaklisod mkacr sworkuTxedSia Cawerili da arc erTi elemntis sazRvari am geometriul
saxes ar scildeba9 (tab. III).
taZris Sida sivrcis kompoziciuri sqema, misi proporciebi
SesaniSnavadaa gaanalizebuli kiril afanasevis naSromSi da, aq
SeiZleba, romelime gansxvavebul niuansze visaubroT mxolod,
rac am werilis mizani araa, magram pativcemuli mkvlevari gamohyofs pirdapir Tu SefarviT ramdenime, mxolod am ZeglisaTvis damaxasiaTebel Tvisebas. pirveli isaa, rom arqiteqtorisaTvis pirveladia sivrce da ara moculoba,10 anu is aproeqtebs
sivrces da, Cemi gamoTqmiT, kedlebi mxolod sivrcis damafiqsirebeli saSualebaa.
amas garda k. afanasievs Seeqmna azri, rom TiTqos, da mravali faqtoris mixedviT, jvris taZris arqiteqtori sivrces
kldovan masivSi kveTs.11 piradad, eWvi ar mepareba rom sawyisi
7

mxatvruli kanonis arsis Sesaxeb ix: . . ,


.
. . 1973, 6-15.
8
. . , ..... 67. sur. 6,7.
9
. . , , nax. 35, 36, 37, 38 da sxv.
10
. , , 1.
11
. , , iqve.

76

harmoniis metafora _ mcxeTis jvris taZari

77

ara _ taZris struqturisaTvis, aramed mTlianad mocemulobisa


da struqturis mTlianobisaTvis, swored kldea. Tu mas pirobiTad movaSorebT ilustraciaze struqturas, anu taZars, miviRebT usaxur ,,borcvs (tab. IV), swored iseTs, rogoradac mas
wminda nino aRiqvamda, radgan roca is jvris aRsamarTavad miemarTeboda, zaden-kerpi, Zveli dominanti, iq aRar idga. aq mxolod sakiTxis dasmis wesiT unda Sevexo erT arcTu umniSvnelo
detals, kerZod ki _ dasavleTis did kedel-platformas, romelzec taZaria aRmarTuli. amave dros, es sakiTxi meqanikurad
svams sxva kiTxvasac e.w. ,,mcire taZris raobisa da qronologiis Sesaxeb.
ramdenadac CemTvis cnobilia, am platformis wyobis anazomi ar arsebobs da arc Seswavlila is samSeneblo - konstruqciuli TvalsazrisiT. amitom, zogadad miCneulia, rom platforma
jvris taZris arqiteqtoris qmnilebaa. magram maSin gasarkvevia
is, rom Tu platforma ar arsebobda, rodesac ,,mcire taZari
aigo, ratom SeirCa misTvis esoden usaxuri adgili am mTaze,
ratom ar unda warmoqmniliyo igi dominantad da ar daegvirgvinebina mwvervali. Tu platforma jvris Tanadrouli araa da is
farnajomis qmnilebaa, maSin ,,mcire taZari wminda ninos didi
taZris danamatia da qronologiurad _ arc Tu misgan daSorebuli, misi baptisteriumi.12 Tu n. severovis mier Sesrulebul
generalur gegmas davakvirdebiT, mivxvdebiT imas, rom kldovani
reliefis konturebi da mis mier SemosazRvruli areebi ,,mcire
taZrisaTvis mxolod meorad saSualebas iZleva, danamatis SesaZleblobas (tab. V). calke sakvlevia misi ZiriTad taZarTan
,,mibmis teqnologiac da aq pirveladia struqturis dadgenis
sakiTxic.
rac Seexeba platformas, igi vizualurad antikuri, isodomuri da Siga da Sig fsevdoisodomuri wyobis xasiaTisaa da, miuxedavad imisa, rom mis wyobaSi araerTi gviandeli remontis
kvali Cans, Zalian Znelia, misi warmoqmna Suasaukuneebs mivakuTvnoT (tab. VI). es mZlavri kedeli-terasa tipuri warmomadgenelia, zogadad, iranuli samSeneblo saqmisa - reliefis sirTuleTa mowesrigeba horizontaluri xelovnuri platformebis meSve-

12

A. Khachatrian, Les Baptisteres Paleochretiens, Paris, 1962, 14, 111.

77

78

guram yifiani

obiT (es teqnologia maT, rogorc dadgenilia, urartuli samyarodan isesxes).13


jvris taZris arqiteqtori iyenebs platformas, rogorc
mzamzareul nivelirebul dones, da zustad irCevs gegmarebiT
pozicias, da mxolod amis Semdgom, ,,mcire taZris anu baptisteriumis avtori mis dasavleT kedels uTanxmebs platformis
konturs. swored amitom iRebT jvris taZarsa da ,,mcire taZars (baptisteriums) Soris esoden did gansxvavebas samyaros
RerZebisadmi daqvemdebarebaSi. ,,mcire taZari da TviT kldis
dasavleTi konturi, romelsac am nagebobis kedeli uswordeba,
didadaa acilebuli RerZs, rac arafriT moxdeboda misi pirveladobis SemTxvevaSi.
rogorc aRiniSna, mocemulobis saxiT gvaqvs kldovani masivi, magram ar Tqmula, rom es masivi Seicavs bunebriv gardatexas, rac Zalian kargad ikiTxeba, rogorc samxreTis, ase CrdiloeTis mxridan. gardatexa kldovani masivisa myaria da ucvleli.
struqturis saxiT ki gvaqvs TviT taZari da erTianoba;
klde plus taZari mnaxvelis mier yoveli poziciidan aRiqmeba,
rogorc _ erTiani da mTliani. klde arqiteqtoris azrovnebaSi
gadaiqca arqiteqturul formad, anu xuroTmoZRvarma mocemuloba da qmnileba warmogvidgina erT mTlianobad da mocemuloba aqcia qmnilebad. Cven aq vSordebiT im Temas, rac gamoixateba tradiciuli formulirebiT _ ,,Zeglis landSaftTan warmatebuli
Serwyma. aq arqiteqturuli azrovnebis principulad axal safexurTana gvaqvs saqme: _ mocemuloba gaazrebulia arqiteqturul
detalad da mTlianis ganuyofel nawilad.
aseTi harmonia SemTxveviT, cxadia, ar miiReba. amas unda ganapirobebdes kanonzomierebaTa sistema, rac mTlianisa da nawilebis urTierTSefardebiT gamoixateba.
taZris simaRle iatakidan kexamde 22 m-ia (tab. VII). es ase
gansazRvra arqiteqtorma, magram gansazRvra raRac niSnis mixedviT da es niSani mas mianiSna mocemulobam. taZari am SemTxvevaSi
kldis anu mocemulobis Tavia. 22 m-i ki moduli gaxda CvenTvis,
romliTac vcdilobT arqiteqtoris azrovnebis sistemis rekon-

13

W. Kleiss, Terrassenanlagen in der iranischen Architektur. Archaologische


Mittailungen aus Iran und Turan. Berlin, 1998, 30. 227 da Smd.

78

harmoniis metafora _ mcxeTis jvris taZari

79

struqcias. am kldovani mTis kalTebi wiwamuris velze eSveba


da am wertilidan misi simaRle, taZris simaRlis gamoklebiT,
167,28 m-ia. rogorc aRiniSna, igi kldovan gardatexasac Seicavs,
romelic mTas or araTanabar nawilad hyofs. gardatexidan qveda
da didi nawilis simaRlea 116,48 m, xolo mciresi, TviT taZris
simaRlis CaTvliT, 72,8 m-ia. gardatexis zeda nawils, romelic
Seicavs 6 m-is simaRlis platformasac, arqiteqtorma taZris
saxiT daamata 22 m. mas swored es ganzomileba sWirdeba, raTa
miiRos Sefardeba 5:8. igi gamoixateba, rogorc 0,625 (72,8:
116.48 = 0,625), anu ,,oqros kveTi-s Sefardeba. unda aRiniSnos
isic, rom martivi ricxvebiT miRebuli es proporcia (5:8) Zveli samyaros xuroTmoZRvrebisaTvis yvelaze ufro popularuli
proporcia iyo.14 amave dros, taZris simaRle (22 m), plus
platformis simaRle (6 m) - 28 m-s udris da misi Sefardeba
kldis gardatexamde kvlav 5:8 gamoixateba (tab. VIII).
esaa SefardebaTa sistemebi, romlebic cxadia, vizualurad
ar ,,angariSdeba, magram moqmedebs adamianze mudmivad.
am mokle werilis boloTqma srulebiT ar ganekuTvneba
kvleviTi xasiaTis teqsts. Cven albaT nakleb yuradRebas vuTmobT bavSvTa aRqmadobas. erTxel me da sami wlis bavSvi didxans
vumzerdiT mcxeTidan jvris taZars. bavSvi garindebuli iyo,
Semdeg momibrunda da miTxra: ,,es eklesia am mTaze, albaT, TviTon amovida, cota xnis Semdeg ki: ,,an iqneb vinmem dargo (tab.
IX).

14

Al. Badawy, The harmonic system of architectural desing in ancient Egypt.


Mitteilungen des Instituts fur Orientforschung, Berlin. tomi VIII, 1961, 5-9.

79

Tamar taliaSvili

metaforebis konstruireba
teqstze muSaobis procesSi,
rogorc moswavleebis
SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebis
ganviTarebis meTodi
antikuri droidan dRemde metafora gvevlineba humanitaruli disciplinebis Seswavlis mudmiv sagnad."metaforam,
rogorc emociuri zemoqmedebis saSualebam, unda gamoaRviZos mkiTxvelis Sinagani samyaro: gaaqtiuros misi fsiqika, gamowvios masSi Tanagancda da, Sesabamisad,
eqspresiuli
efeqti
(aristotele,
1988, 23.) mkvlevarTa yuradRebis centrSi xSirad iyo aseve metaforis, rogorc swavlebis ganmaviTarebeli meTodis, gamoyenebis mdidari SesaZleblobebi.
kerZod, rogorc teqstis esTetikuri
aRqmis, werisa da metyvelebis kulturis, moswavleTa warmosaxvis unaris ganviTarebis xerxi, magram meoce saukunis
ukanasknel aTwleulSi metaforis Seswavla gadavida Tvisobrivad axal safexurze da swored sakiTxis axleburma
gaazrebam warmoaCina metaforis swavlebis mravalmxrivi aspeqtebi, romlebic
safuZvlad daedo moswavleTa kreatiulobis ganviTarebis meTodologias.
metaforis kvlevaSi saetapo mniSvneloba aqvs jorj lakofisa da mark
jonsonis Sromebs, sadac metafora gani-

metaforis konstruireba teqstze muSaobis procesSi

81

xileba, rogorc samyaros Semecnebis, interpretaciisa da Sefasebis sabaziso saSualeba. mecnierebs miaCniaT, rom metafora, maT
Soris, konceptualuri, asaxavs adamianis samyarosadmi damokidebulebas. adamiani ara marto gamoTqvams sakuTar azrebs metaforebis daxmarebiT, aramed is azrovnebs metaforebiT..... metafora vrceldeba Cvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi da ara mxolod enaSi, aramed Cvens azrovnebasa da moqmedebaSi, da, rom mTlianad
Cveni cnebaTa sistema Tavisi bunebiT fundamenturad metaforulia (lakofi. 1990. 387). aseve mniSvnelovania aRvniSnoT is eqsperimentuli kvlevebi, romlebic safuZvlad daedo konceptualuri integraciis Teorias. am Teoriis avtorebi J. fokonie da
m. terneri miiCneven, rom mentaluri sivrceebi, romlebic individis tvinSia ganTavsebuli, erTmaneTTan urTierTzemoqmedebis
Sedegad reprezentirdebian enobriv konstruqciebSi, rac imas
niSnavs, rom mentaluri sivrceebis urTierTqmedebisas warmoiSoba sruliad axali mentaluri sivrce sakuTari maxasiaTeblebiT.
amgvarad, metaforis warmoqmnis procesi, rogorc azrovnebis dinamiuri aspeqti, SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc Semecnebis sinTeturi meTodi, rogorc "sinamdvilis obieqtebis Semecnebis, mxatvruli saxeebisa da axali mniSvnelobebis Seqmnis erT-erT ZiriTadi xerxi.. metafora asrulebs SemecnebiT, nominaciur, mxatvrul da azrismwarmoebel funqcias." (Telia, 1988, 35).
rogorc vxedavT, specialistebi ganixilaven kreatiulobis
maCvenebels, "metaforulobas", rogorc inteleqtualuri unarebis kompleqss. is vlindeba, erTi mxriv, fantastikur, "SeuZlebel" konteqstSi muSaobisaTvis mzaobaSi, meore mxriv, sakuTari
azrebis simboluri, asociaciuri saSualebebiT gadmocemis, martivSi rTulisa da rTulSi martivis danaxvis unarSi.
meoce saukunis bolos kogniturma fsiqologiam didi gavlena iqonia Tanamedrove pedagogiuri teqnologiebis Camoyalibebaze, ramac Tavisi asaxva hpova teqstze muSaobis amocanebsa da
xerxebze. pirvel rigSi, es aris enisa da literaturis integrirebuli swavleba, sadac mxatvruli teqstis filologiuri analizi lingvisturi da literaturatmcodneobiTi poziciidan emyareba iseT sakvanZo cnebas, rogoricaa, metafora. metaforis
swavlebis paradigma am konteqstSi teqstze muSaobis rTuli,
magram mniSvnelovani amocanaa. moswavleebSi SemoqmedebiTi da
kritikuli azrovnebis ganviTareba erovnuli saswavlo gegmis
mTavar mizans warmoadgens, magram am miznebis praqtikaSi ganxor-

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cieleba didad aris damokidebuli maswavleblis filologiur


intuiciasa da profesionalizmze. igi moiTxovs pedagogisgan Tanamedrove saganmanaTleblo teqnologiebis dauflebas, romlebic
samecniero literaturaSi ganixileba, rogorc metaforis swavlebis algoriTmebi, romlebic ara marto ganapirobeben moswavleTa kreatiulobis ganviTarebas, aramed maTi daxmarebiT xdeba
problemuri da SemecnebiTi situaciebis gadaWra.
raSi mdgomareobs metaforis konstruirebis algoriTmi?
pirvel rigSi, maswavlebelma unda gaiTvaliswinos, rom metaforis konstruirebis procesi Sedgeba SemoqmedebiTi etapebis
Tannmimdevrobisagan da mTlianobaSi moiTxovs moswavlisgan im
unarebis kompleqss, romelic gansazRvravs kreatiuli azrovnebis komponentebs. metaforizaciis procesi eyrdnoba ra warmosaxvas, "azrobrivi" problemebis gadaWrisas warmoadgens inteleqtualur-SemoqmedebiT moRvaweobas (Sragina, 2000.61). metaforis konstruirebis meqanizmi SeiZleba warmovidginoT rogorc
saazrovno operaciebis Semdegi kavSiri:
1. pirvel etapze xdeba avtoris Canafiqris dabadeba da metaforis safuZvlis obieqtis Zieba, romelic saSualebas aZlevs moswavles gamoxatos sakuTari idea da interesebi. asociaciis kvaldakval Cndeba saxeebi da warmodgenebi, maTgan moswavle irCevs imas, romelic mis Canafiqrs Seesabameba. metaforis
Canafiqri es aris subieqtis miswrafeba daasaxelos gaazrebuli, magram jer kidev "Seumecnebeli," axali, Tanac nacnobi, saxeldebuli, verbalizebuli cnebis daxmarebiT.
2. meore etapze xdeba damxmare obieqtis arCeva, romelic
warmoadgens mxatvrul komponents. aq Cndeba ZiriTadi sirTule:
ras SevadaroT metaforis fuZe, rogor SemovitanoT daSveba,
romel sityvaSi vipovnoT potenciurad Cadebuli Zala, romelic
arRvevs SeuZleblis sazRvrebs, romelsac SeuZlia mogviaxlovos Soreuli da aamaRlos yofiTi.
3. mesame etapi sinTezi: "idealuri realobis" Seqmna
warmosaxvaSi im mizniT, rom ucxo mravalplaniani asociaciebiT
miviRoT axali azrobrivi produqti. rogorc sityvieri konstruqcia, metafora, Sedgeba bukvaluri sityvieri gamonaTqvamisagan, romlebic warmoqmnis garkveuli SeuTavseblobis gancdas
obieqtur realobasTan. swored am "SeuTavseblebis urTierTqmedebaSi", ufro swored ki maT niSnebsa da Tanmdev asociaciur

metaforis konstruireba teqstze muSaobis procesSi

83

kompleqsebs Soris, Cndeba axali moculobiTi azrisSemcveli saxe, romelic acocxlebs avtoris Canafiqrs.
eqsperimentulma gamokvlevebma cxadyves, rom metaforuloba, rogorc subieqtis (moswavlis) unari, sakuTari Semoqmedebis
procesSi moaxdinos gansxvavebuli donis xatovnebis mqone metaforebis konstruireba, gvaZlevs imis dadgenis saSualebas, Tu
rogor da rodis xdeba moswavleTa individualuri gansxvavebebis gadasvla im axal xarisxobriv safexurze, romelic fasdeba,
rogorc kreatiuli. moswavleTaTvis problemuri situaciebis,
Ria Tu faruli winaaRmdegobebis Semcveli saazrovno aqtivobebis SeTavazebis safuZvelze pirobiTad gamoiyofa metaforis konstruirebisaTvis aucilebeli SemoqmedebiTi amocanebis sirTulis sxvadsxva done. moswavleebisaTvis yoveli axali done warmoadgens mniSvnelovan nabijs SemoqmedebiTi saqmianobis gamocdilebisaken.
metaforis konstruirebis pirveli donis sirTulis amocanebi mimarTulia mocemuli tropis bunebis Secnobisaken. am amocanis gadasaWrelad dafaze iwereba sityva da kiTxva, romelic
gansazRvravs warmodgenili sityvis kavSirs sxva sityvasTan, romelic unda SearCion bavSvebma da SeZlebisdagvarad gaxadon es
sityvaTSeTanxmeba moulodneli da arastandartuli.
magaliTad, mexuTeklaseli moswavleebi Tavidan weren patara moTxrobas, gansxvavebuli tipis metaforebis daxmarebiT
gaaTamaSeben nacnob siuJetebs an ganixilaven avtoris metaforebs mkiTxvelis poziciidan, mxolod amis Semdeg Seudgebian sakuTari tropis konstruirebas. moswavleebi ayalibeben da aviTareben warmodgenas metaforaze sakuTari SemoqmedebiTi sivrcis
konstruirebis fonze, isini aRiqvamen Tavs avtoris rolSi.
meore donis sirTulis amocanebi mimarTulia metaforebis
gardaqmnis unaris formirebisaken. maTi Sesrulebisas aqtiurdeba
SemoqmedebiTi muSaoba metaforaze, romelic ikavebs ZiriTad adgils mxatvruli saxis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis gansazRvrisas.
msgavsi tipis amocanis Sesrulebisas metafora iqceva metyvelebis ganviTarebis saukeTeso saSualebad, igi xarisxobrivad amdidrebs moswavleTa leqsikur marags da xels uwyobs maTi azrovnebisa da kreatiuli unarebis ganviTarebas.
metaforis cnebis Camoyalibebis Semdeg doneze xdeba metaforebis damoukidebeli konstruireba, romelic saSualebas aZlevs moswavleebs SemoqmedebiT procesSi CarTon piradi gamoc-

84

Tamar taliaSvili

dileba mesame donis SemoqmedebiTi amocanebi mimarTulia metaforebis gardaqmnis unaris Camoyalibebisaken ukve Secvlil situaciaSi. am etapis algoriTmi SesaZlebels xdis "enobrivi pirovnebis" asociaciebisa da niSnebis arCevanis Tavisuflebas, SesaZlebelia SeuzRudavad warimarTos yvelaze originaluri sityvaTSeTanxmebebis mizanmimarTuli Zieba, gaazrebulad iqnas gamoyenebuli sistemuroba metaforebis konstruirebis procesSi.
metyvelebis ganviTarebis praqtikul mecadineobebze aprobirebuli metaforis konstruirebis algoriTmi:
1. Cawere sityva, romelic aRniSnavs im sagans an movlenas,
risTvisac unda moifiqro metafora (mze).
2. Cawere svetad am sagnis an movlenis, Seni azriT, yvelaze arsebiTi niSnebi:
anaTebs dRisiT
yoveldRe amodis da Cadis;
mrgvali, yviTeli, oqrosferi;
aTbobs da anaTebs bunebasa da adamianebs.
3. yovel niSans miuwere is asociaciebi, rasac iwvevs es
sityvebi Sens warmosaxvaSi.
4. moZebne es asociaciebi bunebaSi, teqnikaSi, yofaSi,
zRaprul-fantastikur personaJebs Soris (2 sagani):
anaTebs dRisiT Tvali (TvalisCini), romelic arasdros
ar ixuWeba da Tvalyurs adevnebs adamianebs, bunebas da yvelas
yovelTvis xedavs.
yoveldRe amodis da Cadis adamiani, romelsac ar ezareba Sroma; mgzavri, romelic arasodes ar iZinebs da ar Ralatobs sakuTar gzas rac ar unda moxdes.
mrgvali, yviTeli, oqrosferi mbrwyinavi spilenZis moneta; oqros borbali; oqros burTi.
aTbobs da anaTebs bunebasa da adamianebs buxari, romelic yvelas aTbobs, magram ar wvavs.
5. Cawerili asociaciebidan aarCie isini, romlebic ufro
originalurad geCveneba.
6. Cawere gansazRvreba, romelic akavSirebs pirveli da meore sagnebis niSan-Tvisebebs: "mze es aris yovlismxedveli
Tvali, dauRalavi mgzavri, macocxlebeli buxari"...
metaforis konstruirebis algoriTmze muSaobis procesSi
moswavleebi iReben tropebis gansxvavebul variantebs:

metaforis konstruireba teqstze muSaobis procesSi

85

vazi sicocxlis xe, romelic Wirsa da lxins aerTianebs,


varskvlavebi xuTi xelixelCaWidebuli Zma, caze gafantuli nakverCxlebi, CuqurTma-taZris samkauli.
praqtikul mecadineobebze moswavleebis mier gavrcobili
metaforebis magaliTebi gvancvifreben Tavisi xatovnebiT, originalurobiT, siaxliT da uTuod warmoadgenen mxatvrul Rirebulebas: "wigni brZeni mecnieri, romelic mTeli cxovreba fexiT
dadis dedamiwaze da akeTebs aRmoCenebs". "zRva Zlevemosili
titani, romelic STanTqavs gemebs".
moswavleTa SemoqmedebiTi aRmoCenebi warmoaCenen maT
unars, ukve praqtikul saqmianobaSi moaxdinon Seswavlili cnebebiT operireba. es garemoeba amyarebs mosazrebas maT mier cneba
"metaforis" kreatiul doneze aTvisebis Sesaxeb. maswavlebelTan
TanamSromlobisas moswavleebi igeben Semoqmedebis da, kerZod,
sakuTari Semoqmedebis fassac. amasTan erTad metaforis floba
adasturebs asociaciuri azrovnebis arealis gafarToebas moswavleTa Soris, msgavsebaTa aRmoCenis da sapirispirosTan dakavSirebis unars. metaforis konstruirebis sirTulis samive donis
SemoqmedebiT amocanebze dakvirvebisas aRmoCnda, rom metaforis,
rogorc sityvieri konstruqciis funqcia, scildeba mis Semadgenel sityvaTa mniSvnelobebis jams. metaforis Teoriulma Seswavlam da aseve qarTuli enisa da literaturis gakveTilebze misi
praqtikuli gamoyenebis analizma, cxadyo, rom metaforis Sesaqmnelad aucilebelia warmosaxvis ganviTarebis garkveuli done.
specialistebi fiqroben, rom Semoqmedebis azri mdgomareobs saazrovno sinTezis ukanasknel etapze- stereotipebis daZlevis
unarsa da asociaciebis mravalferovnebaSi: rac ufro Soreuli
sferodan aris aRebuli elementebi amocanis gadasaWrelad, miT
ufro kreatiulia Sedegi.
amgvarad, teqstze muSaobis procesSi metaforis konstruirebis implimentacia sul ufro met aqtualobas iZens, radgan
is SesaZlebelia ganvixiloT, rogorc mozardebis SemoqmedebiTi
saqmianobis organizaciisa da maTi kreatiuli azrovnebis ganviTarebis erT-erTi produqtiuli meTodi. Tuki metafora warmoadgens adamianis kreatiuli unarebis ganviTarebis saSualebas,
Tamamad SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom misi Seqmnis procesSi koncentrirebuli saxiT realizdeba logikuri, asociaciuri da xatovani
azrovnebis parametrebi, romlebic asaxaven kreatiuli pirovnebis

Tamar taliaSvili

86

ganviTarebis saerTo dones. mxolod maTi kompleqsuri urTierTqmedeba qmnis im ganumeorebeli esTetikuri mSvenierebis "Tanagancdis" reaqcias, romelsac kanti gansazRvravda rogorc SemecnebiTi unarebis TamaSs.
literatura
1..1988.
2.. , . .1990. ,
..
3. .. 1988.
- //

4.. 2000. , .
4.

Nnona kupreiSvili

sabWouri saazrovno
kliSeebi da `mexsierebaTa
omebi~
ukanasknel periodSi sakmaod aqtualizebuli postkoloniuri Teoriebis
mixedviT, dRevandeli qarTuli kultura
hibridulia. amgvari determinebis safuZvels Sesabamis sferoSi momuSave mkvlevrebi kulturis gansakuTrebuli saxeobis sivrceSi Cvens myofobas asaxeleben,
romlis gravitaciul centrad ruseTia
miCneuli. hibriduli anu ,,periferiasa
da centrs, koloniasa da kolonizators
Soris Tanaarsebobisa da urTierTzemoqmedebis gansakuTrebuli nazavi, rodesac,
martivad rom vTqvaT, verc mCagvreli da
verc Cagruli uerTmaneTod arsebobas
ver axerxebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom am
urTierTobas xSirad mtrobis saxe aqvs,
romlis drosac orive mxare yvelaferSi
erTmaneTs adanaSaulebs da sakuTar pasuxismgeblobas
iviwyebs
(maisuraZe,
2010, 45).
istoriis rekonceptualizebis mimarTuleba, romelic, faqtobrivad, gansazRvravs amgvari miswrafebis legitimurobas, eWvqveS ayenebs mraval sabWoTa
stereotipsa da kliSes (SegaxsenebT,
rom Tanamedrove humanitarul mecnierebebSi kliSes gagebis diapazoni sakmaod
farToa _ fsiqologiur, kulturul,

88

nona kupreiSvili

filosofiuri kliSedan _ ritorikul-sametyvelo kliSemde. i.


rozentalis ,,lingvistur terminTa leqsikonSi (1971) kliSe
ganmartebulia, rogorc ,,sametyvelo stereotipi, Sabloni da
stereotipuli sityvaTSeTanxmeba. stilisturi markirebiT gamoirCeodnen gazeTebis mowinave statiebi, beladebisa da funqcioneri komunistebis sayrilobo gamosvlebi, samecniero Sromebis
savaldebulo Sesavali nawilebi, TviTgamoxatvis verbaluri da
grafikuli saSualebebi - gansakuTrebiT, sabWoTa plakatebi,
romlebSic aqtiurad gamoiyeneboda zoomorfuli metaforebi. ix.
d. vaisi ,,cxovelebi sabWoTa propagandaSi: verbaluri da grafikuli stereotipebi, Sveicaria, 2009 - da a. S., romlebSic
kliSe da Stampi ambivalentur erTeulebad warmodgeboda. sagazeTo-publicisturi teqstebis komunikaciuri parametrebi masobrivi mkiTxvelis doniT ganisazRvreboda. sabWoTa periodSi gvinergavdnen kliSe-stereotipTa mTel wyebas, dawyebuli sabWoTa
samSoblos ZlevamosilebiT, misi Stirlicebis usazRvro xibliTa da moxerxebulobiT - damTavrebuli bednieri bavSvobis kultis danergviT). am WrilSi ikveTeba diferencirebis procesis
sakmaod mZime suraTi, romelic sabWouri warsulisgan gaTavisuflebis mowinaaRmdegeTa da am gaTavisuflebis xarjze mosalodneli cvlilebisaTvis mzaobis momxreebs warmoaCens. Tu gavixsenebT imas, rom qarTuli kulturuli identoba dRemde ruseTTTan opozicionerobis gamomsaxvel formaTa wreSi trialebs,
maSin unda SevTanxmdeT imazec, rom reformatorTa an maT TanamgrZnobTa ricxvi bevrad Camouvardeba konservatorTa raodenobas.
arc is faqtia uarsayofi, rom TiToeuli Cvenganis ufleba, iqonios garkveuli mimarTeba pirad da koleqtiur warsulTan, anu
daamyaros emociuri da azrobrivi kavSiri amJamindel ,,me-sa da
winandel epoqaSi Camoyalibebul ,,me-s Soris, umniSvnelovanes
kulturul da fsiqologiur problemad rCeba.
SemTxveviTi ar unda iyos, rom dasavleli politologebi
ruseTis orbitidan gamosvlas misi ,,daviwyebis dawyebiT gvirCeven, rac, sxvaTa Soris, pirvel yovlisa, imave ruseTTan dapirispirebis diskursidan gadarTvasac gulisxmobs. gadaudebel
saqmed miiCneva agreTve oraswliani Tanaistoriis manZilze centris mierve sagangebod Seqmnili miTebidan da stereotipebidan
veqtoris gadamisamarTeba periferiis maidentificirebel, Zvelsa
da Tanamedrove kulturul sivrceSi sagangebod moZiebul, marTebulad gaazrebul avTentur diskursze anu moZraobaze sakuTa-

sabWouri saazrovno kliSeebi da mexsierebaTa omebi

89

ri Tavisken. swored am gzaze iqmneba mravali dabrkoleba, romlebic ara marto social-politikuri, aramed fsiqologiuri xasiaTisa.
XX- XX1 saukuneTa mijnaze dasavleTSi moRvawe slavistebma da sovetologebma, gansakuTrebiT ki sabWoTa warsulisa
da postsabWoTa awmyos mqone aRmosavleT evropis qveynebma, seriozulad mohkides xeli maTsave istoriul gamocdilebasTan
mibmuli warsulis macocxlebel niSanTa sakmaod rTuli sistemis mecnierul kvlevasa da gaazrebas. am mimarTulebis masStaburoba, cxadia, ganapiroba seriozulma mecnierulma kvlevebma, romelnic Tavis droze awarmoes keti karutma, dominik lakapram,
ruT linsma, jorj aleqsanderma, ilia kukulinma da sxvebma.
aRniSnul mimarTulebaTa produqtulobas adasturebs 2011
wels kembrijSi, kings kolejSi gamarTuli saerTaSoriso konferenciac, saxelwodebiT _ ,,Teoria da mexsiereba aRmosavleT evropaSi. monawileebma da mowveulma stumrebma waikiTxes uaRresad saintereso moxsenebebi, romlebic travmuli mexsierebis
problematizebis sxvadasxva rakurss warmogvidgenen. konferenciis dasasruls gaimarTa ,,mrgvali magida, romelsac uZRveboda
aleqsandre etkindi. es is aleqsandre etkindia, romelmac devid
C. murTan erTad 2000 wlidan, faqtobrivad, erT-erTma pirvelma
daiwyo ssrks-Tan mimarTebiT postkoloniuri Teoriis Camoyalibeba da kvleva. am kvlevam ki, Tavis mxriv, kliSe-stereotipebisa
da sabWour-postsabWour mexsierebaTa paTologiur xasiaTzec
dagvafiqra ( . ., 2008, 43). sxvaTa Soris, kevin plaTis werilSi ,,travma da disciplina...(,
2013, 96) gaziarebulia travmis Sesaxeb Seqmnil klasikur naSromebSi gamoTqmuli azri imis Sesaxeb, rom travmuli istoriuli gamocdilebis Sedegebi mTlianobaSi erTnairad paTologiuria
rogorc individebis, ise sazogadoebisTvis da axal safrTxes
Seicavs. is gulisxmobs istoriis komunikaciis iseT formebs,
rogorebicaa individualuri mexsiereba, Zveli (Cven SemTxvevaSi,
revoluciamdeli) gamocemis wignebi, anekdotebi Tu qveynis SigniT da gareT moaruli xmebi. kevin plaTi paralelurad saubrobs travmis dezavuirebis ritualizebul procesze, romelSic
yofili sabWoTa adamianebis erTi nawili, miuxedavad imisa, rom
ase Tu ise, ician, xSirad ki Tavad ganucdiaT im reJimisa da,
vTqvaT, stalinis moRvaweobis Zaladobrivi an farisevluri xasiaTi, Segnebulad ar monawileoben (ruseTSi, vTqvaT, im mize-

90

nona kupreiSvili

ziT, rom es jer ukavSirdeboda sabWoTa sistemis, amJamad ki


qveynis winaSe arsebul patriotul vals da misTvis Ralatis
SeuZleblobas _ k.p.; CvenTan es damokidebuleba ufro nostalgiuria da Tavisuflebisgan TvalSisacemi gaucxoebis, masze uaris Tqmis erT-erT saSualebad ganixileba -n. k.). rusi kulturologi ilia kukulini (, 2010) aseT SemTxvevebs ,,dumilis metad saxifaTo zonebis arsebobas ukavSirebs, rac imas
niSnavs, rom daumuSavebeli kliSeuri azrovneba da travma, arc
meti, arc naklebi travmirebis axal etapze gadasvlas moaswavebs. amitom skolebsa da umaRles saswavleblebSi am mimarTulebiT swori aqcentebis dasma metad saSuri saqmea. am TvalsazrisiT, sakuTriv, Cveni realoba erTob winaaRmdegobrivia: erTi
mxriv, gaixsna okupaciis muzeumi, moxda stalinis Zeglis demontaJi gorSi, Tumca, meore mxriv, ver moxerxda imave stalinis
muzeumis sagamofeno sivrcis diversificireba, rac sabWoTa warsulisa da postsabWoTa realobis Tanadroul interpretaciaTa
sruli legitimaciis TvalsaCino magaliTi iqneboda. sxva sityvebiT, oTar WilaZis roman ,,godris ZiriTad ideas Tu gavixsenebT, aRniSnul sakiTxSi garRveva kvlav gadaido, radgan kaSelebma TviTgadarCenis Zlieri unari gamoavlines.
sabWoTa warsulidan SemorCenili memkvidreoba erTob rezonansulia. dRemde Cvens sazogadoebaSi saxelmwifos rolis ignorirebis an misdami SiSisa da sruli undoblobis paralelurad, SeiniSneba Tavisufali, kritikuli azrovnebis SezRuduli
unari, Sinagani cenzura, zogadad ki _ susti demokratiuli
kultura. amaTgan bevri ram, Tu yvelaferi ara, warsulis reprezentirebis stiluri gansxvavebulobis Sedegadac SeiZleba miviCnioT. vinaidan warsulis retrospeqcia CvenTvis umniSvnelo
rols ar TamaSobs da zogjer misiT ara marto awmyos, aramed
momavlis gadafarvac xdeba, Sesabamisad, istoriuli mexsierebisadmi swori damokidebulebis SemuSavebas, sruliad gadauWarbeblad, gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba.
niSandoblivia, rom postkoloniurobac, romelic warsulis gadafasebis konteqstSi unda gaviazroT, xSirad gansxvavebulad da sakmaod kontrastuladac ki aRiqmeba. mag. rusi mecnierebis didi nawili ar cnobs am Teoriis Tavis uaxles istoriasTan raime formiT misadagebis mizanSewonilobas. meore mxriv,
ki afxazebi, romlebmac erTob Taviseburad daamuSaves (an daamuSaves ki?) mexsierebisa da travmis konceptebi da, pirobiTad

sabWouri saazrovno kliSeebi da mexsierebaTa omebi

91

rom vTqvaT, ase gaiares, TviTidentificirebis procesi, sabWoTa


periods ,,qarTuli kolonizaciis xanas uwodeben (i. kviwinia,
axlaxan ki gamovida viqtor Slisermanis ,,mexsierebaTa omebi,
romelsac amierkavkasiis respublikebSi, maT Soris afxazeTSi,
eTnoistoriuli miTologemebisa da regionSi momxdari samxedro
konfliqtebis kvlevis pretenzia aqvs). amitom aucilebelia sakvlevi arealis gafarToeba, misTvis, disciplinaTSorisi xasiaTis
miniWeba da komunistur da postkomunistur niSanTa sistemis
dabalansebis mizniT, kulturuli travmis adamianTa garkveuli
jgufebis mier istoriuli mexsierebis paTologiur transformaciasTan erTad ganxilva.
sakuTriv Cveni kulturuli travmis simZimes, cxadia, ganapirobebs is istoriuli movlenebi, romlebic xdeboda sazogadoebis sruli da ualternativo komunizaciis periodSi. vgulisxmobT yvelasTvis kargad nacnob milionobiT adamianis tragikuli CarTulobis amsaxvel istoriebs rogorc leninuri, stalinuri, ise _ poststalinuri periodidan. bohumis universitetis
slavistikis kaTedris erovnebiT qarTvelma pedagogma elene CxaiZem poloneli sociologis petre Stompkas mier mignebuli
kulturuli travmis Tanmimdevrobis 6 etapis mixedviT (esenia:
1. struqturuli da kulturuli warsuli _ travmis gaCenisTvis xelsayreli garemo, 2. travmuli movlenebi: droebiTi, radikaluri, egzogenuri, moulodneli, 3. movlenaTa interpretaciisa da gamoxatvis sagangebo saSualebani, 4. travmuli simptomebi anu qcevisa da warmodgenis garkveuli sistemebi, 5. posttravmuli adaptacia, 6. travmis daZleva) Cveni warsuli farTo istoriul konteqstSi ganixila, 1783 wlis georgievskis
traqtatidan vidre 90-iani wlebis movlenebamde da mas Stompkaseuli diferenciebidan pirveli- ori etapi moargo (CxaiZe,
2014, 57). travmis mxatvruli realizebis ilustrirebisTvis ki
oTar CxeiZis romanebis cikli ,,matiane qarTlisai gamoiyena.
kulturuli travmis xsovnaze, rogorc literaturul problemaze, 70-80-iani wlebis kulturul-fsiqologiur sistemasa da
oTar WilaZis prozaze, agreTve imuSaves qarTvelma mecnierebma:
bela wifuriam, manana kvaWantiraZem. mec vcade gameanalizebina
emigranti mwerlis, stefane kasraZis 1930-ian wlebSi parizTan,
soSoSi, dawerili da Cvenamde sakmaod gvian, 1980-ian wlebSi
moRweuli romani ,,Tari-arale, romelSic sabWouri fsevdoistoriiT gadafaruli drois sakvanZo monakveTi, kerZod ki, 1921

92

nona kupreiSvili

wels damoukideblobis dakargvis periodi da, am konteqstSi _


bolSevikur ZalasTan dapirispirebuli erTi qarTuli inteligenturi ojaxisa da, gansakuTrebiT, misi axalgazrda wevrebis
gamocdilebaa warmodgenili. travmis simZimes ganapirobebda
,,gzidan gadaxvevis, istoriuli Sansis ganuxorcieleblobis da
am movlenis maprovocirebel qarTvel bolSevikTa, maTTan erTad
ki _ social-demokratiuli (sinamdvileSi _ neoimperialisturi)
ideologiiT gabruebuli Cveni Tanamemamuleebis didi nawilis
miswrafebaTa kulturul-istoriuli arsis axleburi kuTxiT
danaxvis SesaZlebloba.
istoriuli travmis damuSavebis saukeTeso saSualeba literatura aRmoCnda, gansakuTrebiT ki iseTi, romelSic ,,gadatanili sirTuleebiT Tavs ar iwoneben da arc maT uaryofas cdiloben. poezia da proza am amocanas sxvadasxvagvarad wyveten.
,,poezia qmnis emocionalobis axal simbolur modelebs, proza
ki saubrobs istoriul da socialur problemaTa masStaburobaze. gasuli saukunis e. w. samocianelTa Taobis warmomadgenlebma , romlebsac, a. siniavskis cnobili replika rom gavixsenoT,
,,sabWoTa reJimTan stilisturi uTanxmoeba hqondaT, am problemis mxatvruli interpretireba oTar WilaZis ,,godramde aiyvanes. Tumca rusma krtikosebma, romlebmac mTlianobaSi qarTveli
mwerlis es konkretuli romani dadebiTad Seafases, ganacxades,
rom igi gabeduli, daundobeli kvlevaa sakuTari warsulisa,
amasTan mimarTulia adamianebisTvis Cveuli, mexsierebis dakargviT gamowveuli transis winaaRmdeg, Tumca patiosnad aRiares,
rom ruseTi aseTi TviTanalizisTvis jer mzad ar aris (ix. vl.
ognevisa da b. evseevis gamoxmaureba ,,godorze).
XX saukunis rusuli literaturis mkvlevari marieta Cudakovac amaze wuxs. misi azriT, miuxedavad keTilsindisierad
gamocemuli dokumentebis sqeltaniani krebulebisa, tabuirebuli
samwerlo saxelebis gaxmovanebisa (saqarTveloSi mdgomareoba am
mxriv nakleb damakmayofilebelia) es odesRac sanatreli masala
sazogadoebrivi azris cirkulaciaSi ise ar monawileobs, rogorc mosalodneli iyo. SesaZloa imitom, rom, Cudakovas sityvebiT, jer kidev ar aris Seqmnili an sulac gadaWrilia axali
istoriuli codnis arxi. swored am axali istoriuli codnis
arxis Seqmnasa Tu aRdgenaSi, vfiqrobT, gadamwyveti roli unda
Seasrulos sabWouri stereotipebisagan gaTavisuflebisa da mexsierebis dalagebis sayovelTao Zalisxmevam. Tumca, es rTuli

sabWouri saazrovno kliSeebi da mexsierebaTa omebi

93

samuSaoa. rogorc ,,xsovnis ikonografiis, sxvagvarad ,,xsovnis


evropuli peizaJis, Semqmnelma fotografma jeims iangma ganacxada: ,,saWiroa mexsierebis ara ubralod Senaxva, aramed masze
mudmivad muSaoba. garda amisa, ,,kulturuli travma uZlieresi
inerciiT gamoirCeva, radgan yvela sxva travmaze ufro drogamZlea da zogjer ramdenime Taobis koleqtiur mexsierebaSi an
koleqtiur qvecnobierSi rCeba (CxaiZe, Stompka). garegnuli
stabilurobis drosac travmas, romelic daumuSavebelia, SeuZlia dabrundes da ,,gaupatiosnebeli cxedris aCrdiliviT (al.
etkindi) Tavs dagvadges. amitomac Cvennair TviTanalizis moZule
sazogadoebaSi daviwyebisa da mexsierebis opoziciebi mudmivad
arsebobs da, SeiZleba iTqvas, mkveTradaa gamosaxuli.
Tavis droze weris sabWouri strategiebis transformaciam
im katalizatoris roli Seasrula, romelsac ssrk-s daSla
mohyva. sabWoTa kavSiris ena, rogorc esTetikuri kategoria,
faqtobrivad, kastrirebas daeqvemdebara (l. rubinSteini). oficialuri kultura e. w. ,,novoiazis saSualebiT ara marto axdenda Tavisi politikuri amocanebis deklarirebas (mag. 20-ian
wlebSi qadagebda axalgazrdobis kults, romelic cariel ,,
utradicio da uSkolo niadagze sabWouri siaxlis damkvidrebasTan asocirdeboda, iseve, rogorc 30-ian wlebSi sayovelTao
sijansaRes, rogorc belomorarxisa da magnitkis mSenebelTa zesocialuri statusi), aramed popularizebas uwevda socbanakis
uryeobis, sayovelTao mSvidobaze fsevdoideis, dasavleTze sabWoeTis upirobo upiratesobis, msoflio istoriaSi yvelaze
Zlevamosili 1941-45 wlebis samamulo omis xsovnis reprezentirebas. aman ki ara Tu Seanela, aramed wlebis manZilze SeaCera
mniSvnelovan ,,sxvisgan gamijvnis dinamika. sanacvlod gaCnda,
erTi mxriv, antievropul-antikapitalisturi an ukeTes SemTxvevaSi zogadad gaurkveveli reformebis ,,msxverplis nacionaluri narativi. masSi, rogorc warsulis utyuari niSnebi, cocxloben sabWouri yofis amsaxveli lingvisturi abrundebi erTiani bednieri qveynis dedaqalaqis, moskovis, xarisxiani samrewvelo da sayofacxovrebo rusuli saqonlis, sabWoTa adamianis pirovnuli da uflebrivi daculobis, srulyofili jandacvis,
Cveni uangaro megobrebis - griboedovis, puSkinis, gnebavT, evtuSenkos Tu sxvaTa mier qarTul kulturul sivrceSi Setanili
wvlilis Sesaxeb. arada am problemebiT dainteresebuli kidev
erTi mkvlevris, gandis SvilTaSvilis, lili gandis azriT, aseT

94

nona kupreiSvili

SemTxvevebSi aucilebel gadafasebaze uaris Tqmas miTologizebul daviwyebamde mivyavarT. es ki Seurigebels xdis istoriulkulturuli warsulis ori translatoris, postkoloniuri
refleqsiisa da postkoloniur miTologizaciis Tanaarsebobas
(gandi).
aqedan gamomdinare, Cvens sinamdvileSi sruliad logikurad
arsebobs mexsierebisa da daviwyebis opoziciebi. pasuxi kiTxvaze,
Tu ratom adgas umravlesoba swored daviwyebis da ara _ mexsierebaze muSaobis gzas, martivia da yvelasTvis cnobili. arCevani
ganisazRvreba principiT: kargia is, rac advilia. Sesabamisad,
komfortulia ,,arCevanis Tavisuflebaze uaris Tqma da misi romelime instanciisTvis mindoba, Semdgom ki am instanciisTvis
usityvo da ukritiko morCilebis gamoxatva. amitomac arsebobs
Cvenze, rogorc ,,Caketil sazogadoebaze, saubris realuri safuZveli (g. maisuraZe).
zemonaxsenebi kembrijis universitetis konferenciis dRis
wesrigSi CvenTvis saintereso sakiTxebi maTi ambivalenturobis
gaTvaliswinebiT iyo warmodgenili: mexsiereba, misi gamovlenis
formebi da gaanalizeba-daZlevis gzebi, romelTa gaazrebis procesSi organulad iwereba travma da piruku, warmoaCines ,,travma, romelzedac gavlebulia mexsierebis kvlebi (m. kvaWantiraZe). Tanamedrove amerikelma mecnierma, kornelis universitetis
sapatio profesorma dominik lakapram zigmund froidis cnobili
naSromis ,,mwuxareba da melanqoliis safuZvelze aRwera travmaze muSaobis ori saSualeba: travmis damuSaveba da gadaTamaSeba
(aqting out da working- out). marTalia, man sakvlev masalad meore
msoflio omSi nacisturi germaniis mier ebraelTa devnis faqtebi gamoiyena, Tumca miRebuli daskvnebi sruliad miesadaga Cvens
istoriul-kulturul gamocdilebas. m. kvaWantiraZe, werilSi
,,travmuli xsovna postsabWoTa qarTul narativSi _ oTar WilaZis ,,avelumis mixedviT (kvaWantiraZe, 2013,196) wers:
,,travmis daZlevis or zemoxsenebul meTodTagan Zveli Taoba
(cxadia, mxedvelobaSi aqvs mweralTa Zveli Taobis erTi nawili
-n.k.) mis seriozul damuSavebas irCevs, axali ki gadaTamaSebasa
da ironizebas. Tu wina Taobebis qarTveli poetebi, da gansakuTrebiT, prozaikosebi (arC. sulakauris ,,abelis dabrunebidan rezo inaniSvilis ,,larasa da oTar WilaZis godramde), ,,Sinagani kolonizaciis, xangrZlivi kulturuli stresiT SeZenili
,,msxverplis kompleqsis ,,gaumtkivarebis gziT amzadebdnen nia-

sabWouri saazrovno kliSeebi da mexsierebaTa omebi

95

dags mexsierebis obieqtivaciisaTvis, imisaTvis, rom travmis, rogorc struquris konceptis, swor aRqmas gadamwyveti socialuri movlenebis dros CvenTvis negatiuri, disfunqciuri Sedegebi
aeridebina da igi ,,gamoutirebeli, gaupatiosnebeli cxedris
saxiT ar dagvbruneboda (a. etkindi,) Tanamedrove qarTveli
mwerlebi amgvar saWiroebas ubralod ver grZnoben. amis axsna,
mxolod modernistul da postmodernistul esTetikaTa Taviseburebebis meSveobiT TandaTan hkargavs damajereblobas.

kvaWantiraZe manana 2013: veqtorebi, travmuli xsovna postsabWoTa qarTul narativSi, Tb.
maisuraZe giorgi 2010: postsabWoTa kavSiri da gandevnili warsuli, J. cxeli Sokoladi, 2010, #58
CxaiZe elene 2014: darRveuli dumilis istoria, J. Cveni mwerloba, 2014, #18, 37
, 2013: , . , 2013,
124 , 108
, 2011: ,
, 2011, postnauka:ru
. . 2008: :
,
, 2008, 94

daviT bostanaSvili

metaforis arqiteqtura
metafora mudmivi Temaa; literatura, filosofia, xelovnebis Teoriebi
mudmivad gvabruneben masTan. umberto
ekos azriT, auracxeli gverdebis miuxedavad, romlebic metaforis Sesaxeb dawerila, arsebiTad, axali araferi Tqmula, rac gansxvavebuli iqneboda aristoteleseuli msjelobisgan (eko 1986,
87). semiotikuri kvlevebi aseve ubrundebian metaforas, misi mkacri, formalizebuli gansazRvrebis mosaZieblad. garkveuli azriT, semiotika imaves gveubneba
metaforis Sesaxeb im gansxvavebiT, rom
gamoyenebuli terminologia gandobilTa
viwro wrisTvis aris gasagebi.
zemoT Tqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT,
Cven ar SevecdebiT raime axali vTqvaT,
an gavafarTooT Tavad metaforis cneba.
Cveni mizania, ganvixiloT arqiteqturis semiotikis gamocdilebiT mimarTebaTa sirTule arqiteqturasa da metaforas Soris. am msjelobaSi gamoCndeba, rom termins "arqiteqtura" xSirad
mxolod Senobis (an, urbanuli garemos)
aRsaniSnad gamoviyenebT; aqedan, Temis
centraluri interesi mimarTulia SenobaTa metaforuli interpretaciis SemTxvevebisaken.
metaforis gansazRvrebis nacvlad
CamovTvaloT metaforis mier Sesrulebuli "samuSao": metafora saSualebas

metaforis arqiteqtura

97

gvaZlebs, gavigoT da gamovcadoT erTi saxis sagani (misi mniSvneloba) meoris meSveobiT; metaforis saSualebiT erTi niSnis
Tvisebebi meore niSanze gadadis; metafora abstragirebas axdens
da mis gasagebad warmosaxviTi naxtomis gakeTebaa saWiro; interpretaciuli Zalisxmeva siamovnebis momtan cdad iqceva.
Cven imis garkveva, ra roli aqvs (SeiZleba hqondes) metaforas arqiteqturisTvis, rogorc semiotikuri sistemisTvis misi warmoebis, moxmarebis da wakiTxvis ciklSi. am sakiTxs bolos ganvixilavT; manamde zedapirulad mimovixilavT metaforis
da arqiteqturis mimarTebis sxva SemTxvevebs.
pirveli SemTxveva _ arqiteqturidan enisken _ gulisxmobs
enaSi arsebul metaforebs, romlebic iwarmoeba Senobis, misi nawilebis aRmniSvneli sityvebidan. Tavad sityva "arqiteqtura"
yovelTvis met samuSaos asrulebs, vidre uSualod, sferos aRniSvna. teqstebi xSirad warmogvidgenen samyaros, rogorc nagebobas; mis Semqmnels, rogorc xuroTmoZRvars; fasads, rogorc
tyuils, romlis miRma sazareli sinamdvile imaleba; sveti is
saimedo burjia, romelsac esa Tu is swavleba eyrdnoba; yoveli saqme saimedo saZirkvlis CayriT unda daiwyos; labirinTis
farTo metaforul mniSvnelobebze rom araferi vTqvaT.
erTi magaliTi aqve ganvixiloT: fanjara, rogorc metafora.
gvaqvs Tu ara saqme metaforasTan? erTi mxriv, fanjara Senobis
konkretuli nawilia. meore mxriv, misi semantikuri mxare TavisTavad gulisxmobs (1) sinaTlis wyaros (2) gaxedvis SesaZleblobas. am SemTxvevaSi saqme ar gvaqvs metaforasTan _ fanjara. aq pirdapiri funqciuri homologiaa. metaforas qmnis ara
"fanjara", aramed "gaxedva". xedva, danaxva dominanturi tropia:
Cven yovelTvis viyurebiT momavalSi, warsulSi, vxedavT problemas, tyuils, simarTles da a.S. fanjara metaforulobis saintereso SemTxvevaa, romelic metaforuli xdeba ara msgavsebis
kvalobaze, aramed ukve-arsebuli dominanturi tropis meSveobiT.
ufro zogadad, TiTqmis SeuZlebelia, visaubroT sistemaze
arqiteqturuli leqsikonis gareSe; Tavad termini _ struqtura, romelmac aseTi kvali daatyo me-20 saukunis azrs, amis
kargi magaliTia1. es mdgomareoba logikuria, ramdenadac arqi-

aseve gavixsenoT termini dekonstruqcia pirdapiri arqiteqturuli


metafora, romelic paradoqsulad, rogorc filosofiuri cneba,

98

daviT bostanaSvili

teqtura Tavad aris yovelgvari wyobis da wyobilebis arqinimuSi. swored es wyoba/wyobileba gadaaqcevs ubralo Senobas arqiteqturad. mniSvnelobis taZari, igi [arqiteqtura] batonobs da
amTlianebs aRmniSvnel sistemebs, igi aiZulebs yovel maTgans
erTi da imave sagnamde davidnen" (holie 1974, 193).
arqiteqtura sivrcis xelovnebaa. aqedan, sivrcesTan dakavSirebuli nebismieri metafora arqiteqturuli leqsikonis nawilad SegviZlia CavTvaloT. jorj lakofi da mark jonsoni gvaCveneben, rom Cveni ZiriTadi cnebiTi repertuaris safuZveli ramdenime saxis metaforaa. am CamonaTvalidan sainteresoa orientaciuli metaforebi, romlebic sivrciT organizacias ukavSirdebian: zeviT/qveviT, SigniT/gareT, axlo/Sori, siRrme/zedapiri,
centri/periferia (Cendleri 1994).
arqiteqturuli metaforebidan, zemoT naxsenebi labirinTis
garda, SegviZlia, gavixseboT borxesis biblioTeka; babilonis
godoli. zogadad taZari ufro metia, vidre kosmosis metafora.
taZari-samyaros homologia aucilebeli moTxovnaa, romelsac
xuroTmoZRvari emorCileba. am msgavsebas rwmena inaxavs, rwmena
aris is, rac qmnis xuroTmoZRvars (holie 1974, 194)2.
aq, pirveli SemTxvevidan ukve gadavediT meore SemTxvevaze _
enidan arqiteqturisken - arqiteqturis aRsawerad, dasaxasiaTeblad gamoyenebul metaforebze, romlebic ase damajereblad JReren ganmartebiT da kritikul teqstebSi. pirveli SemTxveva rom
SevajamoT, aRmoCndeba, rom Cven mxolod CamovTvaleT da zogadad davaskveniT, rom metaforulobiT ideologiuri samuSao
sruldeba da aq aSkaravdeba arqiteqturis ideologiuri funqcia.
davubrundeT meore SemTxvevas. Cndeba (xolme) saWiroeba,
raRac vTqvaT Senobis Sesaxeb (meti, vidre misi sargeblianobis

TiTqmis ver ukavSirdeba arqiteqturis Teorias da praqtikas (am


sakiTxs Tavad deridac exeba). cnobili dekonstruqtivistuli
arqiteqtura sxva paradigmebis memkvidred unda CavTvaloT. ix.:
brodbenti 1994, 11-30.
2

arqiteqturasa da kosmoss Soris homologia gvaxsenebs, rom


arqiteqtura ar misdevs mimesiss, igi scildeba metaforulobas.
arqiteqtura qmnis ara asls, aramed _ models.

metaforis arqiteqtura

99

aRweraa). konkretuli Senobis metaforuli aRweris garda, sainteresoa zogadad arqiteqturis daxasiaTeba. cnobili metaforis
garda _ arqiteqtura gayinuli musikaa _ mTavari metafora amgvaria: arqiteqtura sarkea (Senobebi metyveleben epoqis Sesaxeb). swored aq Cans metaforis mTavari Tviseba: igi gvaiZulebs,
iolad davijeroT; am dajerebis Sedegad viRebT kliSes, romelic aRar dgeba eWvqveS, aRar gvibiZgebs fiqrisken. arqiteqtura,
Senobebi, qalaqebi ideologiis, kulturis, politikis, ekonomikis, individualuri SemoqmedebiTi survilebis mimarTebaTa rTuli badis produqtia _ ufro sworad, am badeSi aRmocendeba,
rogorc badis erT-erTi kvanZi. kvleviTi samuSaos Catarebis
Semdeg, am rTuli badis calkeuli Zafebis moZieba SeiZleba _
SegviZlia raRac vTqvaT epoqaze, sazogadoebaze; magram, rogorc
vTqviT, Ziebis Sedegad, rac ukve semiotikuri qmedebaa _ niSanTa
interepretaciis Sedegia. aq aranairi sarke ar aris _ sarke ar
iTxovs interpretacias, igi meqanikurad aCvenebs imas, rac mis
winaSea (niSani ki swored imas miuTiTebs, rac aq da axla ar
aris). sarkis metaforis moxmoba im ideologiis nawilia, romelic gveubneba, rom realoba uSualod Cans da arqiteqtura amgvari araideologiuri sistemaa _ igi mxolod ireklavs ideologiebs. denis holies azriT, metafora yovelTvis ideologiur
samuSaos asrulebs, metaforis aSkara xasiaTi is niadagia, romelze fiqric usafrTxod moZraobs ZilSi (holie 1974, 192).
amgvarad, metafora Tavad ar laparakobs. metaforas raRac (an
viRac) alaparakebs. sabolood, Cven gvaqvs ara sarke, aramed _
metonimia: arqiteqtura metonimurad metyvelebs (Cven vaiZulebT,
imetyvelos) im mTelze, romlis nawilic Tavad aris.
ganvagrZoT meore SemTxvevis mimoxilva: arqiteqturuli
obieqtis aRsawerad (eseistur da, xSirad, samecniero literaturaSi) metaforebi da mxatvruli Sedarebebi xSirad gvxvdeba.
amis mizezi, SeiZleba, swored is aris, rom sinamdvileSi srulad ar gvesmis, ra aris xuroTmoZRvreba, ra aqvs mas sakuTari.
mis gasagebad mxolod Sedarebebis imedad varT, sxva sagnebma unda gagvagebinon misi Sinaarsi.
meore mxriv, Sedarebebis gamoyenebiT swored imis Tqma gvinda, rom Senoba yovelTvis metia, yovelTvis sxvaa. yvelaze cnobili magaliTia taZari, rogorc wigni _ hiugos teqstSi. aqac
teqsti TiTqos scildeba metaforulobas: saubaria ara imaze,
rom taZari hgavs wigns, aramed, kvlav funqciur homologiaze.

100

daviT bostanaSvili

umberto ekos Tanaxmad, taZari swored rom enciklopedia iyo


Sua saukuneebis wera-kiTxvis ucodinari mrevlisTvis.
aseTive SemTxvevaa korbuzies cnobili daskvna _ "saxli
sacxovrebeli manqanaa". am azris metaforuli gageba iolia, ramdenadac mnaxvelis TvalSi modernistuli arqiteqtura swored
rom manqanur, meqanistur esTetikas hgavs Tavisi sterilurobiT
da anonimurobiT. korbuzies ar surda amgvari metaforis Seqmna.
axali arqiteqturis programa gulisxmobda ara msgavsebiT, aramed _ funqciur kavSirs: unda Secvliliyo paradigma. industriul epoqaSi saxli proeqtirdeba, iwarmoeba da moixmareba, rogorc manqana.
bolos, gadavideT mesame, da centralur sakiTxze, romelic
exeba metaforas rogorc arqiteqturuli komunikaciis erT-erT
xerxs.
pirvel rigSi, gavixsenoT umberto ekos (eko 1968) da mis
kvalad, Carlz jenksis (jenksi 1985) semiotikuri pozicia. yoveli mniSvneloba konvencias efuZneba - Sesabamisad, kods. ar arsebobs zemoqmedebis mistika, rodesac adresati arqiteqturidan,
winare kodebis flobis gareSe, mniSvnelobas Seityobs.
Tanamedrove arqiteqtura metwilad iseT Setyobinebebs sTavazobs adresatebs, romelTa wasakiTx kodebs isini ar floben.
adamianis fundamenturi Tviseba gamoixateba survilSi, daadginos
mniSvneloba. swored aqedan iwyeba "metaforuli" TamaSi. Cveni
mizania, davadginoT, ramdenad akmayofilebs es TamaSi metaforis
gansazRvrebas.
yvelaze sxarti ganmarteba gulisxmobs, rom metafora aris
is, rac ar (an ver) gaigeba pirdapir. maSin mTavari SekiTxva aseTia: ra unda gavigoT Senobidan? ra aris is, risi gagebac pirdapir SeuZlebelia ra Sedegi dgeba, rodesac Senoba ar gvesmis?
unda vTqvaT, rom SenobasTan mimarTebiT, gagebis nacvlad
gvaqvs axsna. asociaciur-metaforuli jaWvi iwyeba maSin, rodesac adresati ver pulobs axsnas. es sityva kargad gamoxatavs
problemis arss: arqiteqturasTan mimarTebiT, adresati darwmunebulia, rom Senoba SeuZlebelia, iyos rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivi azris matarebeli is xom sainJinro produqtia, romlis
yoveli elementi erTganzomilebiani mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiris
warmoebulia. rogorc ki Senoba am "kods" ar emorCileba, adresati iwyebs martiv asocaiciur TamaSs. aris Tu ara es metaforis SemTxveva? garkveuli azriT, es asea: me ar mesmis arqiteq-

metaforis arqiteqtura

101

turuli (pirdapiri) Sinaarsi, amitom vcdilob, igi gavigo metaforulad. am azriT aranair gansakuTrebul SemTxvevasTan ar
gvaqvs saqme, radgan metafora gagebis unaris saerTo safuZvelia.
qvemoT moviyvanT magaliTebs da SevecdebiT, aRvweroT procesi
asociaciebidan _ metaforamde.
aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac Senobis Semqmneli Riad gviwvevs
metaforuli wakiTxvisken: xSirad pirdapiri vizualuri asociaciebis gamoyenebiT. yvelaze martivi SemTxveva aris Senoba, rogorc sagani. pop-arqiteqturis am magaliTebze yuradReba samocdaaTian wlebSi gamaxvilda. aq vxedavT amgvar sqemas: pirvel
rigSi Senoba ikonurad imeorebs sagans. metafora iqmneba maSin,
rodesac sagani ukavSirdeba Senobis gamoyenebas. unda SevniSnoT,
rom, magaliTad, hoT-dogis formis jixuris SemTxvevaSic garkveuli winare molodinTa sistemis qonaa saWiro, rom amgvari
banaluri metafora Sedges: Senoba jixuris zomisaa, aq mxolod
gamyidvelis samyofi farTia, hoT-dogebs yidian da quCaSive miirTmeven. Sesabamisad, gadidebuli hoT-dogi sxva veraferi iqneba,
Tu ara adgili, sadac SesaZlebelia imis SeZena, rasac Senoba
pirdapir warmoadgens vizualurad. es TiTqos TavisTavad cxadi
procesi imitom aRvwereT, rom gagvemeorebina umberto ekos debuleba: arqiteqtura verafers ambobs sakuTar funqciaze, Tu adresati ar flobs garkveul kodebs. TiTqos aSkara naTqvami ("me
var hoT-dogis jixuri") moiTxovs interpretaciul Zalisxmevas.
robert venturi iyenebs magaliTisTvis ixvis formis Senobas. aq
adresati ver iqneba Tavidanve darwmunebuli Senobis daniSnulebaSi. man unda wamoayenos hipoTeza, abduqcia: aq SemiZlia davagemovno ixvi. sinamdvileSi venturis ixvi frinvelebze monadireTa
maRaziaa (formisa da funqciis am mimarTebas robert venturi
ikonurobas uwodebs).
ganvixiloT Semdgomi magaliTebi, roca Senobis gasagebad
metaforuli interpretaciaa saWiro.
pirvel magaliTad movixmob dubaiSi 1999 wels aSenebeul
sastumros _ burj al arab, romelic ialqnis asociacias iwvevs, da swored aq iwyeba metaforuli jaWvi. pirveli operacia
asocirebis operaciaa _ erTi sagani (Senoba) gvagonebs meore sagans (ialqani). gavixsenoT bartis azri, rom: "raimes danaxvisTanave igi rames unda daemsgavsos" (cit.: holie 1996). aq jer
mxolod ikonur asociaciasTan gvaqvs saqme da ara metaforasTan.
metaforisken mimavali jaWvis Semdegi nabiji ukve gadadis semaze

102

daviT bostanaSvili

ialqani, romlis semantikuri komponentebi amgvaradac SegviZlia CavweroT (denotaciis done):


ialqani -> gemi -> zRva -> mogzauroba.
mis konotaciebad ki SegviZlia davasaxeloT Tavisufleba,
Tavgadasavali, fufuneba.
metaforuloba xorcieldeba swored maSin, rodesac niSani
sastumro iRebs niSans ialqnis semantikis nawils. am metaforis wyalobiT, sastumro, romlis pirveladi denotacia
droebiTi sacxovrebelia, xolo konotaciebi _ meryevi (mag.:
ara-saxli) damajereblad iZens aRsaniSnebs Tavisufleba,
Tavgadasavali, fufuneba. metaforis ritorikuli Zala ideologiur samuSaos asrulebs: sastumro ideologiurad xdeba sasurveli adgili, ocnebis adgili (swored sastumro da ara _
ubralod, is dasasvenebeli adgili, sadac igi dgas).
am magaliTis daxmarebiT gvsurs xazi gavusvaT, rom Senobis
ikonuri asociaciuroba ar aris sakmarisi piroba metaforaze sasaubrod. igi mxolod jaWvis pirveli rgoli SeiZleba iyos. metaforis meqanizmi iwyeba ikonuri asociaciiT (Senoba hgavs an
imeorebs sxva sagnobriv realobas); Semdgom ukve sagani, rogorc
mniSvnelobis mqone erTeuli, agrZelebs jaWvs da bolos, Senoba
iZens sagnis konotaciaTa nawils.
am magaliTis ganxilvas davasrulebT sami dakvirvebiT: (1)
asociaciuri kavSiri imdenad aSkaraa, rom aRar tovebs adgils
wrmosaxvisTvis. (2) ra roli Seasrula metaforam am SemTxvevaSi. kargi metafora axlis danaxvis da codnis instrumentia. am
SemTxvevaSi igi mxolod ideologiur samuSaos asrulebs. barts
rom davesesxoT,3 damzadda axali miTi _ sastumro. (3) Cven
mier zemoT Catarebuli teqsturi samuSao erTgvari interpretaciaa. xom ar aris sagnobriv samyarosTan mimarTebiT nebismieri
interpretacia ukve metaforuli. nebismieri interpretacia (kritikosis Sefaseba, istorikosis analizi) gadatanaa - sagani yovelTvis sagnad rCeba. interpretaciuli ZalisxmeviT Cven igi gadagvaqvs azris sivrceSi. yovelTvis Cndeba semiotikuri kvlevis
mTavari "Semawuxebeli" SekiTxva - xom ar aris mTeli lingvisto-semiotikuri mecnieruli aparati mxolod metafora.

ix. rolan bartis miTologiebi (1957).

metaforis arqiteqtura

103

meore magaliTi sworxazovnebis Sedevria. aq Cven vxedavT


Senobas romlis zedapiri wnulis struqturas imeorebs. Tavad
Senoba ki wnuli produqtebis mwarmoebeli firmis ofisia. es
igive SemTxvevaa, rodesac Senoba sakuTari saxiT migvaniSnebs mis
daniSnulebaze. es konkretuli Senoba, hoT-dogis jixuris logikidan Sors ar wasula. kvlav SevniSnoT, rom SeuZlebelia Senobis forma gavdes funqcias: metaforuloba iwyeba maSin, rodesac me vcdilob davakavSiro sagnis konkretika fuqciuri programis abstraqciul cnebasTan.
mesame magaliTad movixmobT Tbilisis iusticiis saxls, rodesac sokoebi gaugonari metaforulobiT unda daukavSirdnen
mniSvnelobas saxelmwifo sareestro momsaxureba. aq unda gadavdgaT Tamami nabiji da uari vTqvaT metaforul wakiTxvaze.
swored aq dgeba erTgvari gamowveva: Cven Senoba unda gavigoT
pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT, rac CvenTvis miuwvdomelia (elmsleviseuli terminebiT arqiteqturis Sinaarsis forma wvdomis miRmaa; Sinaarsis substanciad misi funqcia moiazreba). iusticiis
saxli arqiteqturuli terminebiT gvesaubreba sakuTar SesaZleblobebze.
meoTxe magaliTad ganvixilavT kvlav zRvis piras aRmocenebul da aseve ialqnis ikonuri efeqtis mqone sidneis operis
Teatrs. arsebiTi gansxvaveba aris is, rom Tavad ikonuri asociacia aRar aris sworxazovani - sidneis opera mogvagonebs bevr
rames da amave dros arafers. ramdeni ikonuri asociaciac warmoiqmneba imdeni metaforis SesaZlebloba Cndeba. zogierTi asociacia mxolod aseTad rCeba da ver axerxebs srulyofili metaforis Seqmnas. zogadad SegviZlia vTqvT, rom semema operis
saxli ver ikveTeba verc erT ikonur asociaciasTan. es ormagoba - erTis mxriv Senoba asociaciebis siuxviT uxv metaforebs
unda warmoSobdes, meores mxriv verc erTs ver mivyavarT operamde aris am Senobis Zala - igi arasworxazovania. igi ar
cdilobs dagvarwmunos, rom arqiteqturis aRsaniSni misi dasaxelebuli funqciaa. Sesabamisad, Senoba Tavs aRwevs ideologias,
gvabrunebs arqiteqturisaken - aq ar aris saWiro, rom mniSvneloba sxvagan gadavitanoT. mniSvneloba Tavad arqiteqturis simReraa.
sidneis operis msgavsad, aseTi simRera iyo mTawmindis kalTasTan aRmocenebuli poeziis sasaxle (arqiteqtori: SoTa
bostanaSvili). erTi mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba is aris, rom

104

daviT bostanaSvili

operis saxli funqcionaluri programis aRsaniSnia. poeziis


sasaxle ar aRniSnavs programas. misi semantikuri mxare kulturis erTeulia. amJamad ar SevudgebiT am Senobis analizs; davZenT mxolod imas, rom sidenis operisgan gansxvavebiT, poeziis
sasaxlis asociaciuri seriebi mravalgan kveTen cnebas poezia.
aq mniSvnelobaTa gadatana im usasrulo seriad iqceva, romelic
Tavad gadaiqceva poeziad.
metaforis wyalobiT erTi sagani meoris Tvisebis nawils
iRebs. es aris metaforis martivi SemTxveva. msgavsebis garda,
metaforis warmoebis meore gza amgvaria: Senoba iyenebs iseT
elements, romelic ukve datvirTulia mniSvnelobiT (mag.: fleTili qva, SuSa). am elementis mniSvnelobis Tanamoziare xdeba
mTlianad Senoba (aq erTgvar metonimiasTan gvaqvs saqme), xolo
Semdeg is, rasac Senoba emsaxureba, iRebs am masalis erT-erT
Tvisebas _ policiis Senoba iyenebs SuSas: SuSa = gamWvirvale
= Senoba gamWvirvale, saqmianoba (policia) = gamWvirvale.
gansakuTrebis saintereso SemTxvevaa memorialuri arqiteqtura. aq arqiteqturuli gamosaxvis mxare unda daukavSirdes
Sinaarsis mxares, romelic ar gulisxmobs utilitarul gamoyenebas. misi Sinaarsis mxare aris is, rasac memoriali eZRvneba. es
sruli narativia. magaliTad, dangreuli, Wrilobebis mqone fizikuri materia metaforulad aRniSnavs im Wrilobas, romelic
miiRo sazogaodoebam garkveuli movlenis Semdeg. aq ormag metaforasTan gvaqvs saqme. tragikuli movlena, rogorc Wriloba, da
daxeTqili forma _ am Wrilobis damRa.
daskvnis gasakeTeblad, metaforuli seriebis kidev erT magaliTad, movixmob SoTa bostanaSvilis studiis arqiteqturis poetikis namuSevrebs (suraTebis seria, omlebSic arqiteqturuli
elementebi sxva, arautilitarul konteqstSi arian moqceulni).
arqiteqturis poetika ar gvaCvenebs, rom arqiteqtura metaforulia. swored is, rom misi gageba metaforuladac SeiZleba, gvkarnaxobs, rom arsebobs wakiTxva (maT Soris metaforuli). tradiciulad, wakiTxva dakavSirebulia erTjeradi azris gagebasTan, mniSvnelobasTan. mocemuli namuSevrebis metaforulobis miRma imaleba
survili, rom arqiteqtura gaTavisufldes mniSvnelobaTa tvirTisgan da gaxdes wakiTxvadi _ am terminis bartiseuli gagebiT.
SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom rodesac arqiteqtori moixseniebs, citirebs kulturis romelime sxva erTeuls, anda vizualur qar-

105

metaforis arqiteqtura

gils, es ar niSnavs metaforulobas. metafora iqmneba mniSvnelobis gagebis wyurvilidan _ rac gvaiZulebs, rom qargili maincdamainc mniSvnelobiT iyos gamoyenebuli. iqneb aq gaurbis arqiteqtura mniSvnelobas da igi xSirad vizualuri citatebis kolaJia?
es citatebi aRar warmoSoben centralur da periferiul mniSvnelobebs. es Riaoba arasdros uSlis xels adresats, raTa jiutad
awarmoos mniSvnelobebi da arqiteqturas tvirTad ahkidos.
metaforam damatebiTi mniSvnelobebiT unda gaamdidros teqsti. iqneb arqiteqturasTan mimarTebiT mxolod am gamamdidrebeli mniSvnelobis amara vrCebiT, anu Raribi wakiTvis amara?! metafora xels gviSlis imis gagebaSi, Tu ra unda gviTxras TviTon arqiteqturam.
metafora ritorikuli repertuaris erTi mxarea. semiotikuri gagebiT, ritorika aRmniSvneli sistemis meore donea, konotaciaTa da miTologiaTa done. metafora, rogorc yvela ritorikuli tropi, kazmulobaa. swored Senobebis kazmuloba (ar
vgulisxmob CuqurTmas) gadaiqceva arqiteqturad. swored geometriis ritorika gadaaqcevs figuras arqiteqturul teqstad.
Tu metafora aRaribebs da `ketavs~ arqiteqturis mniSvnelobas,
sxva ritorikuli xerxebi swored mis Riaobas uzrunvelyofen.
literatura
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

brodbenti 1991: Broadbent, Geoffrey. 1991. Deconstruction.


A student guide. London: Academy editions
eko 1968: . 2004. . : Simposium.
eko 1986: Eco, Umberto. 1986. Semiotics and the philosophy of
language. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
jenksi 1985: . 1985.
. : .
Cendleri 1996: Chandler, Daniel. 1994. Semiotics for
Beginners. URL
http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/semiotic.html
[10.11.2014]
holie 1974: Hollier, Denis. 1974. Architectural Metaphors.
cit. Architecture Theory since 1968, edited by K. Michael
Hays, Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Mmaia jaliaSvili

romani _ metafora
proza da poezia gamudmebiT gadakveTen erTmaneTs besik xaranaulis SemoqmedebaSi. mwerali axerxebs yoveli axali wigniT, ucnauri drosivrculi modelebiT mkiTxvelis gaocebas, radgan Janrobrivi Tu enobrivi
eqsperimentebis
gziT qmnis sruliad gansxvavebul poetur samyaros. swored amgvari aratradiciuli romani, erTgvari metaJanruli
mxatvruli
teqsti,
romani-metafora
`samoci jorze amxedrebuli raindi anu
wigni hiperbolebisa da metaforebisa~.
mwerali saTauridanve cxadyofs romanis
narativis ganmsazRvrel metaforulobas.
wigni warmoCndeba rogorc idumal metaforad, xolo misi calkeuli nawilebi
damoukidebeli metaforaa. isini erTianobaSi qmnian mravalplastian, rTulstruqturian sistemas, romelic mwerals exmareba erovnuli da sakacobrio
maradiuli Rirebulebebis warmoCenaSi.
metafora
avtor-mTxrobelisTvis
SemoqmedebiTi impulsebis dausrulebeli
wyaroa, amitomac sakuTar Tavsac, ersac
da kacobriobasac warmoidgens idumali
metaforis Svilad, romelic maradiulad daeZebs mamas da sjera, misi povniT
yofierebis saidumlosac amoxsnis, Caswvdeba sicocxlis misteriis mistikur
fesvebs. amgvari Zieba mas exmareba drois

romani - metafora

107

uwyvet mdinarebaSi, romelic sagnebsa da movlenebs saxes ucvlis da yovelives warmavlobis momakvdinebeli niSniT aRbeWdavs, monaxos sayrdeni wertili, romelic SeaZlebinebs darRveuli drois gamTlianebas, maradisobis perspeqtivis ganWvretas
da arsebobis azris Semecnebas.
aiRe striqoni, dahkar miwas da gzas gaudeqi, _ SeuZaxebs avtori-mTxrobeli sakuTar Tavs da mere sul gzaSia, romelic miemarTeba yovelmxriv: warsulisken, momavlisken, realobidan warmosaxvisken da piriqiT, zRaprisken, miTisken, legendisken, Zveli da axali aRTqmisken, aRmosavluri da dasavluri literaturisken. es gza samyarosaviT usazRvroa. mkiTxvelis Tvalwin mTxrobeli ganicdis aTasgvar metamormfozas, raTa Caswvdes
yofierebis kanonzomierebas da Seimecnos arsebobis azri. am
rTul gzaze misi mTavari sazrdo metaforaa, isaa misi gzamkvlevica da Semwec. es upirvelesi metafora ki ufalia, amitomac
wers avtori: sityvaSi viqnebi da sityva macocxlebs.
mwerali mkiTxvels ajerebs: dasabamidan iyo hiperbola da
metafora. isini iyvnen RmerTis sityvaSi, rogorc saisreSi. radgan RmerTi saxe ki ar iyo, aramed _ sityva.
da hiperbola da metafora RmerTis sityvaSi, rogorc saisreSi. da styorcna RmerTma erTi isari da aRniSna _ SeuZlebeli da uwoda mas hiperbola. meore isriT man aRniSna SesaZlebeli da uwoda mas metafora, radgan kacisTvis iseve saWiroa SeuZlebeli, rogorc is, rac SesaZlebelia. ase Seqmna RmerTma hiperbola da metafora da uwoda maT ca da miwa. daasaxla isini
erTad, dauwesa urTierTswrafva da dauTqva erTmaneTis Seusabamoba. `Cvens sinamdvileSi arsebobs iseTi uxilavi ganzomileba, sadac erTaderTi da ganuwyveteli procesi mimdinareobs: mama
Svils eZebs: Svili mamas, mkvdari cocxals da warsuli awmyos.
mimdinareobs ganuwyveteli ritualuri dialogi cisa da miwisa,
sikvdilisa da sicocxlisa da uZebni Svili ki yvelas aviwydeba.
am ganzomilebaSi Cveni sulebi cxovroben da hRvrian
ofls ganuwyvetel ZiebaSi.
ikiTxavT: _ rodis xdeba es?
gipasuxebT: _ roca uneburad Tavs moikiTxavT, roca uneburad Tavi gaviwydebaT, roca ar iciT, ras fiqrobdiT, roca
ggoniaT, rom dabneuli xarT, roca raimes moulodnelad miaCerdebiT da ar iciT, ratom...~ (xaranauli 2010: 426), _ wers besik xaranauli axal romanSi `samoci jorze amxedrebuli raindi

108

maia jaliaSvili

anu wigni hiperbolebisa da metaforebisa~, romelSic es Tema _


Zieba _ centraluria.
mwerlisTvis mTavaria, ar Sewydes `ritualuri dialogi
cisa da miwisa~, rac gulisxmobs adamianis (eris) harmoniul arsebobas drosa da sivrceSi. am dialogis Sewyveta adamians (ers)
Suaze gaxleCs da daRupavs. es dialogi aucilebelia, raTa
dro iyos erTiani, Torem Tu `droTa kavSiri dairRveva~, maSin
adamiani (eri) Tavgzaabneuli atomiviT daikargeba.
`aba, gaixedeT, yoveli arsi qveyanaze gana Tavisi namdvili
gvar-saxelis saZebrad ar aris gareT gamosuli?! da mec, yvela
suleluri mizeziTac ki Cems Tavs ar veZeb?!
-dediTa var?
-mamiT?
-qariT var moRebuli?
-Tu hiperbolaTi da metaforiT~? (xaranauli 2010: 51)
amgvari kiTxvebiT avtori gaaRwevs materialuri yofis
sazRvrebidan da gadadis poeziaSi, romelSic igi sworedac rom
`qariT aris moRebuli~ an `hiperboliT da metaforiT~. poeturi
niWia misi mSobeli, niWi, romelmac is imad Seqmna, rac Tu vinc
aris konkretul dro-sivrces sxeulebrivad mijaWvuli, magram
sulierad maradiulobasTan wilnayari. `qariT moReba~ xalxuri
poeziis xatia, igi, upirvelesad, gamorCeuls gulisxmobs, romlis mamac `realurad~ ar arsebobs. es SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes
saxarebaSi dawerils: `ara sisxlTagan, arca nebiTa orcTaTa,
arca nebiTa mamakacisaTa, aramed RmrTisagan iSvnes~ (ioane, 1,
13), (axali aRTqma 1991: 177). qari SeiZleba suliwmindis simbolodac gaviazroT, `romeli yovelgan ars da yovelives aRavsebs
madliT~ (`mrwamsi~). ioanes saxarebaSi vkiTxulobT; `sulsa vidreca unebn, qrin, da ma misi gesmis, aramed ara ici, vina movals da vidre vals. esreT ars yoveli Sobili sulisagan~ (ioane 3, 8), (axali aRTqma 1991: 180).
mwerali amis Taobaze Tavis dakvirvebas ase azogadebs:
`yvela gmiri oblobiTaa amozrdili. yvela ambobs arc ise dakarguli varo, magram danamdvilebiT aravin icis Tavis vinaoba~
(xaranauli 2010: 405).
Tu imasac gavixsenebT, rom `qaria saqarTvelo~ (leqsi
`sad arian Svilebi, Svilebi sad arian~), maSin qariT `moReba~,
rogorc saqarTvelos Sviloba, ise unda gaviazroT.

romani - metafora

109

am wignis mTavari gmiri poetia, romelic sakuTari sicocxlis sazriss ZiebaSi xedavs. igi zRapris gmiriviT gadis
`Sinidan~ da daexeteba usasrulo dro-sivrceSi mamis, bavSvobis,
siyvarulis, sinaTlis, adamianobis... mosaZebnad, Zveli faseulobebis gasaxseneblad Tu axlis aRmosaCenad. es Zieba dausrulebelia sicocxlesaviT, radgan am Ziebis procesSi is gadaiqceva
simbolod. ase rom, TviTon Zieba, rogorc romanis xerxemali,
ganapirobebs teqstis kompoziciur fragmentulobas da azrobriv
siRrmeebs, mis filosofiur-religiur Seferilobas. TviTon Zieba ki `iwereba~ wignad, romelic igive poeziaa da misi striqonebi arasodes Sewydeba, radgan is mTavari wignis _ `samyaros wignis~ nawilia.
romanSi `Svilic~ da `mamac~ mravalmniSvnelovani cnebebia.
Svili gulisxmobs konkretul dro-sivrceSi mcxovreb adamiansac, vTqvaT, TviTon mTxrobels, zogadad, qarTvels da, imave
dros, nebismier adamiansac. mama _ xorcieli mSobelic aris, eTnosic, ufalic, zogadad, kacobriobac, poeziac. ase rom, mravalmniSvneloba romanSi qmnis erTmaneTze wafenil Sreebs, romelTa konteqstSi es Tema sxvadasxvanairad gaiazreba. SeiZleba
iTqvas, es romani palimfsesturia. mwerali Txrobisas gadainacvlebs
siRrmisken da `kiTxulobs~ TiTqmis `gadaSlil~, e.i.
daviwyebul teqstebs.
romani jvarsaxovanicaa, rogorc rezo siraZem araCveulebrivad SeniSna: `jvarsaxovneba met-naklebad yovel teqstSia, sulierebis ierarqiulobisda Sesabamisad~. `teqstis horizontaluri mdinareba droSi xdeba, sulieri vertikalis SegrZneba ki
myisieri SeiZleba iyos. gaston baSliari werda: `poezia wamieri
metafizikaao. igi wamierebas eZebs, is qmnis wamierebas.. da mxolod vertikalur droSi Seyovnebuli wamiT iZens poezia gansakuTrebul energias. arsebobs wminda poeziis wminda energia da
igi ganifineba vertikalurad formisa da pirovnebis
droSi~
(siraZe 2008: 8). amgvari `energiiTa~ damuxtuli es romani. horizontalur WrilSi avtoris `xorcieli~ Tavgadasavali warmoCndeba, vertikalurSi ki sulieri _ am orives gadakveTis
wertili ki mwerlis gulia, mwerlisa, romelic, rogorc pol
valeri wers, `Tavisive fiqrebis jvarzea gakruli~.
besik xaranaulis axal romanSi, rogorc aRvniSneT, swored `ritualuri dialogia cisa da miwisa~, raTa uZebni Svili
moZebnos mamam. es ki SeiZleba moxdes mxolod `wignSi~, romel-

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sac amjerad besik xaranauli Txzavs, raTa sakuTari Tavi jer


TviTon ipovos, amgvarad, gaxdes `xiluli~ uflisTvis. mweralma
erT interviuSi aRniSna: `me sanam cocxali var, ar Sevwyvet
brZolas imisaTvis, rom gavigo, vina var, saidan movdivar... adamians aqvs ufleba ecados, meti araferi SeuZlia~ (xaranauli
2010g: 1).
Tavis povna ki, upirvelesad, gulisxmobs sakuTari Tavis,
rogorc eris `saxis~, gacnobierebas.
`Cemi wigni realobis asaxva araa~, _ afrTxilebs mwerali mkiTxvels da gulwrfelad gaumxels, imdeni vikiTxe hiperbolebisa da metaforebis poezia, andrezebi da Txel-Txeli broSurebi da narkvevebi maT cxovrebaze, rom avad gavxdi. asakmac
xeli Semiwyo: sinamdvile veRar makvirvebda. am wignebma ki sarkiT momitanes warsuli...~ (xaranauli 2010: 427). am sarkeSi dainaxa man sakuTari Tavi, rogorc uZebni Svili. da radgan `dro
ise kargad araferSi inaxeba, rogorc wignSi~, (xaranauli 2010:
427) TviTonac wigni dawera. `Tu samyaro wignia, adamianic mniSvnelovani nawarmoebia~ (xaranauli 2010: 429). sakuTar Tavs,
rogorc wigns, ise kiTxulobs, raTa Semdgom es gaxdes safuZveli `samyaros wignis~ Semecnebisa. igi am romans `cxovrebaSi Sesatyuebel wigns~ uwodebs, xolo cxovreba gaiazreba, rogorc
realobaze aRmatebuli, warmosaxvaSi gamravalferovnebuli da
gamdidrebuli.
didi gza gaiara mweralma, rom sakuTari Tavi aReqva, rogorc `uZebni~. erT interviuSi aRniSnavs, rom `am bolo wignis
gamo gavmecnierdi kidec, imdeni ram wavikiTxeo~ (xaranauli
2010b:). aq `gamecniereba~ ironias gulisxmobs sakuTari Tavis
mimarT, magram _ Tanve miniSnebasac raRac mniSvnelovanze. ase
`gamecnierda~ erT mSvenier dRes vaJa-fSavelas gvelismWameli
mindia da Seicno sicocxlis arsi.
rogorc aRvniSneT, mraval mniSvnelovan saxeTagan romanSi
gamorCeulia `uZebni Svilis~ poeturi paradigma. Tu gavixsenebT imas, rom yoveli sityva `poeturi nawarmoebia~ (borxesi
2010: 23), es sintagma `uZebni Svili~ umaRlesi rangis poeziad
warmoCndeba gamoTqmis originalurobiT, xatovanebiT, simbolurobiT, filosofiuri siRrmiT. poetis mier daweril am `enciklopediur romanSi~, romelic `poeziisa da prozis pirSesayarzea~, mwerali qarTvelTa eTnosis Zirebs Creks da aanalizebs.
ram aqcia bibliuri `uZRebi Svili~
`uZebnad~?

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uZRebi Svilis paradigma xelovnebaSi da, konkretulad,


literaturaSi, Zalian mravalferovnad aris warmoCenili. qarTul literaturaSi amis saukeTeso magaliTi guram doCanaSvilis `samoseli pirvelia~. misi mTavari gmiri, domeniko, bolos
da bolos, brundeba mamis saxlSi, radgan aseTia `RvTaebrivi kanonzomiereba~.
besik xaranaulis uZebni Svili exmianeba bibliur paradigmas da, ra Tqma unda, imeorebs nacnob gzas, magram aq siaxlea,
uZRebi (Ze Secdomili) uZebnad iqceva.
es uZebni Svili mwerlis alter egoa, mwerlisa, romelic
qarTvelTa eTnosis konkretul saxed warmoCndeba romanSi. is
jer uZRebia, radgan `daviwyebuli~ aqvs `fesvebi~, magram iwyebs
gaxsenebas, gaazrebas, Semecnebas da, amgvarad, daadgeba gzas Sinisaken, magram aq axali dabrkoleba Cndeba, mas aRar elis `mama~.
gmiri dakargulia, Tanac, nagavsayrelze.
`RmerTs uyvars ganwiruli, magram ar uyvars, vinc ganwirulebas egueba. RmerTma sakuTari gamocdilebiT icis, rom: roca Svili mamas edaveba, mama Wabukdeba, agreTve icis, cudi Svili
_ sayvarelia~ (xaranauli 2010: 135).
uxsovari droidan Tvalmiuwvdomel mermisamde gaSlil
dro-sivrceSi mogzaurobs besik xaranauli da nanax-gancdils-wakiTxul-warmodgenil STabeWdilebebs saocari gznebiTa da vnebiT
gadmogvcems.
igi uamrav `med~ daSlili warmogvidgeba da moxetiale
zeistoriulsa Tu droul sanaxebSi _ qarTveli kacis kulturaSi; zepirsa Tu dawerilSi, zRapar-miTebSi, legendebSi, andrezebSi, wes-CveulebebSi, tradiciebsa da warmodgenebSi. mwerali
cdilobs yovelives, realursa da warmosaxuls, miswvdes da moixilos. amis saSualebas mas sityva aZlevs _ metaforebsa da hiperbolebSi gacocxlebuli. amitom misi stili am romanSi xatovania, simboluri. es aris poetis dawerili poeturi romani
`poeziiisa da prozis pirSesayarze~.
mTeli wigni mkiTxvelTan dialogia, oRond ara Sefaruli,
aramed jiquri da pirdapiri. da vis igulvebs weriT damaSvrali avtori mkiTxvelad? yvelas _ poetsac da `mxvnel-mTesvelsac~, visac simamace Seswevs sityvasTan pirispir dgomisa, misTvis TvalebSi Caxedvisa, `azris aReb-micemobisa~ (ilia).
wignis saxelwodeba erTgvari saidumloa, romelic mkiTxvels amocnobisken ubiZgebs: `samoci jorze amxedrebuli raindi

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anu wigni hiperbolebisa da metaforebisa~. es `anu~ erTgvar


sazRvars avlebs am ornawilian saTaurSi. igi Tavidanve mianiSnebs, rom saTauris pirveli nawili parodiulia, raindi da
jori casa da dedamiwasaviT Seuferebelia, ricxvi samoci ki
wignis kiTxvisas `amoixsneba~. saTauris meore nawili mkiTxvelis gzamkvlevia _ aq yvelaferi hiperbolebisa da metaforebis
saSualebiT warmoCndeba, ufro zustad, TviTon hiperbolebi da
metaforebi iqnebian mTavari `gmirebi~, xan mTxrobelni, xan monawileni. ra Tqma unda, besik xaranaulisTvisac yvelaze mTavari
hiperbola an metafora TviTon samyaroa, cxovreba da adamiania.
TiToeuli ki uamravi hiperbolisa Tu metaforis mravalferovani `nazavia~.
ioanes saxarebis dasawyisi: `pirveliTgan iyo sityva da
sityva igi iyo RmerTi~ adamianis mier aRqmuli hiperbolacaa da
metaforac, radgan bolomde ver swvdeba da ver Seimecnebs
RvTis arss.
Ziebis suliTaa wigni Tavidan bolomde gamsWvaluli. wignis gadaSlisas mkiTxveli jer sarCevs xvdeba, romelic ulamazesi, saidumloebiT moculi WiSkariviTaa, zed amotvifruli
ornamentebiTa da niSnebiT. `simRera saTaurebisa~ _ amgvaradaa
SemoTavazebuli saTaurTa CamonaTvali, romelic poeziaa da
mkiTxvels winaswar ganawyobs wasakiTxad, cnobismoyvareobas uRviZebs da molodins umZafrebs. cisferyanweli sandro cirekiZe
werda: `qmediTi saTauri Tanabaria TviTon wignis da TavisTavad
warmoadgens esTetikur Rirebulebas~ (cirekiZe 2010: 158). am
wignSi swored amgvari saTaurebia, Tanac originalurad SemoTavazebuli. aq aris metaforuli, simboluri saTaurebi, agreTve,
saTaurebi_sentenciebi: magaliTad: `hiperbolebis winaSe civilizacia parodirdeba~, `rac ki arsebobs, analogis ZaliT arsebobs~, `sazRvari namcecebisTvisac sazRvaria~, `yvela dro sisxliani iyo~, `zneoba qariSxaliviT mrisxanea~, `win warsulia~,
`adamianebma sityva daamZimes~, `genias ukvirs, rom cxovreba
sxvebs ekuTvnis~, `yoveli sityva naTqvami _ aris mokleba
wyvdiadisa~, ~poeti moxucia~ da sxva.
wigni eqvsi simRerisgan Sedgeba da TiToeulSi bevri patara ambavia. amgvari kompozicia nostalgiaa UuZvelesi wignebisa (gilgameSiani, iliada da odisea, simRera nibelungebze da
sxv). SeiZleba, am `simRerebiT~ mwerali mianiSnebs im drozec,

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rodesac sityva ar iwereboda da mxolod warmoiTqmoda, an imRereboda da ase gadaecemoda Taobebs.


sarCevis gacnoba sakmarisia imisTvis, rom Tvalwin warmogidges Janrulad ekleqturi nawarmoebi, romelSic Zieba mravalmxriv ganitoteba. avtori erTgvarad azustebs, rodesac, satitulo furclis Sida mxares mokrZalebulad miawers _ eTnofiliuri romanio. Tumca es minaweri mkiTxvels wignis gasaRebadac
SeiZleba gamoadges. mTavari ZarRvi marTlac esaa _ Zieba da moxilva sakuTari eris, eTnosis fesvebisa. am wignSi TiTqos TviTon qarTuli eTnosi gviambobs sakuTar Tavgadasavals. aq aris
gadaZaxili ilias `ukvdav sulTan~, poema `aCrdilSi~ rom esaubreba avtors eris awmyoze, warsulsa da momavalze. am TvalsazrisiT, grigol robaqiZesac exmianeba: `wvdiT cocxal fesvebs
saqarTveloisa: mis genialur enas, mis universalur miToss, mis
heroul Tavgadasavals, mis xalas stils sicocxlisa, wvdiT am
fesvebs da fesvebi arwivis frTebad agesxmiT, da am gziT moipovebT Tavisuflebas~ (robaqiZe 2009: 319). es fesvebi besik xaranauls, upirvelesad, FfSav xevsurTa folklorSi eguleba, romelsac `RmerTTan nawiliani~ xalxi qmnida (xaranauli 2010:
37).
yuradRebas iqcevs wignis epigrafi:
`ymaTad nabrZanebi
aqvs: _momixvidodeTo! _ratom ar mouxvalT?!~
am sityvebSi simbolurad RvTisa da kacobriobis urTierToba irekleba. RmerTdakargul adamianebs aRar esmiT mSoblis
Zaxili, mwerali ki, rogorc `RmerTTan molaparake~, masTan axlos myofi, `Suakaci~_ fxizlad Tvals adevnebs da marad Seaxsenebs, rom unda `mouvidnen~. magram es ara marto mama-RmerTis,
aramed sakuTari `eTnosis Zaxilicaa~ (xaranauli 2010: 430).
Zvelad ki, sanam wignebis daweras daiwyebdnen, adamianebi `sakuTari eTnosis ambavs wignebSi ki ar eZebdnen, TavSi efurclebodaT~ (xaranauli 2010: 431)
U`uZebni~ _ araCveulebrivi sisavsiT gamoxatavs tragedias
cxovrebaSi dakarguli adamianisas, romelic RmerTmac miatova
da upatronod darCenili dasaRupavadaa ganwiruli, mas aravin,
TviT RmerTic aRar eZebs, rogorc dakargul cxvars. is araaraobaa, usaxelo da uarsebo. es sintagma `uZebni Svili~ Tanamedrove kacobriobis sulieri avadobis zust diagnozad warmogvidgeba. igi aris `civilizaciisagan gandevnili kulturis Svili~
(xaranauli 2010: 433). rogorc misive personaJi Sio, romelic

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fiqrobda, rom `wignebi unda dafrinavdnen~ da ixateba fantasmagoriuli suraTi: fanjridan wignebi Tavdaxsnili frinvelebiviT
mifrinaven, magram `nagavsayarze iyo finiSi~ (xaranauli 2010:
434)
mamis Ziebis gzaze poeti, upirvelesad, miemgzavreba `bavSvobaSi~, `oqros xanaSi~ (novalisi), raTa axsnas `dakargvis~ mizezebi da garemoebani.
mTavari bavSvobis erTi Zvirfasi mogonebaa: rogor SeaSina
mTxrobeli samocma, jorze amxedrebulma, gasayidi
cocxebiT
datvirTulma raindma. ra iyo mwerlisTvis bavSvoba: `o, ra
laRi da Tamami viyavi. vgrZnobdi sivrces, romelSic unda gavzrdiliyavi. yoveli bavSvi xom mravalia, erTi ar aris, mere Sedenis xolme cxovreba, erTs miakuTvnebs da erTi xdeba~ (xaranauli 2010: 429). swored maSin daikarga, `bavSvobaSi~ da `nagavsayaris qveyanaSi~ aRmoCnda tyved. bavSvoba mTxrobelisTvis samoTxea, xolo didoba _ tyveoba, Tanac nagavsayrelze, romelic
cxovrebis simboloa. misi azriT, civilizaciam qveyniereba nagavsayrelad aqcia. es exmianeba Jan bodriaris Tvalsazriss: `yvelaze uaresi is ki ar aris, rom Cvens irgvliv sul nagavia, aramed is, rom Tavad Cvenc am nagvad viqeciT. mTeli bunebrivi garemo narCenebad iqca, anu gamousadegar, usargeblo substanciad,
romelsac, rogorc gvams, ver viSorebT~... `Tavad istoria aRmoCnda sakuTar sanagveze gadagdebuli, sadac Tavs iyrian ara
mxolod Cvens mier ganvlili, aramed mimdinare movlenebic~
(bodriari 2010: 1).
unda gavixsenoT, rom cxovreba rogorc nagavsayreli, warmoCenilia zura mesxis romanSi `spazmebi~, romelSic mTavari
gmiris cxovrebis `damaxinjeba~ gamoiwvia TavSi moxvedrilma
nagvis parkma: ~me maqvs spazmebi. xuTi wlis rom viyavi, maSin damewyo. maSin daviwye nagvis danaxva da mTeli sidampleebis~ (mesxi 2009: 1).
wignSi Ziebis gzaze Cndeba skefsisic: `Tavis eTnoss dauwyebs Zebnas... da sadRa aris!~ (xaranauli 2010: 409). es exmianeba
oTar WilaZis roman `godors~, romelSic italiidan Camosul
elCs saqarTvelo Tavis adgilas aRar xvdeba.
`nagavsayrelze~ poets `hiperbola da metafora~ gamouCndebian mxsnelebad da waiyvanen sicocxlis sxvadasxva Sris mosaxilviled, rogorc dantes miuZRoda vergiliusi. swored
`hiperbola da metafora~ warmoCndebian avtoris namdvil `mSob-

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lebad~ axal romanSi. ase poeturad ixateba qarTvelTa eTnosi.


swored am eTnosis Svilia igi, magram fesvebs mowyvetili, dakarguli da mSobelTa monatruli, maT maZieblad qceuli.
mkiTxvelic avtorTan erTad imogzaurebs `Semecnebis~
gzebze da `aRmoaCens~: `sul naqsovia samyaro. dedamiwa abreSumia~ (xaranauli 2010: 46).
`vin iyvnen isini, vidre Cemis wyalobiT hiperbolad da metaforad Seiracxebodnen?~ _ kiTxulobs mwerali da mkiTxvels
araCveulebrivi xatovanebiT uyveba saqarTvelos mTebSi mcxovreb
tomTa ambebs. gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imaze amaxvilebs, rogor Seerwya aq erTmaneTs warmarTuli warmodgenebi da qristianoba. mwerali detalurad aRwers, rogori iyo xatis nageboba,
rogor tardeboda sxvadasxva rituali. sainteresoa misi dakvirveba xucesis damwyalobnebis teqstze, romelSic `mamao Cvenos~
kvals amoicnobs (xaranauli 2010: 75).
xangrZlivi Ziebis erTi Sedegi romanSi asea gamJRavnebuli:
`vgrZnob, rom orive var _ hiperbolac da metaforac~ (409),
ase rom, poeziaa misTvis erTaderTi realoba, romelSic igi
Tavs poulobs. Tumca es pirobiTi `Sedegia~, radgan `hiperbolaca~ da `metaforac~ kvlavac Seucnobel siRrmeebs amxelen.
literatura
axali aRTqma 1991: axali aRTqma, bibliis Targmnis instituti,
stokholmi, 1991
bodriari 2010: bodriari Jan, qalaqi da siZulvili,
http://lib.ge/body_text.php?319
borxesi 2010: borxesi xorxe luis, Jurn. `Cveni mwerloba~,
#20, 2010
mani 2008: Tomas mani, winaTqma `jadosnuri mTisa~, Jurn. `qarTuli sityva~, #2, Tbilisi, 2008
mani
2010b:
Tomas
mani,
xelovani
da
sazogadoeba,
http://burusi.wordpress.com/2010/10/02/thomasmann-7/
mesxi 2009: mesxi zura, http://zigota.wordpress.com/2009/05/17
robaqiZe 2009: grigol robaqiZe, mimarTva qarTvel xalxs, wignSi, qarTveli mwerlebi skolaSi, gamomcemloba
`saqarTvelos macne~, Tbilisi, 2009
siraZe 2008: siraZe rezo, kultura da saxismetyveleba, gamomcemloba `inteleqti~, 2008

116

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xaranauli 2010: xaranauli besik, `samoci jorze amxedrebuli


raindi anu wigni hiperbolebisa da metaforebisa~, gamomcemloba `sezani~, Tbilisi, 2010
xaranauli 2010b: xaranauli besik, interviu besik xaranaulTan,
`besik xaranaulis jorze amxedrebuli raindebi
da
momavlis
mkiTxveli~,
http://arili2.blogspot.com/2010/08/blogpost_5345.html
xaranauli 2010g: xaranauli besik, `mTvrali miwismzomeli~. interviu besik xaranaulTan, Jurn. `cxeli Sokoladi~,
literatura,
25
ianvari,
http://shokoladi.ge/node/3071?page=2, 2010,
cirekiZe 2010: sandro cirekiZe, `saTauri poeziaSi~, wignSi `raindTa landebi~, quTaisi, 2010

rusudan mircxulava

fsiqoTerapia, rogorc
metafora
fsiqoTerapia-komunikaciis gansakuTrebuli formaa, romelSic metaforebs
mniSvnelovani da, xSirad, gansakuTrebuli adgili eTmoba. ufro metic, Tavad
fsiqoTerapia, misi yvela formisa da
mimdinareobis CaTvliT, SeiZleba gavigoT, rogorc gaSlili metafora, xolo
Terapiuli efeqti, _ rogorc metaforis realizacia. fsiqoTerapiis, rogorc
vizualuri metaforis, mkafio magaliTia
fsiqoanalizis procesSi klientis poza
- misi relaqsacia fsiqoanalitikur taxtze; adamiani biologiurad sakvanZo momentebSi swored horizontalur mdgomareobas iRebs _ dabadebis, gamravlebis
da sikvdilis Jams. Sesabamisad, fsiqoanalizis procedura froidis Teoriis metaforaa da misi ilustraciac; es metaforuli dabrunebaa biologiis wiaRSi,
misi ganmkurnebeli saidumlos gamxelis
mizniT. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom fsiqoTerapia adamianisa da samyaros (garegani Tu
Sida samyaros) dakarguli erTianobis
aRdgenas emsaxureba, romlis rTul da
dramatul procesSic metafora erTgvari gzamkvlevia, fsiqopompia, dantes beatriCes msgavsad.
fsiqoTerapiis gansxvavebul skolaSi- fsiqosinTezSi, romelic, misi avto-

118

rusudan mircxulava

ris, roberto asajolis sityvebiT, fsiqoanalizis sapirwoned


Seiqmna, aqtiurad gamoiyeneba fantazmebis paradoqsuli SekavSireba; Terapiuli procesi garkveuli warmodgenebis, warmosaxviTi
xatebis aRZvrisa da maTi analizis mimarTulebiT midis; TiToeuli warmodgena-xati garkveuli fsiqikuri procesis metaforaa;
magaliTad, saxlis warmodgena fsiqikis metaforaa, masSi mcxovrebi personaJebi ki _ fsiqikis struqturasa da mis Sinaarsss
gamoxataven. Cemi suli Cemi saxlia; me mis karebs vaReb, rom gavicno da daviaxlovo misi mkvidrni, _ aseTia erT-erTi fsiqosinTezuri, metaforuli savarjiSos arsi; klienti stumrobs sakuTar fsiqikas (saxls) da mis mkvidrTa mravalferovnebiT sakuTar, mravalganzomilebian ego-s wvdeba.
fsiqoTerapiis sxvadasxva mimarTulebebSi aqtiurad gamoiyeneba kognituri metaforebi; klientis obieqt _ warmodgenebi
iseve, rogorc misi moqmedeba Tu socialuri interaqciis forma,
gancdebTan kavSirdeba da gancdebis metaforebad iqceva; magaliTad, ritualur Terapiasa da drama-TerapiaSi gamoyenebuli savarjiSo wre adamianTa kavSiris, erTobisa da erTianobis metaforaa, romlis drosac wreSi mdgari, xelCakidebuli klientebi
qoreografiuli elementebis gamoyenebiT sxvadasxva moZraobebs
Tu TamaSebs asruleben. aseve, jgufur art-TerapiaSi klientebis
mier koleqtiuri naxatis, saxelwodebiT gza, Sesruleba metaforebiT manipulirebis naTeli magaliTia; gza, rogorc adamianis
cxovreba da cxovrebis rbola... aqve minda gavixseno fsiqiatriis
gariJraJze fiqsirebuli metafora, romelic SizofreniiT daavadebuls ekuTvnis: Terapevtis kiTxvaze Tavs rogor grZnobT?
_ man lakoniurad da mxatvrulad upasuxa: kargad, oRond me _
me aRar var!
rogorc cnobilia, metafora sxva tropebisgan gansakuTrebuli eqspresiulobiT gamoirCeva. is aaxloebs da aigivebs sruliad gansxvavebul obieqtebsa da movlenebs (magaliTad, me-s da
ara-mes-s), metafora garegani da Sida-fsiqikuri samyaros axleburi, individualizebuli gaazrebis stimulad iqceva; moicavs
mxatvruli informaciulobis maRal xarisxs, metaforas obieqti
da misi amsaxveli sityva avtomaturi aRqmis farglebidan gayavs.
amasTan dakavSirebiT gavixseneb froidis esses cecxlis damorCileba, romelSic avtori promeTeseul cecxls _ seqsualur
vnebasTan, xolo misi anTebis arqaul instruments (milisebr
joxs) falosTan akavSirebs. cecxlis daufleba, avtoris gage-

fsiqoTerapia, rogorc metafora

119

biT, seqsualuri instinqtiTaa provocirebuli an STagonebuli,


xolo misi mopovebis arqauli teqnika auto-seqsualuri aqtis
erTgvar imitaciaa.
sazogadod, z. froidis mecnieruli ena gajerebulia metaforebiT. da rac gansakuTrebul aRniSvnas imsaxurebs, avadmyofuri simptomi (rogoricaa magaliTad, insomnia, anoreqsia, fobia
da sxv.) fsiqoanalizis mier gaigeba, rogorc klientis fsiqologiuri problemis an misi ararealizirebuli biologiuri
moTxovnilebis simboluri Canacvleba Tu misi metafora. magaliTad, pacienti qalis mxedvelobis isTeriul (araorganul) defeqts froidi pacientis mier fsiqologiuri problemis ar-danaxvis, misi ignorirebis, cnobierebidan gandevnis metaforad miiCnevs. Sesabamisad, fsiqoanalizi simptoms aracnobieri fsiqikuri Sinaarsebis wvdomisa da gamJRavnebis instrumentad aRiarebs.
metaforebisa da simboloebisadmi interesma fsiqoanilizi
logikurad miiyvana miTologiis, folkloris, xelovnebis Seswavlamde; kvlevis obieqtad iqca ara mxolod simbolur-metaforuli sizmrebi, aramed miTebi, zRaprebi da xelovnebis nawarmoebebi. magaliTad, erih fromis Seswavlis obieqtia primitiultrivialuri wiTel quda, romelSic avtorma sqesTa Soris ambivalenturi urTierTobisa da sqesobrivi momwifebis procesis
metaforebi amoikiTxa.
metaforebs aqtiurad mimarTaven froidis fsiqologiur
skolaSi; magaliTisTvis Semovifarglebi erih fromisa da karl
iungis kargad cnobili naSromebis _ vin aris adamiani _ mgeli
Tu cxvari? da fsiqologia da alqimia _ dasaxelebiT. Tuki
fromi fsiqo-socialur procesebs metaforulad ukavSirebs
cxovelTa samyaros da agebs adamianTa Sesabamis tipologias
(mglebi da cxvrebi), iungi fsiqologiis winaremecnierebis
Ziebas alqimiamde miyavs da am ukanasknels fsiqologiis metaforad ganixilavs; sibrZnis qvis alqimiuri Zieba individuaciis pirovnuli ganviTarebisa da zrdis procesis metaforis saxiT
gaigeba. aRniSvnas imsaxurebs isic, rom monografiis mesame Tavs
uZRvis Semdegi fraza alqimiis magistris traqtatidan: simbolos mflobelisTvis iolia gardasvla (Habentibus symbolum facilis est transitis).
miTologiur-panTeisturi, hiloZoisturi samyaro da cnobiereba imTaviTve metaforulia da arsebobis am etapze calke
aRebuli metaforis arseboba arcaa saWiro. literaturuli me-

120

rusudan mircxulava

taforis aRmocenebas miTologiuri cnobierebis rRvevasTan akavSireben. panTeistur cnobierebaSi ki, aRmqmelisa da aRsaqmelis
daunawevreblobis gamo, yovelive urTierTdakavSirebulia, yoveli adamiani, aseve, sxva adamianicaa, erTi adamiani, imavdroulad,
yvela adamiania da mTeli samyaroc. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Tanamedrove literaturuli metafora am arqauli erTianobisa da
mTlianobis erTgvari nostalgiaa da kidev, imis maJoruli dasturic, rom kavSirebi jer kidev ara aris srulad dakarguli.
(mTebi aWrelda, rogorc Jirafi, matarebeli miqris bindebad...~)
Tumca, meore mxriv, farTod gagebuli metafora arsebobis adamianur donesTan mWidrod kavSirdeba; ena, religia, mecniereba, xelovneba da, zogadad, kultura _ metaforaTa rTuli sistemaa,
romlis gareSec qreba adamianis fenomeni.
XIX, XX ss. mijnaze fsiqiatriis avangardSi idga hipnozi,
uZvelesi fsiqologiuri da, zogadad, Terapiuli meTodi. jer
kidev preistoriul xanaSi pirvelyofil SamanTa praqtikaSi
mniSvnelovani roli eniWeboda hipnozisa da STagonebis elementebis gamoyenebas; hipnozi da STagoneba ara mxolod Samanisa da
pirvelyofili sazogadoebis erTobis, aramed mTel, realur Tu
irealur samyarosTan gaerTianebis pirobadac iqceoda. Samani am
yovlismomcveli, ganmkurnebeli kavSiris maprovocirebeli da
Suamavali iyo. Tumca, xSirad am yovlismomcvel kontaqtSi
(RvTaebasTan an universumTan) aqtiurad mxolod Samani Sedioda,
romelsac brmad da morCilad mihyvebodnen adamianebi. hipnozis
am avtomatizmis gamo, froidma mas xatovnad da metaforulad
ori adamianisgan Semdgari brbo uwoda.
Sua saukuneebis grZneulebi da aseve, me-18 saukunis mesmerizmi, hipnoturi transis (cxoveluri magnetizmis) gamowvevis
mizniT, aqtiurad mimarTavdnen manaTobeli sferos teqnikas,
romelSic, masze mzeris fiqsirebiT, WeSmariteba (momavali, sasurveli obieqti...) ixateboda da amoicnoboda. ingliselma eqimma, jeims brendma kvleviT daadastura, rom mbrwyinav saganze
mzeris fiqsireba sxeulisa da gonebis mdgomareobis cvlilebas
iwvevs, rasac man 1843 wels hipnozi uwoda. sakraluri manaTobeli sfero, ra Tqma unda, metaforaa- realur da irealur
samyaroTa, rogorc antipodTa, gamTlianebis metafora! jaWvze
moqanave savsebiT trivialuri jibis saaTic, romelmac Semdgom
grZneulTa manaTobeli sfero Secvala, aseve metaforaa, dauZleveli monstris _ drois rbolis metafora.

fsiqoTerapia, rogorc metafora

121

Tanamedrove fsiqoTerapiaSi arsebobs diskretuli meTodic


_ metaforaTerapia, Tanamedrove artTerapiis tipi, romelSic,
pacientebis gancdebisa da gamocdilebis simboluri gamoxatvis
mizniT, Terapevti sagangebod SerCeul metaforebs iyenebs. aRniSnul meTodSi Terapiuli procesi mkvdari metaforebis gacocxlebis, maTTvis axali mniSvnelobebis miniWebis gzaze gadis. metafora-Terapiis safexurebia: 1. Terapevtis mier metaforis verbalizeba da misi mniSvnelobis wvdoma klientebis mier, 2. metaforis gaSla asociaciebis, emociebisa da warmodgenebis aRweris
gziT, 3. TamaSi _ Sejibri metaforis gagebis unarTan dakavSirebiT, 4. diskusiis procesSi savarjiSos dakavSireba Terapiul
miznebTan da miRebuli gamocdilebis safuZvelze samomavlo,
cxovrebiseuli amocanebis dasaxva.
magram metafora, rogorc aRvniSneT, mxolod metafora-Terapiis an artTerapiis damaxasiaTebeli atributi araa. metafora,
rogorc didi makavSirebeli, ar cnobs sxvaobas obieqtebsa da
movlenebs Soris, misTvis ar arsebobs izolacia da, piriqiT,
mTeli samyaro erTiania iseve, rogorc grZneulTa sakralur manaTobel sferoSi.
k. iungis SexedulebiT, simboloebisa da metaforebis gamomuSaveba aracnobier doneze, spontanurad mimdinarebs, rac ara
mxolod realobis wvdomis pirveladi formaa, aramed, amave
dros _ fsiqikis autoTerapiuli procesic. metaforis saxiT,
gancdebisa da obieqtebis SekavSirebiT (zogjer paradoqsuli SekavSirebiTac), adamiani scdeba trivialuris, fiqsirebulis (da
fiqsirebulobis gamo _ problemuris) farglebs da axali, fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT ki ufro adapturi rakursidan wvdeba
gare Tu Sida realobas.
Tanamedrove neirologiurma mecnierebam Tavis tvinis anatomiur-fiziologiuri kvlevebis safuZvelze empiriulad daadastura Tavis tvinis marjvena hemisferos stimulireba _ gaaqtiurebis pozitiuri efeqti; marjvena hemisfero mxatvruli azrovnebis, emociebiT damuxtuli fantaziisa da intuiciis arealia.
rogorc aRmoCnda, Tanamedrove adamianis, romelsac marcxena hemisferos adamians uwodeben, cxovrebaSi logikisa da praqtikuli maTematikis gadaWarbebuli mniSvnelobis gamo, marjvena hemisferosa da metaforebis arealis aqtivireba Terapiuli efeqtis
mqonea. aseTi wminda materialisturi argumentiT daasabuTa

122

rusudan mircxulava

Tanamedrove neiromecnierebam adamianisaTvis artTerapiisa da,


ufro sworad, xelovnebis efeqti da mniSvneloba.
borxesi aTas erTi Ramis metaforebSi sizmars rigiT mesame metaforas uwodebs. metaforaTa CamonaTvalis saTaveSi
wylis, mdinarebis an drois rbolis metaforaa, xolo metaforebis CamonaTvals isev dro, oRond ukve garindebul-fiqsirebuli
(drois bundovan sferoTa ruka) asrulebs. yoveli metafora,
mrbolavi da garindebuli drois farglebSi, am WeSmariti RvTaebis wiaRSia moqceuli. xelovnebas (Teatrs, literaturas...)
borxesi mesame metaforis saxels, sizmars (sxva sityvebiT, fsiqikas, Sidafsiqologiur realobas) uwodebs. Tumca borxesze
adre, kalderonma sizmari saerTod, adamianis cxovrebasTan gaaigiva _ cxovreba sizmaria.
fsiqoTerapia kalderonis am sityvebis saintereso perifrazad SeiZleba warmovadginoT; fsiqoTerapiis procesSi vlindeba
fsiqikaSi an sizmarSi asaxuli Tu gardatexili cxovreba; ufro
metic, fsiqoTerapiis erT-erTi umTavresi amocana swored fsiqikaSi (sizmarSi) areklili cxovrebis gamovlenaa. sizmari, rogorc grZneulTa manaTobeli sfero, realuri da irealuri
samyaros momcveli da makavSirebelia. amitomac usazRroa misi
informaciuli (da ara mxolod informaciuli) mniSvneloba. sizmriseuli realobis asaxvis mizniT, artTerapia xelovnebas da
simbolo metaforebs mimarTavs, sizmris realizebas axdens da
avlens mas aq da amJamad, sagangebod konstruirebuli arealis farglebSi. es sagangebo areali SeiZleba iyos Cabnelebuli
patara oTaxi- komfortuli taxtiT, ovaluri, sammagi scena,
wreSi mdgari skamebi da sxva. unda iTqvas, rom fsiqoTerapiisTvis SerCeuli Tu konstruirebuli es specifikuri arealic TavisTavad metaforaa. ama Tu im fsiqoTerapiul skolaSi gamoyenebuli sivrce mniSvnelovan informacias iZleva am skolis orientaciis Sesaxeb; ase magaliTad, fsiqoanalizis procesSi gamoyenebuli intimuri garemo (Cabnelebuli oTaxi, taxti) erotikuli gancdebisa da seqsualuri instinqtis dominacias asaxavs,
xolo fsiqodramis scena adamianSi aqtiur-SemoqmedebiTi Zalebis
gadamwyveti mniSvnelobis xazgasmaa...
fsiqoTerapia, misi miznebis specifikidan gamomdinare, adamianisa da samyaros (garegani Tu Sida samyaros) dakarguli erTianobis aRdgenis metaforaa. magaliTad, fsiqodramis finalur
etapze erTianobis aRdgenis asaxvisa da gamoxatvis mizniT, sagan-

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fsiqoTerapia, rogorc metafora

gebo savarjiSoebi gamoiyeneba; Terapiuli jgufis wevrebi cdiloben mxatvruli moqmedebis gziT metaforul- simbolurad gamoxaton miRebuli pozitiuri gamocdileba. Cvens erT-erT Terapiul jgufSi, kerZod, 2008 wlis zafxulSi, ruseT-saqarTvelos omis Semdeg, cxinvalis regionidan ltolvilebTan muSaobis bolo etapze jgufis wevrebma sakuTari sxeulebis gamoyenebiT daxates erTiani saqarTvelos ruka - maT mier warmodgenili, cocxal jaWvad Sekruli saqarTvelo dakargul mTlianobas metaforulad asaxavda.
fsiqoTerapia komunikaciis gansakuTrebuli formaa, romlis
saboloo mizani fsiqikis insaiTuri wvdoma da empaTiuri an ormxrivi kaTarzisia. am rTul da arc Tu ise umtkivneulo procesSi metafora da simbolo gzamkvlevis misias tvirTuloben.
iungis sityvebT, adamiani maSin mimarTavs xatovan enas, rodesac
saTqmeli, misi mniSvnelovnebis gamo, logikuri metyvelebis yoveldRiur CarCoebs aRemateba. fsiqoTerapias iTxovs swored is,
visac aseTi saTqmeli aqvs.
literatura
1.Borbely, A.F. (1998). A psychoanalytic concept of metaphor.
International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 79, 923-936
2.Evans, M.B. (1988). The role of metaphor in psychotherapy and
personality change: a theoretical reformulation.
Psychotherapy, 25(4), 543-551.
3.Pollio, H.R., Barlow, J.M., Fine, H.J. & Pollio, M.R. (1977).
Psychology and the Poetics of Growth: Figurative
Language in Psychology, Psychotherapy, and Education.
New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
4. Rogers, R. (1978). Metaphor: A Psychoanalytic View. London:
University of California Press Ltd.
5. Sims, P.A. (2003). Working with metaphor. American Journal of
Psychotherapy, 57(4), 528-536.
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12., . 1997. . : RENAISSANCE

Sorena barbaqaZe

sindisis metafora
hesiodes poemaSi
- `samuSaoni da dReni~
antikuri eposi aris gansja adamianis moralur kanonze. amdenad, man dasabami misca antikur eTikas, romelic TviTonac iqca mis cnebiTad gaformebul
dasrulebad (saidi 1999: 67). moraluri
kanoni moiazreba, rogorc idealuri
warmodgena
srulyofili
(Rirseuli,
saTnoebiT savse) cxovrebis Sesaxeb. es
is aris, riskenac unda mimarTavdes adamiani Tavis cnobier Zalisxmevas da rac
mis qmedebaTa Sefasebis umaRles kriteriumia (vitmarSi 2001: 401).
eposSi ar gvxvdeba sityva sindisi,
an raime pirdapiri msjeloba sindisis
cnebasa Tu metaforaze, magram aq arsebobs gmirTa qcevebis garkveuli kodeqsi,
moraluri kanoni, romelic aisaxa epikosebis: homerosis, hesiodes, apolonios
rodoselis poemebSi. isini bevri TvalsazrisiT iyvnen pirvelebi, maT Soris,
imiTac, rom Seicavdnen am kanons (Sdr.
gili 1998:261). ras warmoadgenda es kanoni da igulisxmeboda Tu ara iq sindisi?
hesiode (Zv. w. me8 s. dasasruli
me7 s. dasawyisi), ori poemis Teogonia da samuSaoni da dReni avtori,
homerosis msgavsad, esTetikuri stilis

sindisis metafora hesiodes poemaSi

125

poetia. CemTvis gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa poema samuSaoni da


dReni, romelic, homerosis sagmiro eposisagan gansxvavebiT, didaqtikuri eposis pirveli da klasikuri nimuSia. isini gansxvavdebian zneobriv faseulobaTa TvalsazrisiTac.
mosalodneli iyo, rom didaqtikuri xasiaTis nawarmoebSi,
romelSic avtori uamrav rCeva-darigebas iZleva sxvadasxva
cxovrebiseul momentze da zogadad, aswavlis sworad cxovrebas
adamianebs, aqvs maTTvis sxvadasxva sakiTxze Wkuis darigebis da
rCevis micemis ambicia, iqneboda raime miniSneba mainc ras niSnavs sindisieri cxovreba da sindisi, saerTod, rogor unda iqceodes sindisiT mcxovrebi adamiani. pirdapiri gagebiT, aseTi
rCevadarigeba poemaSi ar Segvxvedria, magram ramdenime niuanss
mivaqcie yuradReba, roca striqonTa Soris sindisierebasa Tu
usindisobasTan dakavSirebiT azris amokiTxva SeiZleboda. magaliTad, am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa is adgili, sadac hesiode
msjelobs mexuTe, rkinis saukunis Sesaxeb da sityvebs ar
vyofiliyav netav kaci mexuTe modgmis, misi mosvlis win movmkvdariyav an mis mere gavCeniliyav (174175) _ mosdevs im mizezTa nusxa, romelTac es aTqmevines. maT Soris: am modgmas jafatanjvisagan mosveneba ar uweria; Tanxmoba moiSleba mama
Svils Soris; waekideba damxvduri stumars da moyvares daTmobs
moyvare; ganqardeba da-Zmobis sitkbo; moxucebul mSoblebs pativs ar miageben; upatronod daagdeben da sxv. am mizezTa Soris
dasaxelebulia keTili kaci, patiosani, ficis erTguli, aRaravis moewoneba (190).
hesiodem Tavisi poema miuZRvna persesisa da msajulTa mmier samarTlianobis xelyofas. hesiodes es faqti ahyavs epikur
simaRleze, romelic eTikur simaRledac iqca. persesis saqcielSi man dainaxa faqti, romelic imsaxurebs sayovelTao yuradRebas da udides mniSvnelobas yvelasTvis, visac aRelvebs, zogadad, adamianis bedi. hesiode poemas iwyebs himniT zevsisadmi,
romlis nebiT xdeba yvelaferi (42,8)da romlis damsaxurebac,
hesiodes mixedviT, iyo is, rom persesma kraxi ganicada. zevsis
aseTi sasjeli ki man daimsaxura cxovrebis araswori wesis gamo, radgan,
hesiodes mixedviT, SeuZlebelia samarTlianobis
xelyofa dausjeli darCes (hes.sam.da dR.61,15).
persesis saqciels hesiode ganazogadebs da ambobs, rom is
ar gamomdinareobs, ubralod, misi xasiaTis Tvisebebisagan. es
ufro mZime SemTxveva adamianis dacemis tipuri gamoxatulebaa.

126

Sorena barbaqaZe

hesiodes mixedviT, adamianebi ganwirulni arian mZime SromisaTvis, avadmyofobebis, tanjvisa da aTasgvari ubedurebisaTvis,
radgan es aris zevsis sasjeli ara mxolod promeTes saqcielis, aramed adamianebis arakeTilsindisierad cxovrebis gamo.
hesiode hyveba miTs xuTi saukunis Sesaxeb, romlebic warmoqmnian Tanmimdevrobas, adamianTa dabla daSvebas, degradacias rom
warmoaCens oqros saukunidan (adamianebi, RmerTebiviT rom
cxovrobdnen, mSvidad da Sromis gareSe, maT axlosac ar ekarebodaT sibere, ise kvdebodnen, TiTqos iZinebdnen), vercxlis (roca adamianebs ar surdaT, pativi miegoT RmerTebisaTvis), spilenZis (roca sakuTari xelebis Zalam daRupa adamianebi (153),
gmirTa (roca adamianTa modgmis xarisxobrivi gauaresebis es
xazi Sewyda zevsis mier gmirebis im Taobis SeqmniT, romelic
wina Taobebze samarTlianic iyo da ukeTesic, Tumca isinic daRupa avbediTma omma da saSinelma brZolam (161), rkinis saukunemde (romelsac hesiodem ganadgureba uwinaswarmetyvela, roca
sabolood ganviTardeba yvela misTvis damaxasiaTebeli, zemoT
CamoTvlili naklovaneba). marTalia, am CamonaTvalSi ar aris
aseTi: roca adamianebi moiqcevian usindisod, magram sxva ra
SeiZleba ewodoT adamianebs, romlebic ar cnoben mama-Svilobas,
stumarT-moyvrobas, da-Zmobas, moxuc mSoblebs pativs ar miageben, Tu borotmoqmedebs ar eqnebaT aravis SiSi, Tu adamianebs
aRar SercxvebaT, arc sinanuli SeawuxebT Cadenilis gamo, Tu
patiosan kacs borots amjobineben, Tu uRirsi Rirseuls gaTelavs, cils daswamebs da Tan cru ficiT daamtkicebs ciliswamebas, vfiqrob, amas, yvelafers erTad, hqvia usindisoba, xolo hesiodes es strofi (174201) usindisobis klasikuri daxasiaTebaa.
am zneobrivi apokalifsis Sedegi aseTia: Saragzebian miwidan maSin miaSureben olimpos mwvervals krZalva (), sircxvili, sindisi () da nemesisi (samarTliani Surisgeba,
Civili), mSvenier sxeuls Seimosen TeTri samosiT, kacT datoveben da ukvdavTa dass SeerTvian: adamianebs darCebaT tanjva sazareli da ar iqneba xsna arsaidan.
hesiode, CarTul igavarakSi bulbulisa da qoris Sesaxeb, hyveba: qorma Caaso brWyalebi bulbuls da eubneba mas:
ubeduro, ras wiwineb? me xom Senze bevrad ufro Zlieri var:
rogoradac unda imRero, sadac minda, iq wagiReb (207208).Tu
am igavarakis morals, rogorc xdeba xolme, adamianebze gadavi-

sindisis metafora hesiodes poemaSi

127

tanT, SeiZleba davadginoT, rom Tu Senze ufro susts ise eqcevi, rogorc ginda, atrialeb mas sakuTar nebasurvilze, xar
cudi: ase usindisoebi iqcevian. swored ase, usamarTlod, usindisod moqceva, im gzidan gadaxveva, romelzec dgas samyaros
wesrigi da romelic karnaxobs adamianebs mowiwebiT damokidebulebas RmerTebisadmi da samarTlian damokidebulebas erTmaneTisadmi,aris, hesiodes azriT, yvela ubedurebis saerTo mizezi.
SeuZlebelia ZaliTa da eSmakobiT RmerTebis mier dawesebuli kanonebis da wesebis gverdis avla. SeuZlebelia RmerTebis
motyueba im fiqriT, TiTqos Sen maTze eSmaki xar, da ar SeiZleba sakuTari sargeblobisaTvis zrunva kanonisa da samarTlianobis gverdis avliT. yvelaferi mTavrdeba SekiTxviT: ra marTavs
adamianebs _ muSti, Zala Tu simarTle, kanoni? Tavisi diagnozis sailustraciod, hesiode mogviTxrobs ori qalaqis Sesaxeb,
romelTagan erT-erTi _ hyvavis, meore ki ingreva: iq, sadac sasamarTlo samarTliania da arasdros gadava simarTles, iq saxelmwifoc hyvavis da adamianebic ayvavebulni arian (226227), xolo maT ki, vinc borot qedmaRlobasa da upatiosno saqmeebSia
gaxlarTuli (238),didi ubedureba, SimSili, Wiri da uamravi
sxva gasaWiri SehyriaT, - iqamde, rom qalebi veRar Soben Svilebs (244).
usamarTlo (usindiso) gza, romelsac Sesdgomia persesi da
romelic iqca mis ubedurebaTa mizezad, cudi gzaa, borotebis
gza. maS, romeli gza iqneboda swori? sikeTis, saTnoebis, sindisierebis Zneli, magram Sromis keTilmoqmedi gza - aseTia hesiodes pasuxi: borotebisaken gza ara aris Cvengan Sors. magram
saTnoeba daaSores ukvdavma RmerTebma, mZime ofliT: cicabo, maRali da grZeli gzaa saTnoebamde () (288290).
usaqmuroba da usamarTloba imgvaradaa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli, rom usaqmuroba warmoSobs Surs sxvisi simdidrisa da
keTildReobisadmi, warmoSobs iseTive mdgomareobis tyuiliTa
da ZaliT (anu usindisod) miRwevis cdunebas. ra unda qnan rkinis saukunis gafuWebulma, usindiso adamianebma, upirvelesad,
persesma, romelic am saukunis tipuri warmomadgenelia? hesiodes ganaCeni aseTia: unda iyvnen samarTlianebi, yuri ugdon simarTlis xmas da daiviwyon Zaladobaze (usindisobaze) fiqri
(275).
zevss adamianebisTvis dawesebuli aqvs kanoni ():
mxecebi Wamen erTmaneTs, adamianebs ki kronidma simarTle

128

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() uboZa (279280). simarTle, samarTlianoba hesiodes esmis, rogorc ficis erTguleba, miukerZoebeli sasamarTlo, kanonis dacva. igi ukavSirebs mas samarTalwarmoebas, riTac eTikuriuridiul mniSvnelobas aniWebs am cnebas.
hesiode ambobs, rom mxecebis, frinvelebisa da TevzebisaTvis ucnobia simarTle, amitom isini ulmobelni arian erTmaneTis
mimarT, xolo adamianebs zevsma uboZa simarTle, rogorc umaRlesi sikeTe, da iqve ganmartavs, ras gulismobs: rodesac vinmem
icis WeSmariteba da sworad (` ) iZleva Cvenebebs (280).
hesiode aamaRlebs samarTlianobas, rodesac is iqceva saTnoebis upirates gansaxierebad. hesiodem samarTlianobis (romelic mas esmoda, rogorc kanonis dacva da patiosani sasamarTlo) meSveobiT gansazRvra sazogadoebrivi moralis ZiriTadi
dominanti (bekeri 2004:198200). ratom _ samarTlianoba, wesiereba, sindisiereba? imitom, rom samarTlianobis kanons adamianebisTvis awesebs zevsi da Tavad zevsia misi upirvelesi damcveli
(280281). hesiodesTan zevsi asrulebs eTikur funqcias. aq zevsi Tavad aris wesierebis da samarTlianobis magaliTi. Sesabamisad, igi sjis usamarTloebs, arawesierebs, usindisoebs da icavs
samarTliani, wesieri, sindisieri cxovrebis wesis mimdevarT.
adamianebs, hesiodes mixedviT, mxolod erTi gza aqvT saimisod, rom miuaxlovdnen RmerTebs, eziaron maT ukvdavebas: maT
unda daicvan RmerTebis mier dadgenili kanonebi da daimsaxuron
maTi keTilganwyoba. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, isini SeiZleba iseT
mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndnen, romelSic _ rkinis saukunis adamianebi, mTlianad, da, kerZod _ TviT hesiodes umcrosi Zma persesi.
ra uSlis xels adamianebs, rom iaron RmerTebis mier dawesebuli simarTlis gziT? RmerTebma dauweses adamianebs samarTali, magram TviTon isini ukve uSualod aRar monawileoben adamianTa saqmeebSi, ar aZleven maT pirdapir miTiTebebs, aramed
mxolod Tvalyurs adevneben, rogor iqcevian isini. hesiode ambobs, rom am mizniT dedamiwaze yvelgan dadian zevsis mier wargzavnili ukvdavi mcvelebi, adamianTa marTal da borot (sindisier da usindiso, S.b.) saqmeTa damkvirveblebi (254) samarTlianobis sadarajoze dgas zevsis mier Sobili diadi qalwuli dike(256), romelic umalve amcnobs mas adamianTa sicrueze (260).
RmerTebi monawileoben adamianTa saqmeebSi, afaseben, ajildoeben da sjian maT mogvianebiT. TviTon saqmeebi ki, gadawyveti-

sindisis metafora hesiodes poemaSi

129

lebebi imis Taobaze, saTnoebisken iqnan isini mimarTuli Tu borotebisaken, adamianTa kompetenciaSia. is, rom jildosa da sasjels aseTi faruli xasiaTi aqvs, Seicavs araswori arCevanis
SesaZleblobas (biCi 1958:2078-283). saTnoebis gzaze ori erTmaneTTan mWidrod dakavSirebuli winaaRmdegoba dgas _ cduneba da
sisulele. promeTes mier maTTvis moparuli cecxlis gamo, adamianebi, rogorc zevsi ambobs, Seiyvareben imas, rac maT RupavT
(58). swored am mizniT Seqmna man pandora da misi yuTi. yvelafris iolad da swrafad mopovebis survili ubiZgebs adamians borotebisken mimaval gzaze, romelic aris pirveli, uaxloesi
gza, radgan Zalian axlos mdebareobs (288). aseTi adamiani xelmZRvanelobs uSualo impulsebiT, brma vnebebiT, igi ver ixedeba
win. aseTebs Wkua aqvT dabinduli xarbi ltolviT angarebisadmi da gulidan sircxvili gamodevnili aqvT (323324). da marTalia, mxolod xanmokle drois manZilze gaerToba Tavisi simdidriT (326, upatiosnobisTvis adre Tu gvian mZime sasjeli
elodeba (333334). miuxedavad amisa, sixarulis es xanmokle
vada, is faqti, rom sasjeli SeiZleba gvian dadges, cudi, mankieri saqcielis motivebia. dabolos, ampartavans aucileblad Searcxvens samarTliani dasasruli. gvian, rodesac ukve daisjeba,
mixvdeba amas briyvi (217218). yvelas ar SeuZlia dasasrulis
danaxva, danaxva imisa, rac dafarulia: sulelebma ar ician, rom
zogjer naxevari ufro metia, vidre yvelaferi (10; 4041). Tu
saqcieli mankieria da boroti, Tu adamians Sercxveba da sinanulis gancda daeufleba, Tu es is aris, rac sabolood sasjels
daimsaxurebs, miuxedavad imisa, aris Tu ara aq naxsenebi sityva
sindisi, SeiZleba vamtkicoT, rom am konteqstSi usindisobis wili advili SesamCnevia (sprinkli 1994:455Smd.).
hesiode adamians ganixilavs zneobriv-saganmanaTleblo perspeqtivaSi. misTvis adamiani saukeTesoa, visac SeuZlia TviTon
gansajos da winaswar ganWvritos, ra gamova ama Tu saqmidan. pativiscemis Rirsia is, vinc yurs ugdebs karg rCevebs. xolo is,
visac TviTonac araferi esmis da sxvis rCevasac gulTan axlos
ar ikarebs, sruliad usargeblo adamiania (293297).
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom hesiode karg rCevebs iZleva, anu Tavad epikosi kargi mrCevelia (me ki, o, perses, msurs sufTa simarTle giTxra (910). Sesabamisad, vinc mis poemebs kargad,
sworad waikiTxavs, sworad cxovrebis wessac gaigebs.

130

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Lliteratura
gordeziani 2003: gordeziani r., berZnuli literatura, gamomcemloba logosi, Tbilisi 2003.
saidi 1999: Suzanne Sad (1999),A Short History of Greek Literature,
Publisher:Routledge.
itmarSi 2001:
Tim Whitmarsh (2001),Greek Literature and the
Roman Empire: The Politics of Imitation, Oxford
University Press.
gili 1998:
Christopher Gill (1998),Personality in Greek Epic,
Tragedy,
and
Philosophy:
The
Self
in
Dialogue.Clarendon Press.
bekeri 2004: Marilyn Beker (2004), Screenwriting with a Conscience:
Ethics for Screenwriters,Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
biCi 1958:
Waldo Beach (1958), Conscience on Campus: An
Interpretation of Christian Ethics for College Life,
Association Press.
sprinkli 1994: Robert Hunt Sprinkle (1994),Profession of
Conscience: The Making and Meaning of Life-Sciences
Liberalism, Princeton University Press.

Llali daTaSvili

xe, rogorc olamuri


metafora
qristianuli cxovrebis Suasaukuneobrivi wesi olamur erTobas efuZneba,
rac gulisxmobs uflisa da kacobriobis
ormxriv erTobas:
erTi mxriv, ufali, rogorc yovlis Semoqmedi, yovlismpyrobeli da yovlismomcveli, moicavs mTel xilulsa Tu
uxilav samyaros, Sesabamisad, mTel kacobriobasa Tu nebismier individs;
meore mxriv, yoveli adamiani ufliT uxilavad ukavSirdeba winaparsa Tu
STamomavals _ nebismiers, visac ki am
samyaroSi ucxovria, an vinc odesme icxovrebs. sulieri TvalsazrisiT, yvela
adamiani uflis Svili da kacTa modgmis
sxva warmomadgenlis da an Zmaa, ramdenadac kacobriobis sulieri mSoblebi mama
RmerTi da yovladwmida RmrTismSobeli
arian, xorcieli _ adami da eva;
saxarebaSi ufali brZanebs morwmuneebze:
`raiTa yovelni erT iyvnen, viTarca Sen, mamao, Cemdamo, da me Sendami, raiTa iginica Cven Soris erT iyvnen~ (ioane 17, 21).
xolo pavle mociquli romaelTa
mimarT epistoleSi gvaswavlis:
`Cven yovelni erT guam varT qristes mier, xolo TiToeuli urTierTas

132

lali daTaSvili

asoeb varT~ (rom. mim. 12, 5).


olamuri erTobis gamosaxatavad gansakuTrebiT sainteresod migvaCnia xis metafora. xe, varjiTa da fesvebiT, memkvidreobiTi kavSirebis TvalsazrisiT warmoCindeba da ramdenime aspeqtiTaa sayuradRebo:
adamianTa kavSiri ufalsa da erTmaneTTan SesaZloa gamoixatos `xis~ simboloTi. am TvalsazrisiT, samgvari simboluri
gaazrebaa SesaZlebeli:
1. ufali TviTonaa `xe~ _ `xe cxovrebisa~;
2. igi `rgavs~ adamians;
3. yoveli kaci, rogorc `xe varjovani~, ukavSirdeba winaprebsa Tu STamomavlebs.
1. `xe cxovrebisa~ TviT uflis simboloa, `mamis ZeSi myofobas gulisxmobs. rogorc Zvel, ise axal aRTqmaSi ufali ieso
xSirad moixsenieba, rogorc `xe~ an `ylorti~. esaia, ieremia da
zaqaria winaswarmetyvelebi ufals moixsenieben gansakuTrebuli
saxeliT: `morCi~ (li 1993, 4-5).
ufals ioane maxarebeli zeciur ierusalimSi xedavs, rogorc Tormetnayofian xes, romlis foTlebi kurnaven yvela
msurvels:
`Soris sivrcesa mis qalaqisasa da mdinarisa mis amier da
wiaR Zeli cxorebisai, gamomRebeli aTormetsa nayofsa, yovelTa
TTueTa momcemeli Tvisisa mis nayofisai da furcelni igi mis
xisani sakurnebelad warmarTTa~ (gamocx. 22, 2).
andria kesaria-kabadokieli `gamocxadebis~ am adgilis komentarisas xes qristed moiazrebs, Tormet nayofs ki _ Tormet
mociqulad:
`Zeli cxorebisai qriste ars, romeli sulsa Sina wmidasa
da garemo sulisa gulisxma-iyofebis, rameTu mis Tana ars suli
wmidai, da sulisa mier Tayuanis-icemebis da momcemeli ars sulisai da mis mier aTormetni igi nayofni mociqulTa krebulisani moguecemian, romel ars gulisxmis-yofai misi~ (kesaria-kabadukieli 1992, 75).
Cveni azriT, ufali _ Tormetnayofiani xe _ macxovrisa
da mTeli samyaros urTierTkavSiris amsaxveli metaforaa; Tormeti nayofi udris Tormet Tves, srul weliwads, anu `mTel
kalendars~, ufali mTeli samyaros momcveli `xea~, sakurnebeli
da macxonebelia misi foToli (anu misgan momdinare sarwmunoe-

xe, rogorc olamuri metafora

133

ba, mociqulTagan naqadagebi, radgan yovel Tves Seesabameboda


romelime mociquli _ l. d.).
simboloTa enciklopediaSi Tormeti nayofi zodiaqos niSnebs ukavSirdeba:
`xe cxovrebisa~ bibliur zeciur ierusalimSi Tormet nayofs isxams (safiqrebelia, rom es zodiaqos Tormeti niSania)~
(enciklopedia II, 2012, 153).
ase rom, zodiaqos niSani, nayofi Tu Tvis raime sxva saxiT miniSneba, Cveni azriT, uflisa (rogorc xis) da samyaros
(rogorc totebisa da nayofis) olamur erTobas gamoxatavs.
saSobao sagalobelSi Sehxarian beTlems, rogorc qristes
_ cxovrebis xis _ dabadebis adgils:
`beTlemo, ixarebd, rameTu xe igi
cxorebisa Sen Soris aRmocenda dRes~;
rusTvelis rwmeniT, xelmwife uflis gamoxatulebaa dedamiwaze: `misgan ars yovli xelmwife saxiTa mismieriTa~. amitom
igi mefeebs, uflis msgavsad, edemis xis metaforiT moixseniebs.
nestans edemSi danergil xes uwodebs farsadani:
`raTgan qalia samefod Cvenganve saxel-debuli,
vincaRa naxavs, aw naxos, aha xe, edems xebuli.~
mSvidi, morWmuli da bednieri TinaTini samoTxis wyliT
morwyuli xea: `wylad efratsa uxvad erwyo edems rguli alva
mWevri;~
avTandilic amgvarad moixseniebs mas:
`mogSordi edems nazardo, tano lerwamo da xeo.
ufalia WeSmariti sicocxlis wyaro _ waruvali sicocxlisa. marTalia, dedakacs, evasagan moyolebuli, aqvs unari
`romelic RmerTma mianiWa mas _ ganagrZos sicocxle Tavisive
msgavsis SobiT, magram es ar iyo is sicocxle, romelic maT sicocxlis xesTan ziarebiT unda moepovebinaT~ (kiknaZe 2012, 38).
ufal-`cxovrebis xes~ gamosdis zeTi makurnebeli da macxovnebeli, romlis cxebis SesaZlebloba adamma dakarga samoTxidan gamoZevebis Semdeg. amitom natrobs igi Tundac erTi bewo,
knin zeTs, anu udides sauflo wyalobas (ix. adamis cxovreba
2003). es wyaloba kacobriobam macxovris jvarcmis Semdeg daibruna. d. guramiSvili ufal-xes amitom emadliereba, rom `misgan
cxovrebis wyaroma CvenTvis daiwyo dineba~;
rusTveli sicocxlisa da netarebis momniWebel sauflo
wyaros amqveyniur, tkivilisa da codvis gamamravlebel wyals

134

lali daTaSvili

upirispirebs. nestanis dakargviT SeWirvebuli tarieli avTandilis TqmiT, soflisgan dazaralebuli, anu soflis wyliT
morwyulia:
`vpove xe, tani alvisa, soflisa wyalTa rwyulisa.
d. guramiSvili, rogorc misTvis damaxasiaTebelia, originalur metaforas gvTavazobs _ macxovris jvarcmas xis moWrad
moiazrebs, didad ganicdis, rom marto adamis samoTxidan gamodevna ar ikmara eSmam da ufali _ xec `moaWrevina~ (jvars acmevina) codvil kacobriobas: `gayides, mosWres, gamsyidvels mixvda
miT cecxlis modeba.
`vefxistyaosanSi~ ki edemis xis moWris metafora samoTxidan gamodevnasa da sawuTros tyveobaSi aRmoCenas gulisxmobs.
mijnuri nestans edemSi danergil, oRond mokveTil alvad moixseniebs, radgan igi dakarguli da mSobliur niadags moSorebulia: `vin mogkveTa, ara vici, xeo, edems danergulo!
avTandilic TinaTinTan ganSorebis Semdeg Tavs edemidan
wuTisofelSi gadmorgul alvasTan aigivebs: `vin uwin edems nazardi alva mrgo, momrwyo, maxia, / dRes sawuTroman laxvarsa
mimca, danasa maxia.~ da gmobs amqveynis muxTlobas: `awya vcan,
saqme soflisa zRaparia da Cmaxia!~
2. ufals, rogorc xes, ukavSirdeba yvela Cvengani. ufali
`rgavs~ kacs, da zrdis, adamiani `maze bmul Cans fesviTa~; zogi
droiT axlos varT ieso qristesTan, zogi _ Sors, Tumca Sto
da wyaloba yvelasTvis erTia (da udidesi) _ aseTia ufalTan
kacobriobis olamuri erToba.
fridoni gaocebulia, ufalma rogor Seqmna aseTi silamaze, rogor `dargo aseTi xe~. tarieli igonebs: `gamicada, RmerTsa hkadra: `Sen aseTni xeni viT xen!
fridonis ymebic ufals madlobas Sehkadreben aseTi silamazis _ tarielisTana adamianis _ `asxmuli xis~ SeqmnisTvis:
`Cemi Tqves Tu: `RmerTsa madli, vin alvisa xeni asxna!
daviT guramiSvilic kacs uflisagan dargul xed moiazrebs, romelic fesviTa Tu totebiT mTel kacobriobas ukavSirdeba:
`me, kaci, xis darad, damrgis, qve wyali misxisa.
zedan gamomcis nayofi, furceli mkvidrad misxisa,
dargulan Cvenad saCrdilad Srtod monabamni mis xisa~ (aq
`me, kaci~ daviTsac gulisxmobs da nebismier sxvas _ macxovris
xatad da msgavsad Seqmnils).

xe, rogorc olamuri metafora

135

yovladwmida deda ufalTan yofnas mis CrdilqveS jdomad


moiazrebs. poeti swored ase daatirebinebs jvarcmul macxovars:
`viT Stozed morCo axalo, fesv-arsoano Ziro da!
virem Sens CrdilTa qveS vijeq, me Tavi ar memwiroda~
(`tirili RvTismSoblisa).
d. guramiSvilis rwmeniT, daviT mefsalmunec ufal iesos
`CrdilqveS~ zis, rac gulisxmobs cxovrebis xesTan dabrunebas,
misi nayofis xmevas, maradiul netarebas. amis mizezad poets miaCnia winaswarmetyvelis mier cxovrebis gzis sworad arCeva: is,
xom Semoqmedi iyo da Tavisi fsalmunebiT ganadidebda ufals:
`man daviT Tavis baRSia imyna cxovrebis xenia,
tkbilis nayofis mombmeli, samkurnlos cvaris mcxenia;
daujda mas qveS Cirdilsa, ara swvavs mas sicxenia,
im ukvdavebis sasmliTa miTvra da miT molxenia.~
sulieri mSvidobisa da daculobis gancdis macxovris
(rogorc xis) `CrdilTa qveS~ jdomis metaforiT gamoxatva solomon brZenis `qeba qebaTadan~ momdinareobs (ix. qeba 8, 5).
TviT ufali brZanebs ioanes saxarebaSi, rom is vazia, Cven
ki _ Stoebi, da bednieri, `nayofieri~ mxolod masTan maradis
dakavSirebuli kaci iqneba, `nasxlevs~ damsgavsebuli ki `gaxmeba:
`viTarca-igi nasxlevsa ver xel-ewifebis nayofisa gamoRebad TaviT TvisiT, ukueTu ara egos venaxsa zeda, egreTve arca
Tquen ukueTu ara daadgreT Cem Tana.
me var venaxi da Tquen _ rtoni. romeli daadgres Cem Tana, da me mis Tana, aman moiRos nayofi mravali~ (ioane 15, 4-5).
`vefxistyaosanSi~ adamianis bedniereba Tu ubedurebac xis
mdgomareobis mixedviT gamoixateba. rusTveliseuli metaforiT,
bednieri adamianebi uflisagan daculi xeebi arian:
`visca RmerTi saros morCsa tanad uxebs, /mas laxvarsa
moaSorvebs~.
RmerTia Cveni `puri arsobisa~; daviTs (da _ yvela morwmunes) `misi xilis WamiT piri ar gaumwardeba~, maszea damokidebuli maradiuli sicocxlis, anu Zeli cxovlis nayofis kvlav
xmevis bedniereba. amitomac ambobs ieso:
`romelman sZlos, mivsce mas Wamad Zelisa misgan cxorebisa, romeli ars Soris samoTxesa RmrTisa Cemisasa~ (gamoc. 2, 7).

136

lali daTaSvili

daviTis metaforuli TqmiT, satanam es xe gagvixmo, anu


masTan misvla da misi nayofis Wama agvikrZala: `xe varjovani
dagvaxmo, ayova nakunZalebi~.
poeti gulisxmobs uflis sasjels adamisa da evas urCobis gamo: `aw nusada miyos xeli Tvisi da miiRos xisagan cxorebisa da Wamos da cxondes ukunisamde~ (dabad. 3, 22).
amiT dairRva olamuri erToba RmerTTan da axla kacobrioba misganve uaryofil ufalTan SeerTeba-Serwymis gzebs daeZebs,
sxvagvarad bednierebas ver moipovebs.
wmida mamebi gvaswavlian:
`norC xes sarze abamen da is sworad da gamarTulad izrdeba. aseve, suli, romelmac Tavisi neba RvTis nebas miuerTa,
adis zecaSi ufalTan~ (mdelo 2005, 130).
ioane RvTismetyveli da maxarebeli gvmoZRvravs:
`netar arian, romelni iqmodian mcnebaTa misTa, raiTa iyos
xelmwifebai maTi Zelsa mas zeda cxorebisasa, da bWeTa maT mier
Seviden qalaqad~ (gamoc. 22, 14).
3. daviT winaswarmetyvelze _ ieses mier dargul xeze _
saubrisas daviT guramiSvili agvixsnis, rom nayofi kacis moRvaweoba-moqmedebis Sedegia, furceli da Stoebi _ misi STamomavloba. daviTis nayofia `fsalmunni~, goliaTis damarcxeba da
sxva mis mier aRsrulebuli saqmeebi, misi STamomavlebi ieso
qriste da bagrationebi arian:
`nergad mas vsaxav, ig rac xe isaxa iesesiTa;
vinca gamosca nayofi TvisTa naTqvamTa, xes viTa;
Surdul-qviT sZlia mebrZolTa dambadebelis esviTa,
Sto-morCad _ qarTvelT ufalTa, vinc maze bmul Cans
fesviTa~.
am mxriv, sayuradReboa hagiografiaSi damowmebuli `zeTisxilis~, `finikis~, `libanis naZvis~ simboloebi `ZirkeTili da
fesvdalocvili~ moRvawis aRsaniSnavad. `konstanti kaxis martvilobaSi~ amovikiTxavT, rom xis simbolos sagangebod mimarTavdnen `orkerZove Semkobil~ moRvaweTa dasaxasiaTeblad, radgan xe Tavs iwonebs `furcliTa da nayofiTa~.
`zeTisxils, rogorc maradmwvane xes, Tavisi poxierebisa
da nayofierebis gamo, ucvalebeli rCeulobisa da RvTisgan dalocvilobis simbolod Tvlian~ (leqsikoni 1974, 325). `finiki~
da `libanis naZvi~ ki TiTqos inawileben zeTisxilis Rirsebas:
pirveli _ poxierebiT, meore _ maradmwvaneobiT;

xe, rogorc olamuri metafora

137

wm. grigol xanZTelma _ `zeTisxilma nayofsavsem~, `finikma keTilma~ `udabnoTa qalaqyofiT~ gaaZliera, aayvava da ufalTan aamaRla saqarTvelo;
arsen beri daviT mefes mimarTavs: `maRal xar, viTarca finiki nergTa Soris~;
giorgi mTawmindels amkobs giorgi mcire, rogorc finiksa
da `libanis naZvs~;
petre iberieli aris `xe keTili da Suenieri~;
`morCi nayofieri~ uwoda wm. eqvTimes ezra mTawmindelma.
`veluri zeTisxilia~ wm. abo, radgan mas ara aqvs keTili
Ziri (arabul-islamuri warmomavlobis gamo), Tumca ufali `moiRebs~ mas, gadmorgavs Tavis `mtilSi~ da `kurTxevis nayofad~
gadaaqcevs.
Svilebi da mowafeebi ki arian `axalnergni zeTisxilisani~
(fs. 127, 4).
rusTveli kacis sicocxles gamoxatavs xis metaforiT.
alva sicocxlis simboloa avTandilis sityvebis mixedviT: `me
nuTumca Semovbrundi, alva Cemi ar daWna xe~. amiT personaJi
imedovnebs, rom sikvdili (anu misi alvis xis daWknoba) ascildeba da dabrundeba arabeTSi.
sulxan-saba orbelianic jumbers `xed~ moiazrebs, rodesac aTqmevinebs mas: `kargis nergis xili var, xelovanis mebaRis
SewvrTili da frTxilis Semnaxavis barebuli~. am saxiTac warmoCndeba, rom Rirseul kacs mSoblis (nergis), gamzrdelisa (mebaRis) da aRmzrdelis (Semnaxavis) erToba qmnis;
d. guramiSvils ar gamorCenia misTvis gansakuTrebiT axlobeli _ umemkvidro kacis sevdac. daviTi, rogorc uSvilo,
sxva aseTi adamianebis msgavsad, gaxmobisaTvis ganwiruli, utoto da ufesvo xea:
`daviT galad danerguli var uSrto da me ufes[v]o.~
(`adamis saCivari)...
uSrto da unayofo, viT gali ganmxmari,
uZeo, uasulo, ararad saxmari. (`am wignis gamleqsavis sulis moxseneba).
Tumca, sarwmunoebiT gulgamagrebuli Semoqmedi imedovnebs,
rom poeziis xes dargavs da am gziT `gamoibams nayofs~. amitomac SehRaRadebs ufals:
`aRmayove, viTa xe, nayofiT keTilad, / da nu myof me xeneSad ZiriT mokveTilad!~

138

lali daTaSvili

misi magaliTi ki didi winaswarmetyvelia, rogorc fsalmunTa `xed damrgveli~, am xis nayofs rom `urxevs~ Zveli Tu
axali aRTqmis kacobriobas:
`daviT iSena walkoti, ZoRan vsTqvi, rac rgo xedao;
egreT dairgo, moiba, rom[e]lsac Cven gvirxevdao.
qarTveli poetic Tavisi poeziiT imedovnebs amqveyniuri
gzis sworad gavlasa da sasufevlis damkvidrebas, rasac gamoxatavs muwukisa da xis metaforebiT:
`amad am wignsa saxelad uwode `daviTiani~,
daviT Sevawyev, Sevkone, viT vardni da viT iani.
gulsa movswyvite muwuki, meba zed avi Tiani,
zed gulzed vibi igi xe kaciani da RvTiani.
`d. guramiSvils swams, rom saxisqmnadobis gziT igi ukuagdebs rogorc pirveli codvis, ise sakuTar codvaTa simZimes
(`gulsa movswyvite muwuki, meba zed avi Tiani~) da eziareba
gankacebuli RvTaebis (`xe kaciani da RvTiani~) WeSmaritebas~
(murRulia 1997, 117).
poeti amiT `varjisa da fesvebis~ gaZlierebis, gadarCenisa
da ukvdavebis RvTisTvis saTno gzas agnebs.
amgvarad, kacis xed gaazreba ufals ukavSirebs kacis sicocxlesa da misTvis naboZeb yovelive amqveyniur sikeTes, radgan ufali Cuqnis adamians sicocxles, xis darad rgavs da
wyals usxams, aZlevs Sromis, moRvaweobisa Tu STamomavlobis
gziT sicocxlis gagrZelebis SesaZleblobas.
kidev erT aspeqts mivaqcevT yuradRebas xis, rogorc
olamuri metaforis, gasaazreblad.
saintereso da mniSvnelovania `cxovrebisa~ da `keTilisa
da borotis cnobadis~ xeebis simboluri saxismetyvelebac.
or xes Soris mdgomareAadamis arCevani mxolod WamiT, an
uflis urCobiT rodi gamoixateboda. mas ori gzidan erT-erTi
unda aerCia: `mieRo RmerTi, rogorc maradiulo sicocxle, an
satana, rogorc sikvdili~ (li 1993, 7).
`adams ar unda scodnoda, ra aris keTili da ra aris boroti. verc ecodineboda, radgan adami am nayofis gemosxilvamde
absolutur sikeTeSi imyofeboda, nayofis Semdeg ki sikeTis gasacnaureblad realobaSi borotis Semosvla gaxda saWiro.
amieridan Suq-Crdilebzea agebuli es samyaro da misi esTetikac amazea dafuZnebuli~ (kiknaZe 2013, 274).
pavle mociquli gvaswavlis:

xe, rogorc olamuri metafora

139

`mis kacisaTvis codvai soflad Semoxda da codvisa ZliT


_ sikudili~ (hrom. 5, 12).
pirveladamianma pirvelqmnili codviT uaryo samoTxis pativi da dedamiwaze aRmoCenili kvlav sasufevelSi dabrunebas
eswrafvis.
zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, gansakuTrebiT sainteresod
gveCveneba, kacobriobis istoria gaviazroT, rogorc msvleloba
xidan xisken. yovelive iwyeba `xe cxovrebisas~ dakargviT da
mTavrdeba misi `nayofis Wamis~ uflebis kvlav mopovebiT.
ambis ani da hoe gacxaddeba, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom
pirvelma adamianma ufals sTxova Tesli keTili, roca mama
RmerTis brZanebiT samoTxes tovebda, surda, misi sakvebi gansxvavebuli yofiliyo cxovelTa sazrdosagan. codviT dacemulma
adamianma samoTxidan gamoiyola Tesli, rogorc ocneba Tavis maradiul samyofelze, adam-kadmonze, ase moulodnelad rom dakarga. Tesli Taobidan Taobas memkvidreobiT gadaecemoda da aRmoCnda abraamis xelSi.
erTxel loTim abraami ganarisxa. biZam sami Tesli misca
da ubZana, udabnoSi CaeTesa, sakuTari cremliT moerwya miwa. Tu
romelime Tesli ganedldeboda, loTis SeeZlo, Secodeba monaniebulad CaeTvala. ase moiqca dasjili. sinanulis cremls afrqvevda udabnoSi da saocreba moxda, samive Tesli ganedlda.
erT Zirze sami xe amovida: kviparosi, alva sulneli da naZvi
libanisa, mimaniSnebeli wm. samebaze.
abraams, cxadia, SeeZlo loTisTvis sxvagvarad mietevebina,
magram Zmiswuls danaSaulis SegrZnebisa da aRqma-gaazrebisaken
mouwoda. loTis gulwrfeli sinanulis Sedegma yovelgvar molodins gadaaWarba: Tesli sinanulis cremliT ganedlda da is
xe aRmoacena, sasufevlis daketili karis gaReba rom SeZlo
macxovris `dateviT~ (jvarcmiT), ieso qristesi, adams afarobis
daRi rom Camorecxa.
abraamisgan boZebul Teslze ara marto loTis, mTeli kacobriobis mxsneli xe amovida, radgan swored loTis xidan gamoTales Zelicxoveli (is jvari, romelzec ufali acves),
jvarcmam ki dacemuli kaci kvlav sasufevelSi daabruna.
aTanase aleqsandrielis swavlebiT,F`qriste iSva, raTa
momkvdariyo, Cven ki imitom vkvdebiT, rom vibadebiT. Tavisi adamianuri bunebis sikvdiliT ufalma ki ar moicila sxeuli, aramed imisTvis miiRo adamianTagan sikvdili, rom sxeuliT mkvdre-

140

lali daTaSvili

TiT aRmdgariyo da adamianebic ukvdavni Seeqmna sxeuliTac, rameTu, rogorc ki sikvdili mis sxeuls Seexo, umalve TviT sikvdili ganqarda sruliad~ (gamonaTqvamebi 2000, 14).
amgvarad, adami kargavs sasufevlis bednierebas, Sesabamisad, ukvdavebas, `xe cxovrebisas~, Tumca sinanulis gziT miiRebs
keTil Tesls, am Tesls loTis sinanuli gaanedlebs, miwier xed
aqcevs, axali adamis _ ieso qristes wyalobiT ki, romelic moinaniebs adamianTa modgmis codvebs, miwieri xe `xe cxovrebisad~
gadaiqceva.
`RmerTi isev xsnis gzas adamianisaTvis sicocxlis xisaken... anaxlebs adamis mier gawyvetil kavSirs da sikvdilis miRebiT amtkicebs am kavSiris absolutur xasiaTs~ (leqsikoni
2009, 248-9). kacobrioba ki ibrunebs dakargul pativs da
kvlav brundeba samoTxeSi. mxolod da mxolod sinanuliT, sakuTari danaSaulis SegrZnebiT svla dasabruneblad dacemul kacs
ubiwo pirvelsaxesTan.
uflis mimarTva codviT dacemuli, gaSiSvlebuli adamisTvis: `adam, sada xar?~ an kaenisTvis naTqvami: `sada ars abel,
Zmai Seni? rai ese hyav?~ _ swored am funqciis mqonea, codvil
sulebSi dafiqrebisa da monaniebis survils aRZravs.
ioane naTlismcemelmac uflis gzis `gansamzadeblad~ sinanuli iqadaga: `SeinaneT, rameTu moaxloebul ars sasufeveli caTai~ (maTe 3, 2).
wm. efrem asuri gvaswavlis:
`sinanuli is kibea, romlis safexurebsac Cven avyavarT sanetaro adgilas, saidanac odesRac daveciT~ (gamonaTqvamebi
2000, 19).
kacobriobac, sicocxlis xidan wamosuli, isev sicocxlis
xemde sinanulis kibiT adis.
literatura
adamis cxovreba 2003: adamis cxovreba (adamis apokrifuli
cxovrebis qarTuli versia), Tb. 2003;
gamonaTqvamebi 2000: wmida mamaTa gamonaTqvamebi, Tb. 2000;
enciklopedia II, 2012: simboloTa ilustrirebuli enciklopedia
(zaza abzianiZe, qeTevan elaSvili), tomi II, Tb.
2012;

xe, rogorc olamuri metafora

141

kesaria-kabadukieli 1992: andria kesaria-kabadukieli, Targmanebai iovanes gamocxadebisai, Tb. 1992;


kiknaZe 2012: zurab kiknaZe, xuTwigneulis Targmaneba, Tb. 2012;
kiknaZe 2013: zurab kiknaZe, sityviTa da saqmiTa (Canawerebi), Tb.
2013;
leqsikoni 1974: bibliuri RvTismetyvelebis leqsikoni, briuseli, 1974, rusul enaze;
leqsikoni I, 2009: bibliis leqsikoni tomi I, tomi II, Tb.
2009;
li 1993: uitnes li, adamiani da ori xe, moskovi, 1993, rusul
enaze;
mdelo 2005: sulieri mdelo, Tb. 2005;
murRulia 1997: gia murRulia, `daviTianis~ mxatvrul saxeTa
sistema, Tb. 1997.

Tamar lomiZe

metafora da metonimia
qarTul romantikul
poeziaSi
gavrcelebuli Tvalsazrisis Tanaxmad, romantizmisa da simbolizmis literaturul skolebSi upiratesi gamoxatuleba hpova metaforam, xolo realistur mimarTulebaSi _ metonimiam.
ismis kiTxva: mowmobs Tu ara metaforaTa an metonimiaTa simravle literaturul teqstSi, rom masSi dominirebs metaforis an metonimiis polusi,
da romeli maTgani iCens upiratesad
Tavs qarTvel romantikosTa mxatvrul
azrovnebaSi?
am amocanis gadasaWrelad gavaanalizeT specifikuri niSan-Tvisebebi, romlebic axasiaTebs aRqmisa da azrovnebis metonimiursa da metaforul polusebs;
metaforis principad aRiarebul unda
iqnas seleqcia, romelic axasiaTebs
axal, individualur da, amasTan, erTwevra metaforebs (rasac miemarTeba metaforuli saxe), xolo ganmeorebadi
(,,gacveTili), myari metaforebis aRqma
(magaliTad, besikTan an al. WavWavaZis
poeziaSi)
ar ukavSirdeba seleqciis
operaciebs da amgvari metaforebi sintagmebis saxiT gvevlineba. Sesabamisad,
myari metafora, romelic enobrivi koleqtivis cnobierebaSi sintagmad aRiqme-

metafora da metonimia qarTul romantikul poeziaSi

143

ba, unda mivakuTvnoT aRqmisa da azrovnebis metonimiur (da ara


metaforul) poluss, ganurCevlad imisa, rogoraa is warmodgenili teqstSi _ sintagmis, Tu paradigmis erT-erTi alternatiuli wevris saxiT (`alva~, `brol-badaxSi~ da a.S.).
aqedan gamomdinare, tropi, am sityvis zusti gagebiT, mxolod metaforaa (im SemTxvevaSi, Tu is ganekuTvneba metaforul
poluss, e.i. rodesac metaforuli paradigma moicavs orze met
wevrs, an Tu paradigmis wevrTa Soris arsebobs ara uzualuri,
aramed _ okazionaluri kavSiri).
rac Seexeba iseT tropebs, rogorebicaa metonimia, sinekdoqe, hiperbola, emfaza da a.S., isini gvevlinebian myari sintagmebis saxiT teqstSi an enobrivi koleqtivis cnobierebaSi. aqedan
gamomdinare, tropad miviCnevT mxolod metaforas, sxva tropebs
ki (maT Soris _ myar, kliSirebul metaforebs) mivakuTvnebT
figurebs (e.i. aRqmisa da azrovnebis metonimiur poluss).
al. WavWavaZis Semoqmedebis stiluri Taviseburebebidan sayuradReboa saxelTa mravlobiTi ricxvis formaTa xSiri gamoyeneba, ganmazogadebeli metonimiebis, agreTve _ sinekdoqeTa da
myar, kliSirebul metaforaTa simravle.
obieqturi samyaros al. WavWavaZiseuli xedva, faqtobrivad,
misi ,,arxedvaa, rac gulisxmobs am samyarosadmi poetis uaryofiT damokidebulebas. esaa ,,ucxo samyaro, romelSic ar moipoveba diskretuli obieqtebi da amitom is daunawevreblad aRiqmeba, ucxoenovani metyvelebis msgavsad. aqedan gamomdinare, al.
WavWavaZesTan mravlobiTi ricxvis formebi, metonimiebi, sinekdoqeebi da kliSirebuli metaforebi (,,vardisa da bulbulis" simbolika, ,,melnis tba", ,,Zowi", ,,lali", ,,sadafi", ,,margaliti",
,,giSeri", ,,badaxSi", ,,hindTa jarni", ,,saxmili", ,,trfobis ali",
,,saro", ,,alva", ,,lerwami", ,,zilfTa ryeva" da ,,brolis ficari") imave rols asrulebs, romelic ekisreba ,,bindis, ,,SemoRamebis motivs nik. baraTaSvilis poeziaSi da, saerTod, mTel
romantikul mwerlobaSi.
al. WavWavaZis satrfialo leqsebis yvelaze aSkarad gamoxatuli stiluri Tavisebureba satrfos garegnobis detaluri aRweraa. erTi SexedviT, es manera besikis stils mogvagonebs, magram maT Soris arsebiTi gansxvavebaa.
kerZod, al. WavWavaZis poeziaSi qalis sxeulis nawili
TviT am qalis erTgvar oreulad gvevlineba, radgan trfobis
obieqtad dasaxelebulia swored es nawili (tani, bageebi, Tva-

144

Tamar lomiZe

lebi, Rawvebi, weli, ,,Tma-mdidari Tavi da a.S.). amgvarad, obieqts _ qalis xats _ aq binaruli struqtura aqvs, es ki metonimiuri polusis gamovlinebaa.
aRsaniSnavia, rom amgvari groteskuli orsxeulebriobis erTgvar daRs atarebs nik. baraTaSvilis ,,meranic. leqsis centraluri saxe erTianobis iluzias gviqmnis, amitom mkvlevrebi didxans ver amCnevdnen mis gaorebul struqturas _ imas, rom nawarmoebSi mxedarsa da merans urTierTsapirispiro niSan-Tvisebebi da bed-iRbali miewereba, rom mxedars aq, faqtobrivad, pasiuri roli ganekuTvneba, merans ki _ aqtiuri; rom isini erTmaneTis oreulebia; groteskuli gaoreba aisaxa, agreTve, leqsebSi
,,xma idumali da ,,sulo boroto. amasTan, nik. baraTaSvilTan
orsxeulebrioba lirikuli gmiris Sinagan, sulier gaorebadaa
transformirebuli.
adamianis sxeulis nawilTa groteskuli gankerZoeba, orsxeulebrioba, samyaros danawevreba ,,sakuTar da ,,ucxo samyaroebad mowmobs, rom al. WavWavaZis Semoqmedebis ZiriTadi damaxasiaTebeli niSania metonimiuroba.
al. WavWavaZec da gr. orbelianic iyeneben or gansxvavebul enas TavianT SemoqmedebaSi, rodesac gamoxataven or urTierTgansxvavebul msoflaRqmas. swored
stiluri ekleqtizmis gamo al. WavWavaZis Semoqmedeba unda mivakuTvnoT romantizms, radgan poetis yvela nawarmoebis erTiani
teqstis saxiT (anu sinqronul WrilSi) ganxilvis SemTxvevaSi
Tavs iCens sxvadasxva ,,xmis Tanaarseboba, avtoris cnobierebaSi
arsebul TvalsazrisTa mravalgvaroba, es ki swored romantikul literaturas axasiaTebs.
gr. orbelianis mxatvruli stilic metonimiuria _ metonimiuria kliSirebuli mxatvruli saxeebi, romlebic gvxvdeba ,,qalaqursa da romantikul satrfialo leqsebSi. SedarebaTa arsenalic kliSirebulia. aseTivea myari epiTetebi. qalaquri leqsebis stils ganapirobebs aRmosavluri poeziis leqsika, romelic
aerTianebs hiperbolebs, oqsimoronebs, metonimiebs _ mTeli es
arsenali metonimiur poluss ganekuTvneba.
rac Seexeba nik. baraTaSvilis poezias, ,,xma idumalis~ analizi aaSkaravebs, rom lirikuli gmiris ,,me gaorebulia. amasTan, gmiris Sinagani oreuli araerTmniSvnelovnadaa daxasiaTebuli, misi arsi da funqciebi gaurkvevelia. gaugebaria ara marto
is, Tu vis ganekuTvneba idumali xma, aramed _ isic, Tu ras
karnaxobs es xma gmirs. idumali xmis araerTmniSvnelovani pre-

metafora da metonimia qarTul romantikul poeziaSi

145

dikacia miuTiTebs, rom leqsSi asaxuli samyaro qmnadi, procesualuri mocemulobaa. es samyaro metonimiuradaa danawevrebuli
da aseTivea gmiris ,,me, romelzec batonobs (da, faqtobrivad,
gansazRvravs mas) idumali xma.
leqsis _ ,,fiqrni mtkvris piras _ bolo strofSi gamoTqmulia Sexeduleba adamianTa aqtiurobis, ,,soflisTvis zrunvis
aucileblobis Sesaxeb, xolo mTeli teqsti (am strofis garda)
asaxavs Tvalsazriss wuTisoflis amaoebis Sesaxeb, romlis mixedviTac, ,,soflisTvis zrunvas yovelgvari azri ekargeba. romantizmis msoflaRqmas Seesabameba TviT es gaoreba _ sapirispiro TvalsazrisTa Setoleba, maTi Tanabaruflebianoba, dialogi.
es ori Tvalsazrisi urTierTSenacvlebadia. amgvari teqsti metonimiuria, radgan emyareba mxolod kombinaciurobis (momijnaveobis) princips da ara _ logikur-semantikur kavSirebs teqstis
nawilTa Soris, anu teqstis erTianobas.
`meranSi~ metonimiuria leqsis centraluri saxe. rogorc
aRvniSneT, nawarmoebi iwyeba pasiuri konstruqciiT, romelSic
lirikuli gmiri warmoCenilia meranis qmedebis obieqtis saxiT.
faqtobrivad, lirikul gmirs metonimiurad enacvleba (mis nacvlad moqmedebs) merani.
qarTul poeziaSi riTmis nairsaxeobaTa gamoyenebis mixedviT, mkveTrad imijneba romantikuli da winareromantikuli etapebi _ romantizmSi arazustma riTmam sistemuri gamoxatuleba
hpova, rac mis mniSvnelovan funqciur datvirTvaze miuTiTebs.
winamdebare naSromSi SemoTavazebuli koncefciis mixedviT, riTma yovelTvis ganekuTvneba metyvelebis plans (rogorc sintagma),
magram is zogjer ixreba metaforuli, paradigmatuli polusisken (riTmis Semadgenel sityvier erTeulTa msgavsebisas), sxva
SemTxvevebSi ki _ metonimiuri, sintagmaturi polusisken (am erTeulTa fonologiuri gansxvavebis SemTxvevaSi). riTmis amgvari
definiciis meSveobiT SesaZlebelia, erTgvarad, gabaTildes Sexeduleba riTmis, rogorc ,,struqturuli skandalis, Sesaxeb (r.
barti). romlis mixedviTac, riTma erTdroulad paradigmacaa da
sintagmac.
bunebrivia, tavtologiuri, omonimuri, zusti riTmebi miekuTvneba paradigmatul (metaforul) poluss, xolo arazusti
riTmebi _ sintagmatur (metonimiur) poluss. aqedan gamomdinare, nik. baraTaSvilis (da, garkveulwilad, al. WavWavaZisa da
gr. orbelianis) Semoqmedebis es planic metonimiuri xasiaTisaa.

146

Tamar lomiZe

marTlac, arazusti riTmebis gamoyeneba ganapirobebs Sesabamis


sityvaTa TavisTavadi mniSvnelobebis xazgasmas, TiToeuli sariTmo sityvis garkveul damoukideblobas meorisgan (sxva sariTmo
sityvebisgan). isini SekavSirebulia martooden momijnaveobis
principis Sesabamisad.
arazustriTmian striqonebSi sariTmo sityvebi semantikurad
gamoyofilia ara marto erTmaneTisgan, aramed _ striqonis Semadgenel sxva sityvebisganac. maT gansakuTrebuli Rirebuleba
eniWeba frazaSi. amitom SemTxveviTi araa, rom baraTaSvili xSirad saleqso striqonis bolos aTavsebs im sityvebs, romlebic
nawarmoebTa saTaurebs an maT Temebs aRniSnavs.
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom gavrcelebuli Tvalsazrisi romantikuli poeziis Sesaxeb da, kerZod, r. iakobsonisa da sxva mecnierTa Sexeduleba imis Sesaxeb,
TiTqos `romantizmi _ metaforis poeziaa~, relevanturi araa
qarTuli romantikuli poeziis mimarT. es daskvna saSualebas iZleva, axleburad ganvixiloT literaturis evoluciis mravali
sakiTxi.

Tamar ziger-popiaSvili

Metaforis aRqmis Taviseburebebi kulturaTSorisi komunikaciis


konteqstSi
metafora
mxatvruli
gamosaxvis
erT-erTi xerxia, romelic sagans Tu
movlenas analogiebiT warmoadgens. metafora, ZiriTadad, sityvis an sityvaTa
jgufis gadataniT mniSvnelobazea agebuli.
leqsikologiaSi metafora sityvis
an cnebis sxvadasxva mniSvnelobaTa
simboluri
gamoxatulebaa.
metafora
xSirad aris esTetikuri kategoria da
sityvis konkretuli Sinaarsis transformacias emsaxureba. is yvelaze cocxalia originalSi. rTulia metaforis
translacia kulturidan kulturaSi,
enidan enaSi, Tumca arsebobs universaluri metaforebi, romlebic advilad
Tavsdeba sxvadasxva enobriv Tu kulturul garemoSi.
metaforuli azrovneba ukargavs
saTqmels sicxades da aZlevs konteqsts
sruliad sxva mniSvnelobas. cnobilia
metaforebi, romelTa Sinaarsic pirveladi mniSvnelobisgan sruliad daSorebulia, Tumca sruliad Rirebulia maTSi
metaforuli azrovneba.

148

Tamar ziger-popiaSvili

mag.: Die Kuh vom Eis kriegen (germ. sityvasityviT: Zroxis


amoTreva yinulidan) - problemis mogvareba
Auf den Zahn fhlen (germ. sityvasityviT: kbilze daWra) uxerxuli SekiTxvebis dasma.
A sunny smile (ing. sityvasityviT: mzis Rimili) manaTobeli gaRimeba
A sun-drenched beach mziT savse napiri
, (rus. Tvalebs eSinia, magram
xelebi akeTebs) - SeiZleba saqme Zalian bevri/mZime iyos, magram
mTavaria misi dawyeba.
(rus. saqmes ostatis eSinia) - rac
unda rTuli iyos saqme, misi daZleva SesaZlebelia SromiT.
unda aRiniSnos, rom metaforuli azrovneba ar aris damaxasiaTebeli mxolod sityvieri kulturisaTvis. metafora xSirad
gvxvdeba mxatvrobaSi. ferweraSi metafora axali Sexedulebebis,
damkvidrebuli tendenciis alternativaa. is xSirad saTqmelis,
poziciis gamZafrebas emsaxureba.
metafora, rogorc sinamdvilis SeniRbva da gardasaxva, xSirad gasagebia erTi kulturis konteqstSi. aristotele metaforas gamocanas uwodebda, romelic unda gaixsnas, amoixsnas. Sesabamisad, erTi kulturisaTvis gasagebi metafora, SesaZloa, rTulad amosaxsneli gaxdes sxva kulturisaTvis.
cnobilia metaforebis ramdenime saxeoba:
personificirebuli metaforebi - es aris metaforaTa
jgufi, romlebic adamianur Tvisebebs miawers usulo sagnebs.
magaliTad: varskvlavebi mRerian, foTlebi Woraoben, mTebi Cafiqrebulan, mze icinis, zamTari gadis, gazafxuli modis.
mkvdari metaforebi _ metaforaTa jgufi, romlebmac dakarges metaforuli buneba. magaliTad, magidis fexi aRar aris
metafora. es mkvdari metaforaa. am jgufs ganekuTvneba germanuli sityva Handschuh, romelic qarTulad xelTaTmans niSnavs,
xolo germanulSi kompozitia da sityvasityviT niSnavs xelis
fexsacmels. mkvdari metaforaa aseve _ soflis Tavi. es ukve imdenad statikuri gamoTqmaa, rom metaforad aRar aRiqmeba.
leqsikuri metaforebi _ es aris mkvdari metaforebis
jgufi, romelTa meore mniSvneloba damkvidrda da maTi pirveli
mniSvneloba daikarga. amis magaliTia germanuli sityva Schloss
(qarTulad: cixe-simagre). es sityva adre gamoiyeneboda xeobis
Camketis mniSvnelobiT.

metaforis aRqmis Taviseburebebi

149

e. w. moaruli metaforebi, romlebic mudmivad arsebobs.


magaliTad: piris daketva _ gaCumeba, gulis mogeba da sxv.
muqi metaforebi, romlebic rTulad amosacnobia. magaliTad, germ. Drehtr-Effekt (qarT. sityvasityviT, motriale karis
efeqti) Schneller Wechsel zwischen zwei Zustnden _ mdgomareobis xSiri cvla.
evfemisturi metaforebi _ rodesac tabuirebuli an negatiuri maxasiaTeblebiT aris axsnili esa Tu is sagani an movlena. mag. germ. Nussschale (qarT. sityvasityviT kaklis/Txilis
naWuWi) Kleines Boot _ patara navi.
metaforis Tavdapirvel mniSvnelobebTan erTad literaturaTmcodneobasa da enaTmecnierebaSi xSirad gamoiyeneba Sedareba
da alegoria, rogorc metaforis mniSvnelobis mqone saSualebebi.
Tanamedrove literaturaTmcodneobaSi cnobilia aseve metaforaTa jgufi, romlebsac absolutur metaforebs uwodeben.
aq moiazreba metaforaTa jgufi, romelic ar aris rTulad
asaxsneli da nebismieri kulturis konteqstisaTvis gasagebia
(laverkampi 2007).
kultura, rogorc fenomeni, ganixileba sxvadasxva aspeqtis
mixedviT. farTo azriT, kultura, rogorc fenomeni, adamianebis
Semoqmedeba, axali samyarosa da sakuTari Tavis qmnadobis procesia.
kultura ukiduresad individualuri da gamorCeuli fenomenia, romelic TiToeul adamians, adamianTa jgufs, Tems aqcevs
ucxod. amasTan, cnobilia kulturaTa urTierTqmedebis mravali
saxe, kulturaTa aqtivobebis cvla da sxv. amasTan, cnobilia
kulturuli universaliebis cnebac, romelSic moiazreba is, rac
yvela kulturisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis erTobliobaa.
jorj merdokma gamoyo kulturuli universaliebis jgufi: ganaTleba, stumarTmoyvareoba, Cuqeba, xumroba, religiuri wesebi,
ena da sxv. (merdoki 1980). kulturis Semadgeneli ZiriTadi
elementebia:
1. cnebebi (konceptebi), romlebic ZiriTadad enaSia moqceuli
2. mimarTeba
3. Rirebulebebi
4. wesebi

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150

kulturuli konceptebi enis mixedviT formulirdeba. es


aris enaSi asaxuli adamianis codna, gamocdileba, tradiciebi.
ena xels uwyobs kulturis erTianobas. ena axarisxebs mTavarsa
da meoreuls, amave dros, ena garkveuli simbolocaa.
jorj lakofi Tavis naSromSi The Contemporary Theory of
Metaphor saubrobs metaforis Seqmnis saSualebebze da misi
mxatvruli gamosaxvis xerxebze. lakofis Teoriis mixedviT,
sityva aris koncepti, romlis arapirdapiri mniSvneloba unda
gamoviyenoT metaforis Seqmnis dros. laokofis azriT, prozauli an poeturi metaforis arsi ara _ enaSi, aramed warmosaxvaSia (laokofi 1992). maikl redis mixedviT ki, metafora enaSi,
yoveldRiur saqmianobasa da metyvelebaSi ibadeba (redi 1979).
laokofisa da redis Sexedulebebi metaforis Sesaxeb, erTi
mxriv, urTierTgamomricxavia, Tumca unda iTqvas isic, rom
orive SemTxvevaSi metaforis Semqmneli kulturaa, romelic arsobrivad ganumeorebeli da gansakuTrebulia.
unda aRiniSnos, rom yovel enas aqvs rogorc sakuTari, individualuri, mxolod ama Tu im enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli, mxolod mis enobriv sivrceSi warmoSobili metafora, ise zogadad
enaTa garkveuli jgufebisaTvis cnobili - sxvaTagan gaziarebuli. Tumca zog SemTxvevaSi Zneli dasadgenia, romeli kulturis
wiaRSi iSva, romeli kulturis ganuyofel qsovilad SeiZleba
miviCnioT esa Tu is metaforuli saxe.
literatura
lakofi 1992: George Lakoff, The Contremporary Theory of Metaphor
http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~israel/lakoff-ConTheorMetaphor.pdf
merdoki 1980: Murdock, G. P. 1980. 'Theories of Illness: A World
Survey'. Pittsburgh: The University of Pittsburgh Press.
redi 1979: M. J. Reddy, The Conduit Metaphor 1979
http://www.colorado.edu/linguistics/courses/LAM5430/5430e_reserves/C
onduit_Metaphor.pdf
haverkampi 2007: Haverkamp A. Metapher. Die sthetik in der Rhetorik.
Mnchen: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 2007.

Aada nemsaZe

moTxroba _ metafora
(gia lomaZis `krosvordi~)
gasuli saukunis 80-iani wlebi umniSvnelovanesi periodia sabWoTa kavSiris teritoriaze mcxovrebi xalxebis
sazogadoebriv azrovnebaSi. am dros saqarTveloSi TandaTan Zlierdeba erovnul-patriotuli miswrafebebi, Tumc
gardamtexi etapi mainc 80-iani wlebis
meore naxevari iyo, rodesac mixeil
gorbaCovma kavSiris gadasarCenad politikuri, socialur-ekonomikuri da kulturuli reformebi daiwyo. gardaqmnis
procesma xelsayreli pirobebi Seqmna
disidenturi moZraobis iatakqveSeTidan
gamosvlisa da erovnuli moZraobis gaZlierebisaTvis. amiT maSinve isargebla
qarTulma mwerlobam, aqamde miTopoetur
saburvelSi gaxveul erovnul problematikasa Tu totalitarul modelebs samoseli Semoacala da gaaSiSvla, risi
erT-erTi mkafio nimuSicaa gia lomaZis
`krosvordi~ (`ganTiadi~, 1987 w., #4).
es moTxroba 80-iani wlebis qarTul
prozaSi gamorCeulia mZafri politikuri konteqstiT, saTqmelis siRrmiTa da
mniSvnelobiT, asaxvis specifikuri formiTa da alegoriul-simboluri planiT.
misi gamoqveynebis TariRi imaze migvaniSnebs, rom sabWoTa cenzuris poziciebi
ukve sakmaodaa Sesustebuli. winaaRmdeg

152

ada nemsaZe

SemTxvevaSi aseTi moTxrobis dabeWdvas vizas vercerTi Jurnalis redkolegia ver miscemda (`krosvordSi~ daxatul totalitarul saxelmwifoSi xom sabWoTa kavSiris amocnoba arc ise
Znelia!). moTxrobis Tematika da paTosi drois Sesaferisia, gamWvirvale mxatvruli qsovili da gamokveTili ideologiuri foni kodirebuli sityvebis amoxsnisaken ubiZgebs recipients.
aristotele Tavis `poetikaSi~ werda: `yvelaze mniSvnelovania, daxelovnebuli iyo metaforebSi. mxolod amisi gadaReba
ar SeiZleba sxvisgan. es aris talantis niSani, radgan kargi metaforebis Seqmna niSnavs msgavsebis SemCnevas~ (aristotele
1979: 22). gia lomaZe `krosvordiT~ erT did metaforas qmnis,
SeiZleba vTqvaT, metaforaTa bloks, radgan igi moicavs ramdenime Semadgenel metaforas, romlebic erTmaneTs amTlianeben da
ise gamoxataven saerTo saTqmels. `rotorikaSi~ metaforis ori
saxea gamoyofili: gasagnobrivebisa da anTropomorfuli. gia
lomaZe pirvel maTgans mimarTavs (Cveulebriv, literaturaSi meore sWarbobs). gasagnobrivebis metafora gulisxmobs usulo
samyaros movlenebis mimsgavsebas adamianTan, sagnis Tvisebebis gadatanas adamianur samyaroze, risi mxatvruli dadasturebacaa
gansaxilveli moTxroba. `krosvordis~ dageroiduli saxelmwifos adamianebi _ dageroidebi _ swored `gasagnebuli~ adamianebi, igive robotebi, arian. gasagnobriveba aq pirdapir qveynis saxelwodebaSia xazgasmuli. aSkaraa, mwerali dageroids dagerotipisagan qmnis. es ukanaskneli ki fotografirebis uZvelesi
xerxiT gadaRebul suraTs aRniSnavs, romelic vercxliswylis
orTqliT mJRavndeboda da Semdeg natriumis qloridis xsnariT
fiqsirdeboda. ase miiReboda pozitiuri gamosaxuleba _ dagerotipi _ romlis gamravleba SeuZlebeli iyo (qarTuli sabWoTa
enciklopedia, t. 10, 375). aqedan gamomdinare, cxadi xdeba, rogor gadaaqvs mwerals usulo sagnis Tviseba adamianur samyaroze, raTa amiT metaforis Sinagan saTqmels gausvas xazi. metaforis samkomponentianobis (aRmniSvneli, aRsaniSni da maT Soris
kavSiri) Teoriis Tanaxmad, am konkretul SemTxvevaSi aRmniSvneli, dageroidi, ukavSirdeba aRsaniSnebs _ am saxelmwifoSi
mcxovreb adamianebs pirveli fotografiuli kadris dagerotipis
gziT, magram sxva e. w. `Tavisufali~ niSnebi, rac asociaciurad
unda Cndebodes aRmqmeli subieqtis cnobierebaSi, am SemTxvevaSi
ar Cans, radgan fotokadri erT mudmiv asociacias _ ucvlel
da mudmiv msgavsebas iwvevs mxolod. am TvalsazrisiT, aRniSnu-

moTxroba-metafora

153

li metaforis asociaciuri CarCo, SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom `Raribi~ da erTferovania, Tumc uaRresad zusti da funqciuri _ saxelmwifos saxelwodebad pirveli fotografiuli kadris saxelis arCeva mianiSnebs am saxelmwifos mTavar misiaze _ axali,
marTvadi adamianebis gamoyvana, romlebic fotografiuli sizustiT gvanan erTmaneTs.
meore mniSvnelovani metafora moTxrobaSi diadi dageroidia. qarTul sinamdvileSi Seqmnilma yvela im Txzulebam, romlebic imperiuli modelis gamoxatvas isaxavda miznad, mogvca
diqtatori beladis saxe. maT Sorisaa gia lomaZis diadi dageroidic, romelic aravis hgavs, miuxedavad imisa, rom aqvs diqtatoris yvela maxasiaTebeli. metic, mas erTi konkretuli diqtatoris niSnebic ki SeiZleba vupovoT: `ubralo, sadad Sekerili nacrisferi Sarvali, yavisferi perangi, samxedro yaidis nacrisferive kiteli, yovelgvari rangis da mdgomareobis aRmniSvneli atributikis gareSe, iseve rogorc yoveli rigiTi dageroidis Cacmuloba...~ (lomaZe 1989: 80). mizani ki erTia _ `yofiTi demagogia, masebis daqvemdebarebis da sidiadis miRwevis
erT-erTi mZlavri saSualeba~ (lomaZe 1989: 80). jer kidev
aristotele SeniSnavda, sadac metaforaa, iq gamocanac ariso,
Sesabamisad, mkiTxvelis gonebac am gamocanis amoxsnisken bunebrivad miimarTeba. Tumc metaforasa da gamocanas Soris maincaa
gansxvaveba: `gamocana aucileblad moiTxovs pasuxis gacemas, metafora _ ara. metaforaSi pasuxi SeiZleba iyos bundovani, arakonkretuli~ (canava 2009: 24). gamocana da TamaSi uZvelesi
droidan SesTavaza kulturam adamians (haizinga) da es ukanasknelic CaerTo am TamaSSi. swored aseT TamaSSi verTvebiT `krosvordis~ kiTxvisas, radgan masSi gamoyenebuli yvela mxatvruli
saxe maTi amoxsnisa da gaazrebisaken gvibiZgebs, upirvelesad ki,
amisken gvibiZgebs saTauri. diadi dageriodis saxe erTdroulad
konkretulicaa (mas aqvs amis niSnebi) da zogadic, asevea TviT
dageroiduli saxelmwifoc.
bunebrivia, diqtators unda hqondes Tavisi samoqmedo areali, romelic mxolod misi neba-survilis aRmsrulebeli xalxiT iqneba dasaxlebuli. avtori dageroidTa saxelmwifos saxiT
qmnis Caketil sivrces, romelic mTlianad minis veeba xufiTaa
daxuruli, raTa aravin gaigos, ra xdeba mis gareT, an rame xdeba Tu ara. amazec saxelmwifom izruna da gare, diadi dageriodis mier ukontrolo sivrcis Sesaxeb uaryofiTi ganwyoba Ta-

154

ada nemsaZe

vadve Seqmna: `gumbaTs miRma arseboben raRac ukonturo, uformo


qveynebi da qalaqebi, dasaxlebuli maTdami agresiulad ganwyobili masebiT da mTavrobebiT~ (lomaZe 1989: 119). diqtators SemuSavebuli aqvs sivrcis marTvis Tavisi berketebi, rasac xels
uwyobs qveynis mowyobis sistema: xuT kategoriad dayofili da
mkacrad gansazRvruli movaleobani TiToeuli kategoriisaTvis:
`molaparake anu niWierTa umciresoba da utyvi, anu ueno umravlesoba~. amas yvelafer amas diadi axorcielebs specialurad
daprogramebuli adamianebiT, romelTa tvinis emociis gamakontrolebeli naxevarsfero eleqtronuli kompiuteriTaa Secvlili. es transformirebuli adamiani-robotebi (igive dagerotipebi) totalitaruli mmarTvelobis mier sulierad damaxinjebul
adamianTa avtoriseuli mxatvruli xatebia, Cven mier ukve aRniSnuli gasagnobrivebis metaforebi.
moTxrobaSi saxelmwifo instituciis mowyobis sakiTxi detalurad, yvela sferosa da yvela fenis dawvrilebiTi aRweriT
_ werilebis saxiTaa gadmocemuli. warmodgena am samyaroze, romelic qalaqia Tu qveyana, ver gaurCevia mTxrobels, Cndeba uSualod Txrobis dawyebamde: `ucnauria aq yvelaferi, ucnauri!..
mdinareebi mavTulis badeebiTaa gadaketili, xolo napirebs mavTulxlarTebi gasdevs, Citebic ucnaurni arian aq, arsad mifrinaven zamTrobiT; ...aqauri Citebi, raRacnairad mZimed da dabla
dafrinaven, an uZravad sxedan dabal, saSualo tanis kacis simaRlis telegrafis boZebze; uZravad, usicocxlod, TiTqos nacrisferi, damtverili SuSisTvalebiani fitulebi, mavTulze damagrebul-Camwkrivebulni. Tvinieri morCilebiT giyureben, roca
uaxlovdebi, erTs ar Seirxevian, xels roca gaiwvdi asayvanad,
arc gasxltomas cdiloben da mere, roca gauSveb, isev im adgils ubrundebian, saidanac aiyvane...~ (lomaZe 1989: 78). am erTi
SexedviT, TiTqos umniSvnelo detaliT mwerali dageroiduli
qveynis zogad saxes xatavs: usicocxloba, uemocioba, normirebuli yofa... marTlac, dageroidTa qveyanaSi yvelaferi winaswaraa
gansazRvruli diadi dageroidis mier, yoveli adamianis cxovreba
dagegmili da gawerilia (kanoniT gansazRvruli Svilebis raodenoba, qorwinebis asaki, erTnairi saWmeli, sasmeli, xelfasi, sacxovrebel saxlTa farTobi da oTaxTa ganlageba, aveji Tu saojaxo nivTebi (ginda-arginda, gonebaSi TavisTavad amotivtivdeba
sabWoTa periodSi legendad qceuli filmi `bedis ironia anu
gaamoT~, romelSic erTdroulad lamazad da sarkastuladaa

moTxroba-metafora

155

gadmocemuli swored es `zemodan~ dagegmili yofa. saocaria,


rogor misca aseTi popularobis saSualeba films reJimma!), aseTivea garesamyaroc (xeebi xuTi metri simaRlisaa, reliefi _
swori, mdinareebi _ mdore, Rrubeli _ Txeli da sifrifana,
temperatura _ mudam +20 gradusi, wvima yovelTvis Tbili da
mosabezrebeli...). aqedan gamomdinare, gasakviri aRarc TiTqmis
garobotebuli adamianebi arian, sxvanairad SeuZlebeli iqneboda
dageroiduli saxelmwifos awyoba: es xom saaTis meqanizmia, sadac adamianebi umciresi WanWikebisa da kbilanebis funqciebs asruleben mxolod!
`krosvordSi~ gia lomaZis TiTqmis yvela adreuli moTxrobis motivma da interpretaciam moiyara Tavi, yvela samyaro,
yvela sazrisi, yvela problema SeerTda, gamTlianda... rogorc
sxva moTxrobebSi, tyveoba da tragedia aqac inteleqtualuria,
Tumca `TabaSiris kacis~ urbanistuli konteqsti `krosvordSi~
politikuri konteqstiTaa Secvlili, pirovneba daTrgunulia
saxelmwifos politikuri sistemis mier (wowonava 1988: 147).
moTxrobis umTavresi problema Tavisufali nebis gareSe darCenili (Tu datovebuli) adamiania. es ki ukve RvTiuri nebis, samyaroseuli wesrigis darRvevaa. erTi adamianis fiqri da, misi
fiqris Sesabamisad, mravali adamianis moqmedeba totalitaruli
reJimis umTavresi niSania (rac 70-ian wlebSi SesaniSnavad gamoxata Wabua amirejibma arqifo seTuris saxiT).
sainteresoa saxelmwifoSi arsebuli aramkveTri, mibnedili
ferebi (lampionebis moyviTalo an manqanis panelis momwvano Suqi), romlebic mZafr emociebs ar gamoiwvevs da musika (marSi,
raTa mudam monotonurad moZraobdes adamiani). aq moZraobac ki
gaTvlilia, marSis intonacia yovel taqtSi mkacrad gansazRvrul droiT erTeuls moicavs, rac aseve winaswar viRacis mier dagegmil, gamozomil moqmedebas gulisxmobs, Tanac fantaziisTvis, ocnebisa da Tavisufali azrovnebisTvis adgils ar tovebs. moTxroba mdidaria gamWvirvale, magram mravlismetyveli,
funqciurad uaRresad datvirTuli mxatvruli saxeebiT, kerZod:
deklaraciebi da saxelmwifo struqturebi: `laparakis uflebis
deklaracia~, `dageroiduli qorwinebis da ojaxis simtkicis
dacvis sammarTvelo~, `dageroidTa namatis maregulirebeli sammarTvelo~, `eTikuri normebis komiteti~, `Sromis eTikis dacvis
meTvalyureTa sameuli~ (30-iani wlebis cnobili `troikis~
aluzia) da sxva. amgvari metaforuli saxeebiT daxunZlulia

156

ada nemsaZe

mTeli teqsti, mwerals sabWoTa saxelmwifos arc erTi sfero


ar rCeba uyuradRebod, yvelaferi mkacrad sarkastulia. metafora aq mxolod gamoxatvis saSualeba ki araa, aramed _ azrovnebis iaraRi. dasaxelebuli saxelmwifo struqturebi da deklaraciebi analogiuri metaforebia, rodesac Tviseba gadatanilia
sagnidan saganze da, miuxedavad maTi amosacnobi velis arc Tu
ise bundovanebisa, mainc rCeba garkveuli Tavisufleba nagulisxmevi meore wevris mimarT. esaa metaforis buneba.
dageroidTa qveyanaSi yvelaze metad SemoqmedebiTi unaris
mqone adamianebs akontroleben. xelovnebis umTavresi daniSnuleba rom adamianSi Tavisuflebis wyurvilis gaZliereba da Semdeg
am Tavisuflebis masisTvis moxmarebis swavlebaa, es yvela totalitarul saxelmwifos esmis. amitom aq aseTi devizia: `giyvardes mwerali, romelsac TviTon aswavle wera da gZuldes is,
vinc TavisiT iswavla~. es devizi qveynis bednierebisa da simSvidis aucilebel pirobad miaCnia diad dageroids, magram daSveba,
`vinc TavisiT iswavla~, ukve imaze mianiSnebs, rom TviT gaugonari sisastikisa da despotizmis drosac ki SeuZlebelia, srulad
da mudmivad akontrolo adamianebi. amaSia nebismieri imperiis sicocxlis xanmokleobis saidumlo. `dageroidul literaturaSi
ar arsebobs uaryofiTi mTavari gmiri, araviTari konfliqti ar
xdeba nawarmoebSi, xolo socialuri motivi saerTod ar ixsenieba~ (lomaZe 1989: 114). yvelaferi es sabWoTa periodSi gavrcelebul `dramis ukonfliqtobis Teoriasa~ da e. w. socialistur
realizms mogvagonebs.
erT-erTi mniSvnelovani metaforaa `saSinao saqmeTa sammarTvelo~, romelic dageroidTa qveyanaSi yvelafers akeTebs, aqvs
nebayofilobiT informatorTa mTeli qseli da yovelTvis icis,
sad ra xdeba. mwerali ise skrupulozurad aRwers am dawesebulebis struqturasa da misi muSaobis wess, fiqrisTvis droc ki
araa saWiro, romeli konkretuli institucia SeiZleba igulisxmebodes mis ukan, Tumc, isev metaforis bunebidan gamomdinare,
Tavisufali veli aqac rCeba. wina periodis simbolur-alegoriuli azrovnebis Sedegad Seqmnili pasaJebi (mag. kaciWamia virTxis
gamoyvanis epizodi `daTa TuTaSxiaSi~ an gamosasworeblad aRdgeniT samuSaoebze besame karos gagzavna `vater(po)looSi~) gia
lomaZem gacilebiT gamWvirvale gaxada. mwerals, bunebrivia, garkveuli mizezi hqonda, roca ase gadawyvita. man amiT gansakuTrebiT daamZima da gaamZafra is uaryofiTi, is sulisSemZvreli at-

moTxroba-metafora

157

mosfero, romlis mxatvruli interpretaciacaa `krosvordis~


dageroiduli saxelmwifo. es simaxinjea, romelic ara marto
Trgunavs adamianis cxovrebas, aramed azrs aclis adamianurobas,
adamianad arsebobas da amiT imperiul-totalitaruli mmarTvelobis winaaRmdeg ganawyobs mkiTxvels.
`krosvordi~ struqturul-kompoziciuri TaviseburebiTac
gamoirCeva. avtori ZiriTad RerZad `c~ kategoriis `J~ qveseqtoris #108998 dageroidis ambavs iyenebs da Txrobas iwyebs im
periodidan, roca masze gansakuTrebul TvalTvals daaweseben.
xolo am ucnauri saxelmwifos mTel ambavs swored am dageroidis Sesaxeb Sedgenil patakebs Soris mogviTxrobs. kerZo da saxelmwifoebrivi ambebis amgvari ganlageba erTmaneTs avsebs da
siuJets zogadi TxrobisTvis damaxasiaTebeli sqematurobisagan
icavs. pirveli eWvi #108998 dageroidis qcevidan Cndeba (misi
saubari ucnaurobad inaTleba, radgan dadgenil normaSi ver Tavsdeba) da TvalTvalic aqedan iwyeba. pirveli sagangaSo maniSnebeli ki xsenebuli dageroidis xelovnebisaken midrekileba iyo
jer kidev skolaSi. am saxelmwifoSi did safrTxed aris miCneuli fantazia, radgan iq sruli Tavisuflebaa. dakvirveba saxlidan iwyeba. dageroid #108998-is saxlSi aRmoaCenen kidec xelmosaWids: mas saZinebelSi ferweruli tilo ukidia, romelic
SinaarsiT ar Seesabameba dageroidTa saxelmwifos `teqnikur-mecnieruli Zvrebis epoqas~; garda sami cxenisa, rac Tavisufali
srbolisa da Zneladgasakontrolebeli siswrafis simboloa, aq
ferebic miuRebelia: veeba mwvane mindori da TvalismomWrelad
lurji ca. araferi ar unda iyos kaSkaSa da standartsacilebuli, radgan am saxelmwifos upirvelesi daniSnuleba adamianis
standartis gamoyvanaa _ uemocio, erTnairadmofiqrali, yovelgvar individualobas moklebuli adamiani.
mwerali ambavs, sabolood, yvelaze tragikul elfers
imiT sZens, rom dageroids daasmens sakuTari Svili, romelsac
mamis dRiuri, rogorc ucnauri faqti, im yovlisSemZle `sammarTveloSi~ miaqvs da warmodgenac ki ar aqvs, ise xdeba sakuTari
mamis jalaTi. ase uimedod mTavrdeba gia lomaZis moTxroba. saerTod, sazogadoebisagan gamorCeul adamianTa bedze qarTul
literaturaSi araerTi moTxroba Tu poemaa Seqmnili, magram
yvela maTganSi dominanturia imediani finali _ protagonisti
kvdeba, magram idea, romelsac is ewireba, cocxlobs da aucileblad grZeldeba sxvaSi. gia lomaZesTan ki finalic saocrad

158

ada nemsaZe

damTrgunvelia: `axalgazrda dageroidi, oci wlis, kategoria


`c~ #3102452 mtkice, Cqari nabijiT miuyveboda quCas. dabali
telegrafis boZebze Tanabari intervalebiT daSorebuli radioreproduqtorebidan sazeimo marSis xma ismoda, uqme dRe iyo.
axalgazrda dageroidi samxedro savaldebulo samsaxuris mesame
wels gadioda da Cqarobda, yazarmaSi ar daegviana...~ (lomaZe
1989: 156). Semzaravia da TiTqos warmoudgenelic mamis jalaTis aseTi simSvide... mweralma am moTxrobiT diqtaturis metaforuli suraTi Seqmna. sruli uimedobis atmosfero ki sapirispiro gancdebis, kerZod, imedis aRmocenebisaTvis aucilebel
niadagad miiCnia da amiT krosvordis amosaxsnelad ganawyo mkiTxveli. `ucnauria aqauroba, ucnauri _ es krosvordia, romlis
amoxsna me ver SevZeli _ gasaRebs ver mivageni! es krosvordia,
romelic Cvenive _ dageroidebis dumil-TanxmobiT Seiqmna da Taobebi dasWirdeba, albaT, amosaxsnelad!~ (lomaZe 1989: 156).
mTeli teqsti aseTi amosaxsneli detalebiTaa savse, isini TxrobaSi umTavresi metaforis _ krosvordis _ calkeuli Semadgeneli nawilebia. gia lomaZem rTuli da, amavdroulad gavrcobili
metafora SemogvTavaza, romelSic calkeulma mxatvrulma figuram, SesaZloa, kamaTi da azrTa sxvadasxvaobac ki gamoiwvios, metaforaa, gamocana, simbolo Tu alegoria, magram mizani cxadia:
mwerals krosvordis amoxsnis imedi aqvs da mTeli moTxrobac
swored am imediTaa dawerili.
literatura
aristotele 1979: poetika: winasityvaoba, Targmani da komentarebi s. daneliasi. Tbilisi: ganaTleba.
lomaZe, gia 1989: krosvordi. Tbilisi: merani.
canava, rusudan 2009: metafora: seria literaturismcodneoba.
Tbilisi: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba.
wowonava, Tengiz. 1988: 145-150. simarTle. ciskari, dekemberi,
#12.

Mmariam marjaniSvili

metamorfoza TaobaTa
azrovnebaSi
Strixebi akaki papavasa da oTar
CxeiZis Semoqmedebidan
qarTveli eris cnobierebis nakadSi
kunZulebiviT moCans XX saukunis dasawyisisa da dasasrulis cxovrebiseuli
faqtebi da movlenebi. bolSevikurma reJimma da sabWourma diqtaturam aramarto CamoSala Tavisufali da damoukidebeli
saqarTvelos
saxelmwifoebrivi
sxeuli, aramed mTavari dartyma mimarTa
eris sulieri degradaciisaken da xelisuflebis agitatorad gaxada Semoqmedi
adamianebi.
am rTulma periodma Secvala dro
da Secvala xalxis Tavisuflebisaken
swrafva. mZime wlebSi Cvens qveyanaSi
represiebma gatexa qarTveli xalxi.
bolSevikurma manqanam sisxlis zRva daayena saqarTveloSi da xalxis masac minebda tiranias. Tavisuflebas xundi daedo. rkinis farda CamoeSva. Semoqmeds unda ewera imaze, risic ar sjeroda, magram ,,undoda ewama". bevr mwerals samSoblos tragedia, sevda da varami, konstantine gamsaxurdiasa da levan goTuas
msgavsad, istoriis WrilSi gadahqonda.
drosTan Seugueblebi, paolo iaSvilis
msgavsad, dramatuli finaliT amTavreb-

160

mariam marjaniSvili

dnen cxovrebas. bevrma, maT Soris ioseb griSaSvilma da giorgi


leoniZem, romlebic saukeTeso mexotbeebi iyvnen, xelisuflebis
interesebidan gamomdinare, iolad da warmatebiT moirges stalinis Tema. maT satrfos sadidebeli tropika gadaitanes beladze
da igi meomar zekacad da qarTvelTa mxsnelad warmosaxes.
Cveni qveynis epoqis sruli suraTia asaxuli cnobili emigranti mwerlis akaki papavas werilSi - ,,fiqrebi Tbilisze da
mis mwerlobaze", sadac avtorma Tbilisis istoriaSi ,,moqcevis"
sami umTavresi etapi gamoyo: pirveli, avtoris TqmiT, esaa dro
,,namestnikobis" Tbilisisa: uxeSi, kolonialuri SemoteviT qarTvelobaze". magram, mwerlis SefasebiT, ,,im bnel droSic, Tbilisi Tavdadebul mamuliSvilebs Tavs uyrida; eseni dastrialebdnen qarTul erovnul kerebs, hkrebdnen mis potencialur Zalebs, aRvivebden brZolis cecxls da ai, am erovnulma energiam
Sva Cveni Tavisufleba"... ase miecaT dasabami Tbilisis ,,meore
moqcevas".
a. papavas azriT, esaa dro, roca ,,mkvdreTiT aRsdga saqarTvelos damoukidebeli saxelmwifo; Tbilisma zeimiT gaxsna 26
maisis karebi". am periodis umTavres monapovrad mwerali ,,devnili qarTuli sulis, enisa da saxis" gaSla-aRzevebas miiCnevs.
magram, samwuxarod, ase didxans ar gagrZelebula da ,,am zeimur
qmedobas sul male mohyva ,,CvenTvis sabediswero ,,mesame moqceva", roca ,,Cvens mziur Tbiliss Rrublebi gadaefara; CrdiloeTis sastikma susxma dabera, Tavisufleba erisa wargvtaca da saqarTvelo Savis ZaZebiT Semosa".
a. papavam udidesi gulistkiviliT saubrobs im tragikul
movlenebze, romlebic swored ,,mesame moqcevis xanaSi daatyda
saqarTvelos: ,,mesame moqcevis" saxifaTo rkalSi moxvedrili xelovnebisa da poeziis didi ostatebi" qveynad damkvidrebuli
ideologiuri diqtaturis gamo, mwerlis SefasebiT, araTu marTali sityvis Tqmas ver bedavdnen, aramed ,,borkil dadebulni
mohyavT da ubrZanebdnen: sxvas da gaaformos, gaSalos sityviT,
musikiT da riTmiT ,,siyvaruli", ,,aRfTovaneba da Tayvaniscema"
misdami, vinc TbilisSi 25 Tebervals wiTel tankebiT rkinis karebi Selewa da misi xalxi ,,26 maisis tyveobidan" ixsna (,,samSoblo" 2009,66).
yovelive zemoTqmulis dasturad, a.papava konkretul magaliTebsac ixsenebs Cveni mwerlebis Semoqmedebidan da sinanuliT
ambobs: ,,ra maTi bralia, rom mteri moeria da mere ra mterio."

metamorfoza TaobaTa azrovnebaSi

161

,,mesame moqcevis" qarTvel mweralTa sityvas, avtoris SefasebiT, ,,xerxemalic gadamtvreuli hqonda da gulwrfelobac
sulidan amoclili".
saqarTveloSi bolSevikurma reJimma da sabWourma diqtaturam saxelmwifo aparatis gamoyenebiTa da mwerlobisadmi barbarosuli midgomiT bevri niWieri mwerali daRupa. papava aRniSnavs, rom ,,pirovnul, individualur da, maSasadame, erovnul qmedobis srul damorCilebisaTvis, ,,sabWoTa" kritikam mwerlobas
,,yovelgvari Tavisufali gaqaneba waarTva, emociebis da mxatvrul aRmafrenis gzebi dauxSo da erisa da pirovnebis damoneba
apologiad gauxada... maT aiZules dReis mwerali, samSoblos
warsuli gaeyalbebia da Cveni erovnuli siamayisaTvis gamcemlurad fexi daedga da iseTi umsgavsoebani warmoeTqva, ris wakiTxvisas yoveli qarTveli gawiTldeboda" (papava 1960,109-116).
aqedan gamomdinare, akaki papava qarTvel mwerlebs or banakad yofda. misi azriT, pirvel banaks miekuTvnebodnen namdvili
xelovanebi, vinc erisa da Semoqmedebis Tavisuflebis principiT
cxovrobda. maT avtori ,,meore moqcevis mwerlebs uwodebs". meore banaks ki igi ideologiuri dogmatizmiT Sepyrobil mwerlebs miakuTvnebda da maT ,,mesame moqcevis" mwerlebs eZaxda. akaki papavas azriT, sruli TavisuflebiTa da simarTliT mxolod
emigrantTa Semoqmedeba gamoirCeoda, magram mwerlobis didostatebi samSobloSi iyvnen darCenili da isini aq gacilebiT maRal
mxatvrul xelovnebas qmnidnen.
a. papavas krebulSi ,,1500 wlovan Tbiliss" Sesul
erT-erT werilze ,,fiqrebi Tbilissa da mis mwerlobaze" avtors polemika gaumarTa grigol robaqiZem: ,,fiqrebi Tbilisze
da mis mwerlobaze". 1. a. mosaSvili, k. lorTqifaniZe, k. fedosiSvili ar arian gamocalkevebuli, rogorc mweralni ,,mesame
moqcevisa". xelisuflebam ki ar ,,aTqmevina" maT ,,esa Tu is"
maT TviTon ,,Tqves" rac aqvT naTqvami. 2. ,,meore moqcevis" mweralTagan naxsenebia: a. abaSeli, g. griSaSvili, k. mayaSvili, galaktion tabiZe, tician tabiZe, g. quCiSvili... mogyavs nawyvetebi
maTi SairebiTgan. gal. tabiZe da g. quCiSvili gamodian werilSi
viTarca ,,gadaxrilebi" ici risken. mxolod es ori. danarCenni?! unda gagaxseno: gansvenebuli a. abaSeli ,,sabWour" Sairebsac
werda aseve sawyali ticianic, daRupuli, romlis gasaocari
winaswarmetyveleba werilSi mogyavs; i. griSaSvili iqamde mivida, rom jalaTs berias ase mimarTa: ,,ubrZane mtkvars da igi

162

mariam marjaniSvili

ukudenas daiwyebso" (saerTod: romelma mweralma ,,meore moqcevisa" aicdina es ,,gadaxra"?) k. mayaSvils ar dascalda xangrZliv ecocxla gasabWoebul samSobloSi, Torem ,,gadaxras",
vfiqrob, verc is aicdenda" (robaqiZe 2012,453).
qarTvel sabWoTa mweralTa mimarT grigol robaqiZiseuli
mkacri Sefasebis miuxedavad, akaki papava mainc kompromisze midioda da Tavisi werilis bolos rwmenas gamoTqvamda: ,,yvela amgvari ,,Cavardnebi" SegviZlian vapatioT wamebul, jaWviT Sekrul
mwerals; magram saSinelebaa, rodesac es ,,dokumenti" Semoqmedebis daCexis da uSualo dasaxiCrebisa, saqarTvelos dReis mwerlobis saxeliT saRdeba da Tavsdeba Cveni dedaqalaqisadmi sazeimoT miZRvnil krebulSi... me minda am SoreTidan mas vacnobo,
rom Cemi da mravalTa guli mas ar gadadgomia da arc gadudgeba, radgan mis majiscemas axlos mihyveboda da mihyveba...
siSoreSi mainc axlos vrCebiT masTan... Cvens siRaribeSi
uleveli simdidrea, radgan misi siyvaruli gvaTbobs. amitom
gvwams, rom Tbilisi ,,meoTxe moqcevas" kvlav ixilavs da
mkvdreTiT aRmdgari Cvens ganawameb gulsac sixaruliT aavsebs"
(papava 1960,92).
sabWouri diqtatis apologet mwerlebisaTvis ,,am borkildadebul poetTaTvis", akaki papava cdilobda, ,,qva ar esrola".
misi TqmiT es tragikuli movlenebi, mainc warmavali iyo da ,,meoTxe moqcevis" xanaSi ,,Cveni mwerloba kvlav gadaebmeboda Tavis
tradiciul saxelovan Zirebs" (papava 1960,9).
a. papavas varaudi winaswarmetyveluri aRmoCnda. 9 aprilis
tragediam Secvala xalxis cnobiereba. Seicvalen mwerlebic. zogi sasikeTod, zogi sulac dadumda an gadagvarda.
mTeli rigi mwerlebisa xarobda sulieri ganaxlebiT, qveynis TavisuflebiT, magram gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis dekember-ianvris tragediam mkveTri zRvari gaavlo patriotebsa da
medroveebs Soris, romelTa saxe realuradaa danaxuli oTar
CxeiZis romanSi ,,matiane qarTlisai".
SeiZleba imTaviTve iTqvas, rom oTar CxeiZis naazrevi
erovnuli TviTSegnebisa da TviTmyofadobisaTvis brZolaSi ilia
WavWavaZis sulieri memkvidrea. aqedan gamomdinare, amitomac Tanxvdeba misi nawarmoebi emigranti mwerlis akaki papavas naazrevs
,,fiqrebi Tbilissa da mis mwerlobaze". oTar CxeiZe qarTul sinamdviles XX saukunis 20iani wlebidan moyolebuli XXI sau-

metamorfoza TaobaTa azrovnebaSi

163

kunis dasawyisis CaTvliT, qveynis dakninebasa da eris sulieri


struqturis rRvevas originaluri stiliT warmoaCens.
,,oTar CxeiZe iyo pirveli Cvens mwerlobaSi, romelmac
uaryo, erTi mxriv, socialisturi realizmis Sabloni, meore
mxriv, ideologiuri dogmebi, ara Teoriulad, aramed SemoqmedebiTi praqtikiT, mxatvruli sityviT" (sigua 2004,3).
,,sityvasTan sakraluri kavSiriT, simarTlis moyvareobiTa
da pirovnuli simtkiciT man gauZlo totalitaruli reJimis
zewolas, ar gaxda ideologiis msaxuri, Tavi daaRwia ,,moTvinierebuli mwerlobis" CarCoebs, sakuTari gza gakafa da qarTul
literaturas SesZina koniunqturisagan Tavisufali, WeSmarit
Rirebulebebze orientirebuli nawarmoebebi" (fifia 2010,19).
XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis tragikuli movlenebisadmi
miZRvnili trilogia: ,,artistuli gadatrialeba", ,,TeTri daTvi"
da ,,bermundis samkuTxedi" erT-erTi tragikuli furcelia qarTveli eris istoriaSi.
,,artistuli gadatrialebis" mTavari personaJis zviad gamsaxurdias portreti mweralma ganumeorebeli StrixebiT warmogvidgina: ,,araferi rom ar gaegebodaT: deklaraciebic aman rom
gaagebina, pirovnebis Tavisuflebaca, erica da Tavisuflebaca...
axladaxali kostumebi Caacva, SekvanZa aswavla halstuxebisa,
amana, amana, yvelaferi aman da Tavisi xeliTac SeukvanZa TiTqmis
yvelasa, pirvel sesiaze rom mihyavda uzenaesi sabWosi" (CxeiZe
2002, 237).
Tbilisis datovebis umZimes epizodSic sxvadasxva rakursiT vxedavT zviad gamsaxurdias: avtori erTi fraziT gvagebinebs, bolo wuTebSic raze ocnebobda zviad gamsaxurdia da risTvis sWirdeboda is avadsaTqmeli prezidentobac.
oTar CxeiZis trilogias remarkad gasdevs ,,erTmorwmune
Crdiloel mezobelze ruseTze seiris moyvarul da sakuTari saxelis gandidebas gamokidebul adamianTa siluetebi, romelTa ZaliTac 1921 wels miviReT saqarTvelos eqspansia rusebis
mier da ,,wiTelyabalaxiani" saqarTvelo 70 wlis ganmavlobaSi.
aseve XX saukunis dasasrulsac gandidebis maniiT SepyrobilTa
orientaciis gagrZelebaa viTom qveynis bediT dainteresebul
garkveuli jgufis moqmedeba, romelTac 90-iani wlebis saqarTveloSi datrialebuli movlenebi ukavSirdeba. ,,am Wrel sazogadoebaze" mwerali ambobs: ,,moskovis suliT gaberilan, mosko-

mariam marjaniSvili

164

vis TvaliT icqirebian, moskovs awoneben Tavsa" (CxeiZe


2002,190).
es is xalxia, aRniSnavs nawarmoebis dasasruls mwerali,
romlebic ,,niRbebs icvlian, keklucoben, sikeTis mociqulad
gvisaxaven Tavsa" (CxeiZe 2002,329).
XX saukunis dasawyisisa da dasasrulis es rTuli periodi, romelic akaki papavasa da oTar CxeiZis SemoqmedebaSi gamoixata, dResac grZeldeba...
marTalia, axla yoveli dila imperiis agugunebuli kurantebiT aRar iwyeba, magram 70-wliani imperiis metastazebi urecividod dResac ar gamqrala.
metamorfoza qveyanaSi da metamorfoza CvenSi neli procesiT mimdinareobs, radgan komunisturi reJimis susxiT, SiSiT,
teroriT, sasikvdilod ganwirulTa sve-bediT, monis sindromiT
daRdasmuli sazogadoebis garkveuli nawili da, maT Soris, SemoqmedebiTi inteligencia kvlav ganicdis Rirsebis deficits,
romelic isev aryevs qarTul cnobierebas.
XXI saukuneSic am gamowvevebis winaSe vdgevarT da qarTul saliteraturo sivrceSi dRemde msjeloben erovnul problematikaze.
literatura
imnaZe, ana. ,,realoba da literaturul fiqsacia" (oTar CxeiZis
,,artistuli gadatrialeba), www. spekali.stu.ge.
papava, akaki. 1960. ,,1500 wlovan Tbiliss" (leqsebi da werilebi). santiago de
Cile: avTandil merabaSvilis
gamocema.
robaqiZe, grigoli. 2012. Tamar da akaki papavebi. t. IV. Tbilisi:
gamomcemloba literaturuli muzeumi.
Jurnali ,,samSoblo". 2009. #1, Tbilisi.
Jurnali ,,Cveni mwerloba". 2007. 23-29 ianvari, sigua s. ,,tragikuli aTwleuli". Tbilisi.
fifia, nestani. 2010. ,,XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis dokumenturi
qronikebi" (oTar
CxeiZis mxatvrul-dokumenturi proza). Tbilisi. referati.
CxeiZe, oTari. 2002. ,,artistuli gadatrialeba", Tbilisi.

Nnikoloz wulukiZe

Tavisufali Teatri _
metafora
(andre antuani, kote marjaniSili)
25 saukunis ganmavlobaSi, Teatraluri xelovneba sam mTavar e.w. moTamaSes efuZneboda - dramaturgi, msaxiobi,
mayurebeli. XX saukunis Teatri ukve
veRar iqneboda mxolod calkeul, erTeul, e.w. varskvlav msaxiobebze dafuZnebuli. saWiro iyo ansambluri warmodgenis Seqmna, romelic erTian mxatvrul
gadawyvetas, ideur Canafiqrs unda daqvemdebareboda. Teatraluri warmodgenis
Seqmnis procesSi, reJisori mkafiod gamokveTili lideri xdeba. igi, erTpirovnulad
xelmZRvanelobs
sarepeticio
process, gansazRvravs speqtaklis saerTo koncefcias; aseve, imas, Tu rogori
iqneba esa Tu is scena, epizodi, suraTi;
ras warmoadgens TiToeuli moqmedi piri; igi, msaxiobTan erTad, ayalibebs
personaJis xasiaTs, misi saqcielebis motivacias... speqtakli Zveleburad saxeldaxelod veRar daidgmeboda. reJisori
dramaturgisa da msaxiobebis garda,
mxatvarsa da kompozitorTan iwyebs muSaobas. miseul konceptualur Canafiqrs
unda daemorCilos scenografia, kostiumebi, musikaluri gaformeba, ganaTeba,
sasceno moZraoba da a.S.

166

nikoloz wulukiZe

ramdenadac CemTvis cnobilia, Tavisufali Teatri pirvelad andre antuanma (1858-1943 w.w.) 1887 wels parizSi daaarsa.
dRes ukve aRiarebulia, rom man frangul scenaze udidesi reforma gaatara. antuans miaCnda, rom scena mxolod maRalmxatvrul speqtaklebs ekuTvnis, romelic mayurebels aqtualur,
mtkivneul problemebze esaubreba; zemoqmedebs maT gancdasa da
gonebaze, iwvevs maTSi Tanagancdas. adamianebSi swored am ukanasknelis gamowvevas miiCnevda igi Teatraluri xelovnebis umTavres amocanad da misiad. antuani aseve ilaSqrebda franguli scenis e.w. akademiuri tradiciis winaaRmdeg. ufro marTebulad Tu
vityviT, mas surda yovelive saukeTeso SeenarCunebina (gardasaxvis xelovneba) da uari eTqva paTetikis, erTgvari sazeimo, amaRlebuli, wamRerebuli deklamaciisaTvis. reJisori realisturi
scenuri saxeebis Seqmnas uWerda mxars. msaxiobi zedmiwevniT
marTali, damajerebeli unda yofiliyo ama Tu im rolSi. is organulad ver itanda siyalbes, xelovnurobas. aqedan gamomdinare,
eZebda axal sasceno gamomsaxvelobiT xerxebs, saSualebebs. amisaTvis Zalze did yuradRebas uTmobda Tavisi Tanamedrove dramaturgebis nawarmoebTa dadgmas. am mizniT, xSirad igi uars ambobda klasikaze. siaxles eZebda ara mxolod piesebsa da samsaxiobo ostatobaSi, aramed _ warmodgenis scenografiul gadawyvetaSic ki.
sarepertuaro politikaSi antuani ekleqtikaze akeTebda
aqcents. Tavisufali Teatris scena gaxsnili iyo yvela mimarTulebis Tu nebismieri Janris mimdevari Tanamedrove dramaturgebisaTvis. maT Soris iyvnen iseTebic, romelTa nawarmoebebi Tavis droze daiwunes didma profesiulma Teatrebma; TviT safrangeTis upirvelesma, erovnulma Teatrma, komedi fransezmac ki!..
amis Sedegad, Tanamedrove avtoris 115 piesa pirvelad swored
Tavisufal TeatrSi daidga. maT Soris arian dramaturgebi:
emil zola, eJen brio, Zmebi gonkurebi.
es gaxldaT evropaSi pirveli arakomerciuli Teatri. miuxedavad repertuaris ekleqturobisa, antuanma mainc realisturi
Teatri Seqmna, romelic arc Tu iSviaTad, naturalizmisaken ixreboda. misTvis mTavari iyo scenuri simarTle, damajerebloba,
utyuaroba.
Tumc, Tavisufali Teatris dramaturgebisaTvisac damaxasiaTebelia erTgvari sworxazovneba, calmxrivoba, SezRuduloba.
isini cxovrebiseul simarTles eZebdnen qalaquri cxovrebis

Tavisufali Teatri - metafora

167

fskerze, WuWySi, sibinZuresa da simaxinjeSi. swored am dramaturgebma Seqmnes naturalisturi dramis axali Janri, romelsac
komedi ross-s uwodeben. amgvar piesebSi daufaravad warmoaCendnen adamianis cxovrebis im mxares, romelsac zneobis, moralisa da eTikis normebis dacvis gamo, mudam gaurboda franguli
mwerloba Tu sazogadoeba. isini mokle, lakoniuri scenebisagan,
suraTebisagan Sedgeboda, romlebic erTmaneTTan arcTu ise myarad, organulad iyo dakavSirebuli. magram maTSi umTavresi gaxldaT yoveldRiurobis, yofis fiziologiis, naturalurobis,
utyuarobis Seulamazeblad, damajereblad Cveneba. am nawarmoebebis mTavari moqmedi pirni iyvnen: banditebi, meZavebi, qurdebi...
sazogadoebis garkveuli nawili aprotestebda kidec scenaze maTi gamoCenis faqts.
reJisori, mis mier naqadagebi realisturi, naturalisturi Teatris meSveobiT, upirispirdeboda gasarTob, komerciul,
aseve, civ, racionalur e.w. akademiur Teatrs. misTvis absoluturad miuRebeli gaxldaT yvelanairi Teatraluri rutina, xelosnoba da yovelgvari Stampi. antuani qadagebda msaxiobis
organulobas scenaze. mis mier bunebrivi, damajerebeli gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis, xerxebis gamoyenebas. reJisorisaTvis umTavresi iyo moqmedi piris saqcielTa motivaciis marTebulad,
utyuarad gansazRvra-warmoCena.
kidev erTi siaxle, romelic antuanis TeatrSi SeiniSneboda, gaxldaT sruli Tavisufleba winaswar gansazRvruli, dadgenili ampluisagan. vinaidan, dasis birTvs anu absolutur umravlesobas araprofesionalebi Seadgendnen, maT ar boWavdaT ampluis viwro CarCoebi. antuani Tvlidan, rom Tavisufali Teatris
msaxiobma yvelanairi xasiaTis, Janris, ampluis rolis gansaxiereba unda SeZlos. igi, amasTan akritikebda safrangeTSi axalgazrda msaxiobis aRzrdis imxanad arsebul sistemas, meTodologias. reJisors miaCnda, rom axalgazrdas Rupaven sawyis etapzeve; vinaidan, mTeli aqcenti keTdeba cru, paTetiuri, yalbi deklamaciis gamomuSavebaze; agreTve, debiutSive damwyeb msaxiobs
miawebeben garkveul ampluas, romelsac is sicocxlis bolomde
Tavs ver aRwevs.
zemoaRniSnulisagan gansxvavebiT, antuani Zalze didxans,
moTminebiT muSaobda msaxiobTan; ar zRudavda mas ampluiT; iTxovda bunebriv metyvelebas; scenuri gmiris saqcielTa motivaciis amoxsna-gaazrebas; simarTles, utyuarobas, damajereblobas;

168

nikoloz wulukiZe

axal, realistur gamomsaxvelobiT xerxebs, saSualebebs... antuani mouwodebda, urCevda maT realur cxovrebaSi, yofaSi dakvirvebodnen adamianebs; imas Tu yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi vin rogor
iqceva; rogor dadis, rogor metyvelebs, rogor imzireba, rogor gamoxatavs emocias (sixaruls, mwuxarebas)... yovelive es
TandaTan, maragis saxiT unda daegrovebina msaxiobs. Semdeg ki,
ama Tu im rolze muSaobisas realurad gamoeyenebina scenuri saxis damajereblad gasacocxleblad.
droTa ganmavlobaSi, is rac progresulia, axalia, TandaTan yavlgasulad, moZvelebulad gardaiqmneba. naturalizmic
kargavda Tavis a
qtualurobas. xelovnebaSi arsebuli sxva
mimdinareobebis msgavsad, isic avlenda sakuTar naklovanebebs.
eseni gaxldaT: SezRuduloba, calmxrivoba, sworxazovneba. zogierTi kritikosi xmamaRla, daufaravad, mourideblad acxadebda, rom naturalist dramaturgTa piesebi droTa ganmavlobaSi
erTgvar darvinul etiudebad iqca. speqtaklebi statikuria;
adamiani arasrulyofili; vinaidan, mTeli yuradReba gamaxvilebulia mis fiziologiaze, naturalistebi gatacebulni arian mxolod adamianis fsiqikaSi mimdinare procesebiT; mTeli yuradReba
eTmoba klinikur SemTxvevebs, avadmyofur, sneul, moSlil fsiqikas da zRvargadasul fiziologiur moTxovnilebebs. saqme iqamdec ki mivida, rom Tavisufali Teatris erT-erT warmodgenaSi
scenaze namdvili xorcis veeba naWrebs iyenebdnen. mogvianebiT,
msoflio TeatrisaTvis naturalizmma ori mimarTuleba Sva. esenia: e.w. saSinelebaTa Teatri da impresionizmi.
unda aRiniSnos, rom Tavisufali Teatris arsebobam gansazRvra msoflio Teatris Semdgomi ganviTareba. Zalze didi aRmoCnda misi zegavlena evropis sxvadasxva qveynebis Teatralur
cxovrebaze. daxurvidan ori wlis Semdeg, 1898 wels, konstantine stanislavski (aleqseevi) (1863-1938 w.w.) da vladimer nemiroviC-danCenko (1858-1943 w.w.) moskovSi qmnian samxatvro Teatrs, romlis SemoqmedebiTi kredo, ZiriTadi principebi Sors
ar aris antuanis Teatrisagan. Tavisufali Teatris mibaZviT,
evropaSi araerTi Teatri Seiqmna. maT Soris aRsaniSnavia safrangeTsa da germaniaSi daarsebuli Teatrebi. berlinSi cnobilma
kritikosma da reJisorma oto bramma (abrahamsoni) (1856-1912
w.w.) gaxsna Tavisufali Teatri. imave principebis erTgulebiT,
londonSi (inglisi) daarsda damoukidebeli Teatri, xolo
kopenhagenSi (dania) _ Tavisufali Teatri.

Tavisufali Teatri - metafora

169

yovldRiuroba TviTmizani gaxda... - am gamonaTqvamis avtori kote marjaniSvilia. moskovis samxatvro TeatrSi, TiTqmis
3 wliani moRvaweobis Semdeg, man ise datova es saqveynod aRiarebuli dasi, rom sakuTari mrwamsisaTvis ar uRalatia. verc
stanislavskis, verc nemiroviC-danCenkos avtoritetma igi yofiTrealistur, naturalizmamde misuli Teatris erTgul msaxurad
ver aqcia. qarTvel reJisors mtkiced swamda - Teatri mxolod
zeaweuli, dResaswaulebrivi unda iyos. mas uyoymanod sjeroda
- speqtakli realuri cxovrebis zedmiwevniT zusti asli ver
iqneba. igi axal, sxvagvar mxatvrul sinamdviles qmnis. warmodgenas aqvs forma, romelSic ikiTxeba miseuli gadawyveta, Janri,
grZnobaTa buneba: Teatri aris cxovrebisTvis formis micema...
moskovis samxatvro Teatridan wamosvlis Semdeg, marjaniSvili imave wels iwyebs zrunvas, raTa Tavisi saocnebo, sinTezuri Teatri daaarsos. misi survilia, es iyos zeaweuli, feradovani, sadResaswaulo, mravalferovani Teatri; aq SesaZlebeli
unda iyos, rogorc tragediis, dramis, komediis, ise operis,
operetis, baletis, pantomimis dadgma. mokled, imxanad cnobili
yvela Teatraluri Janris speqtakls Tavi unda moeyara mis repertuarSi. TavisTavad, es iTxovda universaluri msaxiobebis
yolas dasSi. erTi SexedviT, avantiuras, utopias ufro waagavda
marjaniSvilis axireba. yvelafers rom Tavi davaneboT, myari
finansuri, materialuri teqnikuri baza, saZirkveli iyo saWiro.
idea marTlac progresuli, im droisaTvis novatoruli gaxldaT. Tumc, imTaviTve ganuxorcieleblad miaCnda bevrs.
saocaria is sijiute da rwmena, dasaxuli miznisadmi erTguleba, romliskenac nabij-nabij miiwevda. Tumc, antuanisagan,
stanislavskisagan, nemiroviC-danCenkosagan gansxvavebiT, igi sul
sxva SemoqmedebiTi kredos Teatrs qmnida. dadgma sruliad ubraloa,... Tavisi realisturi oTaxebiTa da a.S msaxiobebis TamaSi
yofiTi da fotografiul-naturalisturia da amdenad mosawyeni,
yvelaferi araCveulebrivad ubralodaa... da mainc speqtakli STabeWdilebas axdens. esaa amonaridi werilidan, romelic man 1931
wels moskovidan TbilisSi meuRles, msaxiob elene donaurs gamougzavna. igi samxatvro TeatrSi a. afinogenovis SiSs daeswro. miuxedavad samxatvro Teatris SemoqmedebiTi poziciis miuReblobisa, reJisori Sefasebisas mainc obieqturia. ai, swored
am mosawyen erTferovnebas, misTvis ase saZulvel yofiT-realizmsa Tu fotografiul naturalizms ebrZoda mTeli Tavisi Segne-

170

nikoloz wulukiZe

buli cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi. axali Teatri yovelive imas, rac


arsebobda, principulad unda dapirispireboda. Tu mis Semoqmedebas Tvals yuradRebiT gadavavlebT, davinaxavT, rom is mTeli
cxovreba amgvar Teatrze ocnebobda.
1913 wels, moskovSi, Tavisufali Teatri mainc gaixsna.
dRes, XX saukuneSi, msoflio Teatri miiswrafis swored am
sinTezurobisa da universalurobisaken. marjaniSvili amas erTi
saukunis win cdilobda. TiTqos, gangebis bediT, mis gverdiT aRmoCnda v. suxodolski. kaci, romelmac sakuTari saxsrebiT itvirTa Tavisufali Teatris dafinansebis saqme. 1913 wels Tavisufalma Teatrma funqcionireba daiwyo. xelovnebam, Teatrma,
upirvelesad sixaruli unda moganiWos. aq ar unda iyos sitlanqe. sixaruli me mesmis, ra Tqma unda, mxolod farTo gagebiT,
ara rogorc martooden sicili. TeatrSi SeiZleba itiro kidec... _ acxadebda marjaniSvili. axladSeqmnili Teatris ideur-esTetikuri programa amgvari iyo: reJisoris TviTmizani sulac ar gaxldaT morigi Teatris daarseba. imJamindeli ruseTis
imperia, marTlac ar uCioda Teatrebis naklebobas. es ar iyo
arc marjaniSvilis axireba, hqonoda sakuTari, kerZo, piradi Teatri. 1913 wels, k. marjaniSvilma ruseTis araerTi qalaqis
uamrav dasTan imuSava. maT Soris, msoflioSi saxelganTqmul
moskovis samxatvro TeatrSi. mas, rogorc reJisors, ukve
hqonda soliduri gamocdileba, uryevi avtoriteti da mkafio
SemoqmedebiTi kredo; anu, marjaniSvils surda, Seeqmna imgvari
Teatri, romelic misi mxatvrul-esTetikuri Tu moqalaqeobrivmsoflmxedvelobiTi principebis zedmiwevniT Sesatyvisi iqneboda.
unda iTqvas, rom winaaRmdegobaTa da siZneleTa miuxedavad, Tavisufali Teatris ZiriTadi ideur-esTetikuri programa pozitiuri iyo. rutinisa da uxamsobisagan Teatraluri xelovnebis
gaTavisuflebis survili, omis gamocxadeba uniWobisa da uniaTobisaTvis, sasowarkveTilebisa da pesimizmisaTvis, TeatrSi sazeimo atmosferos Seqmna da sinTezuri Teatris da sinTezuri msaxiobis ideis ganxorcieleba _ ai, rogori iyo arsebiTad axlad
dawyebuli saqmis novatoruli winamZRvrebi. samxatvro Teatris
mier naqadageb yofiT realizms, zedmiwevniTi simarTlis Seqmnis
iluzorulobas, naturalizmamde dasuli erTferovani yoveldRiurobis Cvenebas scenaze, marjaniSvili swored sinTezuri Teatris meSveobiT upirispirebda zeaweuli, dResaswaulis, sazeimo, TvalismomWreli, feradovani, dinamikuri sanaxaobis elemen-

Tavisufali Teatri - metafora

171

tebiT gajerebul speqtaklebs. Cemi azriT, es gaxldaT erTgvari


SemoqmedebiTi polemika imJamindel or maestrosTan (k. stanislavski da vl. nemiroviC-danCenko.)
swored am saxelovanma warsulma da metaforulma saxelwodebam _ ,,Tavisufali Teatri ganapiroba CvenSi aseTi popularuli avTandil varsimaSviliseuli Teatris gaxsna...

Nnino popiaSvili

metafora da ironia
mxatvrul teqstSi
(masalebi literaturaTmcodneobis
cnobarisaTvis)
tropi berZnuli sityvaa (berZn.
- Seqceva, Sebruneba) da niSnavs
sityvis an winadadebis gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT xmarebas. romaeli imperatori
markus fabius kvintiliane ase ganmartavda trops: tropi sityvis sakuTari
mniSvnelobis iseTi Secvlaa, roca mniSvneloba mdidrdeba. tropi gulisxmobs
sityvebis an winadadebis arapirdapiri
mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebas, sadac mTavaria,
mkiTxvelma, msmenelma SeZlos mniSvnelobis gamdidrebis xilva, anu im axali
azris danaxva, romelic Cndeba mxatvrul teqstSi sityvis gardasaxvis
meSveobiT. tropis saxeebia: Sedareba,
epiTeti, metafora, litotesi, alegoria,
ironia, hiperbola, metonimia, perifrazi,
simbolo, gapirovneba, oqsimoroni.
sityvebis gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT
gamoyeneba bunebrivad iwvevs mniSvnelobis eqspresias. saTqmeli ufro poeturi,
maRalfardovani, xazgasmuli da aqcentirebuli xdeba. sityva, leqsema kulturul-istoriuli odenobaa. sityvebSi dafiqsirebulia enobrivi koleqtivis, xalxis, eris warmodgenebi samyaroze, cxov-

metafora da ironia mxatvrul teqstSi

173

rebiseuli gamocdilebis Sedegebi. sityvebis gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobiT xmareba aZlierebs saTqmelis mniSvnelobas. leqsikuri
polisemia (berZn. mravalmniSvnelianoba), anu sityvebis mravalmniSvnelobianoba, SesaZloa, sxvadasxva mizezma gamoiwvios. umTavresad ki, es SeiZleba iyos SemTxveviTi (nebismieri), an motivirebuli. sityvas aqvs unari aRniSnos monaTesave cnebebi, Tumca
rodesac sityvis polisemiuri velis gamoyeneba motivi, gansakuTrebiT ki, poeturi, mxatvruli motivi iwvevs, icvleba sityvis Sinaarsi, magram gasagebi rCeba azri, raTa sagani Tu movlena saTanadod warmoCndes. Tanamedrove dazustebiT, tropi aris
mniSvnelobis gadanacvleba, mniSvnelobis gaoreba, gaxleCa,
semantikuri paralelizmi.
tropis sxvadasxva xerxis gamoyenebiT azri damatebiT
iZens emociur datvirTvas. poeturi warmosaxvis gafarToeba da
damatebiTi maxasiaTeblebis CarTva ar abundovanebs saTqmels, mas
kidev ufro sainteresosa da mimzidvels xdis. vaJa-fSavelas
leqsSi aragvs sxvadasxva mxatvrul-gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebaa gaomyenebuli:
...zafxulSi ayvavdebian
mkerdnic ki salis kldisani,
yvavilT pirs ekonebian
civni namcvrevni cisani.
gahyuCebia niavsa
jixvi, yel-yuriT lamazi,
aRar aCxerebs qviSaTa
kldiT kldeze mxtomi gavazi.
xan rom ca maiRrubleba,
Cabneldebian xevebi,
gaCndeba mexTa tkrciali,
aTrToldebian xeebi,
kldeebzed daikeceba
svavTa da arwivT frTeebi.
Tmebs ukuiyris nakadi,
cisak daiwyebs cqerasa,
Sahyurebs gaocebuli
Savis Rrublebis mRerasa.
ra yurma unda gauZlos
im mTebis gulis Zgerasa?!

174

nino popiaSvili

(vaJa-fSavela, aragvs)

mxatvrul teqstSi sityvebis/leqsemebis mniSvnelobebis


gardasaxva iwvevs:
1. sityvis Sinaarsis Sevsebas, mniSvnelobis gafarToebas.
mag,: `erTxel, sarkeSi Caixeda da sarke miwaze daanarcxa.
sarkem uTxra, rom piris mTvarianoba didi xania rac Cahqroboda, brolis naTeli, lalis brdRviali gahxuneboda, Suqdamdgar saRamos mihgavda. misi yvaviliani samzeo daleuliyo.
wyalma waiRo silamazec da Tayvaniscemac!~ (giorgi leoniZe,
fufala)
2. poeqturi eqspresiis gamZafrebas. mag.:
`- wvima ar aris!sabas kaba dausvela ram?!
- Tovli ar aris!sabas Tavi gauTeTra ram ?!
- yinva ar aris!- sulxan sabas akankalebs ra?!
- ram daasvela?!
-ram daaTeTra?!
-ra akankalebs?!saqarTveloa misTvis: wvimac, Tovlic, da yinvac!~
(muxran maWavariani, saba)
mxatvrul nawarmoebSi gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebuli sityva sxvadasxva mniSvnelobas asrulebs. Sesabamisad,
tropis sxvadasxva saxe monawileobs teqstis mxatvrul asaxvaSi.
metafora mxatvruli Sedarebaa, es aris poetur-gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualeba, romlis mixedviTac mxatvrul teqsts Tavisi emociuri datvirTva mkiTxvelamde miaqvs. metafora xSirad
gamoiyeneba xalxur metyvelebaSi. mag.:
`es Cemi guli rasa hgavs?
casa hgavs SemoRrublulsa,
pirSekrul, damZimebulsa,
sawvimrad gamzadebulsa~.

metafora da ironia mxatvrul teqstSi

175

(xalxuri)
metaforaSi sagnebsa da movlenebs iseTi Tvisebebi miewereba, romlebic mas ar axasiaTebs. metafora mxatvrul nawarmoebSi
gansakuTrebul eqspresias, avtoriseul Canafiqrs usvams xazs da
xSirad avtoris individualuri, originaluri stilis, weris maneris maCvenebelia. aristoteles azriT, poets moeTxoveba, daxelovnebuli iyos metaforebSi. metafora _ es aris poeturi gamocana, sadac erTi mxriv, naCvenebia sagnisa Tu movlenis mTavari
niSan-Tviseba, magram meore mxriv, es isea SeniRbuli, simbolizebuli, amasTan, gamxatvrulebuli, gardasaxuli, rom mkiTxvelis
emociebs iwvevs.
SoTa rusTavelis vefxistyaosani cnobilia metaforebis
mravalferovnebiT. maT Soris gamorCeulia poemis personaJebis
garegnobis aRweris dros gamoyenebuli metaforebi. lom-vefxvis
daxocvis Semdeg gulwasuli tarielis gamofxizlebas avtori
ase aRwers:
avTandil mkerdsa daasxa mas lomsa sisxli lomisa;
tariel SekrTa, SeiZra razmi indoTa tomisa,
Tvalni aaxvna, mieca Zali ze wamojdomisa.
lurjad Cans Suqi mTvarisa, mzisagan Suq-nakrTomisa.
(SoTa rusTaveli, vefxistyaosani).
metafora xSirad gamoiyeneba Tanamedrove literaturaSi.
metafora mravalmxrivi poeturi xerxia. is SeiZleba asaxavdes
sagnis an movlenis konkretul Tvisebas an zogad xasiaTs. mag.:
Sen ise Rrma xar, qarTulo cao,
Sen ise Rra xar,
samkvidro Sens qveS mtrad Semosulma
veravin naxa:
verca osmalom, verca monRolma
da verca sparsma...
Seni didebis momReralia
oSki da zarzma,
beberi tao...
Sen ise Rrma xar, ise faqizi,
qarTulo cao
(ana kalandaZe, Sen ise Rrma xar.)

176

nino popiaSvili

ironia (berZn. (eironeia) moCvenebiToba, TvalTmaqcoba) niSnavs TavazianobiT SeniRbul dacinvas, damcinav,
gadakvriT naTqvams TavSekavebuli, seriozuli, mSvidi toniT, garegnulad aqcentirebuli pativiscemiT. ironias farul dacinvasac uwodeben. ironiis, rogorc Janris, fuZemdeblad sokrates
miiCneven. sokrateseuli ironia efuZneba avtoris moCvenebiT gulubryvilobas mowinaaRmdegis poziciis sisustis gamosavlenad.
sokrate ironias iyenebda garkveuli dogmis an sayovelTaod
aRiarebuli mosazrebis absurdulobis saCveneblad. es dogmebi,
rogorc SemdgomSi gamoCnda, moklebuli iyo logikas. sokrateseuli ironia TandaTanobiT da Tanmimdevrulad amxelda miRebuli azris absurdulobas. aseTi ironia saubris eleganturi, miukerZoebeli, Tavaziani xerxia, rodesac oponentis winaaRmdeg
kompromatebs ar moixmoben da arc sxva saxis samxilebs warmoaCenen.
Zvel romSi ironia ritorikis dargi iyo, romelsac iyenebdnen saxalxo gamosvlebSi, maSin sityvas an frazas sapirispiro daniSnuleba hqonda.
ironia xSirad asaxavs sagnis an movlenis sagangebo gazviadebas. mag.:
`sakvirvelia! rusis mxatvrebis suraTebzed ra lamazad
aris xolme gamoyvanili am sqelkisera iamSCikis briyvi saxe,
imisi oyrayuli sanaxaoba, imisi midun-modunebuli zlazvna, uadamiano da pirutyvuli mixvra-moxvra. ramodenadac suraTia kargi, ori imodenad saZagelia namdvili. magram amboben:
. kvamlis sitkboebazed ki
ukacravad, da siamovnebazed ki amas mogaxsenebT, rom kvamli
friad sasiamovnoa, _ pirveli imisaTvis, rom kvamli Tvals efareba da marTlWvretas uSlis, meore imisaTvis, rom kvamli xSirad Tvalidam cremls gvayrevinebs xolme. oh, mamulis kvamlo,
marTla-da tkbili da sasiamovno xar: xandisxan ise agvibam Tvalebs xolme, rom Cven Cvens sakuTars ubedurebasac vera vxedavT~ (ilia WavWavaZe, `mgzavris werilebi~).
ironiaSi gansakuTrebiT TvalnaTlad Cans avtoris negatiuri damokidebuleba garemos, movlenis mimarT. ironias iyeneben
avtorebi, rodesac raime movlenis, miRebuli azris sapirispiro
Sexedulebis warmoCena surT.
`- WeSmaritad, verels araferi gamocvlis. jojoxeTis karTanac is Tavisi quCuri unda gadmoapurWyos. sa-

metafora da ironia mxatvrul teqstSi

177

mocdaaTi wlis kaci xar, joxiT ZlivsRa abijeb, kide meuzdelebi?


- wadi ra, toli naxe. noqrebSi dadeqi.
amgvar xmatkbilaT musaifobda kaklis CeroSi Camomjdari
ori aznauriSvili. Soridan aRwevda nairgvari xma, am tyis
pirze, gaSenebul parkSi ki dasasveneblad Camosxdebodnen
xolme.
- Tqven, vakelebs, xo gaqT Tqveni parki. aq ras moetenebiT?
- es qalaqi yvelasia, barem Slagbaumi daayeneT.
- yvelasia... soflelebis ki ar ari.
- vin ari sofleli?
- yvela vakeli soflelia.
- usmineT, xalxo, vakelebi soflelebi varT, es qalaqelia.
- mamaSeni xo Camovida?
- vina?
- babuaSeni?
- egre mefe ereklec Camosuli iyo.
- vake sad iyo, to, vera ro iyo? vake tye iyo, mindori.
Camovidnen soflelebi da aiSenes saxlebi. bebiaCemi Txebs
uSvebda vakeSi sabalaxod. yanebi qondaT wyneTelebs.
- bebiaSens Tu Txebi yavda, verac sofeli yofila da migawepes am qalaqs, gldaniviT~.
(aka morCilaZe, agvistos paseansi)
arsebobs gamonaTqvami, bedis ironia (ingl. The Irony of Fate,
rus. ), romelic gulisxmobs Seucnobeli Zalis
(RmerTis, bunebis...) mier Cveulebriv mokvdavebze gamiznul ironias. mag. bedis ironias uwodeben genialuri kompozitoris,
ludvig van beThovenis dayruebas.
ironiis iseT formas, rodesac avtori kidev ufro dramatulad warmoaCens sinamdviles, gazviadebis, dadebiTi konteqstis moSveliebiT, sarkazmi hqvia. sarkazmi (berZn. _
danawevreba) niSnavs individis an cxovrebis mankieri mxareebis,
uaryofiTi, miuRebeli sazogadoebrivi movlenebis mware, RvarZlian dacinvas. sarkazmi ebrZvis borotebas, gulqvaobas, mankierebas.

178

nino popiaSvili

literatura
vaJa-fSavela 1987: vaJa-fSavela, Txzulebani, Tb.
kalandaZe 1976: ana kalandaZe, rCeuli, Tb.
kvintiliane 2013: markus fabius kvintiliane, wignSi: `aforizmebi~, Tb.
morCilaZe 2007: aka morCilaZe, agvistos paseansi, Tb.
maWavariani 1991: muxran maWavariani, erTtomeuli, Tb.
leoniZe 1990: giorgi leoniZe, natvris xe, Tb.
WavWavaZe 2011: ilia WavWavaZe, mgzavris werilebi (leqsebi, moTxrobebi, poemebi), Tb.
xalxuri poezia 1961: xalxuri poezia (teqstebi), Seadgina vaxtang kotetiSvilma, Tb.

laSa CxartiSvili

liris Teatri, rogorc


samyaros metafora
(jorjo streleris dadgmis
mefe liris mixedviT)
italielma
reJisorma
jorjo
strelerma Seqspiris mefe liri milanis pikolo TeatrSi 1972 wels dadga.
am droisTvis igi ukve sayovelTao aRiarebuli reJisori iyo: pikolo Teatris kameruli atmosfero xels uwyobda
strelers, Tavi daeRwia pompezuri dekoraciebisa da scenuri sivrcis monumenturi gadawyvetisgan.
streleris mizani iyo, mefe liris magaliTze mTeli italiisa da
msofliosTvis eCvenebina, rom politikuri lideri, romelic mxolod imitom
midis xelisuflebidan, rom kulisebidan
marTos saxelmwifo, kraxs ganicdis da
tanjva, romelic mas am arCevanis Semdeg
Sexvdeba, adamianis Rirsebas Seacnobinebs, razec aqamde arasdros ufiqria.
streleris eqsplikacia didxans
gamokvebavs sxvadasxva Taobis reJisorebs. sivrce damdgmelis mier danaxulia,
rogorc WuWyi da nasisxlari: rom sadRac axlos arsebobs sikvdilis da sicocxlis SesaZlebloba, dabadeba da gamoTxoveba wuTisofelTan _ erTdroulad; aqauroba ganaTebulia bneli SuqiT;

180

laSa CxartiSvili

dabudebula sevdis da sicarielis SegrZneba; adamianebi gagiJdnen da dabrmavdnen, yvelaferi nislSia gaxveuli. strelerTan
es epikuri sivrcea. SegiZlia icxovro SenTvis, marto, gancalkevebulad, personaJebisagan gaucxoebuli logikuri cxovrebiT,
gamoucnobi grZnobebiT. swored, aq aris kontrasti samyaros
sivrcesTan da pirvelyofil sicarielesTan.
formis eqsperimentulobis miuxedavad, streleris nebismieri koncepti mefe liris interpretirebis dros, eqvemdebareba
Tavad Seqspiris koncefcias samyarosa da Teatrze, rac vlindeba
speqtaklSi: moqmedebis areali maqsimalurad uaxlovdeba mayurebels, iWreba masSi (rogorc Seqspiris TeatrSi); amave dros,
samyaro aRiqmeba, rogorc Tavad Teatri, da warmodgenaSi Semodis forma - Teatri TeatrSi.
mefe liris eqsplikaciaSi strelers Cawerili aqvs: ZiriTadi scenuri saxe: Teatri - samyaro, uzarmazari da carieli sivrce, WuWyi, romelic brwyinavs samyaros sxivebis qveS.
talaxze da WuWyze gadebuli xidebi. kavSiri darbazTan. speqtaklSi moqmedeba viTardeba ara marto scenaze, aramed darbazSic1.
streleri iyo pirveli, romelmac gaacocxla da gaaTamaSa
liris Teatri. speqtaklis moqmedi gmirebi, personaJebi, parteridan adian scenaze. manamde isini mayurebels TamaSoben. Tavad
liric msaxiobia, romelic TiTqos ver cnobs gadacmul kents.
liri TamaSobs, radgan jer kidev ar surs, aRiaros Tavisi Secdoma-danaSaulebani. masxara erTaderTia, romelTanac liri ver
TamaSobs. swored masxaras gamoCenisTanave iwyeba liris etapobrivi gardasaxva. es procesi rTulia - SeSlilobis gziT ganwmendil adamianamde.
eliotis unayofo miwa - is pirobiTi adgilia, sadac viTardeba epizodebi, magram sakvanZo scenebi gaTamaSebulia Ria
cis qveS, miwier WuWySi, romelzec (scenaze) daexetebian SeSlilebi da brmebi, romelzec ibadebian da qrebian qariSxlebi.
rogorc Cans, es aris liris moqmedebis logikuri adgili streleris warmosaxvaSi. reJisorma Canafiqri praqtikulad
ase gadawyvita: scena: Teatri - samyaro. Teatri, romelic iqceva samyarod. SeiZleba iyos sferuli, elifsis formis, an saer-

., ., ., 1984., . 265.

liris Teatri, rogorc samyaros metafora

181

Tod, araswori zedapiriT. dafaruli talaxiT. es sfero aris


tragikuli, pirvelqmnili zedapiri: masze Zlivs gadaadgildebian, eflobian talaxSi, isvrebian, roca ecemian. scena carielia,
magram ar aris bneli, rac badebs simZimis da uimedobis gancdas.
haeri gajerebulia mkveTri sinaTliT, misi sxivebi TiTqos Wrilobas ecema. qsovili brWyvialebs, rogorc Sededebuli sisxli.
xidebi scenis centrSi, romlebic mas sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT
kveTen, - es adgili aris interierebisaTvis _ mefis sasaxlisaTvis da sxva. xidebi, darbazSi xumarasTvis da liris mogzaurobisTvis samyaroSi2, ase aRwers sivrces Tavad reJisori.
bunebrivia, strelerma scenuri sivrcis gadawyvetiT Tavi
daaRwia tradiciebsa da arsebul Stampebs. scenaze mkvrivi, Sededebuli masa efina, romelzec adamianTa nakvalevi aRibeWdeboda
da ar iSleboda. aseTi garemo xels uwyobda msaxiobebsac, gansxvavebulad (mZimed, mouxerxeblad) gadaadgilebuliyvnen scenaze. sazogadoeba, romelic ficarnagze moZraobda, xeibrebs mogvagonebda. moqmed pirTa ucnauri siaruli ki personaJTa xasiaTsac
avlenda. scenuri miwis aseTi gadawyveta, mxolod teqnikuri
TvalsazrisiT rodi iyo mniSvnelovani, aramed _ ideuri TvalsazrisiTac.
streleris speqtaklSi, liri garegnulad ar gamoiyureboda, rogorc moxuci despoti. masSi iyo demonuri da despoturi.
liri Tavis Tavs mosiyvarule mamas uwodebs da am gancxadebaSi aris simarTlis marcvalic. streleri fiqrobda, rom yvelaferi es dafarulia feTqebadi xasiaTiT, xelisuflisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli TamaSiT, siberisa da sikvdilis SiSiT. liri mxolod bolos gamoamJRavnebs Tavis asaks: oTxmocamde, radgan
bolos is namdvilad oTxmocis iyo, dasawyisSi ki _ ara. liri,
araviTar SemTxvevaSi, ar unda gamoiyurebodes, rogorc despoti
moxuci, magram masSi unda iyos raRac despoturi3, werda reJisori Tavis eqsplikaciaSi.
strelers surda, pirveli scena jadosnur-zRapruli yofiliyo, raRac gardamavali, saSualo _ TamaSsa da rituals
Soris, romelSic yvelas swams, an ar swams da mxolod mefis

Il Piccolo teatro di Milano. Cinquantanni di cultura e spettacolo. Milano, 1997.


P. 46.
3
., ., ., 1984., . 137

182

laSa CxartiSvili

sjera usityvod, magram, ramdenad Rrmad? scena, sadac arqauli


urTierTobebi SenarCunebulia mxolod Cvevebis gamo da bolo
es scena
dResaswauls aRniSnaven mxolod tradiciis gamo4.
hgavda samyaros, sadac moxucebi martosulebi arian axalgazrdebis brboSi, rom wina Taobisagan mxolod isini (liri, glosteri) darCnen tradiciebis erTguli msaxurebi.
rigi sakiTxebis gadawyvetisas, reJisori eyrdnoboda cxovrebiseuli realobis asaxvas, erTgvar cxovrebis rituals, rogorc Tavisebur tests, romelic arkvevs gmirebis motivaciebs.
Zalebs, romlebic ewinaaRmdegebian ritualebs, kordelia ganasaxierebs. streleri fiqrobda, rom rituali SeuZlebelia, iyos
Secvlili, an, miT umetes, uaryofili. is Jestebisa da sityvebis
sakuTar logikas mihyveba. es ar aris liris gasarTobad Cafiqrebuli warmodgena. es is aris, rac unda gakeTebuliyo, rom
praqtikulad sanqcirebuli yofiliyo liris wasvla. kordelia
arRvevs mTel am istoriulad Seqmnil ritualur konstruqcia buTamaSs, amasTan arRvevs gaufrTxileblad, moulodnelad5.
nebrivia, liri ukve motivirebuli iyo kordelias dasasjelad
da is iwyebs am operacias. mis neba-survils win veravin aRudgeba. arc aravis aqvs survili. erTaderTi kentia, romelic kordeliasaviT isjeba.
samefos gayofis scena daZabul atmosferoSi grZeldeba,
romelic uamrav pirobiTobas Seicavs. samefo ruka qsovilis
gragnilia. mefe mas Suaze xevs. Suaze ixeva avanscenaze CamoSvebuli gamWvirvale fardac, romelic scenasa da parters erTmaneTisgan hyofda, liris qaliSvilebi rom daepatronebian da axalgarecxiliviT TeTreuli, kecaven mas.
simbolurad, es farda samefoa, orad gayofili da gaxleCili. swored am epizodidan iwyeba saxelmwifos rRvevac da adamianebis gaTavisuflebac. swored xelsayrel dros amodioda
parteridan scenaze momxiblavi edmundi. TiTqos aqamde moTminebiT eloda xelsayrel garemos Tavisi miznebis gansaxorcieleblad.
cariel sivrceSi, romelsac personaJebi avsebdnen, yvela bednieria da gamarjvebuli kentis, kordeliasa da liris garda.

4
5

., ., ., 1984., . 37.
iqve, gv. 11.

liris Teatri, rogorc samyaros metafora

183

tino kararos mier warmodgenil mefe lirs kordelias samefodan gaZevebisTanave etyoboda, rom acnobierebda daSvebul
Secdomas. ikeTebda saTvales, rac simbolurad imis mauwyebeli
iyo, rom ukve uWirda realobis danaxva da aRqma. amis miuxedavad, garegnulad liri mefur didebulebas ar kargavda. liris
garegnuli metamorfoza qaliSvilebTan Sexvedrebis Semdeg iwyeboda. qaliSvilebTan kamaTis Semdeg, is ixsnida samefo atributikas da garboda scenidan masxarasTan erTad.
Sinagani metamorfoza ki lirs gacilebiT adre daewyo. maSin, roca mxsnelad masxara moevlina. masxara kordelias pirdapiri Camnacvlebeli aRmoCnda. kordeliasa da masxaras rolebs
erTi da igive msaxiobi _ otavia pikolo asrulebda.
Tu me vandob masxaras da kordelias rols erTsa da imave msaxiobs, miviReb scenaze imave aRrevas, romelic iyo elisabediseul TeatrSi6, werda jorjo streleri. Tumca, elisabedur TeatrSi, piriqiT iyo. kordelias rols kaci asrulebda.
qalebs ar SeeZloT scenaze TamaSi. streleri Tvlida, rom es
pasaJi namdvili revolucia iqneboda Tanamedrove italiur TeatrSi. es iqneboda Seqspiris epoqis Teatraluri tradiciebisa da
xerxebis erTgvari aRorZinebis mcdeloba. maSin aseTi ram TeatrSi warmoudgenlad miaCndaT.
streleris am xerxma Taviseburad axsna piesaSi masxarasa
da kordelias mudmivi monacvleobis sakiTxi, masxaras moulodneli gauCinareba. streleri werda: aris raRac idumali kavSiri masxaras da kordelias Soris. masxara, romelsac uyvars
kordelia da itanjeba, roca mas aZeveben, ufro kordelias masxara iyo, vidre liris. meore mxriv, masxara gvaiZulebs, ufro
Zlierad vigrZnoT kordelias aryofna. misi pirveli sayvedurebi,
gamoTqmuli mefis mimarT kordelias sayvedurTa msgavsia. masxara ganuwyveteli sikeTea, romelic yovelTvis rCeba _ gaZevebis Semdegac. masxarasa da lirs Soris Znelad asaxsneli kavSiria, erTgvarad _ nazic. masxara sikeTea, romelic rCeba liris
gverdiT7.

Strehler Gioegio., Per un Teatro umano., feltrinelli Editore., Milano, 1974. p. 9.


Strehler Gioegio., Per un Teatro umano., feltrinelli Editore., Milano, 1974. p. 912

184

laSa CxartiSvili

safinalo epizodSi, roca lirs mklavze gadawvenili kordelias cxedari Semohyavda, scena namdvil sasaflaos hgavda,
liri ki ukve namdvili sigiJis axal fazaSi gadadioda. igi bolomde ver acnobierebda mware realobas da imeds ar kargavda,
rom kordelias sikvdilisgan ixsnida. mis gacocxlebas Seecdeboda, wamoayenebda, xelebs auTamaSebda. liri fiqrobda, rom
kordelias sZinavs, amitom cxedars gverdiT miuwveboda da masTan erTad daiZinebda, albaT, samudamod.
streleri finalSi kordelias gatexil Tojinas adarebs
da lirs bolo frazas aTqmevinebs: Sen CamogaxrCves, Cemo sabralo masxarav! reJisori kidev erTxel xazs usvamda kordeliasa da masxaras identifikaciis sakiTxs: liris aRmoCena, rom
misi kordelia _ es aris masxara _ yvelaferia. Tu masxara
Cndeboda TeTri klounis saxiT, kordelia am scenaSi Sav kabaSi
gamowyobili. roca liri eTamaSeboda kordelias sxeuls, rogorc Tojinas, kordelias saxe masxaras mogvagonebda.
streleris Semoqmedebis rusi mkvlevari, Teatrmcodne viqtor gurCenko askvnis, rom streleris meTodis gansakuTrebuloba da mTeli sirTule isaa, rom eposi da lirika, kosmosi da
yofa mis TeatrSi aris organuli nawili, rogorc erTi mTlianoba ... miTi da realoba mis speqtaklebSi erTdroulad arsebobs, rac kontrasts ki ar qmnis, aramed sinTezur Tanacxovrebas. streleris mefe lirSi konfliqti formebsa da gamomsaxvelobiT xerxebs Soris ki ara, situaciebs Sorisaa. es pasaJi
erT-erT im umniSvnelovanes niSanTagania, romelic strelers
sxva reJisorebisgan gamohyofs da ganasxvavebs.
muSaobis aseTi meTodi jorjo strelers bevr sirTulesa
da winaaRmdegobas uqmnida, magram man yvela barieri gadalaxa da
dasZlia. rogorc mkvlevrebi miiCneven, Seqspiris mefe liri
reJisoris SemoqmedebaSi amis naTeli magaliTia.

Ddiana anfimiadi

erTi leqsis Targmanis


paraleluri korpusis
agebis principebi
kompiuteruli teqnologiebis ganviTarebam da am mimarTulebis mniSvnelovanma adgilma mecnierebis, kulturis,
xelovnebis sferosa Tu sayofacxovrebo
dargebSi, Seqmna sxvadasxva Teoriuli
sakiTxis damuSavebisa da gamoyenebiTi instrumentebis ganviTarebis aucilebloba.
maT rigs miekuTvneba eleqtronuli korpusi da korpusis lingvistika, rogorc
enaTmecnierebis axali, aqtualuri da
yoveldRiurad ganviTarebadi dargi.
korpusis lingvistika biZgs aZlevs sxvadasxvagvari kvleviTi instrumentebis Seqmnas. msoflio samecniero
sivrceSi gavrcelebuli korpusuli ciebcxeleba, rogorc iqna, qarTul samecniero sivrcesac aqtiurad gadaedo,
ris Sedegadac, dRes, SegviZlia viamayoT,
rom ramdenime Zalian mniSvnelovani korpusis mflobelebi varT. TandaTan, korpusebis raodenoba ufro gaizrdeba, maTi
momxmareblis
unarebis
ganviTarebis
kvaldakval, gveqneba mravali Tematuri,
paraleluri
Tu
multilingvisturi
korpusi, rac kvlevis gamravalferovnebas da gaadvilebas Seuwyobs xels.
paraleluri korpusi aris sxvadasxva enaze Seqmnili, rTulad organi-

186

diana anfimiadi

zebuli teqstebis sistema _ ese igi, sayovelTao gagebiT, originali teqstis da Targmnili teqstis Sepirispireba. am instrumentis Seqmna erTnairad aucilebelia rogorc qarTuli enis
srulyofilad Sesaswavlad, ise qarTuli poeturi azrovnebis
kvlevisa da, rac mTavaria, misi adgilis msoflio kulturul
paradigmaSi gansasazRvrad.
mcire poeturi korpusi, romlis anotirebis principebzec
am statiaSi visaubrebT, ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis
saxelwifo universitetis arnold Ciqobavas saxelobis institutis kompiuterul monacemTa damuSavebis ganyofilebaSi mzaddeba
da qarTuli poeturi korpusis subkorpusad moiazreba.
am qvekorpusSi ganTavsdeba msoflio poeturi Sedevrebis
qarTuli Targmanebi. korpusis eqskluzivi isaa, rom erTian korpusul sivrceSi ganTavsdeba erTi leqsis yvela Targmani, sxvadasxva dros, sxvadasxva mTargmnelis mier sxvadasxvagvari teqnikiT Sesrulebuli.
korpusis ZiriTadi masala gamomcemloba inteleqtis mier gamocemuli seria erTi Sedevris yvela qarTuli Targmania,
garda amisa, korpusis teqsturi baza sxva TargmanebiTac Seivseba, igegmeba specialurad am korpusisTvis Targmanebis momzadebac.
dResdReobiT msoflioSi arsebul sxvadasxva poetur korpusebSi anotirebis sxvadasxvagvari principebia, im miznidan Tu
Sedegidan gamomdinare, romelic konkretul resurss aqvs.
gansakuTrebiT popularulia morfologiurad da sintaqsurad anotirebuli poeturi korpusebi. oqsfordis universitetis
poeturi korpusi, romelic monacemTa vizualizaciis saSualebasac iZleva, anotirebis fonetikur, morfologiur da sintaqsur
dones iyenebs, rusuli nacionaluri korpusis qvekorpusi poeturi korpusi, romelic gansakuTrebul yuradRebas morfologiur anotirebaze akeTebs. aseTive struqtura aqvs amerikuli poeziis korpuss.
mniSvnelovani da qarTuli korpusuli gamocdilebisaTvis
sruliad axalia Cveni korpusis Sedgenis meTodika, rac, fonologiuri, morfologiuri analizisa da anotirebis garda semiotikur anotirebasac gulisxmobs. es imas niSnavs, rom semiotikur niSanSi aRmniSvnelaRsaniSnis urTierTmimarTebis saxeebis
xatis, indeqsisa da simbolos mixedviT moxdeba mxatvruli saSualebebis markireba, rac erTian, advilad gasageb da gamosayene-

erTi leqsis Targmanis paraleluri korpusis agebis principebi

187

bel sistemaSi daalagebs maT. agreTve, saSualebas mogvcems, davakvirdeT konkretuli mxatvruli saxis meore enaSi gadmocemis
alternatiul saSualebebs. miRebuli daskvnebi SesaZloa warmatebiT gamoiyenon qarTuli xelovnuri inteleqtis Seqmnaze momuSave specialistebma.
qvekorpusi gaaerTianebs qarTulad naTargmn poezias, kerZod ki, pirvel etapze gamomcemloba inteleqtis mier ganxorcielebul erTi Sedevris yvela qarTuli Targmanis masalas. aq
erTi konkretuli poeturi teqstis 50ze meti Targmania warmodgenili, romelic sxvadasxva dros erTmaneTisgan sruliad
gansxvavebulma mTargmnelebma Seasrules, (inteleqtma 10ze
meti aseTi krebuli gamosca, romlebSic cnobili leqsebi TavianTi mravali TargmaniT aris warmodgenili). garda amisa, gamoviyenebT sxvadasxva mTargmnelobiTi konkursebisa da literaturuli seminarebis (vorkSopebis) samuSao teqstebs, sxvadasxva dros
gamocemul poetur Targmanebsa da anTologiebs.
aseTi tipis paraleluri korpusi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania literaturuli Targmanis, rogorc kulturis dargisa
Tu mecnierebis, ganviTarebisTvis.
mokled ganvixilav erTi leqsis Targmanis paraleluri
korpusis agebisa da anotirebis principebs:
rogorc ukve aRvniSne, pirvel etapze korpusSi ganTavsdeba gamomcemloba inteleqtis erTi Sedevris Targmanis seriis
teqstebi, literaturuli konkursis masala, agreTve sxva iseTi
poeturi teqstebi, romelTa Targmani qarTul enaze ramdenime
mTargmnelma Seasrula.
teqstis eleqtronuli versiis Sidastruqturuli damuSavebis, markirebis da metamonacemebis damuSavebis, balansirebis
Semdeg viwyebT anotirebis etapebs.
fonetikuri anotireba moawesrigebs poeturi enisTvis damaxasiaTebel mraval specifikur elements, rogorebicaa:
riTmis sakiTxi rogorc zusti, ise arazusti
marcvlovnoba
melodikuri struqtura
fonosemantikuri sakiTxebi
leqsis fonetikuri palitraasonansi, disonansi, evfonia
da a.S.
maxvili da sxva.

188

diana anfimiadi

Zalian saintereso safexuria morfologiuri anotireba,


romelic tokenebs gramatikuli funqciebis mixedviT moniSnavs.
es Targmanis korpusisaTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, vinaidan, erTi morfologiuri erTeuli SeiZleba sxva erTeulis saSualebiT iTargmnos, an sulac ramdenime erTeuli Seesabamebodes, am yvelafris struqturuli saxiT warmodgena gansakuTrebiT gaaadvilebs mxatvruli Targmanis lingvisturi Seswavlis
process, Seqmnis garkveul paradigmas da gamoaCens ufro moxerxebuli Targmanis SesaZleblobas. korpusis morfologiuri anotireba warimarTeba avtomaturad gamoviyenebT qarTuli saliteraturo enis analizators Geo Trans-s. omonimiis moxsna naxevradavtomaturi iqneba, radgan analizatori Tavad qmnis mosalodneli omonimiis mqone sityvaTa siebs. Seiqmneba lematizaciis
Semowmebisa da omonimiis moxsnis programuli instrumentebi
(Tools), romelTa saSualebiTac moxdeba konteqstur realizaciebTan mimarTebiT omonimuri mniSvnelobebis dadgena omonimiis
moxsna (disambiguacia).
qarTuli korpusuli gamocdilebisaTvis erTgvari eqskluziviasemiotikuri anotirebis etapi, rodesac tokens mieniWeba markeri imis mixedviT, Tu aRmniSvnelsa da aRsaniSns Soris
rogori urTierTmimarTebaa sityvaSi. magaliTad, ZiriTadad, poeturi Sedareba xatia iSviaT SemTxvevaSi indeqsi, maSin, rodesac metafora, ZiriTadad, simboloa. amdenad, erTi, semiotikuri
anotirebis Sedegad, Cven SevZlebT davakvirdeT, rogor icvlis
semiotikur bunebas, gnebavT, semiotikur arss poeturi niSani
mxatvruli Targmanisas, rogori sistemuri cvlilebebi arsebobs,
da am cvlilebebis mizezis dadgenasac SevZlebT. rac mTavaria,
poeturi enis kvlevis saSualeba am korpusis daxmarebiT, faqtobrivad, usazRvro iqneba, magaliTad, Cven SevZlebT vnaxoT erTi lingvisturi erTeuli rogor gamoiyeneba semiotikuri niSnis
samive saxeobis funqciiT, rogor gadaiqceva martivi enobrivi niSani poeturi enis nawilad, rogori funqcia da unari aqvs romelime konkretul enas, gamoxatos niSnis semiotikuri niuansebi
da aS.
specialur redaqtorSi SesaZlebeli iqneba semiotikur erTeulTa moniSvna (taging) specialurad SerCeuli markerebiT
(tag). aseTi anotirebis procesSi Seqmnili siebi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT axali poeturi teqstebis avtomaturi semiotikuri anotirebis erT-erT instrumentad; proeqtis gasrulebis Semdeg

erTi leqsis Targmanis paraleluri korpusis agebis principebi

189

korpusSi, garda Cveulebrivi konkordansisa, SesaZlebeli iqneba


sxvadasxva semiotikuri erTeulebis leqsikonebis, agreTve riTmaTa indeqsis avtomaturad generireba; sariTmo erTeulebis leqsikur-semantikuri, sityvawarmoebiTi da formawarmoebiTi maCveneblebis statistikuri warmodgena; aliteraciis yvela SemTxvevis zustad aRnusxva da a. S. saintereso iqneba kolokaciebze
dakvirvebac, rogorc sintaqsuri, agreTve poeturi semantikis
TvalsazrisiT.
erTi leqsis Targmanis paraleluri korpusi qarTul
enaTmecnierebasa da TargmanmcodneobaSi kvlevis axal perspeqtivebs gaaCens, garda amisa, es iqneba Zalian mniSvnelovani damxmare
resursi mxatvruli literaturis mTargmnelTaTvis.
sxvadasxva ena sxvadasxva msoflxedvaa, _ Tu am, ukve
frTian gamoTqmad qceuli, Tezidan gamovalT, maSin Targmani ara
mxolod teqstis, aramed msoflmxedvelobis sxva enaze warmodgenil variaciad warmogvidgeba, Sesabamisad, Cveni poeturi korpusi qarTuli enis unaris warmoadginos sxva enis metaforuli azrovneba sxvadasxva saSualebebiT amsaxveli instrumenti
iqneba.
literatura
m.TandaSvili, z furcxvaniZe, korpuslingvisturi paradigma enaTmecnierebaSi, frankfurtis lingvisturi wre,
2014 weli;
erTi Sedevris qarTuli Targmanis seria, gamomcemloba inteleqti, 2011 w.
poeziis saerTaSoriso portali http://lyricline.com/
internetbiblioTeka lib.ge
Targmanis konkursi, gamomcemloba diogene, masalebi;
Analysis of a Corpus of Poetry,
http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=37743

zeinab kikviZe

metaforis miTosuri
genezisi da misi
paradigmebi
Tanamedrove literaturis-mcodneobaSi metafora erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi tropia, romelic mudmivad rCeba
literaturuli Txzulebis mxatvrulobis ganmsazRvrelad. misi warmoSoba preistoriul epoqasa da samyaros miTosur
msoflaRqmas ukavSirdeba. Sesabamisad,
metafora dgas anTropomorfuli warmodgenebis saTaveebTan. metaforas xSirad gansazRvraven rogorc metyvelebiTi
an vizualuri instrumentis gamoxatulebas, romlis funqciuri daniSnulebaa
gansazRvruli niSan-Tvisebebis realobis
erTi Sridan meore SreSi gadatana. jeimz uotsonisa da en hilis ganmartebiT,
metafora ar aris mxolod gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualeba, aramed enis funqciis-rogorc realobis amsaxvelisa da ganmsazRvrelis_ Semadgeneli nawilia.
pirvelyofili adamianis samyarosadmi damokidebulebam, aRqmam da gaazrebam e.w. ,,miTosuri logika gaaCina. romlis umTavresi principi is iyo, rom
pirvelyofili adamiani sakuTar me-s ar
gamoyofda garemomcveli samyarosgan _
bunebisa da sociumisgan. amave dros ar
xdeboda logikuri difuziis elementebis gamijvna emociuri, afeqtur-motoru-

metaforis miTosuri genezisi da misi paradigmebi

191

li sferodan. aqedan gamomdinare, warmoiSva garemomcveli sagnebis miamituri gaadamianeba da sayovelTao personifikacia, farTo, ,,metaforuli gaazreba bunebrivi Tu kulturuli anu adamianTa qmedebis Sedegad gaCenili obieqtebisa.
garemomcvel bunebaze, mis sagnebsa da movlenebze adamians
gadahqonda sakuTari Tvisebebi, miawerda maT Tavis grZnobebsa da
sicocxles. pirvelyofil adamians swamda, rom mis irgvliv arsebul samyaros movlenebsa da sagnebs iseTive SegrZnebebi hqondaT, rogoric Tavad mas. am warmodgenebs Seqcevadi xasiaTic
hqonda, anu garemomcveli samyaro uerTdeboda adamians, masSi badebda erTianobis gancdas. amis dasturad SeiZleba totemizmic
davasaxeloT, romlis mixedviT adamiani sakuTar Tavs aigivebda
cxovelTan an mcenaresTan da sjeroda Tavisi tomis, klanis totemisgan warmomavloba. yvelaferi es ki ukavSirdeboda RvTaebaTa
Tayvaniscemasa da maTdami miZRvnil rituals, rac aisaxeboda
enaSi da gadaecemoda Taobebs.
ena iyo da aris miTosuri interpretaciebis erTgvari sacavi. amis Sesaxeb klod levi-strosi saubrobs Tavis fundamentur naSromSi ,,pirvelyofili azrovneba (levi-strosi,1992).
mas ena miaCnia universalur sistemad, romelSic kodirebulia
arqedroSi adamianis mier SemuSvebuli msoflaRqmis elementebi,
romlebic pirdapir kavSirSia miTosur warmodgenebTan. ena asaxavs samyaros mTlianobas, romelic ukavSirdeba e.w. ,,aracnobier
struqturas, romelic Zevs TiToeuli tradiciis, wes-Cveulebisa Tu socialuri wyobis safuZvelSi. aracnobieri struqturidan momdinare saxe-simboloebi igive arqetipebi an pirvelyofili
saxeebia. isini gvevlinebian garkveuli warmosaxvebis warmomqmnelad, romlebic, SesaZloa, meryeobdnen detalebSi, magram ar
kargaven TavianT bazisur sqemas (levi-strosi, 1992,57).
miTi antikur filosofiaSive moiazreboda poeziis sayrdenad, ramdenadac miTosur xedvaSi sagnebsa da movlenebs aRmniSvnelTan pirdapiri damokidebulebis garda metaforuli, gadataniTi mniSvnelobac hqondaT. cneba ,,gadatana aristoteles mier
,,poetikaSi metaforasTan dakavSirebiTaa gamoyenebuli: ,,yvelaze
mniSvnelovania, SearCio kargi metafora, niSnavs zustad daafiqsiro msgavseba sagnebsa da movlenebTan. nebismieri metafora
mkiTxvelisagan moiTxovs, mwerlis an poetis mier Seqmnili saxis wvdomisaTvis daZabos yuradReba, moikribos azri da aamoqmedos warmosaxva (xelovnebis enciklopediuri leqsikoni, 1989).

192

zeinab kikviZe

uZveles droSi mxatvruli azrovneba miTosis formiT


vlindeboda. calkeuli miTosuri Sinaarsis himnebi da simRerebi
gamoxatavda romelime RvTaebisadmi mowiwebasa da morCilebas,
maTi xSiri Sesrulebis Sedegad mosaxleobaSi myardeboda rwmena
da grovdeboda codna poliTeisturi panTeonis Sesaxeb. platoni
miiCnevda, rom berZnuli civilizacia, upiratesad, RvTaebrivi
wesrigis anarekli iyo. klasikur literaturaSi moqmed pirebad
adamianebis garda centralur adgils RvTaebebi da miTosuri arsebebi ikavebdnen. adamianTa sazogadoebasTan maTi Tanaarseboba
aRiqmeboda Cveulebriv movlenad. antikuri periodis adamianebs
ar hqondaT imis gancda, rom RvTaebrivi sauflo maTgan ganyenebulad arsebobda. RmerTebi ereodnen maT cxovrebaSi, ganusazRvravdnen arsebobis wess, adamianebis msgavsad hqondaT emociebi
da grZnobebi.
samyaros Secnobis aseTi metafizikuri damokidebuleba gamosWvivis yvela uZvelesi kulturis mqone eris miTosSi. miTologiuri msoflaRqma ganapirobebda enis leqsikur wiaRSi ZiriTadi verbaluri mniSvnelobebis garda konotaciuri gansazRvrebebis warmoSobas. metwilad es procesi unda dakavSireboda metamorfozul movlenas (r. canava, 2009, 78).
,,miTologiaSi metamorfoza niSnavs cocxali arsebebis an
nivTebis gardasaxvas sxva arsebebad an nivTebad. metamorfozebis
arqauli formebi asaxavs adreuli miToepikuri poeturi azris
yvelaze arsebiT Strixebs, kerZod, warmodgenas, rom erTi SeiZleba gamovlindes dauTvleli, Semoufarglavi, mravlobiTi saxiT. metamorfozas arsebiTi funqcia ekisreba kosmogoniur miTosSi. msoflios uZvelesi kulturebis matarebeli xalxebisTvis kargadaa cnobili miTi, rogor Seiqmna samyaro mokluli da
danawevrebuli (RvTaebis (mag. SumerSi TiamaTi, veila), goliaTis, an romelime arsebis) sxeulis nawilebiT. erT-erTi popularuli motivia RvTaebebis droebiTi metamorfozebi. TvalsaCinoa etiologiuri miTebisa da metamorfozebis organuli kavSiri, aseve usulo sagnebis gasulierebisa da gardasaxvis motivi.
poetikis mixedviT, metamorfoza arc tropia, arc metyvelebis figura, magram mniSvnelovani funqcia ekisreba mxatvrul
teqstebSi. ismis kiTxva: ra datvirTva aqvs metamorfozas poetikis konteqstSi? metamorfoza warmarTuli religiuri azrovnebisa da miTopoeturi azrovnebis SemaerTebeli rgolia. metamorfoza aris saazrovno meqanizmi, Tu gnebavT, universaluri for-

metaforis miTosuri genezisi da misi paradigmebi

193

mula, romelic SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc qvecnobierisa da


samyaros wvdomis fenomeni. metamorfozaSi kodirebulia urTierToba aRmniSvnelsa da aRsaniSns Soris. igi (metamorfoza) xels
uwyobs xatis, simbolos, figuris warmoSobas (r. canava,2008).
miTosuri msoflaRqmis epoqaSi samyaro ar iyofoda obieqturi aRqmisa da subieqturi SegrZnebis nawilebad; Tumca am nawilebis arseboba TavisTavad igulisxmeboda, magram ara calke,
aramed erToblivad, erTmaneTisagan gamouyoflad. fridrix kroiceri Tavis naSromSi ,,simboluri formebis alegoria (fr.kroiceri,1978) miuTiTebs, rom ,,miTosur warmodgnaSi ar xdeba totaluri kompleqsis daSla Semadgenel nawilebad. arsebobs mxolod erTiani, ganuyofeli mTlianoba, romelmac ar icis dayofa
obieqturi aRqmisa da subieqturi mgrZnobelobis faqtorebad,
amitomac miTosuri msoflaRqma Tavis TavSi aerTianebs semantikur da interpretaciul damokidebulebas aRsaniSnsa da aRmniSvnels Soris.
metamorfozuli procesebis Sedegad yalibdeba metaforuli damokidebuleba, romelic iTvaliswinebs erTi arsidan(sagnidan, movlenidan) meoreSi Tvisebriobis gadatanas. masSi devs
kosmogoniuri niuansi. rogorc miTosuri aseve bibliuri principis Sesaqme iTvaliswinebs metaforulobas _ ,,saxed da xatad
qmnas. pirvelarsi unda ganmeordes, gadavides sxva arsSi, oRond
ise, rom Seiqmnas sruliad ,,axali da, amave dros, ,,ganmeorebuli. faqtobrivad, metaforis anatomia aucileblad gulisxmobs
im maradiul wrebrunvas, romelic esoden damaxasiaTebelia miTosisaTvis. miTi aRiarebulia mudmivmoqmed fenomenad, romelic
zesivrculi da zedroulia, radgan arqedrosa da arqesivrceSi
pirvelmizezis mier SemuSavebuli damokidebulebebi usasrulod
SeiZleba ganmeordes. am safuZvelze gaCenili metaforebi TandaTan mdidrdeba konotaciebiT da simbolod yalibdeba. xelovnebis
yvela dargi suldgmulobs am mravalferovani mniSvnelobis mqone metaforebiT, romlebic gadadian erTi Txzulebidan meoreSi,
Tan mihyvebaT asociaciur warmodgenaTa jaWvi da nebismier diskursSi iReben gacilebiT ufro met mniSvnelobas, vidre Semoqmedi gaiTvaliswinebda.
miTosur da poetur metaforebs Soris ar aris principuli gansxvaveba, radgan orive SemTxvevaSi sagnis adgilas dgeba
xati anu saxe. cvalebadi sinamdvile miTis maradiul elementeb-

194

zeinab kikviZe

Si vlindeba, romlebic epoqidan epoqas gadaecema da iRebs mudmivi simbolos formas. metaforebSi erTiandeba ramdenime sagnobrivi mniSvneloba. amis safuZvelze sacnobaro leqsikonebSi metaforis or tips gamoyofen: erTia, roca konkretuli sagani mxolod igulisxmeba, rac sakmaod kargad Cans. am tipis metaforebis safuZvelze SesaZloa aigos alegoria. meore tipSi ki gaerTianebulia ramdenime sagnobrivi mniSvneloba. es metaforebi mravalmxriv SeiZleba iqnas gagebuli da dauaxlovdes simbolos.
metaforis funqcia farTovdeba alegorizmis safuZvelzec,
radgan aRmniSvnels ufarTovdeba semantikuri veli da sabolood, metafora yalibdeba polimerul mxatvrul saxed, romelic aRar aris mxolod erTi sagnis an movlenis gadataniTi
mniSvnelobiT ganmsazRvreli. is moiazreba diaqroniuli da sinqronuli plastebis damtev enobriv erTeulad, romelic, aseve,
iTavsebs asociaciuri mexsierebis jaWvs.
alegorizmis principic msgavsebis SemCnevasa (fiqsaciasa)
da gadatanas efuZneba. metaforaSi alegoriulobis mniSvnelobis
CatvirTva uSualod miTosur interpretaciasa da metamorfozul qmedebebs unda ukavSirdebodes. am SemTxvevaSi yalibdeba
myari alegoriuli saxeebi, romlebic aRniSnavs adamianis romelime Tvisebas, Tumca isic unda vTqvaT,, rom aseTi konotaciebis
arseboba igav-arakebSi ufro myardeba, radgan swored igavis Janruli Tavisebureba moiTxovs alegorizmis princips. adamianur
TvisebaTa gadatana romelime cxovelze an frinvelze, an kidev
qvewarmavalze miTosuri msoflaRqmidan gadmosuli xerxia. ufro
sworad, arqedroSi adamianis azrovnebaSi gaCenili miTosuri
diskursis anareklia. miTosur xedvaSi umTavresi iyo analogiebis principi.
levinsonis azriT, metaforis interpretacia unda eyrdnobodes adamianis zogad unar-Tvisebas, iazrovnos analogiebiT.
Tumca metafora ufro farTo mniSvnelobis damtevi terminia.
swored asociaciuri azrovneba afarToebs metaforis semantikur
vels, romelic ganfenilia drosa da sivrceSi. aTvlis wertilad ki is arqetipebi unda CaiTvalos, romlebic miTosur msoflaRqmaSi Camoyalibda. epoqidan epoqaSi konkretuli metaforuli gamonaTqvami iTavsebda droiTi da sivrciTi lokalis paradigmas, mdidrdeboda asociaciuri codnis safuZvelze da iqceoda metafora-simbolod. es ukanaskneli ki uamravi plastis saSualebas iZleva.

metaforis miTosuri genezisi da misi paradigmebi

195

amdenad, metafora SeiZleba ganvixiloT: rogorc miTosuri


warmodgenebis aRmniSvneli; rogorc literaturuli mxatvruli
saxe; rogorc alegoria da simbolo; rogorc adamianis cnobierebaSi arsebuli samyarosadmi sxvadasxvagvari damokidebulebis
gamomvleni koncepti.
literatura
kroiceri 1978: . . .
.1978.
levinsoni 1983: S. Levinson, Pragmatics, Cambridge University Press
miuleri 2005: Ralph Mller, Creative Metaphors in Political
Discourse. Theoretical considerations on the basis of Swiss
Speeches, Amsterdam
http://www.metaphorik.de/09/mueller.pdf
petriaSvili 2010: i. petriaSvili, metafora da politikuri
diskursis pragmatika//OCTOBER 11,
2010https://semioticsjournal.wordpress.com/tag
levi-strosi 1992: . _. . .
1992
levi-strosi 1970: . . 7.
1970..
canava 2008: r. canava, metafora da metamorfoza, sjani, 2008,
#9
xelovnebis enciklopediuri leqsikoni, 1989 //www.nplg.gov.ge

Eeka Txilava
politikuri metaforebi
socialur reklamaSi
adamianTa yofas, cxovrebis wess,
damokidebulebebsa Tu faseulobebs Tanamedrove msoflioSi mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs reklamis faqtori. igi komunikaciis erTgvari relevanturi saSualebacaa. mniSvnelovania, rom ar arsebobs azrovneba mexsierebis gareSe, SegrZneba ki - emociis gareSe. reklamis
mTavari arsic swored am niuansSia - azrovneba, mexsiereba, emocia, romelic
cvlis warmodgenebs konkretuli sagnebis, qveynebisa Tu adamianebis mimarT.
reklamis fsiqologia martivicaa da
rTulic - adamianis cnobierisa da qvecnobieris marTva sasurveli mimarTulebiT; aqedan gamomdinare, sareklamo biznesi sakmaod saxifaTo da riskiani TamaSicaa sazogadoebasTan, radgan arasdros
viciT, realurad vis an ras gvawvdis misi Semqmneli, qvecnobieris ra nawilSi
surs SeRweva da ratom. realurad, reklamis mizania, momxmarebels Seuqmnas
fsiqologiuri ganwyoba raimes SesaZenad,
magram es unda ganxorcieldes darwmunebis xerxebis safuZvelze. darwmunebis
xerxebi, TavisTavad, araerTgvarovania da
moicavs fers, xmas, moZraobaa da mimika,
rac mTavaria, is iTvaliswinebs ganwyobas, romlis umTavresi misiaa sazogadoe-

politikuri metaforebi socialur reklamaSi

197

bis marTva konkretuli miznisken. adamianebi nebayoflobiT, magram umetes SemTxvevaSi gaucnobiereblad erTvebian saxifaTo TamaSSi. marketologi Cak bloris azriT, reklama aris adamianis
azrovnebis damatyvevebeli zustad imdeni xniT, ramdenic saWiroa misgan didi raodenobis fulis misaRebad. maSasadame, reklama is legaluri qurdia, romelsac nebayoflobiT vaZarcvinebT
Tavs yoveldRiurad. Tumca, xifaTi zogjer scildeba mxolod
Zarcvas da ufro masStabur, fsiqologiur ganwyobas qmnis, vidre es erTi SexedviT Cans. misi roli gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania politikur WrilSi. arc Tu iSviaTad gvxvdeba msoflio
sareklamo bazarze e.w. politikuri metaforebi, qveteqstebi,
romlebic komerciul miznebze gacilebiT metia da saxifaTo
rogorc politikuri, ise fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT. saSiSia
imdenad, ramdenadac politikur metaforebsa da qveteqstebs aqvs
gansakuTrebuli Zala, gaaerTianos pragmatuli da lingvisturi
codna kulturis, ideologiisa da istoriis gaTvaliswinebiT.
garkveuli politikuri metaforis matarebelia Sokoladi tviqsis reklama, romelic ramdenime wlis win gadioda rusul satelevizio arxebze. videorgoli udavod metaforuli xasiaTisaa
da garkveuli gzavnilis matarebelic.
politikuri metafora igrZnoba reklamis pirveli wamidan, romelic qarTuli `mravalJamieriT iwyeba da cangala da
gogonaTi mTavrdeba. amiT reklamis Semqmnelebi xazs usvamen
qarTvelTa samravalJamiero da sacangalo ganwobas. garda amisa,
kavkasiel mamakacebs, romlebic simReras asruleben, gonebaSezRuduli ieri aqvT. aRsaniSnavia, rom gundis ukan, kedelze, hkidia moxuci mamakacis portreti, warweriT 100. rogorc Cans,
pirdapir ver gabedes mieweraT georgievskis traqtatis zusti
wlebi, magram migvaniSnes, rom es gonebaSezRuduli da mocangale adamianebi 100 welze metia, maTTvis mRerian da cekvaven.
reklama muq ferebSia. ZiriTadad Savi Warbobs. gundis SuagulSi
ori uTavo yabalaxi Cans. es tviqsia erTi Sokoladis ori
ganuyofeli nawili, riTac Crdiloelebi metaforulad migvaniSneben imisaken, rom Cven, qarTvelebi, maTi ganuyofeli nawili
varT; mniSvneloba ara aqvs, marjvena mxares aRmovCndebiT, Tu
marcxenas avirCevT; Cven mainc tviqsis, anu ruseTis erTianobas warmovadgenT da maTi e.w. tkbili qarxnis nawili varT.
rogorc vxedavT, erTi SexedviT umtkivneulo socialur reklamaSi, erTi mxriv, politikuri da, meore mxriv, komerciuli

198

eka Txilava

interesebi gaerTianda da, vfiqrob, rom igi saxifaTo gzavnilia


CvenTvis, radgan ruseTma kidev erTxel Segvaxsena Cvenc da ruseTis TiToeul moqalaqes, rom axla droa, qarTvelebma pauza
gaakeTon. tviqsTan keTilsa da tkbil Crdiloel ZmebTan
dabrunebis droa!
saxifaTo politikuri metafora da qveteqsti gasdevs kidev erT rusul reklamas, romelic sabrZolo manqana urals
Seexeba. videorgolis TiToeul detalSi ikiTxeba sxva siRrme
da xedva; reklamis mTavari pirebi gmirebi arian rusi alpinistebi, romlebic rTulad, magram mainc aRweven mizans da kavkasionis mwvervals ipyroben (raSic, met-naklebad, ukve igrZnoba politikuri qveteqstic), Tumca gaxarebul alpinistebs ukan miadgebaT rusuli sabrZolo manqana urali, romelic xmauriTa da
saocari simartiviT, simsubuqiT uaxlovdeba kavkasions. TviTkmayofili mZRoli sportsmenebs daxmarebas sTavazobs: kacebo,
Tqven saiT? Sors? Sors aris Tu axlos manqana urali kavkasionTan? aris realurad reklamis qveteqsti? politikuri neba
reklamis ganuyofeli nawilia da mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs mis
arss, damokidebulebasa da xasiaTs. rusi mZRolis mier dasmuli
erTi SexedviT martivi kiTxva saiT? konkretuli reklamis is politikuri metaforaa, romelic mZimed awevs Cvens qveyanas da aseve seriozuli safrTxis Semcvelia ramdenadac am tipis videorgolebi moqmedebs adamianis fsiqikasa da qcevaze ara
marto gare samyaros Sesaxeb informaciiT, aramed Tavad adamianis - misi mentalitetis, faseulobebis, interesebisa da moTxovnilebebis Secvlis gziTac. amasTan, is did gavlenas axdens sazogadoebriv azrsa da moralze. realurad, kavkasiisa da saqarTvelos TemiT dainteresebiT, ruseTi afrTxilebs, pirvel rigSi, Tavad ruseTis mosaxleobas,
rom qarTvelebi maTi
sisxlxorceuli nawili varT da, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, unda
daisvas metaforuli kiTxva: saiT? saiT unda wavides sabWouri
sabrZolo manqana?!
politikuri metaforebi mxolod rusul komerciul reklamebSi ar gvxvdeba, cxadia. kvlevisas konkretuli TemiT davinteresdiT imdenad, ramdenadac saqarTvelosTvis safrTxis Semcvelia TiToeuli maTgani da dafiqrebas mainc saWiroebs.
politikuri metaforis matarebelia baden-biurtermbergis
kinoakademiis studentebis mier gadaRebuli sareklamo videorgoli, romelic germanuli avtogigantis - daimleris avtokor-

politikuri metaforebi socialur reklamaSi

199

poraciis (Daimler AG) legendaruli brendis MersedesBenz-is markis avtomobils Seexeba. reklama Sesrulebulia maRal teqnologiur doneze; vizuali, ferebi, ganwyoba, adamianuri
gancdebi warmoCenilia pozitiuri kuTxiT. naCvenebia patara germanuli sofeli, sadac ubralo adamianebi cxovroben myudro da
mSvid garemoSi; Tumca, miuxedavad erTgvari simSvidisa, reklamaSi dominirebs nacrisferi, rac miuTiTebs imaze, rom am, erTi
SexedviT, myudro da idiliur garemoSi aris raRac (Tu viRac),
rac (an vinc) samyaros ganacrisferebisken, ferTa gamis dakargvisken waiyvans.
kinoakademiis axalgazrda studentebma Mersedes-Benz-i
warsulSi gadaisroles da germaniis patara, mSvid qalaqSi moulodnelad SeiWra axali - momwvano feri, romelic neli da
auCqarebeli moZraobiT miuyveba mtvrian quCebs, frTxilad amuxruWebs ori mSvenieri gogonas winaSe da gzas uTmobs maT; mZafri da dammuxtveli musika, romelic sareklamo rgols gasdevs,
migvaniSnebs mosalodnel safrTxeze, romelic franiani, TiTqos
SuSisTvalebiani patara biWis saxiT Cndeba soflis quCaSi. manqanis muxruWebis sulisSemZvreli xma, nacrisferi dedis SeSlili Tvalebi da sivrceSi gamosaxuli adolf hitleris saxe sareklamo rgolis sakvanZo nawilia. soflis SukaSi patara biWis,
patara adolfis cxedari Cans da ismis dedis isteriuli kivili: adolf! Mersedes-Benz-i ki mSvidad miuyveba soflis
Sukas, romelsac nel-nela ubrundeba ferTa gama.
reklamis slogani sulisSemZvreli da damTrgunveli politikuri metaforis Semcvelia: Mersedes-Benz -i safrTxes manam
amoicnobs, sanam is moxdeba!
sainteresoa, rom Tavad kompania Mersedes-Benz-ma videorgolTan dakavSirebiT SeSfoTeba gamoTqva, magram mxolod da
mxolod - SeSfoTeba; aris Tu ara
es konkretuli reklama
eTikuri? hqondaT Tu ara ufleba, marketingul reklamaSi politikuri figuris saxe am kuTxiT warmoeCinaT? vfiqrobT, rom
ara! miuxedavad imisa, rom idea sainteresoa da Mersedes-Benzma msoflios aacila saSineli safrTxe, SeuZlebelia, viTamaSoT grZnobebze; adamianebSi gavaRviZoT swrafva ganadgurebisken,
radgan momavali fiureris an momavali martin luTer kingis
amocnobas veravin SesZlebs adreul wlebSi; da Tundac amovicnoT, SeuZlebelia, msoflios movuwodoT maTi adreul asakSive
aRzevebisa Tu amoxocvisken.

eka Txilava

200

ra aris reklamis fsiqologiuri arsi? rogorc Cans, germanel studentebs gaucnobiereblad (an gacnobierebulad) aqvT
sircxvilis gancda msoflios winaSe hitleris fenomenis gamo
da amitom gauswordnen mas fiurerisve meTodebiT TavianT sareklamo rgolSi.
maSasadame, marketingul reklamaSi politikuri Strixebis
gamoyeneba, zogadad, ar aris saxarbielo. aRsaniSnavia, rom PR
specialistebisaTvis mniSvnelovania profesiul pasuxismgebloba
da eTikis sakiTxebi. Cven mier moyvanil SemTvevebSi darRveulia
orive maTgani, rac, saboloo jamSi, sazogadoebis cnobierebis
araswor marTvas uwyobs xels.
literatura
1. http://www.myvideo.ge/?video_id=784258
2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ytVdBLMmRno

Nnino dvaliZe

metaforuli paradigmebi
reklamaSi
(inglisurenovani da qarTuli
reklamebis magaliTebze)
amerikeli lingvisti-semiotikosi
marsel dinezi aRniSnavda: cxovreba semiozisia _igi savsea metaforebiTa da
niSnebiT.
ufalma Seqmna adamiani xatad Tvisa, pirvelad iyo sityva da sityva igi
iyo RmerTi...roca ibadeba sityva, igi
mSobeli gonis yvela Zalas atarebs.
ena aris samyaros Semqmneli Zala. enis
Semswavlel mecnierebas
enaTmecniereba
anu lingvistika ewodeba. enaTmecnierebaSi niSanTa eqvsi saxea: signali, simptomi, xati, indeqsi, simbolo da saxeli.
yvela es niSani sxvadasxva saxiT aris
ganfenili metaforebSi.
mas Semdeg, rac, metaforebis
kvlevis mamamTavrebma _ lakofma da
jonsonma _ TavianTi cnobili naSromi:
metaforebi, romlebic CvenTan erTad
cxovroben (1980w) gamosces, metaforis
konceptualuri Teoria dominirebda sxva
saxis metaforebis Seswavlisas. am statiis mTavari principic aris metaforis
ganxilva ara marto enis, aramed fiqrisa
da naazrevis fenomenad da produqtad.
Tumca aqamde mas Seiswavlidnen, mxo-

202

nino dvaliZe

lod, rogorc stilistikur saSualebas, romelic gamoixateba


verbalurad. meore faqtori, rac misi Seswavlis areals zRudavda iyo is, rom fokusireba xdeboda ufro metad masSi Rrmad
Canergili, (nagulisxmevi) metaforebis Sinaarsobrivi mxareebis
ganxilvaze, vidre konceftualuri metaforis paradigmis kreatiulobaze. am paradigmebis formasa da garegnul gamovlinebebze
msurs aqcentebis dasma, rogorc amas lingvisti bleki (1979w)
akeTebda. metaforaSi Canergil Sinaarsze fokusirebis Sedegi
iyo is, rom SedarebiT naklebi yuradReba eqceoda im mTavar
mniSvnelobas, rasac konceptualuri metaforis forma da garegnuli mxareebi gvTavazoben xolme da rac aranaklebi mniSvnelobisaa, vidre misi Rrma struqturebi. gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa da sayuradReboa es reklamis diskursSi (lakofi da terneri-1989).
TumcaRa, konceptualuri metaforis amdagvari ganxilva
damokidebulia im satelevizio arxebis reklamur informaciaze,
romelsac isini sxvadasxva xerxebiT gadmoscemen xolme, saxeldobr: verbaluri gaxmovanebiT, JestikulaciiT, mimikiT, dasuraTxatebiTa Tu musikis TanxlebiT.
centraluri faqtori aq
aris is, Tu rogor xdeba am konceptualuri metaforebis konstruireba da interpretireba. yvelaze marTebuli midgoma koncefpualuri metaforis ganxilvisas albaT, is aris, romelic
mas ganixilavs, rogorc Canafiqris,zogadad ki, fiqris makostruirebel elements da mudmivad daakvirdeba da Seiswavlis mis
multimodalur kreatiul gamovlinebebs. metaforis, rogorc
ara mxolod verbaluri formiT gamoxatuli, stilistikuri saSualebis Seswavla, aramed misze, rogorc araverbalur da multimodalur konceptualur gamovlinebaze dakvirveba, saSulebas
mogvcems movaxdinoT misi, rogorc metaforuli multimodalobis, gradacia da misi Semswavleli zogadi maxasiaTeblebic CamovayaliboT. swored am mizans isaxavs aq warmodgenili kvleva,romelic ilustrirebulia inglisur da qarTulenovan satelevizio da sxva masmediis saSulebebiT gadmocemuli reklamebiT.
isini kombinirebulia da ara marto dawerili, aramed zepiri
verbaluri diskursiT xasiaTdebian. aseve axdenen ama Tu im movlenisa Tu sagnebis reklamirebas sxvadasxva iseTi araverbaluri xerxebiT, rogorebicaa (florisa da faunis) mibaZviTi gaxmovaneba an dasuraTeba, Jestikulacia, mimika, avTenturi situa-

metaforuli paradigmebi reklamaSi

203

ciebis gaTamaSeba sxvadasxva xatovani suraTebisa Tu musikis


TanxlebiT.
zemoaRwerili sakiTxebi Tanamedrove ferweruli semiotikis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi sferoa. ilustrirebuli metaforuli paradigmebi, TavisTavad moicaven hibrids verbalur-araverbaluri doneebis urTierTmimarTebisa, da maTi sworad aRqma
xdeba maSin, Tuki reklamaSi gamoyenebulia informaciis gadacemis yvela saSualeba da arxi: moZravi, klipad gadaRebuli scenebi, video-rgolebi, satelevezio reklamebi Tu bilbordebze dasuraTxatebuli raime produqti, brendi Tu movlena, romlebSic
ZiriTadi saTqmeli yovelTvis mkafiod ar gamoiTqmis (Tu ki
politikosebisa da cnobili adamianebis portretebi ar aris
maTze asaxuli da pirdapiri saarCevno agitacia ar mimdinareobs).
zogadad, reklamis diskursi kargad unda gajerdes ferebiT, suraTebiT, mimzidveli dasaTaurebebiTa Tu sxvadasxva saxis
kognituri metaforebiTa da musikiT. aqve minda ganvmarto, ras
vgulismxob, roca aRvniSnav, rom reklamis diskursis metaforebi multimodaluria! mogexsenebaT, modaloba aris warmoebuli
sityvisagan mood, rac xasiaTsa da damokidebulebas aRniSnavs
sagnebisa da movlenebisadmi (modaluri zmnebi) da, aqedan gamomdinare, metaforebis mravalmxrivi modaloba gamoxatulia, ZiriTadad, 5 arxiT, anu saTqmelis arapirdapiri gadmocemis 5 ZiriTadi gza, 5 forma (mode) arsebobs reklamirebaSi. esenia: verbaluri ( TxrobiTi narativi) da araverbaluri, paralingvisturi
iseTi xerxebi, rogorebicaa sxvadasxvanairi Jestikulacia-mimika,
musika da suraTebi.
maSasadame, reklamis diskursis metaforuli paradigmebis
upirvelesi maxasiaTebelia misi multimodaluroba, kognituroba
da ferweruli dasuraTebuli xatovaneba. amitomac miviCnev reklamis diskurss ferweruli semiotikis erT-erT saintereso da
mimzidvel sferod.
Tumca reklamebis yureba da mosmena yovelTvis rodis gvaniWebs siamovnebas, zogjer igi momabezrebelia, gansakuTrebiT
saintereso satelevezio gadacemebis dros xSiri da xangrZlivi
sareklamo CarTva gvaRizianebs kidec. magram aris reklama, romelsac axasiaTebs multimodaloba, metaforuli SefarviTi kog-

204
nituroba

nino dvaliZe

da

xatovaneba:

ase

magaliTad:

kompania

is reklama.
SexedeT suraTs da dainaxavT, rom EEi sa da eqs isE
gadabmis adgilas TeTr isars qmnian, es win mimarTuli isari
niSnavs kompaniis mudmiv swrafvas ganviTarebisken.
sainteresoa, aseve, Tu rogor Seafases qarTuli reklamebi ucxoelma eqspertebma. magaliTad, erT-erT yvelaze warumatebel sareklamo saxed daasaxeles kaxa kalaZe, romelic magTis
reklamaSi monawileobda. magTi, romelic, ase vTqvaT, saxalxo
reklamebiT iyo da aris cnobili da misi aqaca rekams! da xo
gadmovreke, ai!, yvelam kargad icis, uceb sareklamo saxed gvTavazobs personas, romelic ferariT dadis da armaniT imoseba.
TavisTavad cxadia, sareklamo strategia ase alogikurad ar
unda Seicvalos. ara da magTistatis reklamebi saqarTvelos
sxvadasxva kuTxeebis warmomadgenelTa dialeqtur enaze Sesrulebuli, vfiqrob, yvelze metad warmatebuli da saxaliso reklamebia. (aSo qomCqili bondo?!, magTikuna-satikuna da sxva).
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AU7FlHU_b-4
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dnLBl6c0w6http://www.youtube.co
m/watch?v=dczy-H8kVQs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bb0Fe5oQl0Ihttp://www.youtube.c
om/watch?v=cM5OrmnKS4g
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ax659a5fjZo
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bReZMlIu5ek
aseve warumatebel reklamad daasaxeles nataxtris ludis
tride-s reklama, radganac reklamaSi moyvanili kadrebi sruliad ar Seesabameboda ludis dalevis Semdeg mdgomareobas anu
martivad rom vTqvaT, luds kedlebze ar gayavxar da energias
ar gmatebs, piriqiT gTenTavs. tride-s Semqmnelebs ludi aSkarad redbulSi aeriaT.
rac Seexeba warmatebul qarTul reklamas da sareklamo
kampanias, ucxoelma eqspertebma daasaxeles, Tibisi bankis reklama. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f0FnOnP3Ejo

metaforuli paradigmebi reklamaSi

205

albaT, yvelas gaxsovT es TamaSi, edmond abaSiZis mier damarxul fuls rom mTeli Tbilisi eZebda da bolos, 26 marts,
saqarTvelo-xorvatiis matCze rom ipova bednierma moqalaqem. gecodinebaT albaT, am TamaSma ramdeni miTqma-moTqma gamoiwvia da
sazogadoebis raRac nawils Tibisis mimarT ndobac daakargvina,
magram sareklamo kompaniebma es TamaSi da mTeli kampania ori
niSnis gamo gamoarCies pirveli is, rom yvelaferi amis Semdeg
Tibisi bankSi depozitebis raodenoba 26 milioni lariT gaizarda, roca sxva bankebSi piriqiT, anabrebis raodenoba klebulobda, Tibisim depozitebi 6 %-iT gazarda. da meore, es rgoli, romelic sareklamo kompania WINDFORS-ma daamzada, gaxda
me-18 saerTaSoriso reklamis festivalis Goldenrum-is gamarjvebuli.
am magaliTis ganzogadeba SeiZleba. sareklamo metaforebSi
kidev erT-erTi mTavari maxasiaTeblis gamokveTa-es aris antireklama, anu reklama, romelic ukureqcias iwvevs. igi Tavisi
bunebiT an agresiulia, an arasasiamovno, arc ise gamWriaxi, zogjer cota suleluric, sevdianic, magram ukureqcias iwvevs da,
sabolood, Tavis mizans mainc aRwevs, mayurebels ufro amaxsovrdeba, vidre sxva dadebiTi Tu mxiaruli ganwyobis reklamebi.
axla, ganvixiloT cnobili ucxouri reklama:
1.
dezedorant reqsonas reklama (holandiis
televizia)
mxiaruli musikis fonze quCaSi moedineba ara marto adamianebis nakadi, aramed sxvadasxva cxovelebis mTeli jogi: kameCebi, veSapebi, maimunebi, isini xels uSlian moZraobas da xmauriT modian, am dros es scena CaWrilia axali kadriT - mamakaci,
romelsac saxeze droSa axatia, saabazanoSi sarkeSi iyureba da
iRliaSi reqsonas dezedorants isvams. igi ucbad sazarel gorilad gadaiqceva da saSinel yiJinas dascems,es reklama exmianeba
sezonis yvelaze cxel movlenas _ 2006 wlis fexburTis xmaurian Cempionats. meore kadri am reklamisa isev gorilaa, romelsac taqsis fanjridan Tavi aqvs gamoyofili da gamarjvebuli,
mxiaruli ieriT yiJinasa scems. masaviT iqcevian sxva cxovelebic: selapebi metros matarebels elodebian da xels uSlian
adamianebis nakads, male gamovidnen iqidan,radgan fexburTis matCze mieCqarebaT. reklama mTavrdeba am sityvebiT: Laat het beest in
je los! (Release the animal in you!). Rexona for men sport offers you
the right protection. Rexona, you can rely on it.

206

nino dvaliZe

ra SeiZleba iTqvas am reklamaze? ra adamianebisa da cxovelebis SepirispirebiT xazi gaesva, adamianebisa da cxovelebis
msgavsebas da saerTo Tvisebebs, maT instinqtebze ayolisa da
emociebis gamoxatvis erTgvarovnebas es sxvadasxva araverbaluri piktorialuri miniSnebiTa da veluri xmebiTs. magaliTad, maimunebsa da adamianebs erTnairi ferebis droSa axatiaT saxeze
da cxvir-pirze. cxovelebic iseve moedinebian did nakadad quCaze, rogorc adamianebi, iseve gamoscemen velur xmebs, rogorc
cxovelebi. sabolood zemoaRwerili kadrebi, gaxmovanebiTa da
paralingvisturi xerxebiT, naTlad aisaxeba mayureblis cnobierebaSi da mravalferovnad dasuraTxatebuli konceptualuri metaforuli paradigmebi cxadad gaielvebs mayureblis gonebaSi:
adamiani umaRlesi rangis cxovelia. isini gaigivebulni arian erTmaneTTan TavianTi qcevebiT. bolos reklama mTavrdeba verbaluri mimarTviT; gaTavisufldiT cxoveluri instiqtebisagan. am
reklamas aqvs sxva miniSnebebic: aris raRac gansxvavebulad dadebiTi momentebi adamianis cxovrebaSi, romlebiTac igi gamoirCeva maimunisagan. Tundac imiT, rom mas SeuZlia dezedoranti
reqsona moixmaros da cxovelebisagan gamoirCeodes ukeTesi surneliTa da seqsualobiT.
amgvarad,
metaforuli paradigmebi reklamis diskursSi xasiaTdebian
multimodalurobiT, mravalmxrivi miznebiTa da gamoxatvis formebiT. sul ramdenimewuTian reklamaSic ki SeiZleba imdeni ram
iTqvas metaforulad, zogjer didtaniani nawarmoebi ver gamoxatavs da gviCvenebs ise TvalnaTlad.
amdenad, reklama SeiZleba mxatvruli teqstebis, xelovnebisa da kinematografiis Janrebidan, calke qve-Janradac ki gamovyoT, da visaubroT aramarto metaforul paradigmebze masSi,
aramed reklamis, rogorc verbalur-araverbaluri, weriTi Tu
zepiri diskursis sinTezze, multimodalur da dasuraTxatebul konceptualur,aseve kognitur metaforaze.
cxovreba xom semiozisia, yvelaferi masSi, metaforuli miniSneba....

metaforuli paradigmebi reklamaSi

207

literatura
Crisp, Peter. 2002. Metaphorical propositions: A rationale. Language
and Literature 11: 7-16.
Crisp, Peter, John Heywood and Gerard Steen. 2002. Metaphor
identification and analysis, classification and
quantification. Language and Literature 11: 55-69.
D'Andrade, Roy. 1981. The cultural part of cognition. Cognitive Science
5: 179-95.
Eich, Eric, John F. Kihlstrom, Gorden H. Bower, Joseph P. Forgas and
Paula M. Niedenthal. 2000. Cognition and emotion.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fairclough, Norman. 1989. Language and power. London: Longman.
. 1992. Discourse and social change. Cambridge:
Polity Press.. 1995. Critical Discourse Analysis:
The critical study of language. Harlow:Longman
Group Limited.. 2003. Analysing discourse:
Textual analysis for social research.
London:Routledge.
Fillmore, Charles J. 1975. An alternative to checklist theories of
meaning.Berkeley Linguistic Society 1: 123-31..
1982. Frame semantics. In Linguistics in the
morning calm, ed, TheLinguistic Society of Korea,
111-37. Seoul: Hanshin Publishing Company.
Forceville, Charles. 1996. Pictorial metaphor in advertising.
London:Routledge.
Gee, James P. 2004. Discourse analysis: What makes it critical? In
Anintroduction to Critical Discourse Analysis in
education, ed, Rebecca

Tea SavlaZe

simsivne,
rogorc metafora
yazanis saxelmwifo universitetis
profesor b. galeevs uTqvams: ,,ena metaforebis sasaflaoao, da es marTlac
asea. bunebaSi arsebuli TiTqmis yvela
cnebis (sikvdili, sicocxle, dro da a.
S.) metaforuli aRqma arsebobs. cxadia
arsebobs avadmyofobis metaforuli aRqmac. mocemul statiaSi Cveni mizania,
vnaxoT rogoria adamianebis mier ,,yvela
daavadebis imperatorad wodebuli
simsivnis metaforuli aRqma, davakvirdeT, ra rols asrulebs da ramdenad
dadebiTad an uaryofiTad zemoqmedebs
sabrZolo metaforebis gamoyeneba pacientebze, ra SemTxvevaSi da ra saxis metaforebs mimarTaven onkologebi da rogoria Tavad pacientTa mier simsivnis metaforuli aRqma.
didi britaneTis simsivnis kvlevis
centris reklamaSi saxelwodebiT We
Can Win This Fight vkiTxulobT: - A lot of
people hate me, Seans no exception. Hell
never forget what I put him through. John and
Audrey havent spent a day apart in 50 years.
Because of me they wont be together
tomorrow. Will has been fighting for a long
time now, he is about to find out if hes won.
Sophies getting stronger, more people like
her are beating me, but this isnt over yet.

simsivne, rogorc metafora

209

Because I am Cancer.(,,yvelas vezizRebi. Aarc sinia gamonaklisi.


is verasodes damiviwyebs. jons da odris erTi dRec ki ar gautarebiaT erTmaneTis gareSe, xval ki me maT samudamod davaSoreb. vili ukve didi xania, mebrZvis. xval gaigebs, damamarcxa Tu
ara. sofis mdgomareoba dRiTidRe umjobesdeba. uamravi adamiani
cdilobs Cems damarcxebas, magram jer ver mouxerxebiaT. me xom
simsivne var Targmani Cvenia). warmodgenil reklamaSi simsivne
gapirovnebulia, mas adamianuri Tvisebebi aqvs miniWebuli, saubari
SeuZlia da rogorc mteri, isea warmodgeneli. rogorc warsulSi, ise dResac simsivnes adamianebi uyureben ara rogorc daavadebas, aramed mters (aqedan gacveTili metafora: Cancer is an evil
enemy - simsivne boroti mteria), romelic janmrTelobas duelSi iwvevs. sazogadoebaSi gavrcelebuli azris Tanaxmad, simsivne mteria, Tumca ara ucxo mteri, aramed organizmSi arsebuli, eqimi
- mTavarsardalia (brZolis mogeba eqimis brZanebebis Tu miTiTebebis gareSe SeuZlebelia), pacienti - meomaria, jandacvis muSakebi armiaa, romelic mxarSi udgas mTavarsardals da meomrebs, xolo
qimioTerapia, biofsia, Tanamedrove medikamentebi da a. S. is sabrZolo iaraRebia, romlebiTac simsivnes, rogorc mters umklavdebian. zogierTi adamianisTvis pacienti sabrZolo moedans hgavs,
eqimi mebrZolia, romelzedac brZolis mogeba wagebaa damokidebuli, mkurnalobis procesi ki uSualod brZolaa, omiaa.
onkologebic ,,yvela daavadebis imperatorad wodebul simsivnes mterTan aigiveben. Aai, ras wers erT-erTi amerikeli onkologi simsivnis Sesaxeb: Im going to kill you. Every day, Im going to
kill you. Were going to hit you with chemo, and then hit you again, and
hit you again. You are not going to walk (yoveldRiurad vcdilob
Sens ganadgurebas da vcdilob qimioTerapiiT mogiRo bolo. erT
dRes iqneba Sen veRar gaivli Targmani Cvenia). qimioTerapiuli preparatebis reklamirebis drosac xdeba simsivnis mterTan
gaigiveba: Fight Hard and Fight Back in your battle against advanced
breast cancer. simsivniT gardacvlilTa nekrologebSi xSirad amovikiTxavT: died after a heroic battle against cancer,valiant fight against
melanoma. yvela zemoT dasaxelebuli magaliTi cxadyofs, rom
metafora cancer is warkliSedaa qceuli.
Tanamedrove amerikeli mwerali da kritikosi a. broiardi,
romelic 1990 wels prostatis simsivniT daiRupa, Tavis avtobiografiul romanSi Intoxicated by My Illness simsivnis Sesaxeb

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Tea SavlaZe

werda: the sick man sees everything as metaphor (broiardi, 2010, 36).
marTlac simsivneze, rogorc daavadebaze saubari, warmoudgenelia metaforebis gareSe. mediasaSualebebiT Tu eqim -pacientis
komunikaciis dros xSirad gavigonebT sabrZolo metaforebs
(martial/ fight/ military metaphors) simsivnesTan mimarTebiT: War on
Cancer, magic bullets, silver bullets, the therapeutic armamentarium,
agents of disease, the bodys defenses, doctors orders, global combat
against cancer, killing the tumor cells, killer T cells, stopping the
advance, fighting the cancer, nuke the tumor, aggressive tumour.
sabrZolo metaforebi medicinis kuTvnilebaa meCvidmete saukunis Sua xanebidan da mas sazogadoebaSi mZlavrad aqvs fesvebi gadgmuli. pirveli, vinc militaristuli terminebi samedicino
diskursSi gamoiyena, gaxldaT meCvidmete saukunis udidesi eqimi,
,,inglisis hipokrated wodebuli Tomas sidenhemi, romelic werda: a murderous array of disease has to be fought against, and the battle
is not a battle for the sluggard. ucilebelia vaxsenoT ingliseli poetis, jon donis saxelic, romelmac Tavis nawarmoebSi Devotions
Upon Emergent Occasions jer kidev 1627 wels Tavisi avadmyofoba
(cieb-cxeleba) qvemexebis grials da alyaSi moqcevas Seadara. rac
Seexeba gacveTili metaforis ,,simsivne - omia pirvelwyaros, igi
amerikis prezident riCard niqsonis saxelTan asocirdeba
(National Cancer Act, 1971).
s.zontagi, cnobili amerikeli eseisti da mwerali wignSi
Illness as a metaphor werda: In the popular culture, cancer equals death
and that cancer is treated as an evil, invincible predator, not just a
disease(Tanamedrove sazogadoeba simsivnes ara rogorc daavadebas, aramed rogorc sikvdils aRiqvams da moiazrebs rogorc borot, uZlevel mtacebel frTosans Targmani Cvenia),(zontagi,
1978, 5).
adamianTa warmosaxva gansxvavebulia, amdenad, calkeuli individebi simsivnes sxvadasxvagvarad aRiqvamen. moWadrakisTvis igi
saWadrako matCs hgavs (Cancer is a chess match), aTletisaTvis
igi maraTonia (Cancer is a marathon), msaxiobisTvis drama
(Cancer is a drama), mTasvlelisTvis everestze asvla (Cancer is
climbing Mount Everest), menejerisTvis grZelvadiani proeqti.
zogic simsivnesa da zurgze mokidebul uzarmazar zurgCanTas
Soris xedavs analogs: Cancer is the massive backpack that weighs
you down and keeps you from the adventures you enjoy. simsivne

simsivne, rogorc metafora

211

daavadebulisTvis marTlac udidesi tvirTia, tvirTi, romelic


savsea dardiT, wuxiliT, imedgacruebiT. sainteresoa amerikis onkologiuri sazogadoebis prezidentis, j. slejis mier Seqmnili
metafora: Cancer is a cable television. Thirty years ago you had
three channels. Now you have 500.
Aamerikis simsivnis centris mier Catarebulma kvlevebma
gamoavlina, rom simsivniT daavadebuli pacientebi yvelaze xSirad simsivnes mterTan da brZolasTan aigiveben (Cancer is a battle
with self; Cancer is a diabolical enemy); gamoyenebis sixSiriT meore adgilzea simsivnis sikvdilTan gaigiveba (Cancer is a little
timer that hits you in the face and tells you "You are only mortal"simsivne is patara taimeria, romelic mudmivad Cvens mokvdavobas
gvaxsenebs, sicocxlis dros gvisazRvravs da sikvdilisTvis gvamzadebs. Mmomdevno metaforaSi Cancer is a low bullet wound to the
skull simsivne TavSi nasrol tyviasTan aris asocirebuli. orive
moulodnelia da sikvdilis gamomwvevi. tyviebi simsivnuri ujredebia. Cancer is a plague simsivne - Wiria. orive agresiulobiT
gamoirCeva, saSiSia da sikvdils moaswavebs. Cancer is death). sakmaod xSirad simsivne xangrZliv da Znel mogzaurobasTan aris gaigivebuli (Cancer is a journey- avadmyofis mier gasavleli gza
kldovania da Sesabamisad Znelad gasavleli. Cancer is an obstacle
on lifes journey cxovreba mogzaurobaa, xolo simsivne xelis
SemSleli pirobaa, datkbe mogzaurobiT, Cancer is a big dog
chasing you on the bike simsivne uzarmazari ZaRlia, romelic velosipedze Semjdar adamians ukan asdevnebia.)
Kkvlevam daadastura, rom pacientebi simsivnes da sxvadasxva bunebriv movlenas Soris xedaven kavSirs, aqedan metaforebi:
Cancer is a natural force rogorc miwisZvris, wyaldidobis da
sxvaTa gakontroleba SeuZlebelia, aseve SeuZlebelia simsivnis
gakontroleba. adamiani maT winaSe uZluria. Cancer is volcano
simsivne vulkaniviT aqtiuria. axali simsivnuri ujredebi lavas
gavs, miwa adamianis sxeulia, daavadebis gavrceleba lavis mier
teritoriis ganadgurebas niSnavs. bevr metaforaSi xazgasmulia
simsivnis swrafad gavrcelebis unari, rac kargad Cans metaforebSi: Cancer is a fast growing vine - simsivne, rogorc vazi, swrafad viTardeba da yvela organos moedeba; Cancer is a blooming
flower simsivnesa da ayvavebul yvavils Soris saerTo niSnebia:
orive ganviTarebadia, mzardia. Cancer is a horse simsivnesa da

212

Tea SavlaZe

cxens Soris danaxuli kavSiri miuTiTebs simsivnis siswrafeze.


simsivne swrafad viTardeba. eqimi - mxedaria, romelic marTavs
cxens, anu simsivnis ganviTarebis process. adamianis sxeuli ki is
miwaa, romelzedac cxeni mirbis. pacientTa erTma nawilma simsivnesa da borotmoqmeds Soris dainaxa msgavseba: Cancer is a
criminal simsivne borotmoqmedia, romelic ZaliT geWreba saxlSi da sicocxlis xelyofiT gemuqreba.
rac Seexeba onkologebs, isini pacientTa msgavsad yvelaze
xSirad sabrZolo metaforebs mimarTaven simsivneze saubrisas.
Tumca xSirad isini xazs usvamen simsivnis daudgenel xasiaTs da
mas gamocanas, an moulodnelad aRmoCenil miwas adareben: Cancer
is a real puzzle; Cancer is an unexpected terrain. aseve simsivneze saubrisas xSiria misi maswavlebelTan gaigivebac: Cancer is a
teacher - igulisxmeba: simsivne didi gamocdilebaa da bevr iseT
Tvisebas dagvanaxebs sakuTar TavSi, romelic manamde ar vicodiT.
SevecadeT msgavsi kvleva Cagvetarebina baTumis pirobebSi
da daxmarebisTvis mivmarTeT baTumis onkologiuri centris eqimebs da maT pacientebs. sul SevxvdiT 26 pacients (5 pacientma
uari ganacxada gamokiTxvaSi monawileobis miRebaze. gamokiTxulTagan xuTma pacientma simsivne mterTan (simsivne dauZinebeli
mteria, simsivne uxilavi mteria), xuTma- omTan / brZolasTan (simsivne cxraTavian urCxulTan brZolaa, simsivne - omia) da oTxma sikvdilTan, sibnelesTan da WirTan (simsivne tanjviT sikvdilia,
simsivne - sibnelea, simsivne mzeze gadafarebuli Rrubelia, simsivne Tavidan mouSorebeli Wiria) gaaigiva. erTma pacientma simsivne
maxrCobela gvels Seadara (simsivne maxrCobela gvelia, romelic
yelze gexveva da gaxrCobs), erTma simsivne Wias Seadara (simsivne
vaSlis nayofSi mobinadre Wiaa, romelic dRiTidRe anadgurebs
nayofs). kidev erTma pacientma simsivnesa da qviSas Soris dainaxa
kavSiri (simsivne qviSaa, romelic giTrevs da gZiravs, Tumca zogs
ZaluZs qviSidan amoZroma). gamokiTxulTagan orma pacientma simsivne parazitTan da mRrnelTan gaaigiva. orma optimisturad ganwyobilma pacientma simsivne sportul maraTons Seadara. gamokiTxuli eqimebis pasuxebi ki Semdegia: simsivne - cremlia; simsivne
pacientis Tavze dacemuli uzarmazari qvaa, xolo onkologTa
Sroma xSirad sizifes Sromaa; simsivne qaosi da gaurkvevlobaa;
simsivne daupatiJebeli, arasasurveli stumaria.

simsivne, rogorc metafora

213

rogorc eqimebi amboben, maTTvis metafora is iaraRia, romliTac isini pacientebs rTul biologiur procesebs martiv da
gasageb enaze uxsnian, xolo pacientisTvis metafora imdenadaa
mniSvnelovani, ramdenadac optimizmiT avsebs mas da brZolisaTvis
ganawyobs. amasTanave exmareba pacients suliT ar daeces. pacientebi metaforebs mimarTaven TavianTi daavadebis aRweris dros,
Tu rogor midis mkurnaloba, eqimebi ki situaciis axsnisas informaciis miwodebis dros an pacientis, gasamxneveblad. samedicino diskursis dros metaforebis saWiroebis Sesaxeb wers a.
broiardi: Metaphors may be as necessary to illness as they are to
literature, as comforting to the patient as his own bathrobe and slippers.
At the very least, they are a relief from medical terminology.. Perhaps
only metaphor can express the bafflement, the panic combined with
beatitude, of the threatened person. Metaphors foster clarity and
transfer meaning effectively and economically (vijeianti, 2008, 843),
(metaforebis gamoyeneba medicinaSi iseve saWiroa, rogorc literaturaSi. Mmetafora pacientisTvis imdenad komfortulia, ramdenadac sakuTar sabanao xalaTsa da flostebSi yofna. metaforis
saSualebiT xdeba samedicino terminologiis Tavidan acileba .....
mxolod metaforas SeuZlia warmoaCinos SeSinebuli pacientis
gulgatexiloba da panika... metafora xels uwyobs azris efeqturad, naTlad da ekonomiurad gamoxatvas Targmani Cvenia). metaforebis samedicino diskursSi gamoyenebas mxars uWers mkvlevari pensonic: Although metaphors do not factually explain an illness,
they can add clarity and depth of meaning... Metaphors are crucial in
medicine, since a large information gap usually exists between the doctor
and patient. Most patients cannot understand the medical jargon of
cancer; metaphors can help bridge this gap and provide ways to
conceptualize an otherwise cripplingly mysterious affliction. Tumca aqve
unda movitanoT kidev erTi mkvlevris, kzexmaisteris mosazreba
zogadad metaforis Sesaxeb. igi metaforas ,,orlesul maxvils
adarebs da ambobs, rom ,,metaforas SeuZlia, erTi mxriv, dadebiTi zegavlena moaxdinos individze, meore mxrivki, misi Secbuneba,
stereotipTa rRveva da socialuri stigma gamoiwvios (kzexmaisteri, 1994, 29).
Aamerikis simsivnis centris mier Catarebulma kvlevebmac
igive daadastura. zogierTi eqimis mier Seqmnili simsivnis metafora ara Tu amSvidebs pacients, aramed piriqiT, aRizianebs mas.
magaliTad, erT-erTma onkologma, romelic cdilobda aexsna paci-

214

Tea SavlaZe

entisTvis daavadebis simwvave, pacients mkerdis simsivnis tipebi,


simwvavis mixedviT, sxvadasxva jiSis ZaRls (kerZod ki, pudelsa
da rotveilers) Seudara (Some cancers are poodles and some are
Rottweilers). aseTma metaforam pacientis SeZrwuneba da SiSisagan
mokuntva gamoiwvia. gacilebiT uaresi Sedegi mohyva onkologis
mier gamoyenebul sabrZolo metaforas ,,vebrZoloT da davamarcxoT simsivne! eqvsi wlis pacientTan. bavSvma winadadebis mniSvneloba pirdapir gaigo da eqimebsa da samedicino personals
wixlebi uTavaza.
amgvarad, onkologis mier sworad SerCeul metaforaze
bevri ramaa damokidebuli. metaforas SeuZlia, pacienti sabrZolvelad ganawyos da piriqiT, gamojanmrTelebis imedi gauqros. umjobesia, eqimi daakvirdes Tavad pacientis asociaciebs, Tu
rasTan aigivebs igi missave daavadebas, da masTan saubrisas am metaforebiT isaubros. mxolod aseT SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli
,,Terapiuli aliansis warmateba.
literatura
1. Broyard, Anatole. 1992.Intoxicated by his Illness and Other
Writings on Life and Death. New York: Ballantine Books.
2. Czechmeister, Catherine.1994. Metaphor in illness and nursing: a
two-edged sword. A discussion of the social use of metaphor in
everyday language, and implications of nursing and nursing
education.
3. Fillion, Jannifer.2013. Metaphor use in Interpersonal
Communication of Body Perception in the context of Breast Cancer,
Portland State University, Dissertations and Theses.
4. Reistield, Gary, Wilson, George. 2004. Use of Metaphor in the
discourse on Cancer, Journal of Clinical Oncology.
5. Semeno. E., Heywood. J., Short. M. 2004 Methodological
problems in the analysis of metaphors in a corpus of conversations
about cancer, Journal of Pragmatics36.1271-94.
6. Sontag, Susan. 1990.Illness as Metaphor. New York: Picador.
7. Teucher, Ulrich. 2003. The Therapeutic Psychopoetics of Cancer
Metaphors: Challenges in Interdisciplinarity, www.ucalgary.ca/hic/
ISSN 1492-7810 2003 Vol. 3, No. 1.
8. Vyjeyanthi S. Periyakoild.2008. Using Metaphors in Medicine,
Journal of palliative Medicine, Vol.11, Number

zeinab saria

konceptualuri metafora
terenti granelis
poeziaSi
samyaro adamianebs metaforebad gadagveSleba Tvalwin. metafora saburvelia, romlis miRmac amosacnobi raoba
gvelodeba. poets uxilavi samyaros
xelSesaxebi anareklebi eZleva tropis
saxeebSi da, maT Soris, upirveles yovlisa, metaforaSi. igi poeturi amocanaa,
erTgvari saidumloebaa. am gagebiT, poets asedac SeuZlia gviTxras: modi, davimaloT metaforaSi... da daSifrulad
gagvimxilos saTqmeli.
mkvlevarTa iseT seriozul Tavyrilobaze, rogoricaa literaturis institutis egidiT Catarebuli leqsmcodneobis seminari, gaisma braldebebi, TiTqos
1. terenti graneli sikvdiliTaa STagonebuli, nekrofilia; 2. TiTqos sakuTar
dasTan hqonda incesti.
dasTan incests mkvlevari (imdenad
aramarTebulad mimaCnia es azrebi, rom
im pirovnebis dasaxelebac ki ara msurs)
asabuTebs granelis poeziaSi gaCenili
sityviT saSineleba. misi argumenti
is aris, rom es leqsikuri erTeuli
sxvas arafers SeiZleba niSnavdes.
maS ase, Cven veZebT metafora saSinelebis mniSvnelobas. saSineleba

216

zeinab saria

aseTi uaryofiTi impulsis metafora ras aafara pirbaded poetma?


Tu aviRebT qarTuli sityvierebis seriiT gamocemul meore wigns, romelsac hqvia terenti graneli /graneli 2011
:24/ da gadavSliT 24-e gverdze, aq dagvxvdeba poetis soneti,
romelic firosmans eZRvneba. igi mTavrdeba amgvari taepebiT:
codvil qalaqSi dadiodi Coxis amara,
saSinelebam ucnaurad dagasamara.
metafora saSinelebas daubrkoleblad Caenacvleba semantikurad fardi /magram marcvalTa odenobiT arafardi/ sityva
sikvdili. ufro metic, mniSvnelobis TvalsazrisiT, aq arc
erTi sxva sityva ase organulad, bunebrivad ver Caismeba, rogorc es leqsikuri erTeuli.
sikvdili es bolo wertilia, gaqrobis macne, xelovanisaTvis imdenad arasasurveli raoba, rom vaSiners/kolxurad
rom vTqvaT/, igi pirdapir axseno, amitom poeti tabus adebs am
sityvas da anacvlebs leqsikuri erTeuliT saSineleba. poetis
Sinagani xedva Tu xilva zedapirze amoiwevs da gansxeuldeba am
metaforad /saSineleba/. graneli, romlsac ekuTvnis aseTi naTqvami: vambob: ar arian sityvebi grZnobisTvis, sikvdilis msaxvral bunebas mZafrad grZnobs da mas arqmevs saSinelebas. am
sityvam airekla urbanizebul qalaqSi, zogadad, adamianis egzistencialuri SiSi da konkretulad - ubinao poetis saxifaTo yofiereba; poetisa, romelsac mTeli samyaro ecva SiSvel sxeulze, poetur impulsebs Ria cidan iRebda da leqssac bolos ase
awerda: Tbilisi, 10 agvisto, Rame, ganTiadi. quCa.
marTlac, xelovanisaTvis ra unda iyos upirvelesi mteri,
Tu ara sikvdili? yvelaferi sxva siduxWire, martosuloba,
uiRbloba SeiZleba gardaqmna xelovnebad da aqedan gamoadno
ukvdavebis tolfasi qmnilebebi. erTaderTi, rac xels SegiSlida
am saqmis aRsrulebaSi, sikvdilia.
ramdenad sworia es gafiqreba?
poeziidan granelis yofiT realobaSi gadmovinacvloT. poeti, romelic yvela micvalebulis Wirisuflad Tvlida Tavs,
gansakuTrebuli mwuxarebiT acilebda ukanasknel gzaze nacnob
Rirseul adamianebs. ai fragmenti meliton nariSvilTan gamosaTxovari sityvidan: RmerTo, ra Zneli ram aris sikvdilis Sinaarsis daxasiaTeba mTeli Tavisi maxinji mniSvnelobiT/ graneli
1991:263/.

216

konceptualuri metafora terenti granelis poeziaSi

217

da kidev erTi amonaridi griSa jiqiasTan gamosaTxovari


sityvidan: araferia iseTi saidumlo, miuwvdomeli adamianis gonebisaTvis, rogorc es wyeuli sikvdilis raoba. aq aris umaRlesi tragizmis bneli cecxlebi danTebuli, romelic mTel msoflios dafarfatebs Tavze, rogorc saSinelebis Savi aCrdili
/graneli 1991: 264/.
rogorc vnaxeT, poetisave sityvebiT, sikvdilis Sinaarsi
maxinji mniSvnelobisaa, xolo sikvdili saSinelebis Savi aCrdilia. ai, gasaRebi metaforisa saSineleba, rac ramdenimegan
gvxvdeba kidec mis leqsebSi, rogorc sikvdilis metafora. axla
kvlav gadavinacvloT poeziaSi. leqsSi poeti patimari aris
taepebi:
cixe dgas, rogorc saSineleba,
damZimebuli da keTrovani.
aq saSineleba TviTigiveobrivi sityvaa, maqsimalurad negatiur mniSvnelobas gamoxatavs.
cixis elegiaSi poetma sityva saSineli aseT epiTetad
gamoiyena:
Cems mwuxarebas zrdis satusaRo
da vgrZnob saSinel umegobrobas.
sintagmaSi saSineli umegobroba ukontaqtobis maqsimalizms gamoxatavs epiTetad gamoyenebuli leqsikuri erTeuli
saSineli.
leqsSi isev debs aris aseTi strofi:
da Rameebma xom Seawuxes
im angelozis mwuxare saxe.
me mTeli Rame vSfoTavdi wuxel
da saSineli sizmari vnaxe.
gana SeiZleba am saSinel sizmarSi vigulisxmoT maincdamainc erotikuli siaxlove dasTan? bavSvobidanve sikvdilis simware rom gamoscada, iqneba koSmarul sizmarSi sikvdils xedavda?..
raRa unda vigulisxmoT usaTauro leqsis /damwva sakuTar alma/ strofSi:
modis SabaTi, kvira,
saSinel suraTs vxedav,
da mesizmreba xSirad
micvalebuli deda?
vxedavT, rom Zalian uxerxul mdgomareobaSi gvamyofebs
sityva saSinelis uapelaciod SemoTavazebuli interpretacia.

217

218

zeinab saria

ubinao graneli mudmivad sikvdils uyurebda TvalebSi. misi yoveldRiuri mteri iyo SimSili, gacieba, WuWyi, mzrunvelobis gareSe darCena... mudmivi safrTxe dasdevda fexdafex poets. safiqrebelia, es saSineli sizmari da saSineli suraTi ukavSirdebodes sikvdils da ara erotikul siaxloves dasTan, rac aranairi
biografiuli detaliT ar dasturdeba. am mosazrebas ganamtkicebs leqsi locva mTvaresTan:
glovis zarebiT gamaqanebs TeTri kareta
da Cemi suli samoTxeSi miva godebiT.
zamTris vardebi daimsxvreva baRis karebTan.
glovis zarebiT gamaqanebs TeTri kareta.
uSno warsulis simaxinje mivlis garedan.
saSinelebas miraJebiT me velodebi.
glovis zarebiT gamaqanebs TeTri kareta
da Cemi suli samoTxeSi miva godebiT.
xom cxadia, rom saSineleba sikvdilis metaforaa da araferi sxva?.. metafora saSineleba mavanma froidistuli JiniT
waikiTxa da gaiazra, rogorc dasTan incesti. es gaazreba xelovnuria, araviTari gamarTleba ara aqvs, arc biografiuli mocemulobiT dasturdeba da arc mxatvruli SemoqmedebiT. aseTi
mosazreba emyareba mavanis mcdar intuicias. incestis Tema dasavluri cnobierebisaTvis iqneba Taviseburad gasagebic iyos, magram
Cveni sociokulturuli konteqstisaTvis eg Sesazari raobaa. amgvari braldeba imas niSnavs, xalxis cnobierebidan amoSanTo poeti. misi epistolaruli memkvidreoba naTlad gvidasturebs, rom
saSineleba sikvdilis saxelia, misi metafora. amasve adasturebs
leqsebi: damwva sakuTar alma, firosmaniSvils, locva mTvaresTan...
axla davubrundeT pirvel braldebas granelis nekrofilobis Sesaxeb.
saSineleba rom granelTan sikvdilis, aryofnis, sasrulobis metaforaa, rac epistolarul memkvidreobaSi gabneul
frazebSic dasturdeba da mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSic, es Zalze
metyveli raobaa. aRniSnuli metafora TviTon amxels da sakmaod
efeqturadac, rom granelis sikvdilTan mimarTeba negatiuria.
terenti graneli is xelovania, romelic poeturi Semoqmedebis dasawyisSive sikvdilis ulmobel klanWebs grZnobs. oTxi
wlisa iyo, roca deda gardaecvala /ivlita lukava/.

218

konceptualuri metafora terenti granelis poeziaSi

219

WabukobaSi jer mama gardaecvala, erTi wlis Semdeg gulisxmieri dedinacvalic. ase rom, sikvdilis avi Zala poetma
bavSvobidan igrZno da igive Zala axalgazrdobaSic moacilebda.
gana SeiZleba terenti granels nekrofilia davdoT bralad imitom, rom mis leqss mudam cremli sdis, metwilad
mgloviarea?.. gana am adamians ara swyuria sixaruli? maS ratom
iwyebs erT-erT usaTauro leqss amgvarad: RmerTo! sicocxlis
Suqi maRirse!.. xolo leqsSi micvalebulis dRiuridan /Tema
sikvdilis Semdeg/ ratom aqvs aseTi taepebi:
msurda sibnele rom gamerRvia
da kvlav qveynisTvis Tvali momevlo? Tu sikvdilzea Seyvarebuli graneli, ratom surs aryofnis wkvaramis gamorRveva
da kvlav am cisqveSeTisaTvis Tvalis Sevleba?..
gana am poetma pirvelma gamoigona sevda mxolod da mxolod sixaruliT savse dedamiwaze? TiTqos antikuri xanidan ar
Seqmniliyos elegia, rogorc sevdis kamertoni; TiTqos naRveli
ar Seamxanagebodes poetur xelovnebaSi elegias /horaciusi 1981
:32/; TiTqos kacobriobas aTaswleulebSi ar mohyvebodes eklesiastes gminva; TiTqos renesansis epoqidan evropul poeziaSi elegias araerTgzis ganaxleba ar ganecados; TiTqos 1674 wels dabeWdil poetur xelovnebaSi /nikola bualo/ Zalze xelSesaxebad ar xasiaTdebodes am Janris arsi:
mwuxare elegiam glovis samoselSi
icis kvnesa, agreTve TmagaSlilma kuboze.
/bualo 1998: 51/
TiTqos germanel goeTes ar daeweros romauli elegiebi
da marienbadis elegiebi; TiTqos inglisel persi biSi Selis
kalams ar gamoexatos elegiuri tonalobebi, rainer maria rilkes ar Seeqmnas duinuri elegiebi, TiTqos es Janri ucxo iyos
a. puSkinisa da m. lermontovisTvis, TiTqos qarTvel mkiTxvels
vaxtang VI-is gulismomkvleli moTqma ar waekiTxos, qarTvel
romantikosTa sevdiT ar dabindvodes guli. aRarafers vambob me20 saukunis qarTvel poetTa calkeul nawarmoebebze, oRond me19 aswleulidan gansakuTrebiT vaJa ki gamaxsendeba, 1986 wels
dawerili leqsiT _ simRera:
me ro tirili mewados,
Tqven vis ra gindaT, netara?
erTi icinis, sxva atiris,
eseTi ari qveyana.

219

220

zeinab saria

visac ar mogwonsT tirili,


is nu dasjdebiT CemTana;
mtirali stviris patroni
fexs rogor gavswvdi TqvenTana?!
magram gavigebT erTxelac
vin axlo vsdgevarT RmerTTana.
/vaJa 1979: 34/
granelis Semoqmedebaze dakvirveba cxadyofs, rom poets
sulac ar xiblavs sikvdili. mis sevdas nekrofilia ki ara, sicocxlis safrTxeSi yofnis tkivili asazrdoebs. sasicocxlo
gzebis Zieba erT-erTi gamokveTili motivia misi poeziisa. amas
adasturebs leqsebi: sicocxle, isev sikvdilis SiSi, var
aseTi, var yovelTvis kenti, axla Ramea, me minda megobari,
isev debs, me avada var, dabruneba sofelSi... leqsSi /sicocxle/ ambobs:
uarvyof sikvdils, xelaxla minda
isev sicocxlis gzebi veZio.
/graneli 1991 :13/
magram granelisaTvis sicocxle uiRblobaa, sikvdili saSineleba. amitomac eZebda mesame gzas.
ase rom, Tu davrwmundiT imaSi, rom saSineleba granelTan sikvdilis metaforaa, imavdroulad, myisierad imaSic
vrwmundebiT, rom amgvarad saxeldebul sikvdils poeti mkveTrad negatiurad aRiqvams. erTxelac CavuRrmavdeT: ra iwvevs
granelis sevdas? sicocxlis safrTxeSi yofnis tkivili. xolo
am safrTxes is mudmivad grZnobda: arc mSobliuri Weri hqonda,
arc Tbili lukma, arc mzrunveli xeliT dauToebuli tansacmeli da debis moferebac enatreboda.
Cven am patara naazrevSi erTi konkretuli tropuli saxis
kvaldakval viareT. saSineleba ar aris granelisaTvis rigiTi
metafora. es is saxea, romelic poetis msoflgancdas amxels.
amasTan erTad, es metafora mkiTxvelebSi mZafr Tanagancdasac
aRZravs.
da Tu sworia azri, rom XX saukunis qarTuli lirikuli
poeziis istoria terenti granelmac dawera, maSin amgvari
braldebebi ar unda darCeniliyo upasuxod. vfiqrobT, amaSi
swored am metaforis gaazreba dagvexmara.

220

konceptualuri metafora terenti granelis poeziaSi

221

Lliteratura
bualo n. d., 1998: poeturi xelovneba, Tb., lomisi;
graneli terenti, 1991: ortomeulis t.I, Tb., gamomc. qarTuli
Teatri, kooperativi aieti;
graneli terenti, 2011: Tb., s.s. saqpresa;
vaJa, 1979: Txzulebani or tomad, t. I, gamomc. sabWoTa saqarTvelo, Tb.;
horaciusi kvintus flakusi, 1981: poeturi xelovnebisaTvis,
Tsu gamomc., Tb.

221

Mmindia cecxlaZe

korpusis lingvistika
da metafora
korpusis
lingvistika
aris
namdvil cxovrebaSi enis gamoyenebis empiriuli Seswavla kompiuterebisa da eleqtronuli korpusebis
saSualebiT. upirveles yovlisa,
korpusi aris ubralod nebismieri
dawerili an zepiri teqstebis koleqcia. (Ldeling... 2008, v). Tavad lingvisturi korpusi, rogorc meieris
naSromSi ganimarteba, aris teqstebis an teqstebis nawilebis koleqcia, romlis zogadi lingvisturi
analizi SesaZlebelia. (Ldeling...
2008, 1). pirveli eleqtronuli korpusi 1960 wels Seiqmna, Tumca manamde
arsebobda
preeleqtronuli
korpusebic. (Ldeling... 2008, 1)
literaturaTmcodneobaSi am
meTodis
gamoyenebas
safuZvlad
udevs meoce saukunis formalistebis da struqturalistebis mcdelobebi, SeeswavlaT literatura
mecnieruli meTodebiT da radgan
kulturuli sistemebi warmatebiT
SegviZlia
ganvixiloT,
rogorc
enebi, gulisxmobs, rom Cven maT
ukeT gavigebT Tu ganvixilavT
ligvistikis mier mowodebuli terminebis gamoyenebiT da gavaanalizebT lingvistikis mier gamoyene-

korpusis lingvistika da metafora

223

bul procedurebze dayrdnobiT. (Culler 2002, 7) Tumca es


meTodi ver Caanacvlebs literaturaTmcodneobas, igi
mxolod damxmare da Semavsebeli meTodia,
rasac mianiSneben an pirdapir miuTiTeben kidec sxvadasxva
mkvlevarebi konkretul kvlevebze dayrdnobiT, romelTagan aRsaniSnavia: erTi avtoris nawamoebebis SedarebiTi analizi (OKeeffe... 2010, 522), sxvadasxva avtorebis nawarmoebebis SedarebiTi analizi (Viana..., 2007: 234), metaforis da metonimiis (Stefanowitsch... 2006, 9), literaturuli metyvelebis reprezentaciis (OKeeffe... 2010, 535-536)
da kompiuteruli stilometriis kvlevebi (Ldeling... 2008,
1070-1072). igives aRniSaven mkvelvarebi korpusis lingvistikaze dafuZnebuli axali dargis - korpusis stilistikis ganxilvisas (Fischer-Starcke 2010, 7).
kognitiuri lingvistikis mixedviT, metafora ganisazRvreba rogorc erTi konceptualuri domeinis gaazreba meoris TvalsazrisiT. magaliTad, roca Cven vfiqrobT cxovrebaze, rogorc mogzaurobaze, xolo kamaTze, rogorc omze da a.S. ase gagebul metaforas ewodeba konceptualuri metafora. konceptualuri domeini
ewodeba gamocdilebis nebismier Tanmimdevrul organizacias, magaliTad Cven gvaqvs Tanmimdevrulad organizebuli codna mogzaurobaze, romelsac veyrdnobiT
cxovrebis gaazrebisas. (Kvecses 2010, 4) konceptualuri
metaforis Teoria uaryofs azrs, rom metafora aris
dekoratiuli saSualeba, enisa da azrovnebis periferiuli movlena. amis sanacvlod, Teoria miiCnevs, rom metafora centraluria azrovnebis da Sesabamisad enisaTvis. (Deignan 2005, 13).
Tavdapirvelad ganvmartoT ramdenime termini: konceptualur domeins, romlisganac Cven vTxzavT metaforul gamoTqmas, raTa gaviazroT sxva konceptualuri
domeini ewodeba sawyisi domeini, maSin roca konceptualur domeins, romelic gaazrebulia am gziT, ewodeba
samizne domeini. amgvarad cxovreba da kamaTi samizne
domeinebia, xolo mogzauroba da omi sawyisi. (Kvecses
2010, 4) erTi domeini gaazrebulia meoris saSualebiT
niSnavs, rom arsebobs mTeli rigi sistemuri Sesatyvisobebisa sawyis da samizne domeinebs Soris im gagebiT,
rom erTis Semadgeneli konceptualuri elementebi See-

224

mindia cecxlaZe

satyviseba meoris Semadgenel konceptualur elementebs, am konceptualur Sesatyvisobebs ewodeba mepingebi. (Kvecses 2010, 7)
metaforisa da metonimiis kvlevis korpusze dafuZnebulma midgomebma cxadad warmoaCines TavianTi efeqturoba: relevanturi monacemebis Seswavla ufro amomwuravad da ufro sistemuradaa SesaZlebeli vidre ufro introspeqtuli/oportunistuli meTodebiT da aman
migviyvana ramdenime potenciur xelaxal Sefasebamde
wina analizebisa, romlebic exeba metaforis konceptualuri Teoriis zogierT centralur mtkicebas.
garda amisa, metaforisa da metonimiis kognitiur
anu konceptualur bunebaze fokusirebam migviyvana detaluri, safuZvliani analizis garkveul uaryofamde
da Sedegad metaforis lingvisturi bunebis mravali aspeqtis ugulvebelyofamde. amasTan dakavSirebiT arsebobs mTeli rigi sakiTxebis, romlebic TandaTan xdeba
sistemuri ganxilvis obieqti.
konceptualuri mepingebis korpusze dafuZnebuli
analizi exeba da unda moicavdes gacilebiT farTo diapazonis monacemebs, vidre introspeqciuli/oportunistuli midgomebi. bevr SemTxvevaSi es monacemebis siuxve
gardauvlad iwvevs axal aRmoCenebs. magaliTad man SeiZleba daayenos mepingis gansazRvrebis xelaxali analizis aucilebloba. yovlismomcvelobis mcdeloba
aseve moiTxovs mkvlevarisgan imis gaTvaliswinebas, rom
lingvisturma gamoTqmebma SesaZloa gamoavlinon metaforulobis an metonimiurobis sxvadasxva xarisxi.
(Stefanowitsch... 2006, 6)
korpusis monacemebis kvantitatiuri buneba gansakuTrebulad monoliTur mniSvnelobas aniWebs zogierT
xSirad ganxilul mepingebs. ra Tqma unda, konceptualur mepingebTan dakavSirebuli sixSiris monacemebis
gamoyeneba ar Semoifargleba mocemuli mepingis mniSvnelobis zogadi SefasebiT; mas SeuZlia aseve gaxdes safuZveli, romelic gansazRvravs Tu romeli mepingebia
yvelaze metad asocirebuli calkeul samizne domeinTan an calkeul qvedomeinTan samizne domeinis SigniT.
sabolood, korpusis monacemebi saSualebas gvaZlevs SevafasoT konceptualuri mepingebis sistematuroba. magaliTad elis deinanma aRmoaCina, rom sawyisi

korpusis lingvistika da metafora

225

domeinis zedsarTavi antonimebis wyvilidan (rogorebicaa cxeli da civi) mxolod erTi SeiZleba iyos mepingi mocemul samizne domeinTan da stefanoviCi aRniSnavs, rom samizne domeinebi, romlebic miCneulia rogorc sapirispiro mniSvnelobis mqoneebi, araa savaldebulo mniSvnelovanwilad asocirebuli iyos sawyis domeinebTan, romlebic aseve miCneulia rogorc sawinaaRmdego mniSvnelobis mqoneebi (magaliTad, maSin roca
sawyisi domeini sinaTle centraluri mniSvnelobisaa
samizne domienisaTvis - bedniereba, sawyisi domeini
sibnele SedarebiT naklebad mniSvnelovania samizne
domeinisaTvis sevda). (Stefanowitsch... 2006, 7)
sawyis domeinze orientirebuli kvlevebi da samizne domienze orientirebuli kvlevebi xSirad avseben erTmaneTs konceptualuri mepingebis am aspeqtebis SeswavlaSi. magaliTad, maSin roca sawyis domeinze orientirebuli kvlevebi xSirad warmoadgenen samizne domeinebis gacilebiT vrcel CamonaTvals nebismieri mocemuli
sawyisi erTeulisaTvis, vidre Cven SeiZleba movelodeT
amas introspeqciuli monacamebis safuZvelze; samizne
domienze orientirebuli kvlevebi zRudaven am areals
imiT, rom saSualebas gvaZleven davadginoT is mepingebi
da sawyisi domeinebi, romlebic mniSvnelovnadaa asocirebuli mocemul samizne domienTan.
erT-erTi yvelaze saintereso aRmoCena rac gakeTda metaforisa da metonimiis korpusze dafuZnebuli
midgomiT, aris is, rom gansxvavebebi leqsikuri erTeulis pirdapir da gadataniT mniSvnelobebs an sxvadasxva gadataniT mniSvnelobebs Soris xSirad mxolod
formaluria.
magaliTad, elis deinanma aRmoaCina, rom leqsikuri erTeulebis metaforuli (da metonimiuri) gamoyeneba
xSirad miekuTvneba gansxvavebul sityvaTa klass, vidre
pirdapiri gamoyeneba. aseve pirdapiri da gadataniTi
mniSvnelobebiT gamoyeneba xSirad asocirebulia sxvadasxva gramatikul modelebTan. deinanma isic ki aRmoaCina, rom erTi da imave sawyisi domeinis erTeulis gansxvavebuli metaforuli mniSvnelobebi SesaZloa gansxvavebulad iyos nauRlebi.
rogorc Cans, Cven ubralod unda miviRoT is faqti,
rom arsebobs erTeulebisTvis specifiuri gansxvavebebi

226

mindia cecxlaZe

konceptualur mepingebSi sawyisi domeinis leqsikonis


monawileobasTan dakavSirebiT; aseTi gansxvavebebi xSirad mxolod konvencionalizaciis Sedegia (leqsikalizacia, gramatikalizacia da a.S.), romelic bunebrivad
iwvevs leqsikuri erTeulis sxvadasxva gamoyenebisaTvis
unikaluri formaluri Tvisebebis gaCenas. martin hilperti mianiSnebs SesaZleblobaze, rom aseTma unikalurma Tvisebebma iTamaSon mniSvnelovani roli metonimiuri
gamoTqmebis damuSavebaSi. (Stefanowitsch... 2006, 7-8)
konceptualur mepingebis kvlevaSi korpusze dafuZnebuli midgomebi mkvlevars saSualebas aZlevs Seiswavlos metaforis da metonimiis teqstualuri da
konteqstualuri maxasiaTeblebi, romelTa introspeqtuli/oportunistuli meTodebiT aRmoCena SeuZlebelia.
(Stefanowitsch... 2006, 8)
metaforebis korpusze dafuZnebuli Seswavla mocemul JanrSi an diskursSi ar ifargleba maTi zogadi
sixSiris SefasebiT. arsebobs metaforis teqstze dafuZnebuli analizis tradicia metaforis konceptualuri Teoriis farglebSi, romelic win uswrebs mkacrad
korpusze dafuZnebul midgomebs da romelic exeba metaforis ideologiur, socialur, komunikaciur da
kulturul funqciebs. SesaZlebelia manualur eqstraqciaze dafuZnebuli detaluri kvalitatiuri analizis
aseTi saxeobis nayofierad Sevseba korpusze dafuZnebuli meTodebiT. am konteqstSi, metaforuli gamoTqmebis
potenciuri interteqstualoba warmoadgens kvlevis saintereso sferos.
sabolood, korpusze dafuZnebuli kvlevebi qmnis
konteqstualurad gansazRvruli teqnologiuri efeqtebis Seswavlis sruliad axal gzebs: magaliTad martin
hilpertma aRmoaCina, rom mocemuli metaforis arseboba
zrdis albaTobas, rom igive metafora kvlav Segvxvdeba
uSualod momdevno diskursSi, maSin roca naklebia albaToba rom sawyisi domeini Tavisi pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT Segvxvdes. aseTi aRmoCenebis mniSvneloba metaforis damuSavebis fsiqolingvisturi modelebisaTvis
Seufasebelia. (Stefanowitsch... 2006, 9)
80-iani wlebis dasawyisidan metaforis Seswavla
iyo safuZveli kvlevis programisa, romelic cnobilia

korpusis lingvistika da metafora

227

rogorc kognitiuri lingvistika da misi ganviTareba daiwyo lakofis da jonsonis 1980 wlis monografiiT metaforebi romlebiTac vcxovrobT. sxva Teoriebis
msgavsad lakofis da jonsonis metaforis konceptualuri Teoria erTmaneTisgan ganasxvavebs metaforul
konceptebs (anu konceptualur metaforebs) da metaforul gamoTqmebs. konceptualuri metaforebi aris zogadi mentaluri mepingebi sawyisi domeinidan (ZiriTadad
konkretuli) samizne domeinis (ZiriTadad abstraqtuli)
mimarT, maSin roca metaforuli gamoTqmebi aris individualuri lingvisturi erTeulebi, romlebic am mepingebs warmoadgenen. magaliTad Semdgom winadadebaSi metaforuli gamoTqma gaanalizebulia rogorc warmomdgeni
zogadi metaforuli konceptisa risxva aris cecxli:
igi mas gacecxlebuli elaparakeboda.
metaforis konceptualuri Teoria gansxvavdeba
bevri wina midgomisagan imiT, rom igi upirvelesad metaforuli kogniciis Teoriaa vidre metaforuli enis.
metaforuli mepingi, rogoricaa risxva aris cecxli
ganixileba rogorc
erTi saxis sagnis meore saxis
sagnis meSveobiT gagebis da gancdis (lakofi da jonsoni) fsiqologiuri procesis magaliTi da amgvarad
rogorc fundamentalurad aralingvisturi fenomeni:
is, rac metaforas qmnis, ar aris calkeuli sityva an
gamoTqma. es aris ontologiuri mepingi konceptualur
domeinebs Soris. - aRniSnavs lakofi.
Sesabamisad, kognitiuri metaforis kvleva fokusirebda zogadi mepingebis aRmoCenaze da ara am mepingebis
gamomxatveli specifikuri lingvisturi gamoTqmebis
amomwurav aRweraze. kvlevebi ZiriTadad dafuZnebulia
introspeqciaze anu individualuri citatebis ekleqtikur koleqciaze. es SeiZleba ar iyos mTavari problema
Tu Cveni mizani mxolod calkeuli mepingis arsebobis
dadgenaa, magram Tu Cveni mizani specifikuri mepingis,
sawyisi an samizne domeinis sistematuri daxasiaTebaa es
iwvevs sul mcire 2 problemas: pirveli is, rom SeuZlebelia gadawyvito Tu romel wertilSi amovwureT relevanturi metaforebis moZieba; meore problema isaa, rom
SeuZlebelia Sedegebis ricxvebSi gamosaxva raTa davadginoT mocemul enaSi mocemuli metafora ramdenad mniSvnelovania. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, Znelia Camovaya-

228

mindia cecxlaZe

liboT mtkice empiriuli safuZveli raTa SeviswavloT


konceptualuri metafora lingvisturi perspeqtividan.
erTi SexedviT, korpuslingvistika araa idealuri
kandidati am meTodologiuri problemebis gadasaWrelad. korpusebis wvdomis ZiriTadi gza gadis sityvis
formebze (ufro zustad orTografiul seriebze) da
radgan metaforuli mepingebi zogadad araa dakavSirebuli calkeuli sityvis formebTan (an calkeul lingvistur erTeulebTan zogadad) maTi avtomaturad moZieba araa advili.
Tumca ramdenime strategia SemoTavazebul iqna am
problemis mosagvareblad. erT-erTi am strategiis ZiriTadi idea aris sakmaod sworxazovani: virCevT leqsikur erTeuls romelic ukavSirdeba sakvlev samizne domeins da moviZiebT korpusSi. moZiebul nimuSebSi vaxdenT yvela im metaforuli gamoTqmis identifikacias,
romlis nawilicaa mocemuli saZiebeli sityva da vajgufebT maT Tanmimdevrul jgufebad, romlebic warmoadgenen zogad mepingebs. es zogadi midgoma gamoiyeneboda mkvlevarebis mier magram arasodes ikvlevdnen am
gziT identificirebuli metaforuli mepingebi namdvilad warmoadgendnen Tu ara srulad metaforul mepingebs sakvlev samizne domeinSi. Cveni mizania imis demonstrireba rom es meTodi metaforebis identifikaciis
TvalsazrisiT introspeqtul meTods ar CamorCeba Tu
ar uswrebs. Semowmebis mizniT Cven gamoviyeneT metaforuli gamoTqmebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia ZiriTadi
emociebis samizne domeinTan, kerZod ki sityvebTan :
risxva, SiSi, sixaruli, sevda da zizRi. meore mizania
metaforuli mepingebis sixSiris daTvlis SesaZleblobis mier gaxsnil kvlevis axal gzebze miTiTeba. vaCvenebT rogor SeiZleba mocemuli metaforuli mepingis
sixSire mocemul leqsikur erTeulTan gamoviyenoT
calkeuli samizne sityvebis/konceptebis mepingebis
identifikaciisaTvis da gamovikvlevT gansxvavebebs antonimebis da TiTqmis sinonimebis metaforul qcevebSi,
imis saCveneblad rom reprezentatiul leqsikur erTeulebze dayrdnoba meTodologiuri upiratesobaa, romelic saSualebas gvaZlevs erTi da imave samizne domeinis leqsikur erTeulebs Soris odnavSesamCnevi gansxvavebebi aRmovaCinoT. (Stefanowitsch... 2006, 63-65)

korpusis lingvistika da metafora

229

ibadeba kiTxveba rogor gavumklavdeT bundovanebas,


romelsac metaforis empiriulad kargad dafuZnebulma
Teoriam unda SesTavazos saWiro pasuxebi. kvleva aCvenebs, rom metafora aris sinqronuli, empiriuli semantikuri klasifikacia, Tumca misi sazRvrebi bundovania da
unda ganvasxvavoT dinamikuri da konvenciuri metaforebi.
dinamikuri metaforebi SeTxzulia ad hoc raTa gamoxatos raRac axali gageba; konvenciuri metafora ki mxolod normaluri enis gamoyenebis kidev erTi saxea. sul
mcire ramdenime metafora mainc dakavSirebulia sintagmaturi gamoxatulebis calkeul jgufTan, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba sxva, igive sityvebis ufro pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT gamoyenebis models. (Stefanowitsch... 2006, 17)
korpusis
lingvistikis
gamoyenebiT
metaforis
kvlevis konkretuli magaliTia patrik henqsis kvleva,
romlis Teoriuli safuZvelia maqs blekis idea, rom
metafora damokidebulia rezonansze araumcires or
koncefcias Soris, romelTagan pirveli (pirveladi subieqti) interpretirebulia meoris (meoradi subieqti)
TvalsazrisiT. maqs bleki amtkicebs, rom rezonansi SeiZleba gavzomoT metaforis namdvili gamoyenebis SeswavliT korpusSi. igi acxadebs, rom rezonansi (e.i. metaforuloba) miT ufro didia, rac ufro naklebi semantikuri Tvisebebi akavSirebs erTmaneTTan or koncefcias.
prototipuli oazisi aris cxel udabnoSi, magram arsebobs agreTve antarqtikuli oazisi, romelic ar aris
prototipuli da ar SeiZleba misi rogorc pirdapiri
gagebiT oazisis klasificireba; oazisi did qalaqSi ufro metaforulia vidre oazisi antarqtidaze, oazisi gonebaSi kidev ufro metaforulia. rezonansi Zlierdeba
da vrceldeba rodesac sxva, dakavSirebuli cnebebi da
konceptebi Semodis da SesaZloa rezonirebs kidec iseT
cnebebTan, romlebic teqstSi eqspliciturad arc aris
realizebuli: magaliTad citatebi, sadac oazisi naxsenebia qalaqis garemoSi, qalaqs aniWebs udabnos rols,
Tumca aseT SemTxvevebSi sityva udabno iSviaTadaa eqspliciturad warmodgenili. (Stefanowitsch... 2006, 31)
sabolood korpusis lingvistikis meTodi saSualebas iZleva uzarmazari rutinuli samuSao Sesruldes
sul raRac wamebSi maqsimaluri an sulac absoluturi

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mindia cecxlaZe

sizustiT da imdenad ramdenadac literaturaTmcodneoba garkveul SemTxvevebSi saWiroebs raodenobriv analizsac kvalitatiurTan erTad am ukanasknelis Sedegebis gadamowmebis da gamyarebis mizniT, am meTodis gamoyenebas literaturaTmcodneobaSi didi momavali aqvs.
literatura
1. Ldeling, Anke. Kyt, Merja. 2008. Corpus Linguistics An
International Handbook, Volume 1-2. Berlin.
http://www.postgradolinguistica.ucv.cl/dev/documentos/91,1017,Ludelin
g,%20A.%20Corpus%20Linguistics.%20An%20international%20ha
ndbook.pdf
2. OKeeffe, Anne. McCarthy, Michael. 2010. The Routledge
Handbookof Corpus Linguistics. First edition. New York.
3. Viana, Vander. Fausto, Fabiana. Zyngier, Sonia. 2007. Corpus
linguistics & literature: a contrastive analysis of Dan Brown and
Machado de Assis. Rio de Janeiro.
4. Culler, Jonathan. 2002. Structuralist Poetics: Structuralism,
Linguistics and the Study of Literature. Padstow.
http://books.google.de/books?hl=de&lr=&id=cBZCOD8SVzMC&oi=fnd
&pg=PR7&dq=corpus+linguistics+literature&ots=sQe6wiaff9&sig=
w01hZwj-RoP0E6OIOXGnU9Za5Dw#v=onepage&q&f=true.
5. Fischer-Starcke, Bettina. 2010. Corpus Linguistics in Literary
Analysis. Chennai: Continuum International Publishing Group.
6. Stefanowitsch, Anatol. Gries, Stefan Th.. 2006. Corpus-Based
Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy. Berlin.
7. Deignan, Alice. 2005. Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics.
Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
http://books.google.ge/books?id=bp3dHiJEUNQC&printsec=frontcover
&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=true
8. Kvecses, Zoltn. 2010. Metaphor, practical introduction. New York:
Oxford University Press, Inc..
http://210.45.212.38/english/elang/resource/extend/%E8%AE%A4%
E7%9F%A5%E8%AF%AD%E8%A8%80%E5%AD%A6/Metaphor
__A%20Practical%20Introduction.pdf
9. TandaSvili, manana. furcxvaniZe, zaqaria. 2014. korpuslingvisturi paradigma enaTmecnierebaSi. Tbilisi.

Ddalila gogia

yvavis metafora
ted hiuzTan
meoce saukunis erT-erTma yvelaze
cnobilma ingliselma poetma, inglisis
potma-laureatma, ted hiuzma 1970 wels
cnobili poeturi cikli, yvavi: misi
cxovreba da simRerebi gamoaqveyna. aRniSnuli cikli
hiuzis SemoqmedebaSi
mniSvnelovan etaps warmoadgens. man gamosvlisTanave mwvave kritika daimsaxura
masSi mis mis mier asaxuli Zaladobrivi,
groteskuli da boroti samyaros gamo.
ted hiuzis cikli yvavi - misi
cxovreba da simRerebi
Tavad personaJis, yvavis arCeva,
romelic amerikeli skulptorisa da
ted hiuzis megobris, leonard baskinidan modis, romelmac SesaTavaza hiuzs
SeeTxza ambebi misi naxatebisTvis.
hiuzma bibliur da berZnul
miTologiasa da sxvadasxva xalxebis miTebsa da Tqmulebebze dayrdnobiT Seqmna
yvavi, rogorc ara erTi Cveulebrivi
frinveli, aramed mianiWa mas miTiuri da
mistiuri Tvisebebic. misTvis yvavis, rogorc personaJis arCevaSi didi roli
iTamaSa Semdegma Tvisebebma: yvavi TiTqmis mTel dedamiwazea gavrcelebuli,
aris yvela sxva frinvelisgan mkveTrad
gansxvavebuli, yvelaze gonieri da yvelaze naklebad musikaluri. amitomaa,

232

dalila gogia

rom yvavis simRerebi keTilxmovnebas moklebuli da uxeSia. mniSvnelovania is faqtic, rom yvavi leSismWameli frinvelia, rac,
hiuzis azriT, imas niSnavs, rom is sikvdiliT ikvebeba, misgan
iRebs sasicocxlo Zalas da amiT masze Zlieria. sxvadasxva
kulturebSi yvavi sxvadasxva simbolod gvevlineba,
is
gvxvdeba, rogorc gonierebis,sibrZnis, kreatiulobisa da samarTlianobis, aseve, rogorc sikvdilisa da mosalodneli ubedurebis simbolo. hiuzis yvavi ki Tavad hiuzis metafizikuri xedvis
mTel simZimes Tavisi mxrebiT zidavs. mas ar aqvs erTi garkveuli saxe, ted hiuzi sxvadasxva arqetipebze dayrdnobiT, qmnis
yvavis mravalmxriv xasiaTs. Tavad avtori ki, yvavis metaforas
amofarebuli, ikvlevs samyaros, adamianis qvecnobiers, cxovrebas.
eZebs pasuxs maradiul kiTxvebze: vin var, ratom movevline qveyanas, saidan movdivar, saiT mivdivar. erTi sityviT aq yvavi Tavad avtoris alter egos warmoadgens. rogorc kritikosebi aRniSnaven,
ted hiuzma, yvavis cikliT, personaluri miTosi
Seqmna.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, aRsaniSnavia, rom 1998 wels ted hiuzi meTiu svineis wers:
maxsovs, roca yvavs vwerdi, yovelTvis, roca viwyebdi
iyo da ara iyo ra, mivdiodi raRac ambavTan, metaforul zRaparTan,
erTgvar TamaSTan, romelsac verasodes vcvlidi, da
romelic TavisiT modioda TiTqos arsaidan da bolos CemTvisac
ki moulodnel saxes iRebda. da maxsovs, vfiqrobdi - Tu yoveldRe, erT aseT ambavs davwer, oriode welSi ras miviReb?
garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, Cemi miTiuri cxovrebis mTel avtobiografias.
xolo 1970 wels, roca yvavis cikli gamoqveynda, ted
hiuzma megobars, riCard merfis Tavisi SiSi gaumxila: mainteresebs, ra reaqcia eqnebaT Cems yvavze... ar vici, rogor gaigebs
adamiani, romelic ar micnobs, - rogor unda gaigos is calke,
yvela sxva movlenisgan damoukideblad.
sxva movlenebi, ki, romelzec ted hiuzi am werilSi saubrobs, misi biografiis Semdeg tragikuli movlenebs ukavSirdeba:
1963 wlis TebervalSi misma im dros ukve daSorebulma
meuRlem, silvia plaTma Tavi moikla. im xanad ted hiuzs sasiyvarulo urTierToba hqonda asia vevilTan, romelTan erTadac
cxovrobda silvias sikvdilis Semdeg. 1969 wlis martSi asia

yvavis metafora ted hiuzTan

233

vevilma mokla maTi 4 wlis qaliSvili Sura da Semdeg Tavadac


moikla Tavi. yvavis wera ted hiuzma asia vevilTan erTad daiwyo da surda, silvia plaTis TviTmkvlelobis mizezebs Cawvdomoda, magram asiasa da Suras sikvdilis Semdeg man mTeli
cikli maT miuZRvna.
ted hiuzi yvavs Tavis SemoqmedebaSi yvelaze rTul da
damaintrigebel personaJs,
iseTi arqetipul modelebze dayrdnobiT qmnis, rogoricaa:
Samanizmi, bibliuri legendebi, dedaRvTisas xateba, triqsterebis miTosi,
aseve skandinaviuri da amerikeli indielebis miTosi.
SeiZleba gamovyoT yvavis ori ZiriTadi saxe, ori arqetipuli xasiaTi:
pirveli triksteri, anu zRapruli an miTologiuri gmiri, Samani,
masxara, TaRliTi,
da meore - gantevebis vaci,
triksteris xasiaTi heroikul miTSi, pirveli ZiriTadi
stadiaa, romelSic, gmiri sakuTar instinqtebs eyrdnoba, Tavisufalia kompleqsebisgan, da xSirad infantiluric kia. triksteri
TiTqmis yovelTvis mamakacia. gustav iungi triksters Semdegnairad aRwers: triksteri aris figura, romlis fizikuri survilebi ZiriTadad warmarTavs mis qcevebs; misi mentaliteti rogorc wesi, infantiluria. mas ar gaaCnia erTi konkretuli mizani, is zogjer sastikia, cinikuri, da ugrZnobi.
triksteris saukeTeso gansazRvrebas albaT mainc haidi
gvaZlevs: triksteri aris is, vinc sazRvrebs kveTs. es niSnavs,
rom triksteri kveTs rogorc fizikur, aseve socialur sazRvrebs. is xSirad icvlis saxes, SeiZleba gadaiqces raime arsebad, da gadakveTos sazRvari samyaroebs Soris. is, xSirad agreTve RmerTis macnedac gvevlineba. triksteri zogjer upasuxismgebloa, da amoraluric, Tumca ar SeiZleba ar aRiniSnos misi SemoqmedebiTi niWi.
2. gantevebis vaci.
gantevebis vaci warmoadgens arqetipul figuras, romelic
aRniSnavs samsxverplo batkans, romelsac, rogorc wesi, adanaSuleben an msxverplad wiraven sxvaTa codvebisa Tu SiSis gamo.
snaideris mixedviT, gantevebis vaci, rogorc wesi, adamiania, romelsac msxverplad swiraven,
sikvdiliT sjian, an devnian sa-

234

dalila gogia

zogadoebidan im saqcielis gamo, romelic am sazogadoebisTvis miuRebelia da codvad an danaSaulad miiCneva.


Tavad hiuzis TqmiT, yvavis istoria
zecaSi daiwyo:
RmerTma Seqmna samyaro, da Semdeg daisvena, Tumca, is xSirad naxulobda koSmars, sadac uzarmazari xeli da raRac xma dascinodnen mis Seqmnil samyaros da gansakuTrebiT, mis Sedevrs, adamians.
RmerTi ki maT umtkicebda, rom misi Seqmnili samyaro iyo
idealuri. maTi kamaTi Sewyda SetyobinebiT, rom adamians aRar
surda sicocxle RmerTis Seqmnil samyaroSi da is axla RmerTis naxvas cdilobda, raTa misTvis eTxova, misi sicocxle ukan
waeRo. am ambiT Tavzardacemulma RmerTma uTxra koSmars, Tavad
Seeqmna vinme ukeTesi, vidre misi Seqmnili adamiania. koSmaris pasuxi am gamowvevaze aris yvavis Seqmna.
ted hiuzis cikli yvavi ZiriTadad sam etapad iyofa: 1.
yvavis dabadeba, 2. yvavis gamocdileba. 3. yvavis dakvirvebebi
samyaroze.
ted hiuzi yvavis dabadebis ramdenime urTierTgamomricxav
versias gvTavazobs. erT-erTi maTgania dabadeba: romelic ase
iwyeba: pirvelad iyo kivili.... anu ase iwyeba yvavisTvis samyaro - pirvelad iyo ara sityva, ara RmerTi, ara naTeli, aramed
SiSi da sasowarkveTa. is iyo pirveladi energia, ramac sabolood Seqmna Tavad yvavi.
mas Semdeg, rac Seiqmna, yvavma bevri cduneba, gansacdeli,
Tu RvTis risxva gadaitana. am yvelaferma is TiTqos Secvala,
Tu arc Secvala, gardaqmna, Tu arc gardaqmna, wakuwebad daglija, Semdeg isev gaamTela, is TiTqos adamiania, romelmac unda
Secvalos adamiani, magram ra Tqma unda, is adamiani ar aris, is
yvavia, romelsac aqvs ambicia gaxdes adamiani, Tumca am mizans is
verasodes aRwevs. Tumca, Tavad yvavma arc ki icis, ras erCian
da Tavs gantevebis vacad Tvlis, is ver xvdeba, ratom ergo
rTuli bedi, raSi mdgomareobs misi danaSauli, is ar egueba Tavis beds, da gadarCenisTvis ibrZvis.
samyaroSi, romelSic yvavi daibada, yvelaferi erTdroulad xdeba. iq dasawyisic da dasasrulic erTdroulad awmyo
droSia, aseve awmyoSi mimdinareobs yvela istoriuli movlena,
TiTqos samyaro erTi giganturi sastumroa da yvela movlenas
Tavisi oTaxi aqvs dakavebuli.

yvavis metafora ted hiuzTan

235

yvavi RmerTis Seqmnil samyaros akvirdeba. is sakuTar Tavze da mTlianad, samyaroze TandaTan bevr rames igebs. is igebs,
rom arsebobs tkivili, Tumca, zustad arc ki icis, es ra aris.
yvelaferi, rac masSia, da ris gacnobierebazec uars acxadebs,
tkivilia. yvela tkivili iwvevs ufro did tkivils. is mistiurad xvdeba amas. infantiluri yvavi uars acxadebs gaacnobieros
realoba, an, ama Tu im mizezis gamo, ar ZaluZs realobis aRqma,
arc pasuxismgeblobis aReba.
rac ufro mets igebs yvavi, miT ufro mets fiqrobs, misi
ZiriTadi amocana Tavisi Semqmnelis moZebna xdeba. cdilobs gaerkves Tavis bedisweraSi, da saerTod, vin ganagebs bedisweras.
samyaroSi mogzaurobis yvavi awydeba saswaulebs, sisuleles, zogjer izafreba kidec. samyaros Sesaxeb Tavis daskvnebs
akeTebs. zogjer brazdeba, ufro metic, cofdeba kidec, da gadawyvetilebasac iRebs, rom Tu rame misTvis saidumloebiT moculi rCeba, Zalis gamoyenebiT amoxsnas is.
hiuzi yvavis saxiT sayvedurs eubneba RmerTs misi Seqmnili
samyaros gamo da cdilobs, daanaxvos Secdomebi da Sesworebebi
Seitanos am samyaroSi. is Tavdayira ayenebs Sesaqmis miTs.
yvavis mixedviT, RmerTma Seqmna samyaro da mas mere ubralod isvenebs, Tvlems da misi Seqmnili samyaros bedi aRar ainteresebs. man Tavisi uyuradRebobiT sabediswero Secdoma dauSva, leqsSi vaSlis tragedia RmerTi vaSlis Rvinos asmevs jer
gvels, xolo Semdeg ki evas. maT simTvrales ki samyaro uimedo
areulobamde mihyavs da mas Semdeg, dRemde dedamiwaze cxovreba
qalsa da kacs Soris erTi dausrulebeli omia.
mTeli cikli ironiiTa da satiriTaa savse. aq qristianul
RmerTs akritikeben.
yvavi
gvevlineba, rogorc triksteriRmerTi, zebunebrivi demonuri Zala, samyaros stiqiuri Zala da
movlena, gmiri, romelic cdilobs, adamiani aramarto arasworad
Seqmnili samyarodan, aramed misi Semqnelisganac ixsnas, isaa poeziisa da omis RmerTi.
hiuzis azriT, upirvelesi da maradiuli konfliqti sinaTlisa da wyvdiadis gayofaa. aqedan iwyeba yvelaferi, radgan es
ara mxolod naTelisa da bnelis konfliqtia, aramed esaa konfliqti wesrigsa da qaoss, RmerTsa da qalRmerTs, racionalursa da iracionalurs, mizezsa da instinqts Soris.
yvavs kargad esmis, rom RmerTs keTili ganzraxva hqonda,
roca samyaros qmnida, da misi survili iyo, siyvaruli da

236

dalila gogia

harmonia yofiliyo samyaros bazisi. yvavi cdilobs, RmerTs daanaxvos, rom realurad es ar ganxorcielda.
yvavi mTel samyaroSi daexeteba da daJinebiT eZebs Tavis
Semqmnels, yvelanairad cdilobs, Tumca warmatebas mainc ver aRwevs. TandaTan xedavs, rom samyaro mis irgvliv, ucnauria da
tkiviliTa da tanjviT savse, da zogjer, wyvdiadiT moculic.
xvdeba, rom am samyaroSi gadasarCenad, saWiroa zebunebrivi Zala.
Tumca, eWvi ar epareba, rom is aucileblad unda gadarCes. misi
aRqmiT, samyaro saSiSia, da yvavic ibrZvis, rom Tavi gaarTvas
mis gamowvevas. yvavi imasac xvdeba, rom marTalia, RmerTma ZalRone ar daiSura kargi samyaros Sesaqmnelad, is mainc iSleba.
da RmerTi, yvavis azriT,
daiRala amasTan brZoliT.
Tavisi Semqmnelis ZebnaSi, yvavi samyaros, misi sxvadasxva
kulturebs awydeba da askvnis, rom zogadad religia aris TamaSi, sadac yvela Cabmulia, da rom erTi religia meorisgan ubralod, erTidaigive saganTa sxvadasxvagvari ganlagebiT gansxvavdeba, is imasac xvdeba, rom am saganTa gadalageba nebismiers ZaluZs, da imasac, rom nebismieri ganlageba Secdomaa.
Tavisi mudmivi Ziebisgan datanjuli, yvavi xSirad Tavs ganadgurebulad grZnobs. Cveulebrivi adamianuri refleqsebi, Tundac iseTi martivi, rogorcaa sicili, mas sagonebelSi agdebs.
TandaTan xvdeba, rom fiqrisa da azrovnebis unari, didi da realuri Zalaa. aseve udidesi Zala aqvs sityvebs, Tumca, rogorc
is askvnis, arasakmarisad didi.
mogzaurobis dros is ismens uamrav ambavs, erTi da igive
istoriis sxvadasxva variants, ucqers dramas, scenaze. is aseve
xedavs, rom zogierTs ufro meti simarTle aqvs, vidre sxvebs.
rac ufro mets igebs, rac ufro ukeT arTmevs Tavs movlenebs,
rac im samyaroSi xdeba, is iwyebs, Tavisi sakuTari dramis Seqmnas, Tumca is bolomde daumTavrebelia da iSviaTad scildeba
zogad monaxazs. yvavi qmnis piesebsa da istoriebs, sadac mxolod ori personaJiT Semoifargleba. - qaliT da kaciT. is awydeba oidiposis istorias, kiTxulobs sofoklesa da senekas,
ecnoba froids da eqmneba STabeWdileba, rom isini yvelani cdebodnen. da Tavs valdebulad grZnobs, Tavisi sakuTari versia
daweros.
yvavis mizani xdeba Cawvdes yvela movlenis Zireul simarTles. SesaZloa simarTlem Semqmna me fiqrobs
is. xolo
leqsi simarTle yvelas klavs gveubneba, rom
yvavs miaCnia,

237

yvavis metafora ted hiuzTan

rom man unda miiRos yvelaferi ise, rogorc aris da simarTles


Tvali gausworos.
ted hiuzis yvavi gvevlineba, rogorc macocxlebeli Zalis
simbolo im samyaroSi, romelic savsea mZvinvare, damangreveli
stiqiuri bunebrivi ZalebiT, da sadac gadarCena TiTqos SeuZlebelia.
literatura
Christopher Reid letters of Ted Hughes.
The Ted Hughes Society Journal Crow
Ted Hughes, The Art of Poetry No. 71
Faas, Ekbert: The Unaccommodated Universe. Santa Barbara: Black
Sparrow Press, 1980)

Nnatalia zarnaZe

me-s metaforuli
ganzomilebebi
mecnierebis iseTma dargebma, rogoricaa neirobiologia, nevrologia, fsiqologia ukve didi xania Camoayalibes
is principebi, romliTac sagnebi, faqtebi Tu movlenebi Cvens cnobierebaSi aRibeWdeba da Seinaxeba. informaciis miRebagadacemis procesSi tvinis ujredebi
sxvadasxva tipis neironebi monawileobs. im momentSi, rodesac rames ixsenebT, roca fiqrobT, Tqven amyarebT kidev erT axal SeerTebas tvinSi neironebis meSveobiT. birTvuli magniturrezonansuli da eleqtroencefalografiuli
monacemebiT maSin, rodesac adamiani pirvelad Sexvdeba raime sagans, an movlenas, mis tvinSi garkveuli neironebi aqtiurdeba. am sagnis, an movlenis SemdgomSi kidev erTxel rogorc danaxvisas, aseve warmodgenisas igive neironebi
aRigzneba, romlebic adamianis tvinSi
dakavSirebulia pirvandel saxexatTan.
aRsaniSnavia, rom nebismieri sagani
Tu movlena SeuZlebelia, rom erTi konkretuli maxasiaTeblisagan Sedgebodes.
magaliTad romeliRac vaSli, SeiZleba
iyos ara mxolod mrgvali, aramed wiTelic, tkbilic, mwifec da saRic. Sesabamisad es vaSli Cvens cnobierebaSi moiniSneba ara mxolod rogorc erTi kon-

me-s metaforuli ganzomilebebi

239

kretuli sagani, aramed neironebi Seinaxaven mis sxvadasxva maxasiaTelsac da rodesac romelime wiTel da mrgval sagans,
magaliTad mcire zomis saTamaSo burTs aviRebT xelSi, SesaZloa
gagvaxsendes zemoT xsenebuli vaSli, radgan am dros, rogorc
mixvdiT, aqtiurdeba is neironebi, romlebic vaSlis iseT TvisebebTan aris SeWiduli, rogoricaa misi zoma, forma, siwiTle. es
yvelaze martivi, gasagebi, trafaretad gamosayenebeli magaliTia, romliTac metaforebi, rogorc tropuli, gadataniTi gamosaxvis saSualebebi muSaoben.
literaturaSi ase farTod gamoiyenebuli mxatvruli metaforebi yvelaze xSirad analogiurobis gamo warmosadgenis princips emyareba. aqedan gamomdinare, gansakuTrebulad sainteresoa
metaforuli azriT gamoyenebuli cnebebi, maTi kodirebuli mniSvnelobebi da aqedan gamowveuli asociaciebi.
metaforebis arsi modelirebulia adaminis azrovnebis xerxebis Sesabamisad es namdvili izomrfizmia literaturuli metaforebis Semqmnagamoyenebis processa da adamianis yoveldRiur, yofiT, sruliad aramxatvrul saazrovno procesebTan. ufro
swori iqneba iTqvas, rom metafora, rogorc mxatvruli xerxi
sworedac rom adamianis cnobierebis mier gamoyenebuli informaciis asaxvis saSualebebidan erTerTis kopirebaa. metafora, rogorc mxatvruli xerxi, romelic gulisxmobs sagnis, an movlenis Tvisebebis gadatanas sxva sagansa Tu movlenaze, azris transferis mniSvnelovani xerxia Tavad Cveni fsiqikisaTvisac, maSin
roca mas sakuTriv CvenTvis sxvadasxva signalebis mowodeba
surs. zigmund froidisa da karl gustav iungis mixedviT, aracnobieri da qvecnobieri asociaciuri principebiT gvesaubreba da
saTqmeli simboloebiTa da metaforebiTaa warmodgenili (1) (2).
rac vlindeba kidec fsiqikis moqmedebis iseT gamovlinebaSi, rogoric sizmaria.
sizmrebis esTetikas, anu sizmrebis enas mecnierebi axlac
ikvleven. saerTo niSnebis matarebeli, an konkretuli piris gamocdilebidan gamomdinare asociaciebiT dakavSirebuli sagnebi
da movlenebi sizmrebSi qvecnobierebis mier gamoyenebulia rogorc saubris ena sakuTar TavTan.
,,sakuTari Tavi anu ,,ego rogorc koncepti vlindeba
cnobierebasTan gaigivebaSi, amavdroulad cnobierebiT marTvis
rogorc subieqtTan( anu mmarTvelTan), aseve obieqtTan (anu marTulTan) gaigivebaSi. sxvanairad rom vTqvaT sakuTar Tavze fiq-

240

natalia zarnaZe

ri sarkiT sarkeSi Caxedvis process gavs. amas garda, ,,mesTan


gaigivebuli piri erTis mxriv konkretuli fizikuri sxeulia,
meore kuTxidan ki vxedavT ,,mes Sinaarsis Rrma kavSirs SegrZnebebisa da warmosaxvebis sferosTan.
gustav iungis mixedviT cnobiereba warmoudgenelia egos
gareSe. Tu ar aris ego, maSin arc aravinaa raimes Semcnobi:
,,araferi SeiZleba iyos cnobieri ,,me-s gareSe, uromlisodac
cnobiereba warmoudgenelia. rac ,,me-s ar ukavSirdeba, arc aris
cnobieri (3). aRniSnulze dayrdnobiT, teqstis modevno nawilSi egosa da cnobierebas daaxloebiT gaigivebuli mniSvnelobiT
gamoviyeneb.
sakuTar Tavze gaazrebuli fiqri adamianis gansakuTrebuli
SesaZleblobaa. ganaTlebis sferoSi (da ara mxolod) umaRlesi saazrovno unaris gamovlenad metakognituri azrovneba gvevlineba. ,,metakognicia niSnavs sakuTari SemecnebiTi (azrovnebis)
procesebis azrebis, fiqrebis gacnobierebas da marTvas. sxva
sityvebiT, metakognicia aris azrovneba azrovnebis Sesaxeb. es
aris codna sakuTari kognituri sistemisa da misi funqcionirebis Sesaxeb da misi kontrolis unari. metakogniciis dros xdeba
imis Semecneba, Tu ra viciT (metakognituri codna), imis gacnobiereba, Tu ras vakeTebT, rogor viqceviT (metakognituri unari), an rogoria Cveni mimdinare kognituri da emociuri mdgomareoba (metakognituri SegrZneba)(4). aRniSnulidan gamomdinare
amitom metakognituroba yvelaze mkveTrad ,,mes ,,mesTan mimarTebisas vlindeba.
aRsaniSnavia, rom metakognicia, anu azrovneba azrovnebis
Sesaxeb sakuTari Tavis erTgvarad garedan xedvis mniSvnelobasac
atarebs, rac absoluturad ucxoa cxovelTa samyarosaTvis da
albaT zedmeti gambedaoba ar iqneba saWiro imis samtkiceblad,
Tu vityviT, rom zog cnobil niSanTan erTad (rogoricaa: sazogadoebis Seqmnis unari, materialuri formiT warmodgenili simboloebis Seqmnis unari, xelovnebis fenomeni, religiuri grZnobebi, sindisis gancda da sircxvili, iaraRebis Seqmnis unari da
sxva) metakognicia erTerTi ganmasxvavebeli niSania adamiansa da
cxovels Soris.
albaT arc is iqneba gadaWarbebuli, Tu vityviT, rom metakogniciam Seqmna adamiani, rogorc procesma, romliTac adamiani
sakuTar azrovnebas adevnebs Tvalyurs, akontrolebs mis dine-

me-s metaforuli ganzomilebebi

241

bas, aZlevs mimarTulebas, prognozirebs Sedegebs da am Sedegebs ki isev azrebad aqcevs.


gasagebi xdeba, rom sakuTar Tavze, anu ,,egoze fiqris
procesi mniSvnelovanwilad dakavSirebulia metakognitur azrovnebasTan.
pirvel rigSi ,,me Si Caxedva, CaZirva iwvevs upirobo SegrZnebas, rom ,,Sen xar, anu arsebob da mere am yvelafers acnobiereb azrovnebis im umaRlesi unaris meSveobiT, romelic
jer amoizrdeba grZnobadi sferodan, Semdeg axerxebs mis damzeras ,,garedan da Semdeg kvlav grZnobadSi Cabrundeba...
mes SegrZnobis aspeqti zogadad arsebobis SegrZnobasTanaa gadajaWvuli. arsebobis gareSe ki warmoudgenelia ganicado
garesamyaro realobad.
gavixseneb ainStainisa da bengaleli filosofosis rabindranaT Tagoris dialogs, romelic 1930 wels Sedga:
,,damoukidebelia, Tu ara WeSmariteba Cveni cnobierebisgan,
aq ibadeba problema, svams kiTxvas fizikosi albert ainStaini
da maSinve iRebs pasuxs poetisa da moazrovnisagan:
,,rasac Cven WeSmaritebas veZaxiT, realobis obieqtur da
subieqtur aspeqtTa harmonias Soris imaleba... magida, rogorc
sagani mxolod garegnuli saxea da Sesabamisad, rasac adamianis
goneba aRiqvams rogorc magidas, subieqtivisturi gadmosaxedidan arc iarsebebda, Tu goneba gaqreboda. amavdroulad, unda vaRiaroT is faqtic, rom fizikuri realoba araferia garda mravali mbrunavi eleqtruli Zalis centrebisa, romelic iseTive
bunebisaa, rogorc adamianis azrovneba, ambobs Tagori.
gonebas aqvs kanonzomierebaTa SemCnevisa da Semecnebis, realobidan informaciis miRebis, aRbeWdvis, misi analizisa da Sefasebis procesebis warmarTvis unari. eqneboda adamianis gons
CamoTvlili SesaZleblobebi es samyaro misTvis absoluturad
gansxvavebuli da ucxo rom iyos, an misgan kategoriulad gansxvavebuli principebiT muSaobdes?
,,egoSi mcxovrebi es subieqturi realoba, anu samyaros
piradi sensoruli sistemiT Semofargluli Semecneba SegrZnebebis doneze imdenad gaerTgvarovnebulia sinamdvilis gancdasTan,
rom Tavad ,,me SeiZleba iqces realobis, samyaros metaforad
Senive qvecnobierisaTvis. Tu ar arsebob, ar arsebobs realobac,
romlic unda aRiqva. gadataniTi azriT rom vTqvaT: WeSmariteba
es ,,me var, samyaro esec ,,me var. subieqturi gagebiT,

242

natalia zarnaZe

cnobierebis gareSe ar arsebobs samyaro da ganzomilebaTa kontinuumices cnobierebis moculobaa. goni Tavad SeiZleba iyos
yvela sxva danarCenTan gadajaWvuli ganzomileba.
samyaro ki rogorc materialistur filosofiaSi, aseve
kosmologiaSi gaigivebulia sasrul, an usasrulo dro-sivrcul
kontinuumTan, romelSic mTeli materia da energia arsebobs.
amavdroulad terminis samyaro mniSvneloba konteqstualuricaa da damokidebuli im sistemis arsze, romelSic is gamoiyeneba.
drosivrcis erTmaneTisagan ganuyofeli wnuli samyaros
im formiT arsebobis aucilebeli piroba, an ufro maxasiaTebelia, romelsac vicnobT, rogorc mocemulobas. SeuZlebelia
drois, rogorc me4 ganzomilebis arseboba, 3 ganzomilebiani
sivrcis (sigrZe, sigane, simaRle) ganfenilobis gareSe. sivrce
warmoudgenelia masSi ganfenili materiis gareSe, xolo materiis arseboba ki warmoudgenelia uZravad, moZraoba ki, Tundac
atomis masStabebis doneze TavisTavad drois koncepts warmoSobs.
maTematikuri analizis erTerT fuZemdebls, laibnics jer
samyaroseuli sivrce da dro aqvs dayvanili adgilisa da materialur saganTa urTirTganlagebis kategoriebze, Semdeg ki sagnobriv kavSirebze, relaciebze da bolos maT ganixilavs, rogorc ideur movlenebs. zogierTi mecnieris miiCnevs, rom is
uaryofda sivrcisa da drois realurobas. dasasabuTeblad ki
ixseneben magaliTs sadac laibnici ambobs, rom sivrceca da
droc ideuri obieqtebis gamomxatveli terminebia, iseve rogorc
ricxvebi gamoxataven ideur SesaZleblobebs. Tumca is ar gamoricxavda sivrcisa da drois realurobasac. is fizikuri sxeulis arsebobas garkveuli momentebis erTianobad aRiqvamda. sivrce miaCnda saganTa Tanaarsebobis, xolo dro ki moZraobaTa Tanamimdevrobis wesrigad da ambobda, rom sivrce iseT saganTa
wesrigia, romlebic Tanaarseboben garkveul momentSi. anu sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT: sivrce iseTi sagnebis wesrigia, romelTa arseboba erTdroulad SeiZleba, dro ki marTalia ara gansazRvruli, magram erTmaneTze mizezSedegobrivad damokidebuli SesaZleblobebis wesrigia (5). dResdRobiT, warsulis, awmyosa da
momavlis erTdroul arsebobazec msjeloben, Tumca es ukve sxva
saubris Temaa.

me-s metaforuli ganzomilebebi

243

egos, rogorc samyaros metaforis anatomia Sesabamisi metaforuli ganzomilebebiT SeiZleba daxasiaTdes. es sakmao sizustiT gamoxatavs Sinagan kavSirsa da msgavsebas fizikur ganzomilebaTa sferosTan. cnobiereba ganfenadi, anu sivrcobrivsxeulebrivi substanciisagan sruliad gansxvavebulia, magram mas
goniTi, anu kognituri substanciiT ganfenadi gare samyaros, aRwera-aRqma da rac mTavaria, aRbeWdvaSuZlia, rac niSnavs imas,
rom garesamyaros Tavisi fizikuri ganzomilebebiT SeuZlia, rom
daikavos cnobieri da moTavsdes masSi. anu ,,meSi aris droc
da aris Taviseburi fizikursivrciTi realobac.
egos mimarTeba sakuTar egosTan, anu ,,fiqri meSi meze
dagvanaxebs mis erTerT mniSvnelovan formiseul identifikacias
adamianis mier Tavis aRqmas fizikur sxeulad, romelic fizikuri samyaros ganzomilebebis yvela niSans atarebs Tavisi materialuri bunebis gamo, am materiis sivrceSi ganfenilobiT, sigrZesiganesimaRlis maxasiaTeblebiT. metic, Tavad aris sivrcis
momcveli WurWeli sivrceSi, damoukideblad moZravi materia materiaSi, romelSic sisicocxlo, arsebobisaTvis maxasiaTebeli
procesebi xorcieldeba.
Sen lokalurad, ramdenadme gamocalkevebulad, ramdenadme
ki garemosTan gaziarebulad arsebob Seni fizikuri samyaroTi,
anu sivrcemateriis TvisebebiT da rogorc es WeSmarit fizikur sivrcemateriaze msjelobisas xdeba, aqac sakamaToa, Tu ra
aris Seni sxeuli: a) erTini obieqti, b) kavSiri absoluturi
sicarielis fragmentebsa da materiis fragmentebs Soris, Tu g)
konceptualuri bazisis nawili?
saintereso isicaa, rom ,,egos sivrcis moniSvna swored
sakuTari Tavis gaTvaliswinebiT SeuZlia da mdebareobis aTvlis
mTavari orientiri, cneba ,,aq swored sakuTari fizikuri sxeulis konkretul adgilas yofniT (an konkretul adgilas warmodgeniT) ganisazRvreba.
mes mimarTeba mesTan ara mxolod gareT gamoxdvis da fizikur sxeulad Tavis Secnobis procesia, sakuTari egos moculobiTobaSi CaRrmavebacaa. sakuTari cnobieris aRqma rogorc
yovelwamier movlenaTa dinebisa da cvlilebaTa bmulis damkvirvebelisa, egos, amavdroulad,
sakuTari subieqturi drois
mflobelad aqcevs, droisa, romelSic warsulis mogonebebi, an
momavlis warmosaxvebi mis Semcvelobas warmoadgens. aqedan gamomdinare mexsiereba gonSi arsebuli drois niSani da fiqsato-

244

natalia zarnaZe

ria. naTqvami niSnavs imas, rom ego drosac, rogorc ganzomilebas Tavis TavSi atarebs da mxolod dro ar atarebs ,,mes sakuTari mdinaris kalapotSi. Seni dro Senive movlenebis mwkrivia.
amas garda, ,,egos, rogorc adgilis SemTxvevaSi, drois
moniSvnac swored sakuTari Tavis meSveobiT SeuZlia. drois aTvlis sayrdeni wertili, cneba ,,axla gadmoscems, Tu movlenaTa mimdevrobis wrfeze romel monakveTTan Tanaarsebobs ,,me. am
ganmartebidan yvelaze naTlad Cans drois gancdis subieqturi
buneba, gansakuTrebiT ki im magaliTis gaTvaliswinebiT, romelSic films vuyurebT, wigns vkiTxulobT da am dros megobars
vuyvebiT, ra xdeba mxatvrul nawarmoebSi ,,axla, anu movlenaTa
jaWvis romel rgolSi imyofeba Seni cnobieri.
msjelobidan gamoikveTa, rom ,,me konceptia, romelsac
topologiuri, anu sivrculsxeulebrivi, aseve droiTi Tvisebebi Seesabameba. dro aris sivrcis suli, xolo sivrce drois
sxeulia ambobs samuel aleqsanderi, me19 saukunis ingliseli filosofosi(6).
metaforuli xerxebiT azrovneba gzamkvlevis rols kisrulobs imaSi, rom ukeTesad gavigoT sakuTar Tavisagan, anu subieqturi, piradi droisa da sivrcisagan mowvdili signalebi. am
xerxebiT msjelobidan gamomdinare sakuTar cnobierebis Cabnelebul nawilSi SesaZloa Tavad viyoT droisa da sivrcis metfora. CvenTvis cnobili samyaro ki droisa da sivrcis urTierTmsWvalavi, ganuyofeli qsovilia da maTi erTmaneTisagan damoukideblad arseboba warmoudgenelia.
amitom aqve ibadeba me3 niSani, romelic fizikuri ganzomilebebis erTobliobis Tvisebas imeorebs sakuTari Tavis gancdaSi: adamianis sxeuli, (anu sivrcemateriis WurWeli) da
cnobieri (anu drois WurWeli) erTobliobaSi ,,mes gancdis
kompleqsur da realistur pirobas qmnian, rac pirovnebas gamosaxavs, rogorc yvela ganzomilebiT ganmsWvalul kontinuums im
did, moculobiT instalaciaSi, romelSic daSifruli saxiT
aris datanili yvela informacia, romelic gvaxsovs, dagvaviwyda,
an arc arasodes gagvxsenebia.
metic, subieqtivisturad goni Tavad SeiZleba iyos srulfasovani ganzomileba, romelic yvela sxva danarCenTan (sigrZe,
sigane, simaRle, dro) iseTive korelaciaSia (urTierTSeWiduloba, urTierTgamsWvalva), rogorc danarCenebi erTmaneTTan. Tu

me-s metaforuli ganzomilebebi

245

romelime ganzomilebis gamoTiSviT samyaroseuli realoba uazrobad iqceva da warmoudgenelia, maSin am principidan gamomdinare, gonebis gaqroba, subieqturad realobas gaaqrobs.
XX saukunis germaneli filosofosi herman veili kargad
aRwers samyaros ganzomilebebis bunebas da ambobs: realobis
moqmedebis scena aris ara evklides sivrce, aramed oTxganzomilebiani samyaro, romelSic ganuyofeladaa dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan sivrce da dro. es oTxganzomilebiani kontinuumia, romelic araa arc dro da arc sivrce. aramed mxolod cnobiereba, romelic moixelTebs nawils am samyarosi, ganicdis im fragments, romelTanac mas mouwia Sexvedra da Semdeg tovebs mas sakuTari Tavis ukan, rogorc istorias. anu rogorc process, romelsac droSi mimdinareobisas adgili aqvs sivrceSi(7).
Tu teqstSi naxsenebi metaforuli niSnebis Zieba metafizikas, an niSnebSi niSnebis amocnobis abstraqtul process gavs,
nicSes azrs movixmob, romelic ambobs: ,,metaforis gamyareba da
qvad qceva aranairad araa Tavdebi am metaforis saWiroebisa da
uflebamosilebisaTvis(8).
literatura
1.

giorgi lacabiZe, sizmari sizmrebis froidiseuli analizi


http://dreams-laco.blogspot.com/2011/03/1.html
2. gustav ungi saubrobs sizmrebze,
http://merzannablume.wordpress.com
3. karl gustav iungi, analizuri fsiqologiis safuZvlebi,
Tbilisi, 1995, gv 12.
4. avtorTa jgufi (simon janaSia, Sorena saZagliSvili, mzia
wereTeli...), ganmartebiTi leqsikoni ganaTlebis muSakebisaTvis, me2 nawili; erovnuli saswavlo gegmebis da Sefasebis
centri, 2008 weli, gv 8.
5. laibnici da misi mosazrebebi drois da sivrcis Sesaxeb,
http://kobabitsadze.wordpress.com

Alexander Samuel, Space, Time and Deity. vol. I. London. 1927,


gv. 269.
7. Weyl Hermann, Raum, Zeit, Mature, Berlin, 1923, gv.218
8. Sesavali Tanamedrove azrovnebaSi III, fridrix nicSe, WeSmaritebisa da sicruis Sesaxeb moralis gareSe azriT, Tbili6.

246

natalia zarnaZe

si, ilias saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba, 2007,


gv.220
9. elizbar elizbaraSvili, drois wakiTxva samyaros meoTxe
ganzomilebis sivrciTi koordinatis mixedviT,
https://semioticsjournal.wordpress.com
10. cira barbaqaZe, niSnis istoria es misi gacnobierebis
istoriaa, HTTP://SEMIOTICSJOURNAL.WORDPRESS.COM/
11. froidi
da
iungi,
http://webforum.ucoz.com/blog/proidi_da_k'arl_gust'av_iungi/2012-01-24-8

Iina imedaSvili

erTi sicoxlis gaTaveba _


daZleuli laminaluri
mijnebi
adamianTa jgufisaTvis, iseve rogorc calkeuli individebisaTvis, cxovreba niSnavs gancalkevebasa da kvlav
gamTlianebas, formisa da kondiciis
cvlilebas, sikvdilsa da Tavidan dabadebas. cxovreba aris qmedeba da SeCereba,
molodini da Sesveneba, da kvlav qmedeba,
mxolod sxvagvari gziT. da mudam da mudam warmoiqmneba axal-axali mijnebi,
romlebic daZleuli unda iqnen: mijna
zafxulsa da zamTars Soris; sezonuri,
wliuri, Tviuri an sulac dRiuri mijnebi; dabadebis, yrmobis, simwifisa da
siberis mijnebi da rac mTavaria, mijna
sikvdilsa da sikvdilis Semdgom cxovrebas Soris, maTTvis, visac es swams.
aRniSnavs terminisa da cnebis liminalobis avtori franguli pozitiuri anTropologiis TvalsaCino warmomadgeneli arnold van genepi (ratiani 2005,
35)
erTi sicoxle gavaTave sanam pasuxs gavigebdi..., erTi sicocxle gavaTave sanam ar Sevxvdebodi..., erTi sicoxlis gaTaveba momiwia, rom miznisTvis
mimeRwia... ise SevSindi, rom erTi sicocxle gavaTave da a. S.
xSirad gvsmenia an Tavadve warmogviTqvia aseTi sityva SeTanmxmeba. mainc

248

ina imedaSvili

ras unda niSnavdes? ra mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndeba xolme adamiani, roca erT sicocxles aTvebs/asrulebs? mainc ramdeni sicocxle aqvs adamians? iqneb cxra rogorc, miTs Tu davujerebT, katas aqvs? an iqneb sami sicocxle, Tu qristianul simbolikas
gaviTvaliswinebT? da Tu erTi sicocxle aqvs da isic Tavdeba
ra iwyeba mis mere? iqneb meore sicocxle an saerTodac cxovreba sicocxlis Semdeg?
adamiani, romlis arsSic yvelaze mniSvnelovani ram - Tavisufali neba devs, yoveldRiurad dgeba arCevanis winaSe, yoveldRiurad uwevs sxvadasxva liminaluri sazRvrebis gadalaxva,
yovelwamierad, yovelwuTierad vimyofebiT im zRvarze romlis
erT mxares is dgas risi gadalaxva/Secvlac gvsurs, xolo meore mxares axali samyaroa - Tavisi kargi da cudi mxareebiT. rodesac adamiani ai, am zRvarze dgeba, arc aqeTa da arc iqiTa mxares, sworad maSin xdeba is saintereso - sakuTari SiSebiT,
grZnobebiT, vnebebiT. es zRvari gamokidebulia haerSi, TiTqos
amovardnilia materiisgan, miRmiuria, aq xom araferi ar aris ubralod xidia, gadasasvlelia, SemaerTebelia warsul mdgomareobas da axals Soris, xSir SemTxvevaSi, swored am xidze dgomas, am zRvars vuwodebT xolme im kondicias, rodesac erT sicocxles vaTvebT da viwyebT meores, Semdeg im meore sicocxlesac vaTvebT da viwyebT, mesames, meoTxes, mexuTe da ase Semdeg, iqamde sanam bolo sicocxles ukve fizikurad ar gavaTavebT da ar daiviwyebT imas, rac bolo sicoxlis gaTvebis Semdeg iwyeba da rasac Cven adamianebi sikvdilad an sicoxlis Semdgom mdgomareobad movixseniebT. Tumca, vfiqrob, rom arc maSin
ar sruldeba sicocxlis gaTavebebi, iqneb maSin ufro realurad da ufro mZafrad iwyeba xidebze seirnoba, sazRvrebis gadalaxvebi, axali mdgomareobebi. Tu religiebs vendobiT, suli xom
ufro msubuqia vidre materia/sxeuli, mas ar unda gauWirdes
arCevanis gakeTeba, mijnebis daZleva - magram sulisTvis mijnebic
Sesaferisi iqneba.
dRevandel epoqaSi, sul ufro da ufro popularuli xdeba fantastikis Janri (samecniero, fentezi da sxv.), yvelgan kinoSi, literaturaSi. Tanamedrove adamiani ufro da ufro mieltvis irealurs, sxva samyaroebs, sxva ganzomilebebs.
iqneb sworedac am liminalur sivrceSi Cndeba is samyaroebi, romlebic saukuneebia ase izidavs kacobriobas? da TiToeuli adamianis cxovrebaSi zRvarze yofna ramden ganzomilebas

erTi sicocxlis gaTaveba daZleuli laminaluri mijnebi

249

Seqmnis? uamravs, dauTvlels. dro rom gavaCeroT da Senelebul


kadrebad gavuSvaT Cveni cxovreba, gansakuTrebiT is adgilebi
rodesac erT sicocxles vaTvebT, rodesac gadawyvetilebis
miRebis momentSi varT, rodesac arCevnis winaSe vdgavarT, raRacas velodebiT, sunTqvaSekrulebi, molodinebiT da SiSebiT varT
garemoculebi, rodesac arc aqeTa mxares varT da arc iqiTa
mxares, Cvens win uamravi ganzomileba, uamravi samyaro, uamravi
alternativa gadaiSleba. iares bevri, iares da erT trial mindorze gavidnen. win wadgnen. gzagasayari naxes. erTi qva ido.
qvaze ewera: aqeT waxval - moxval. iqiT waxval - moxval, ase
waxval -veRar moxval. ufrosi Zma iqiT wavida, saidanac movidoda, SuaTana iqiT wavida, saidanac movidoda, umcrosi iqiT wavida, saidanac veRar movidoda.(virsalaZe, 1958, 23) diax, diax
Tqveni asarCevia saiT waxvalT. Tumca ra gzac ar unda airCioT,
is alternativa romelic gverdze gadadeT da sxva arCieT, TavisTavad mainc iarsebebs, Tqvengan damoukideblad, ise rogorc
sinamdvilis sxva ganzomileba, an sulac sarkis meore mxare. da
rodesac bolo, fizikur sicocxles vasrulebT da vZlevT mijnas sicoxlesa da sikvdils Soris, aqeT mxares, adamianebis samyaroSi Cveni alternativebi, ganzomilebebi Cvengan damoukideblad ganagrZoben arsebobas, Cveni warsuli aCrdilebi ki masSi
xetials. Tundac Cveni STamomavlobis gonSi - radganac isini im
arCevanis, im alternativis Sedegia, romelic odesRac mijnaze
myofebma gadavwyviteT. gavTxovdiT giorgize da ara laSaze, colad moviyvaneT Tamuna da ara marina, amitomac Cvens Svils giorgis/Tamunas geni gamoyva da ara sxva romelimesi, erTi sicocxle gavaTaveT, sanam gadawyvetilebas miviRebdiT, asjer vzomeT
da erTxel gavWeroT, ai es asjer zomvis procesia - liminaluri mijna, erTi sicocxlis gaTveba.
magram ra moxdeboda rom sxva gza amerCia? dedaCemi rom
sxva yofiliyo da papaCemi kidev sxva, me vin viqnebodi? cxovrebac xom fantastikis Janria - da Cemi ar arsebuli da xel nakravi/uaryofili alternativebi, Cemi SesaZlebeli meebi an ufro am meebis aCrdilebi sadRac, damoukideblad ganagrZoben
foriaqs, sadRac viRacis gonSi, mamaCemis cnobierSi Tu ukve
micvalebuli bebiaCemis mier aq datovebul alternativa/ganzomilebebSi.realuri samyaro pirTamde savsea sxva samyaroebiT. Cveni
yoveli gadawyvetileba da erTi sicocxlis gaTaveba, TavisTavad
badebs minimum sam alternativas.

250

ina imedaSvili

literaturis wiaRSi gansakuTrebiT Cndeba liminaluri


mijnebi da iqmneba uamravi alternetivebi, amitom am mistikuri
TamaSebis gamosaaSkareveblad literatura saukeTeso saSualebaa.
mixeil javaxiSvilis moTxroba TeTri kurdReli swored
aseTi kuTxiT viTardeba.
mTeli moTxroba, sidonias zRurblze, liminalur mijnaze
yofnis - erTi didi ambavia.
moTxroba iwyeba sidonias vnebebiT da tanjviT, Semdeg mocemulia Tu rogor miauaxlovda gmiri am zRurbls, dasasruls
ki rogor laxavs sidonia liminalur mijnas.
rodesac sidonia cdilobs gaacnobieros Svilis sikvdili,
mis win maSinve uamravi alternativa ikveTeba:
alternativa 1: dalios sawamlavi, romelic komodis ujraSi aqvs Senaxuli da amiT Tavi aaridos sastik realobas.
alternativa 2: Tu sawamlavis dalevas ver gabedavs, gaiqces veris xidze, romelic mis saxlTan axlosaa da iqidan gadaxtes.
alternativa 3: Tu amasac ver gabedavs maSin: pasuxisgeba
rkinis moriviT aikidos da sikvdilamde hzidos aTi, oci, ormoci weliwadi unda ataros, rogorc aqlemi atarebs Tavis uSno da veeberTela kuzs.
da alternativa 4: radgan sidonia Tavis mokvlas ver gabedavs, pasuxisgebis, sindisis qejnis da Svilis sikvdilis dajerebis ki saSinlad eSinia da gaurbis, amitom rCeba erTi gza: sidoniam Tavi unda daajeros rom misi Svili ar momkvdara, cocxalia. unda gaeqces sinamdviles, realur samyaros da Tavis ocnebebSi gadasaxldes. esec alternativaa, magram iluziuri, moCvenebiTi alternativaa, es xelmeore mijnaa, mijnidan isev mijnaze gadadis sidonia. aq sWirdeba swored Svil mkvdar dedas
oreuli, is vinc empiriuls moswyvets da Tavisive gamonagon
samyaroSi acxovrebs. es oreuli swored Tavad sidoniaa -rogorc misi erT-erT alternativis gmiri. asec xdeba xolme, rodesac sxvadasxva ganzomilebis samyaroebidan erTdaigive adamiani
xvdeba erTmaneTs. sworad amas uwodeben oreuls.
maS ase, aqedan iwyeba sidonias erTi sicocxlis gaTveba,
xidze dgoma, iqamde sanam ar airCevs romeli gziT wavides - iq,
saidanac mobruneba sawyis wertilamde advilia, Tu saidanac ver
mobrundeba.

erTi sicocxlis gaTaveba daZleuli laminaluri mijnebi

251

sidonia Tavis oreuls TviTonve arqmevs saxels: salomes.


maS ase: - ganagrZo fiqri TavisTvis, me sidoni mqvian, amas
ki salome. da esec satevariSvilis gvarisa iyos, ediSeris
coli.
me bednieri var, radgan orive Svili cocxali myavs, Sen
ki sawyalo, ubeduro! Sen pirmSo juani mogikvda... ager is,
dRes rom damarxe...
sawyalo dedav!... ubeduro...! sabralov...!(javaxiSvili
2005, 76)
gamosavali napovnia, alternativa, miuxedavad Tavisi iluziurobisa arCeulia. sodonias pirmSo isev iq, waRveris baRSi,
mcxunvare mzis qveS TamaSobs, zambaxebs rgavs da musikalur
kurdRels usmens (rom ver iSorebs exla dedamisi), kurdReli
valss dilis sizmars ukravs, marTlac rom sidonias cnobiarebaSi dilis sizmars emsgavseba Tavs datexili ubedureba. qali
Tavis Tavs ajerebs, umtkicebs, rom iqiT oTaxSi, patara TeTr
kuboSi salomes vaJi wevs, amitomac miyveba ase udrekad da ucremlod Svilmkvdari deda Svilis kubos.
moTxrobaSi, Tavidanve kidev erTi gmiria, eqimi, romlis
movaleobacaa sidonia imqveyniuridan amqveyniurSi daabrunis, agrZnobinos, miaxvedros arCeuli alternatives myifoba iluziuroba, liminaluri mijna gadmoalaxvinos.
Svilis sikvdilTan erTad sidonias marwuxebiviT, saSineli
majlajunasaviT stanjavs sindisi. rom ar daegviana iqneb misi
biWiko cocxali yofiliyo!
amitom iyo, rom sityva dagvianebuli nakverCxaliviT
xvdeboda sidonis. sworad es sindisis xmaa, romelmac qali am
iluziur samyaroSi gadmoisrola.
igi rodesac pirispir Seejaxa sastik samyaros, Svilis
sikvdils: uceb moulodnelad, dedis tvinsa da gulSi raRac
SeinZra, gardaiqmna, gadatrialda, sidonia gaiWima, aigrixa, gainaskva _ TiTqos orsulad iyo da Svilis SobisaTvis damwifdao.
drois aTvla xel axla, Tavidan daiwyo, drois msvlelobis Cveuli ritmi dairRva. sidoniam Tavis warmosaxvaSi alternativa airCia, xolo realurad liminalur zRurblze Sedga: yovelgvari kanonebisagan da drois marwuxebisgan Tavisufal mijnaze, amitom iyo rom sidoniam wes Cveulebebi, tradicia uaryo
da Svili arc dautirebia (misi Svili xom cocxali iyo!), da

252

ina imedaSvili

dro sidonias cnobierebaSi, mis garSemo gaiyina, Sedga. sidonisTvis dro gaCerda, sidonim dro uaryo. da sidonia sxva ganzomilebaSi realurad gadasaxlda. daiwyo misi erTi sococxlis
gaTvebis xangrZlivi, mtanjveli procesi.
qali kalendars gaurbis, fanjrebi fardebiT Camobura realurma drom rom ar mosWras Tvali: sidonia xom zafxulSi
cxovrobs, realurad ki zamTaria da gareT Tovli modis. sidonia amitomac ar ixdis zafxulis TeTr kabas da gamudmebiT
scxela.
mSobiarobis inscenierebas biWis dabadeba mohyva, sidonim
juanSeri daarqva da ase daiwyo misi axali TeTri cxovreba.
igi isev bednieria, isev zafxulia, misi Svili isev waRveris
baRSi TamaSobs da lursmaniviT Caiso TavSi: ar momkvdara!, ar
momkvdara!
alternativa arCeulia. sidonias SeuZlia am ganzomilebaSi
cxovreba, magram garemo mas amis uflebas ar aZlevs, misTvis
sxva ganzomileba arsebobs, iqneb es bedisweraa? iqneb avtoris
nebac da poziciac.
eqimi (igive avtori) sidonias sxva, myari da realuri alternativisken ubiZgebs: am qveyanas dabrundi, RrublebSi cxovreba Zalian saxifaToa. Camovardebi da daimsxvrevi.
momentebSi sidonia, cnobierebiTac gadadis ocnebebis samyaroSi, am samyarosTan sidonias TeTri kurdReli akavSirebs.
sidoniasTvis dro mokvda da gaiyina.
sidonia exlac warsulSia, an warsulia sidonias sulSi
es xom sul erTia! sidonias sulsa da gulSi samive dro
Seikra da SeduRda: warsuli, awymo da myofadic.
es yvelaferi xom liminaluri fazisTvis, kondiciisTvis
aris damaxasiaTebeli. sidonias cxovrebis am etapze dro sarkaluri gaxda.
es qveyana misTvis metismetad cxadi, sinamdvile ki mkacri
aRmoCnda. am qveynad juanSeri mokvda, xolo iq gaRmeulSi ki
juanSeri isev cocxalia da amitom sidoniasTvis iq yofna ufro
saamuri, sasurveli da misaRebia.
eqimi sidonias myar, realur alternatives sTavazobs:
dedas rom Svili moukvdeba, damarxavs, itirebs, iglovebs
da Semdeg isev Tavis gziT wava.. movaleoba winaSe qmrisa, mSoblebisa da danarCen Svilebisa.

erTi sicocxlis gaTaveba daZleuli laminaluri mijnebi

253

da es movaleobebia zustad gadawyvetilebebs rom gvaRebinebs, im samyaros gvarCevinebs romelSic unda vicxovroT da
ara gvinda vicxovroT.
avtori sidonias iluziur alternativas isev zRurblad
gardaqmnis da eqimis aqtiuri CareviT cdilobs realur, myar
mdgomareobaSi gadaiyvanos.
sainteresoa alternativebSic mogzauroba, rodesac erTi
arCevanidan uceb meoreSi gadavdivarT da pirvels xidad vaqcevT,
Tumca esec droebiTia, erTSi unda davmkvidrdeT bolos aucileblad. aseTia wesi, wesi - erTi sicocxlis gaTvebisa.
eqimi daJinebiT abams erTmaneTs Secnobisa da qveSecnobis
samyaroebs da hlamobs gaRmeli isev gamoRma gamoiyvanos.
am Widilis Semdeg, sidonia irealuris da realuri samyaroebs Soris arsebuli mijnidan abijebs, sinamdviles mTeli Tavisi sisastikiT iRebs da:
TiTqos miwis gulidan SadrevaniviT amoxeTqa oTxi Tvis
dagubebulma naRvelma da vaebam, gminvam da cremlma, urvam da
xarxarma.
saTamaSo TeTr kurdRels eqimi uxevs sidonias, kurdRelTan erTad eqimis xeliT ixeva misi TeTri, ocnebebis samyaroc.
nivTebs sakuTari mistika aqvT, sakuTari istoria, daniSnuleba Segvaxsenos, dagvkavSiros sxva ganozmilebebTan.
salomes nacvlad, sarkeSi adgils isev namdvili, realuri
sidonia ikavebs. oreulis saWiroeba aRar arsebobs, oreuli dabrunebulia im alternativaSi, romelic rogorc iqna uaryo sidoniam. Tumca salome iarsebebs, sadRac sidonias romeliRac
ganzomilebaSi.
sidonia TeTr kabas ixdis, niSnad imisa rom erTi sicocxle ukve gaTavabeulia. Sav kabas icmevs - axali realobis simbolos, Tan meore Svils ealerseba.
sidonia didi mogzaurobidan dabrunda. dabrunda iq sadac
unda yofiliyo, sadac unda ecxovra, rac miRebulia, rac gansazRvra misma winaprebis alternativma/arCevnebma. - ara, sidonia ar
SeiSleba, fsiqikuri gadaxrebi mis genSi ar devs, misi yvela winapari fsiqiurad janmrTeli iyo, is normaluria - ra unda ocnebebSi.
eqimic adasturebs sidonias arCeuli alternativis WeSmaritebas:

254

ina imedaSvili

marto miwazea Wiric da lxinic, Wmunvac da sixarulic,


sicocxlec da sikvdilic. iq ki SenTan, mogonil caSi arc erTia, arc meore. iq araferia, srulebiT araferi garda isev
Senganve SeTiTxnili sicruisa.(javaxiSvili 2005, 95)
Tumca, TavisTvis sadRac mainc ganagrZobs arsebobas salome, ganagrZobs arsebobas SeSlili sidoniac da TeTri kurdRelic. alternativis ganadgureba SeuZlebelia.
erTi sicocxlis gaTavebis fenomeni Zalian kargad Cans
qarTul xalxur zRaprebSic, sadac igi iniciaciasTan aris gaigivebuli.
iniciacias ki gmiris umeteswilad qvesknelSi CasvliT
iRebs.
iniciacia igive gdasvlis rituali Zvelad Tan axlda
adamianis met naklebad cxovrebiseul mniSvnelovan movlenebs:
dabadeba, mowifuloba, qorwineba, sikvdili da a.S.
gadasvlis rituali gviCvenebs, rom adamiani gadavida erTi etapidan gamocdilebiT meore etapze. gadasvlis ritualis
dasruleba metyvelebs socialurad aRiarebuli gaxdes misi
transformacia, daiwyos adamianma Tavisi ganviTarebis axali etapi (qurdovaniZe 2002, 36).
anu rogor daZlia mijna, rogor gaaTava erTi sicocxle
da daiwyo meore.
mozardi simbolurad unda mokvdes rogorc bavSvi da daibados, rogorc mowifuli, daiwyos axali cikli.
qarTul xalxur zRaprebSi gmiri Cadis raimes an vinmes
mosapoveblad, xSirad sacolis an ukvdavebis. qvesknelSi gmirs
uamravi Tavgadasavali gadaxdeba uamrav mavne suls (magaliTad
devebs, eSmakebs) SeebrZoleba da zesknelSi gamarjvebuli, gamocdilebiT aRWurvili amodis. zogjer fizikuradac espoba sicocxle da mas meore sicocxle eZleva, an naxevrad mkvdari xdeba
(dRisiT mkvdari), imis gamo rom mzes Tvali daubnela, aseT
mdgomareobaSi - RamiT gacocxlebuli da dRisiT mkvdari, iwyebs
cxovrebas - mijnaze, romelic aucileblad unda Seicvalos, ase
ver gagrZeldeba, veravin ver gaZlebs didxans sicocxlis gaTavebis mtanjvel procesSi. diax, liminalur zRvarze yofna mokvdaTaTvis metad mtkivneulia. da ra Tqma unda mkvdaris gacocxleba da erTi sikvdilis Semdeg meores dawyeba, sworadac rom
siyvaruls ukavSirdeba, radgan es grZnobaa, romelic movaleobebTan erTad an am grZnobisgan gamowveuli movaleobebi gvaiZu-

erTi sicocxlis gaTaveba daZleuli laminaluri mijnebi

255

lebs nabijis gadadgmas zRurblze, alternativis Secvlas, da


axali sicocxlis dawyebas.
amitomaa, rom mxolod qvesknelidan amosvlis Semdeg irTavs vaJi cols an qali Txovdeba, es imas niSnavs, rom gamocda
Cabarebulia, ymawvilobidan mowifulobaSi gadasvlis etapi da
dawyvilebis droa mosuli. erTi sicoxlec ukvce gaTvabeulia,
mijna daZleulia.
siyvarulis droa.

Lliteratura
ratiani, irma 2005 qronotopi antiutopiur romanSi.., Tbilisis univeristetis gamomcemloba.
javaxiSvili, mixeili 2005 Txzulebani, tomi 3, Tbilisi, saqarTvelos macne.
rCeuli qarTuli xalxuri zRaprebi, 1958 e. virsalaZis redaqciiT.
qarTuli zRaprebi 1974 Seadgina, Sesavali da SeniSvnebi daurTo al. Rlontma.
qurdovaniZe, Teimuraz qarTuli zRapari, 2002, Tbilisi, merani.

Tamar berekaSvili

fentezi, rogorc
metafora
literaturuli da filosofiuri
safuZvlebi
visac ki Tvali gadauvlia Tanamedrove literaturisTvis an kritikulad
Seufasebia Tanamedrove xelovneba, ueWvelad SeumCnevia, ramdenad gansxvavebulia
dRevandeli mwerloba im mwerlobisgan,
romelic Tundac 15-20 wlis win iyo.
amas Tavisi axsna aqvs. uamravi mizezia,
romelmac ganapiroba xelovnebis aseTi
transformacia.
Seicvala
cxovrebis
ritmi, sruliad axali yofiTi garemoa,
gansxvavebulia prioritetebi, urTierTobis formebi - Seicvala adamiani. adamiani masobrivi moxmarebisad iqca, globaluri samyaros erT rigiT WanWikad.
swored am gamwirebis kompensaciis mcdelobaa, Cemi azriT, adamianis uflebebis,
Tanasworobis da sxva bevri Rirebulebis
Taobaze kamaTi, brZola maT dasamkvidreblad da sxv.
rac ufro metad acnobierebs adamiani Tavis gamasobrivebas, simcires, simwires, mowyvladobas da ususurobas,
miT ufro uZlierdeba sakuTari pirovnulobis
warmoCenis,
TviTidentificirebis, aRiarebis moTxovnileba.
rigiTobis garRvevis es survili

fentezi, rogorc metafora

257

Tavs iCens, upirveles yovlisa, xelovnebaSi, yvelaze TvalnaTliv ki - mwerlobaSi. yofiTi sikeTeebi TandaTanobiT moyirWebas iwvevs da, Sesabamisad, kvlav Cndeba asketizmis moTxovnileba, asketizmisa, romelic TiTqosda adamians fuCeCs aclis da
Tavis namdvil raobasTan aaxloebs.
sazrisis, WeSmaritebis, namdvilobis ZiebaSi, rodesac msoflio, da ara marto msoflio, omebma nivelireba moaxdines yvela
Rirebulebis (ris gamoc aucilebeli gaxda saswrafod am Rirebulebebis asaxva kanonebsa da msoflio deklaraciebSi), am dros
jer
modernis da Semdeg postmodernis xelovnebam sabolood
daqsaqsa da gaamwira kacobriobis mravalsaukunovani mcdeloba,
Seekowiwebina, gaemTlianebina samyaro.
mdgradobis, progresis,
bednierebis da keTildReobis ZiebaSi sulierebam, gonierebam viwro racionaluri ganacxadis saxe miiRes. nicSes nawinaswarmetyvelebma mravalxmianobam yovelive arsebuls wona da mniSvneloba
daukarga - yvela idea Tu miswrafeba Tanabrad uflebamosilia
iarsebos da imoqmedos. am fonze yvelaze xorcieli ltolvebi da
miswrafebebi batonoben miT ufro, rom RmerTi mokvda. is rom,
RmerTi mokvda, kidev ufro cxadi maSin gaxda, roca gaizarda
misi damcvelebis da mqadageblebis ricxvi.
rodesac gamosavali ara maqvs, me yovelTvis vbrundebi saTaveebTan, - eubneba dambladori hari poters. fentezi swored
saTaveebTan gvabrunebs. axali adamiani, romelic Tavis TavSi
atarebs mTel im gamocdilebas da simZimes, romlebic mas
Tansdevs saTaveebidan dRevandel Cixamde. SeuZlebelia, igi dabrundes amosaval wertilSi iseTive aumRvreveli mzeriT da gulubryvilobiT, rogoric mas hqonda, gzas rom iwyebda. amitom
es yovelTvis pirobiTi saTavea.
metaforulad Tu davaxasiaTebT fentezis, es swored safuZvlebTan, saTaveebTan dabrunebaa; am zogadsakacobrio saTaveebTan brundeba Tanamedrove xelovneba da, kerZod, literatura.
SeuZlebelia ar daveTanxmoT a. sapkovskis, romelic wers,
rom fentezis pirvelwyaro miTia. magram Tu fentezis Janris
pirvel nawarmoebebSi es, ZiriTadad kelturi miTia, dReisTvis
es miTi ufro mravalferovania da, imis mixedviT, Tu sad iwereba nawarmoebi: inglisSi, poloneTSi, ruseTsa Tu saqarTveloSi,
am xalxis miTebis Taviseburebebi da safuZvlebi TamaSdeba.
rodesac fentezis miTiur safuZvelze saubroben, aRniSnaven, rom es gamoixateba im ideebis gameorebaSi, romlebic axasia-

258

Tamar berekaSvili

Tebs miTs, esaa: dacemis artefaqtis da Semdgom ukvdavebis artefaqtis Zieba. ar var darwmunebuli, rom mTavari ideebi swored
am da mxolod am artefaqtebis Ziebaze SeiZleba daviyvanoT; Tumca is, rom es erT-erTi da, SesaZloa, umTavresi gasaazrebeli
Temaa mTeli kacobriobisTvis dasabamidan dRemde, eWvs ar iwvevs.
ubralod, ara mgonia, rom es mxolod fentezisTvisaa specifiuri.
Tuki raime fentezis gansakuTrebulad axasiaTebs, es kvestia, Zieba - Zieba rogorc fizikuri, ise sulieri TvalsazrisiT da, swored am ZiebaSi vlindeba da warmoCindeba avtoris mikuTvnebuloba XX XXI saukuneebisadmi.
Sua saukuneebis adamianisTvis miTi sinamdvilea. mas ar epareba eWvi, rom mefe arturic da sigurdic arseboben. isini im
sinamdvileSi ganagrZoben cxovrebas. Tanamedrove mkiTxveli, iseve, rogorc avtori, kargad acnobiereben am miTTan mimsgavsebuli
siuJetis iluzorulobas. mis metaforulobas, Tu gnebavT. aq
sufevs ara rwmena, aramed am rwmenaSi dabrunebis survili, romelsac eRobeba racionaluri azrovneba da codna imisa, rac
xdeba xolme sinamdvileSi da rogoria is Rirebulebebi, romelnic umTavresia dRes, magram srulad ucxo iyo Sua saukunis
adamianisTvis. fentezis miTosuri safuZveli literaturuli
formaa da sxva araferi, romelsac biZgi misca postmodernizmmac Tavisi ormagi kodirebis xerxiT.
araerTgzis iTqva da mec aRvniSnavdi Cems wina statiebSi
fentezis Taobaze, rom, TavisTavad, miTis moxmoba ar aris axali
movlena, da damaxasiaTebelia ara mxolod fentezis JanrisTvis.
zRapruli personaJebi, SeTxzuli samyaro, magiuri sinamdvile _
yovelive es arsebobda jer kidev antikuri epoqaSi. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani xdeba miTebTan da zRaprebTan dakavSirebuli
literatura gardamaval epoqebSi, rodesac xdeba Rirebulebebis
gadafaseba, axali paradigmis Camoyalibeba, diskursis cvlileba,
da miT ufro, roca saxezea racionaluris, fizikuris, gonivrulis moZaleba - aRorZinebis epoqis axal xedvebs pasuxobs
rables gargantua da pantagrueli, axali drois klasicizms
exmianeba Sarl pero Tavisi zRaprebiT, ganmanaTleblobis amotrialebuli xatia Zmebi grimebis zRaprebi da bolos da bolos,
tolkinic SeiZleba warmovidginoT, rogorc pasuxi modernizmis
racionalur pesimizmze.
didi kamaTia imis Taobaze, Tu romeli nawarmoebi miekuT-

fentezi, rogorc metafora

259

vneba fentezis Janrs da romelia jadosnuri zRapari. amJamad


am sakiTxs aRar CavuRrmavdebi, vinaidan amjerad ufro mainteresebs is safuZvlebi, is literaturuli wyaroebi, romlebiTac
ikvebeba fentezi. marto erTs aRvniSnav, rac, Cemi azriT, erTerTi mTavari ganmasxvavebeli niSania fentezisa - fentezi (da
swored es ganasxvavebs mas mniSvnelovnad jadosnuri saavtoro
zRaprisgan) atarebs mravali winamorbedi Janris niSnebs. TviT
miTis Seqmnis manerac aracalsaxaa da namdvili miTisagan gansxvavebiT arasodes aris imperatiuli xasiaTis, misi mibaZva ar
aris aucilebeli, is ar aris savaldebulo magaliTi adamianTa
cxovrebaSi, is ar moiTxovs rwmenas. zRapari, iqneba is xalxuri
Tu saavtoro, ZiriTadad, gasarTobi ambavia. is unda mouyve
bavSvs an mozrdil mosaubres gasarTobad. es srulebiT ar niSnavs imas, rom zRapris mxatvruli done dabalia. zRapari qmnis
ganwyobas, xasiaTs, SeiZleba Cagafiqros, magram is arasodes aris
sinamdvilis Semcvleli, cxovrebis warmmarTveli.
g. k. Cestertonis sityvebi: me ara var darwmunebuli elflandis yvela muxlSi, magram mjera misi kanonis suliskveTebis, romelic vicodi manamdec, sanam laparaks daviwyebdi da romelsac SevinarCuneb maSinac, rodesac weras veRar SevZleb. me
darwmunebuli var, rom is cxovrebiseuli mrwamsi, romelic CemSi aRzarda jadosnurma zRaparma da ganmimtkices martivma faqtebma, sworia Cemi sityvebis dadasturebaa. Cestertoni laparakobs adamianis sulis iracionalurobaze, mis iseT moTxovnilebebze, romelTac racionaluri safuZveli ara aqvs, vinaidan
adamianis suli, adamianis ego, adamianis meoba imdenadve racionaluria, ramdenadac iracionaluri, imdenadve cnobieria,
ramdenadac aracnobieri.
Tu davubrundebiT fentezis, romelic miTiviT igeba, is
zRaprisgan gansxvavebiT, rogorc aRvniSne, mravali JanriT ikvebeba da miTi, aq SesaZloa, mTavari, magram mainc erT-erTi wyaroa.
swored amitom, joan roulingis hari poteri, Cemi azriT ufro metad fenteziss Janrs miekuTvneba, vidre jadosnuri zRaparisas.
miTi moiTxovs, pirvel rigSi, imis aRiarebas, rom samyaroSi moqmedeben gaugebari da adamianis gonebisTvis miuwvdomeli
Zalebi. es Zalebi, iseve, rogorc miTis mTeli siuJeti, mudmivia
da sayovelTao, is ar TariRdeba droiT rodesac hari poteris

260

Tamar berekaSvili

Janrze kamaToben, swored im faqtiT asabuTeben mis mikuTvnebulobas zRaprisadmi, rom masSi moqmedeba xdeba XX saukunis 90ian wlebSi.
am mtkicebis pasuxad SemiZlia vTqva, rom literaturaSi,
iseve, rogorc saerTod xelovnebaSi, ar arsebobs daskvna,
romelc erTi romelime niSnis safuZvelze gamoaqvT. jererTi,
Janris ganviTarebisTan erTad SezRudvebi da myari kriteriumebi
sustdeba; amasTan, am romanSi Tanaarseboben yvela drois adamianebi da situacia isea aRwerili, rom is SeiZleba nebismier
dros xdebodes. is, rom jadoqarTa samyaro TiTqosda Cveni Tanamedrovea, sruliad umniSvneloa. Cemi xedviT, hari poteri atarebs ara marto jadosnuri zRapris da fentezis utyuar niSnebs, sxva Janrebis niSnebsac, rogorebicaa: sabavSvo romani,
(aRmzrdelobiTi, didaqtikuri romani), realisturi romani (gansakuTrebiT bevri saerTo aqvs C. dikensis iseT romanebTan, rogorebicaa devid koperfildi, pawia doriti, nikolas niklbi...), egzistencializmTanac ki aqvs saerTo. garda amisa, rogorc fentezis yvela Janris romani, is enaTesaveba romantizms.
rac Seexeba miTs, masTan mas aaxloebs ara marto atributika
(rac, TavisTavad, nakleb mniSvnelovania), aramed miTisTvis damaxasiaTebeli calsaxa svlis aucilebloba, gangebis mniSvneloba
da misi erTguleba. rogorc ki gmiri arRvevs masze dakisrebuli
qmedebebis mwkrivs da ar iazrebs Tavis misias, iRupeba.
fentezis Janris nawarmoebebi aucileblad atareben filosofiur sazrissac.
TiTqmis yvela avtorTan naTlad ikiTxeba eTikuri (upirveles yovlisa) sakiTxebi da mimdinareobs maTze mxatvrul-filosofiuri msjeloba. xSiria iseTi problemebis dasma, rogorebicaa adamiani da sazogadoeba; wuTisofeli da maradisoba; brZeni,
maswavlebeli, feminizmi; `Tavisi~ - `ucxo~; WeSmariteba da siyalbe, politika da a.S.
araerTgzis aRvniSne fentezis da romantizmis siaxlove .
es, rasakvirvelia, Cemi aRmoCena ar aris, magram mainc ufro
frTxilad gavavlebdi paralels am or mimarTulebas Soris,
vidre amas akeTeben Tanamedrove mkvlevrebi (mag. e.Jarinovi).
romantizmis ramdenime niSans Sevexebi.
romantizms axasiaTebs sulierebis da materialurobis dapirispireba. iseve, rogorc dapirispireba Cveulis da araCveulebrivis, mSvenieris da maxinjis, sikeTis da borotebis.

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261

amasTan, am dapirispirebis mizniT, wina epoqebis literaturisgan gansxvavebiT, is aris, rom sruli keTilSobileba warmoaCinon - maRali Rirebulebis matarebeli gmiri xSirad maxinjia
(kvazimodo, da ara mxolod), xolo borotebis ganmasaxierebeli
gmiri - lamazi (dorian grei). dadebiTi gmiris simaxinje mis keTilSobilebas xazs usvams da kidev ufro warmoaCens, xolo
uaryofiTi gmiris garegnuli silamaze mis uzneobas da borotebas kidev ufro autanels xdis.
fentezis Janris literaturaSi ase calsaxad ar aris dakavSirebuli garegnoba da keTilSobileba. upiratesoba ueWvelad
sulier Rirsebebs eZleva, magram gmiris xasiaTi da qceva naklebad xistia da xasiaTdeba aracalsaxobiT da adamianuri sisusteebiT.
romantizms warmoadgenen titanuri pirovnebebi: Jan valJani, don Juani, karmeni,... gmiri, rogorc wesi, ganasaxierebs stiqiuri movlenis sadar adamians.
fentezis JanrisTvisac es nacnobia, Tumca xSirad es titanuroba vlindeba mogvianebiT, misi qmedebebis kvaldakval. da
amasTan, gmirs fentezis Janris nawarmoebSi yovelTvis hyavs Tanamoazreni, megobrebi.
romantikosebi asuliereben bunebas. is maT teqstebSi erTerTi moqmedi personaJia. am mxriv, fentezic romantikosebis Tanamimdevaria. buneba metismetad aqtiuria maT nawarmoebebSi; garda amisa, romantikosebis msgavsad, maT romanebSi cxovroben gnomebi, elfebi, goliaTebi, kentavrebi da sxva miTiuri arsebebi.
magram Tu romantikosebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia melanqolia, fentezisTvis is ucxoa.
romantizmTan fentezis Sedarebisas SeuZlebelia, ar aRvniSnoT iseTi mniSvnelovani niSani, rogoricaa dabruneba miTebTan da zRaprebTan. yvelaze didi mezRapreebic ki romantikosebi arian - anderseni, Zmebi grimebi, ... ruseTSi - afanasievi,
alisferi yvaviliT, magram romantizmSi miTebi ar iqmneba, ufro metad misTvis damaxasiaTebelia aluziebi miTze da miTis atributikis gamoyeneba. xSiria gmiris rCeulobis gansakuTrebuli
amosacnobi detaliT moniSvna.
miuxedavad imisa, rom fentezis romantizmTan daaxloebas
orive am Janris mier miTis gansakuTrebuli gamoyenebis motiviT
cdiloben, Cemi SexedulebiT, fentezi da romantizmi miTs iyeneben gansxvavebuli motivaciiT.

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262

romantizmis ganviTarebas evropaSi win uZRoda e.w. preromantizmi, romelic gamoixateboda v. Jirmunskis sityvebiT, ara
racionaluri ganmanaTlebluri esTetikis safuZvlebis uaryofaSi, aramed axali mxatvruli cnebebis da Rirebulebebis gaCenaSi
mSvenierebis sferoSi, ris Sedegadac waiSala silamazis Zveli
gageba. es axali cnebebia: goTuri, romantikuli, egzotikuri da sxv.
amgvarad, aqcentebi gadanacvlda, ris Sedegadac TandaTanobiT sruliad gansxvavebuli esTetikuri Rirebulebebi Camoyalibda, ramac romantizmi mogvca. siaxle, Tavisebureba, unikaluroba
ai, ra gaxda mxatvruli nawarmoebis Sefasebis ZiriTadi kriteriumi.
rac Seexeba fentezis, is ar gvTavazobs Rirebulebebis
transformacias. es Janri ar axdens gadatrialebas mxatvrul
xedvaSi. fentezi, rogorc ukve iTqva, Ziebaa - Zieba im dakarguli Rirebulebebis, romelnic kacobriobam dakarga da amiT dakarga sidiade, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas. romantizmisgan gansxvavebiT,
fentezi msgavsi TemebiT cdilobs, daibrunos is sidiade, romelic romantizmma unikalurobiT Caanacvla. fentezi dabrunebaa
im saTaveebTan, rodesac adamians Zala Seswevda, SebrZoleboda
yvela bnel Zalas da, zogjer mainc, gamarjvebuli gamosuliyo
am brZolidan.
literatura
Cestertoni 1972: .. , .
gadameri 1991: .. .
mamardaSvili 1984: ..
, .
rorti 1993: Rorty R. The historiography of philosophy: four genres
N. Y-L
Jirmunski 1914: ..

. . . ,
.

irakli mWedliSvili

metaforis samkvidro
`xora~ da dro-sivrciTi
virtualoba
mecxramete saukunis 70-ian wlebSi
fridrih nicSe werda: `yvelaferi, rac
bunebis kanonebis Sesaxeb viciT, sinamdvileSi, Cven mierve maTze miwerili,
Tamimdevruli da ricxviTi saxis, drosa
da sivrceSi ganfenili warmodgenebia~
(1, 6). varskvlavTa moZraobis Tu qimiur
procesTa dakvirvebisas aRmoCenili, bunebis kanonTa Sesabamisi yoveli Tanawyoba, rogorc nicSe amtkicebda, swored
Cven mier miniWebul TvisebaTa gamo
vlindeba. Cvensave cnobierebaSi Sedgenili da Cvenganve warmomdgari, sakuTar
wiaRSi ricxvTa kanonis matarebeli
formebis bunebriv movlenebze morgeba,
maTi gare samyaroSi proecireba ki samyaros swori aRqmis, WeSmaritebis SesaZlebeli wvdomis iluziur warmodgenas
warmoSobs.
amgvari warmodgenebi, anda, rogorc
nicSe
uwodebda,
anTropomorfizmebi,
swori percepciis SeuZlebeli arsebobis,
anu obieqtis subieqtSi adekvaturi asaxvis winaaRmdegobriv da SeuTavsebel pirobaTa gamo yalibdeba. or, absoluturad gansxvavebul subieqtur da obieqtur sferoTa Soris, rogorc nicSe
miiCnevda, arc mizezobrivi da arc raime

264

irakli mWedliSvili

sxva saxis marTebuli, mdgradi da gamosaxvadi kavSiri arsebobs.


maT Soris mxolod iseTi esTetikuri mimarTeba myardeba, romelic, Tavis mxriv, Tavisufali asocirebis Sualeduri sferos
SemoRebasa da Suamavali Zalis aRZvras ganapirobebs. aseT Sualedur da Suamaval, TvisebaTa Tu saxelTa STagonebis ZaliT
wamnacvlebel wyobas, anda mTargmnel-gadamtan sruliad ucxo
enas, swored metaforuli mimarTeba warmoSobs.
poeturi da ritorikuli xerxebiT gawyobil, Selamazebul
da gaZlierebul adamianur warmodgenaTa, metaforul mimarTebaTa
anagebs, imave aucileblobis Sesabamisad vqmniT, romelic obobas
qselis qsovas aiZulebs. magram, swored imitom, rom xangrZlivi
da uwyveti moxmarebis Sedegad, warmodgenaTa amdagvar anagebs,
nicSes SexedulebiT, gamyarebuli, kanonikuri da eWvmiutaneli
saxe eZleva, adamianebs aviwydebaT, rom WeSmarit mimarTebaTa
TiTqosda amsaxavi anawyobi sinamdvileSi warmosaxvis nayofia,
da rom is metaforebisgan Sedgeba. amasTan, iseTi metaforebisgan
_ romlebic gacvda, romelTac grZnobadi zemoqmedebis Zalmosileba dakarges: anu, nicSes sityvebiT, `es is monetebia, romelTa
gamosaxuleba waiSala da axla isini moneta ki ara, mxolod nivTiereba, liTonia~ (1, 4).
nicSemde klasikur-antikur periodSi damkvidrebuli da
Sua saukuneebis saazrovno sivrceSi gadasuli xedva metafors
modebis areals mxolod poeziisa da ritorikis sferoTa CarCoebiT sazRvravda. platonis mier poeturi Semoqmedebis msgavsad
Tu missave Sesabamisad uaryofil, xatovan-gadataniT metyvelebas, `adamianTa darwmunebis xelovnebas~ aristotelem Tavissave
kategoriul sistemasTan SeTanadebuli, erTob mwyobri ganazreba
miuZRvna. SemdgomSi ukve sayovelTaod miRebul da tradiciulad
miCneul metaforis Teorias swored aristoteles sxvadasxva
naSromSi (ZiriTadad, `ritorikasa~ da `poetikaSi~) gabneuli,
`Canacvlebis modelad~ wodebuli Sexedulebani daedo safuZvlad.
zogjer `msgavsebis Teoriadac~ wodebuli klasikuri saxis
Canacvlebis Teoria metaforas stilistikur-literaturul figurad, iseT xatovan warmonaqmnad miiCnevs, romlis saSualebiTac raime mniSvnelobis erTi sityvidan meoreze gadatana xdeba.
aristotele, `poetikaSi~ ganmartavs: `sagnisaTvis iseTi saxelis
micema, romelic raRac sxvas ekuTvnis, metaforas Seadgens~ (2,
1457 b5). amgvari xedviT, metafora, erTgvar kategoriul Sec-

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265

domad, Cveul da calsaxa mniSvnelobisgan gadaxril sityvier


cTomad warmodgeba, romlis Seqmnac `cocxali~ zemoqmedebis
STabeWdilebaTa miRwevis mizniT xorcieldeba. rogorc aristotele `ritorikaSi~ acxadebs, analogiaze damyarebuli metaforul gamoTqmas saTqmeli TiTqosda `Tval-win-moaqvs~. poeziaSi
ki, aristoteles mixedviT, metafora `mimezisis~ Tu `mxatvruli
imitaciis~ saSualebaa is kaTarzisuli mdgomareobis miRwevis
esTetikur mizanswrafvas emsaxureba.
aristoteles Teoriis filosofiuri mniSvneloba, misi
sazrisuli aRnagoba klasikuri saxis realisturi epistemologiis konteqstSi vlindeba. metafora da masve daqvemdebarebuli
`Sedareba~, metyvelebis formaTa aristoteleseuli taqsonomiis
mixedviT, arsebiT saxelTa da zmnaTa warmomqmnel `leqsis~/diqciis jgufs ganeekuTvneba. `leqsisis~ moqmedebis sfero ki iseTi
logosuri erTianobis SigniT moiazreba, romelic aristoteles
metafizikiT postulirebul, yofierebis kategoriuli struqturis Semadgenel, enisa da gonis sruli Sesabamisobis daSvebas
efuZneba. anu, ufro gaSlilad rom iTqvas, metafizikuri midgomis mixedviT, enis, grZnobadi aRqmis, mentaluri mdgomareobisa
da gare samyaros urTierTmorgeba, Sesabamisobis mimarTebaTa
daSvebis, meTodologiur bmaTa sistemuri erTianobis safuZvelze xdeba.
dasaxeleba-aRniSvnisa da miTiTeba-niSnebis (denotaciisa da
referenciis) calsaxa mimarTeba, romelic klasikuri Sexedulebis mixedviT, enasa da mis obieqtebs Soris myardeba, Sesabamisobis iseT Teorias warmoSobs, romlis mixedviTac, gare samyaros
grZnobad aRqmasa da missave Semecnebas enis WeSmaritebis mtvirTveli SesaZlebloba srulad esatyviseba. ase rom, am Teoriis
mixedviT, namdvili, sando da srulyofili Semecneba swored
enis pirveladi donis, pirdapir da calsaxa mimarTebaTa Sesabamisad Tu maTive saSualebiT xorcieldeba.
metafora ki, amave Teoriis mixedviT, erTgvar gadaxrad,
meoreul warmonaqmnad, iseT meqanizmad miiCneva, romelic saxelTa wanacvlebas ki axdens, magram pirveladi donis logikur wyobas arasodes arRvevs. yovlismomcveli erTianobidan gasul, pirdapiri, aRweriTi enisgan gansxvavebul mtkicebiT mniSvnelobas
anda raime axal sazriss metafora, klasikuri Sexedulebis mixedviT, arasodes warmoSobs. misi moqmedeba yovelTvis Cveul,
pirdapir mimarTebaTa logosur erTianobas eqvemdebareba, maSin,

266

irakli mWedliSvili

roca, Tavad enis pirveladi wyoba, imave, klasikuri xedviT, raime metaforuls sulac ar moicavs.
klasikuri Sexedulebis sapirispiro, nicSeseuli warmodgenis Tanaxmad ki, metaforuli swored rom pirveladi enaa. sityvis aRmniSvnel SesaZleblobasa da sagnis WeSmarit raobas Soris namdvili da calsaxa Sesabamisobis damSvebi enobrivi warmodgena, konvencia, anu sayovelTao SeTanxmeba, nicSes azriT,
sruliad pirobiT da iluziur xedvas warmoSobs. yoveli sityvis dabadeba, misTvis sawyisis micema, rogorc nicSe aRniSnavda,
erTaderTi da calkeuli, savsebiT individualuri STabeWdilebis
wyalobiT xdeba. magram, Cven mier misi, am STabeWdilebisa da Sesabamisi mniSvnelobis, uTvalav da met-naklebad msgavs, sinamdvileSi ki, gansxvavebul SemTxvevebze morgeba araigivurTa gaigivebas niSnavs. erTaderTi da unikaluri gamocdilebis Sesabamisi
mniSvnelobis sxva SemTxvevebze gavrcoba-gadatanis anu metaforuli aqtis Sedegad, rogorc nicSe acxadebda, yoveli sityvis
konceptad (idead Tu cnebad) gadaqceva xdeba.
zemoT naxseneb naSromSi nicSe, enis aRmniSvneli mimarTebis
garda, Tavad aRqma-azrovnebis process, mentalur warmodgenaTa
Camoyalibebis aqtsac metaforulad miiCnevs. Tu yoveli CvenganisaTvis `sagani TavisTavad~, misi X idumaleba, jer nervuli stimulis, nervuli aRgznebis, Semdgom imijis Tu xatis da bolos,
xmovani bgerebis saxiT vlindeba, maSin enis ganeziss, mis warmomavlobas logikurad Tanmimdevruli saxe, nicSes mtkicebiT, sulac ar unda hqondes. aq ufro imgvar iluziasTan gvaqvs saqme,
romelic, nicSes azriT, gansxvavebul sferoTa Soris naxtomebs,
anu imave nervuli stimulis imijad gardamqnel bijur wanacvlebas uwyvet, gluv da Tamimdevrul gadasvlad miiCnevs. aseTi,
wanacvlebiTi naxtomis momcveli iluzia, nicSes sityvebiT: `yoveli calkeuli konceptis deda Tu ara, bebia maincaa~ (1, 4).
azrovnebis `metaforizaciis~ nicSeseulma koncepciam Semdgomi ganviTareba meoce saukunis rig filosofiur ganazrebebSi
hpova. metaforis Teoriis mimarT yuradRebisa da aqtualur dainteresebaTa kvlav aRZvras gansakuTrebuli biZgi cnobierebis
aRwerisa da analizis huserlis fenomenologiurma meTodma misca. noezisi, anu Semecneba, huserlis mixedviT, Tavis mizans mxolod maSin aRwevs, roca SesaZlebeli gamocdilebis, STabeWdilebis monaxazis Camoyalibebis procesSi konteqstis an horizontis
rolis gaTvaliswineba xdeba. Semmecnebels (ego-s), gamocdilebis

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267

obieqtsa da am obieqtis momcvel horizonts Soris, huserlis


mixedviT, Sesabamisi da saTanado struqturuli mimarTeba myardeba. cnobierebis aseTi anawyobi ki imgvari huserlis mier intencionalurobad wodebuli gonis SesaZleblobis Tu unaris mixedviT yalibdeba, romelic subieqturi cnobierebisa da missave
obieqtTa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebas, korelacias Tu morgebas
fsiqologiuri aqtis saSualebiT axdens.
fenomenologiuri meTodis Tanaxmad, yoveli calkeuli
obieqtis amorCevasa da amocnobas mxolod misi, rogorc obieqtTa garkveuli klasis Semadgenelad mimCnevi mimarTebis, mixedviT vaxdenT. `fenomenis regionad~ wodebuli, subieqturi gamocdilebis areebi Tu sferoebi garkveul erTianobas, iseT mTlianobas SemosazRvraven, romelTa wyoba mdebareobiTi anu vrceulganTavsebadi mimarTebiT xasiaTdeba. `transcendentalur idealizms~, anu cnobierebis transcendentalurad subieqturi wyobisa da misive transcendentalur obieqtze orientirebis huserliseul Sexedulebas meoce saukunis bevri moazrovne SeiZleba
arc iziarebda, magram metaforis raobis sakiTxisadmi miZRvnil
Semdgomi periodis ganazrebebSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba
swored fenomenologiuri aRweris struqturul xedvas mieca.
martin haidegeri, Tavis cnobil naSromSi `yofiereba da
dro~ cnobierebis transcendentaluri wyobis huserlis modelis uaryofasTan erTad, Tavad fenomenologiur ZiebaTa ontologiuri, yofierebis mxilebisa da gamovlenis mimarTulebiT
warmarTvas Seecada. WeSmaritebis Zieba anu `yofierebis daviwyebul aspeqtTa aRdgena~, haidegeris mixedviT, iseTi TviT-interpretaciis saSualebiT miiRweva, romelic adamianuri arsebobis
(Da-sein-is), misi `subieqturobis~ poziciidan xorcieldeba. kantisa da huserlis `cranscendentaluri ego~ haidegerma subieqturobis cnebiT Secvala, xolo sazrisis Teoriuli amocnobis
Tu wvdomis huserliseuli miswrafeba realobis gamovlenis, misi eqsperimentul konteqstSi Tu horizontSi Zieba-kvlevis midgomiT Caanacvla.
yofiereba, rogorc haidegers miaCnda, adamianur cnobierebaSi Tu SegnebaSi Tavdapirveli da cocxlad gancdili gamocdilebis anda STabeWdilebis saxiT aisaxeba. ena, misi SexedulebiT,
gagebis iseTi Suamavali saSualebaa, romelSic yofierebis yoveli formis subieqturi saxiT asaxul warmodgenaTa davaneba xdeba (statiaSi `werili humanizmis Sesaxeb~ haidegeri acxadebda:

268

irakli mWedliSvili

`ena yofierebis WeSmaritebis saxlia~). sakacobrio gamocdileba


da istoria, rogorc haidegers miaCnda, am mosazrebas sruliad
calsaxad adasturebs _ yoveli didis da arsobrivis warmoCena
mxolod maSin xdeba, roca adamianur yofierebas, saxlis qonasTan erTad, fesvi gadgmuli tradiciaSic aqvs. amgvar pirobaTa
Wera da tareba, haidegeris mixedviT, metaforaTa da narativTa
momcvel teqstur warmonaqmnTa saSualebiT xorcieldeba. mniSvnelobaTa krebuls, erTobliobas Tu vels, romelic enobrivteqstur sivrceSi yofierebis gamovlenis Tu gamomJRavnebis, subieqturi gamocdilebis dagrovebis Sedegad yalibdeba, haidegeris SexedulebiT, swored metaforuli ena esadageba.
xatovan-metaforul enas pol rikiori, haidegeris msgavsad, adamianis samyarosTan `Seyris~, misi ontologiuri CarTulobis Sedegad Camoyalibebul warmonaqmnad miiCnevs. metaforis
Teoria, misi namdvili gageba, swored amgvari `Seyris~ moments,
anda, rogorc rikiori ambobs, `Cveni saarsebo Zalisxmevis
kvlavCarTulobas~ unda iTvaliswinebdes. rikioris gansakuTrebul dainteresebas, `CarTulobis~ Sesabamisi, `cocxali~ zemoqmedebis unarTan erTad, metaforis sxva SesaZleblobac imsaxurebs. enobriv wiaRSi ganxorcielebad metaforul wanacvlebas
Tu gadatanas rikiori axal sazrisul formaTa gamovlenisa da
Seqmnis ZiriTad saSualebad miiCnevs. metaforis aRmniSvneli SesaZlebloba, misi azriT, klasikuri Teoriis mixedviT dadgenil,
saxelTa da terminTa gadatana-Canacvlebis calsaxa da nakluli
donis farglebs scildeba. `metaforis Zalmosileba~, misi SexedulebiT, uSualod sentenciaTa Tu gamoTqmaTa anu teqstur
struqturaTa sazrisul sferoze vrceldeba.
saazrovno velSi, romelic `sazrisTa gadatanis~ anu meoreul-metaforuli wyobis teqstur warmonaqmnTa diskursuli
donis Sesabamisad Tu Sedegad yalibdeba, simboluri enis yoveli
forma, rikioris mtkicebiT, yofierebis fenomenologiur gamovlenas axdens. `cocxal~ anu simboloTa da metaforaTa momcvel
teqstTa namdvili da Rirebuli interpretacia, rikioris hermenevtikuri xedviT, `subieqturobis~, sakuTari Tavis gagebis miswrafebasTan
erTad,
yofierebis
amocnobis
mcdelobasac
gulisxmobs. amasTan, Semecnebis Tu amocnobis amgvari mcdeloba
gagebis `SesaZleblobaTa horizonts~ anda, ufro farTo mniSvnelobiT, yofierebis logosurad artikulirebuli anawyobis daSvebis pirobasac warmoSobs.

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269

lingvistikur ZiebaTa gzaze rikiorze ufro Sors wasulma


Jak deridam, `metafizikuri~, anda `logocentruli~ azrovnebis
stilis, `dekonstruqciad~ wodebul kritikul gadaxedvasTan
erTad, Sesabamisi, `konceptTa metaforizaciis Sebrunebis~ mcdelobac ganaxorciela. ena, romelsac dekonstruqciul midgomaTa
Sedegad, gabatonebul da avtonomiur mdgomareobasTan erdad,
sakmaod gaurkveveli saxec mieca, deridas SexedulebiT, mis wiaRs miRma arsebuli erTiani yofierebis Sesabamis Zireul terminebs aRar unda amkvidrebdes. naSromSi `TeTri miTologia~ filosofiur teqstebSi funqcionirebad metaforaTa warmoqmnas,
maT Camomyalibel saqmianobas Jak derida monetaTa salesi qviT
tvifrvis process adarebs.
metafora, romelic nicSesTan monetasaviT `xmarebaSi cvdeba~, deridas mixedviT, SefasebiT da mimocvliT Rirebulebas
SeqmnisTanave kargavs. metafizikosebi, romlebic enas, rogorc
deridas miaCnia, mxolod sakuTari TavisTvis qmnian, danis gammlesavebiviT moqmedeben. isini, swored rom nominal-gamosaxuleba
gadaSlili medlebisa da monetebis msgavs niSnebs, originalur
naWdevTa `gadamlesav~ metaforebs afuZneben. fizikuridan metafizikur sferoze gadasvlis aRmniSvneli Tu amgvari SesaZleblobis damSvebi niSnebi sinamdvileSi sasrul Rirebulebas dacilebul sazris-imijTa arsebobis gaurkvevel da gaugebar ideas
warmoSoben.
sruliad uadgilo `siWarbed~ miCneuli aseTi idea, saeWvo
Rirebulebas, deridas SexedulebiT, swored SegrZnebis meyseulobidan mowyvetis, droisa da sivrcis konkretul CarCoTagan
gamoTavisuflebis gamo iZens. metafizikos filosofosTa metaforul warmodgenaTa anawyobis sapirispiro paradigmul modelad derida, raoden sakvirvelic unda iyos, kvlav metaforul
warmonaqmns irCevs. myar da ucvlel sazris-imijTa, metafizikur
ideaTa uarmyofeli, yofierebis uwyveti qmnadobis Sesabamisi,
mravalferovan da mouxelTebel gansxvavebulobaTa dinebadi ganzomileba, deridas azriT, platoniseul saTavsos `xoras~ eTanadeba.
`xoras~, derida, arsebulisTvis, radikaluri `gansxvavebulobisTvis~ (diffrance-sTvis) `adgilis mimcems~ uwodebs. grZnobad da cnobier aRqmebs Soris myofi platoniseuli `xora~ deridas azriT, iseTi warmonaqmnia (iseTi subjectile-ia), romelic,
subieqtursa da obieqturs erTdroulad moicavs da, Sesabamisad,

270

irakli mWedliSvili

daswrebisa da ardaswrebis mudmivi urTierqmedebis rigobriv


simravlesac iTavsebs. magram Tavad uTvisebo da gaurkveveli,
formaTa da TvisebaTa droebiT Semakavebeli, arc arsebuli da
arc ararsebuli Sorisuli wiaRi, `xora~, platonis mixedviT,
vrceulobis Canasaxicaa.
vrceul struqturas, pol rikiori, deridasagan gansxvavebuli, swored rom metafizikuria xedvis Sesabamisad mimarTavs.
metaforis struqturawarmomqmnel unarTa moniSvnis erT-erT
mniSvnelovan mimarTulebad rikiori misive wiaRidan anu am, rogorc nicSe uwodebda, `Tavisufali asocirebis Sualeduri sferos~ Signidan moxilvis SesaZleblobas miiCnevs. werilSi `cocxali metafora~ is acxadebs, rom Tu arsebobs wakiTxvis Sedegad mocemuli ori A da C obieqti, metaforuli aqtis gansaxorcieleblad saWiroa raRac mesame warmonaqmnis, `...iseTi B _ geStaltis Seqmna, anu iseTi xedvis wertilis povna, saidanac am
ori obieqtis msgavsebis danaxva xerxdeba~ (3, 451). Tumca, aseTi
xedva rikiors kvlav problemuri kiTxvis winaSe ayenebs _ SeuZlia ki amgvari, mentaluri poziciidan anu metaforuli wiaRis
RreCodan danaxuli realobis erTgvar reprezentacias aqtualuri mimarTebis Tavad realobasTan damyareba?
msgavs problemasTan Tu kiTxvasTan Seyra kantsac mouwia
_ rogor vacnobierebT kavSirs gagebis wminda koncept-kategoriebsa da drosa da sivrceSi mocemul grZnobad obieqtebs Soris?
pasuxis Ziebam kanti Semdeg daskvnamde miiyvana: `sruliad naTelia, rom aq raRac iseTi mesame unda arsebobdes, romelic homogenuri, erTi mxriv, kategoriis, xolo meore mxriv, fenomenis
mimarT unda iyos da swored amitom is orives SeTanadebis SesaZleblobas unda warmoSobdes~ (4, 1). aseTi `mesame~, mentalur
warmodgenaTa konstruqciisaTvis saxasiaTo da aucilebeli
`transcendentaluri sqema~ kants swored dro-sivrciT gaazrebasTan dakavSirebiT Semoaqvs. `sqema~, misi warmodgena Tu gageba
gulisxmobs, rom cnobierebaSi Suamaval da ganmasxvavebel warmodgenaTa, wesTa Tu operatorTa iseTi anawyobi arsebobs, romlis saSualebiTac grZnobad obieqtTa sayovelTao da aucilebel
maxasiaTeblebi.
`sqematizmis~ struqturuli mxardaWera rikiors metaforis mier Seqmnili semantikuri siaxlisaTvis aqtualuri, WeSmarit-Rirebuli mniSvnelobis miniWebis saSualebas aZlevs. sqematuri xedvis anu transcendentaluri warmosaxvis wyalobiT, me-

metaforas samkvidro

271

taforaTa warmoSobis lingvistikuri qmedebis imgvar hermenevtikul aqtad gadaqceva xdeba, romelic abstraqtul gagebasa da
sasrul, sasicocxlo gancdaTa Sorisi napralis daZlevis, misi
virtualuri kamara-xidis gadebiT Sekvris SesaZleblobas warmoSobs. aqve, kvlav unda aRiniSnos, rom metaforuli `gadatanis~
struqturawarmomqmneli anu substanciur zRudeTa gamWoli, Tavisufali asocirebis SesaZlebloba swored rom wanacvlebis anu
sivrculi momijnaveobis principis yovlis gamwvdom daSvebas
efuZneba.
`samyaros axleburad Sefasebis dawyebisas, ... Cven, axla kidev sxva, mesame formis arseboba unda gavacxadoT~ (5, 48e). es
sityvebi platons ekuTvnis da isini swored vrceuli struqturis gagebis mcdelobisas aRZrul problemaTa gamo gamoiTqva.
`goniT sawvdomSi gonebamiuwvdomeli gziT monawile~ sivrcis
platoniseul warmodgenas erTmaneTisgan mkveTrad gamijnuli
ori forma ver esadageboda. mxolod goniT wvdomad, marad erTgvarovnad arsebul da mis sapirispiro, mxolod SegrZnebiT aRqmad, cvalebad da fuWebad formebs platonma mesame, vrceulobis Canasaxad miCneuli _ `xora~ daamata.
`xoras~ erTob gaurkveveli koncepciis axsnas platoni
analogiisa Tu Sedarebis saSualebiT Seecada. Tavad formaTa
Semkavebel, arc arsebul da arc ararsebul Sorisul bijs, anda
erTgvar saTavss, `xoras~ (-s) platoni `oqros zods~,
`Zerwvad nivTierebasa~ da STamomavlobis warmomSob dedobriv
sawyissac adarebs. magram aseTi, Tavad uTvisebo da sxvadasxva
TvisebaTa droebiT SemTavsebeli, `apeironiviT~ ganusazRvreli
da, imavdroulad, mdgradi saTavso anda Sorisuli wiaRi _
vrceuli formis piTagoruli warmodgenidan unda iRebdes saTaves1.
sawyisi simravles anda samyaros, piTagorelTa azriT,
TviTkmari `monadidan~ TviTWvretisa da ganmeorebadobis Sedegad

`sasazRvro qvebiT~ (-T), wertilovani kenWebiT mozomilregularulad dasazRvrul ares Tu vels piTagorelebi `xoras~
(-s) uwodebdnen. gviandel piTagorelebTan,  _ marTkuTxeds,
xolo _ abakisa (saangariSosa) da Wadrakis dafaTa mindorsac
aRniSnavda.

272

irakli mWedliSvili

warmoSobili `diaduri~ gadasvlis Sedegad eZleva. `diada~, romelsac piTagorelebi erTsa da mravals Soris gaWril, erTgvar
karad miiCnevdnen, swored gardamavali bunebis gamo, maTive warmodgeniT, ormag funqcias iTavsebs. is yofs da aerTebs, ganizidavs da izidavs, acalkevebs da aerTianebs. diaduri gadasvlisas,
piTagorelTa geometriuli xedviT, ori monaduri sferos centrTa gaziareba xdeba da sferul zedapirTa TanakveTis Sedegad,
vesica piscis-ad, anu `Tevzis buStad~ wodebuli figura warmoiSveba. `dedobriv wiaRs (anda, ufro sworad, vulva-s, saSos) mimsgavsebuli `Tevzis buSti~ piTagorelebma nayofierebis cnebasTan daakavSires da is, Sobis procesis analogiiT, sulieri ziarebis simbolur gasasvlelad miiCnies~ (6, 1).

Vesica Piscis
bolo saukuneebSi gabatonebulma mecnierulma xedvam sivrcis aRniSnuli, intuiciuri aRqmis Tanadi, simbolurad SemoRebuli Tu metaforulad gansazRvruli, warmomSobi da gardamaval-mediaciuri sawyisis mniSvneloba CrdilSi moaqcia. samyaros
wyobis racionalurad gaazrebadi da pragmatul-utilitarul
daniSnulebas morgebuli suraTi axla mxolod maTematikuri,
anu gansxvavebisa da ganmeorebis aRricxvadi sizustis sivrcul
mimarTebaTa win wamowevis Sedegad miiReba.
gasuli saukunis samocian wlebSi, mecnierul warmodgenaTa aradamajerebelobasa Tu maT naklul bunebaze saubari martin
haidegerma wamoiwyo. naSromSi `dro samyaros suraTisa~ is aRniSnavs rom sivrcis, rogorc erTgvarovani ganfenis `proeqtireba~, axal droSi moxda. fizikis maTematikurad gaformebam, `ukve
cnobilad~ miCneulze dafuZnebulma xedvam, anu proeqtma, ro-

metaforas samkvidro

273

gorc haidegeri miiCnevs, winaswar gansazRvra, rom garemomcveli


buneba sivrcesa da droSi orientirebul, moZrav wertilovan masaTa Tavis TavSi Caketili sistemaa.
sivrcis WeSmariti arsis dadgenas haidegeri mniSvnelobaTa warmomSobi garemos, enobrivi wiaRis JRerad kvalTa `yuris
migdebiT~ Seecada. `vrcobis~ Tu `farToebis~ (anda `faTenis~),
rogorc raRac ganfenili da gamwvdomi velis, zRudeTa da dabrkolebaTa gareSe arsebuli gasaqanis Riaoba da Tavisufleba,
haidegeris warmodgeniT, adamianis dafuZnebisa da damkvidrebis
SesaZleblobas warmoSobs. ase rom, vrceuli sawyisis Tu sivrculi struqturis warmomSob pirobas, haidegeris xedviT, ara
platonis `xoras~ msgavsi, simbolurad gardamavali da mediaciuri warmonaqmni, aramed adamianuri mkvidrobis damSvebi, yofierebis formebi unda qmnidnen. Tumca, haidegeri `vrcobas~ gardamaval, `adgilTa gamomTavisuflebel~ Tvisebasac miawers da misi
wiaRis warmomSob SesaZleblobasac mianiSnebs. masSi, iseve, rogorc `xoraSi~, haidegeris gansazRvrebiT, movlena Tu xdomileba `kidevac vlindeba da kidevac budobs~ (7, 97). aqve, albaT, sasurveli iqneboda yuradRebis xorasTan dakavSirebul kidev erT
mxareze SeCereba. `metafizikuri daswrebis~ Tu `wminda daswrebis~ koncepciis, anu bolo dromde myari da uryevi daSvebis, absoluturi WeSmaritebis, sinamdvilis wvdomis SesaZleblobis
uaryofis mcdelobisas, derida Zalze sagulisxmo da niSandobliv magaliTs mimarTavs. yovlis gamtarebel, magram ara Semakavebel wiaRs Tu saTavss, `xoras~ is gamosaxulebis, `imijis~ mWer
saZiresa da anareklis Semkavebel sarkes adarebs. mocemuli magaliTiT, derida, SesaZlebelia, uneburadac, swored rom marTebul miniSnebas Tu arsobriv Sexsenebas aRZravs. kerZod _ optika, moZRvreba `sinaTlisa da xedvis~ Sesaxeb, swored antikur
warmodgenebs efuZneba. grZnobadi, umeteswilad, vizualur-taqtiluri aRqmis principis mixedviT Sedgenili piTagora-platonuri warmodgenis mixedviT, `gamosaxulebis danaxva~ erTgvari,
subieqtur da obieqtur SemadgenelTa momcveli `mxedvelobiTi
sxeulis~ saSualebiT xdeba.
platonis `timeosis~ optikuri nawilis Sesabamis komentarSi baCana bregvaZe mxedvelobiTi sxeulis specifikurobas
Zalze marTebulad mianiSnebs: esaa gansakuTrebuli realoba,
romelic TavisTavad arc subieqturia da arc obieqturi, TumcaRa Taviseburad ukavSirdeba rogorc aRmqmel subieqts, ise aR-

274

irakli mWedliSvili

saqmel obieqtsac da, amdenad, realobis erTgvar mesame saxed


gvevlineba ... feeriuli simbolo, romelic realobasaviT moqmedebs~ (5, 417).
mocemuli SeniSnvis gaTvaliswinebiT, ukve aSkarad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom amgvar, rogorc platoni uwodebda, `triton
genos~ ( _`mesame gvaris~) formebs, Tavad `xorasa~ da
mis msgavs, Suamaval da Sualedur warmonaqmnebs, `vizualur sagans~, anda `eidosur xatebs~, gansazRvreba `virtualuri~ sruliad marTebulad esadageba. xolo metaforas, romlis miediaciuri, gadatana-wanacvlebisa da SeTanadebis SesaZlebloba amave,
Sualeduri da gardamavali wiaRis farglebSi moiazreba, virtualuri ganzomilebis `mkvidri~ aseve marTebulad SeiZleba ewodos.
mecnierul warmodgenaTa, gansakuTrebiT ki dro-sivrciT
koncepciaTa siRrmiseul safuZvelSi Cadebuli, Tumca ki, axalevropul saazrovno sivrceSi miviwyebuli amgvari formebi bolo dros gansakuTrebulad aqtualur mniSvnelobas iZenen. ukanasknel aTwleulebSi Semosuli, eleqtro-magnituri talRis
siCqariT amoqmedebuli da cifruli modelirebis usazRvro SesaZleblobiT aRWurvili, komunikaciur teqnologiaTa sfero
`virtualur fenomenTa~ mTavar saTavsod, erTgvar, Tanamedrove
`kiber-xorad~ Camoyalibda. Cvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi ukve
aqtualurad amoqmedebuli `virtualuri realoba~ misi reprezentaciuloba, anu realobis imitaciis Tu simulakrumTa warmoqmnis unari swored sivrce-droiTi operatoris analogiis Tanaxmad moqmed metaforuli wanacvleba-morgebis princips efuZneba...

275

metaforas samkvidro

literatura
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.
6.

7.

Frederich Nietzsche. On Truth and Lie in an Extra-Moral Sense.


http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl201/modules/Philosophers/Nietz
sche/Truth_and_Lie_in_an_Extra-Moral_Sense.htm
Aristotle.
The
Poetics.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text;jsessionid=BA61ECF9C
E1D82D96581CF21FA9F11C4?doc=Perseus%3atext%3a1999.01
.0056
. . , ., 1990, . 435
Kant. Critique of Pure Reason. Second Part. Transcendental
Logic.
http://www.philosophyindex.com/kant/critique_pure_reason/i_sf_ii_i.php
platoni. timeosi. Tb. irmisa, 1994
Pythagoras and the Mystery of Numbers.
The University of Georgia. Jim Wilsons home page.
http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/EMAT6680Fa06/Hobgood/Pythagor
as.html
. . .
. ., 1991, c
95.

nana trapaiZe

`sparsuli ambis~ enigma


,,yvelaze ukeTesi qmnileba aris is, romelic yvelaze didxans
inaxavs Tavis saidumlos, Zalian didxans azrad ar mouva vinmes, rom is, saerTod, inaxavs raime saidumlos.
pol valeri
literaturuli teqsti sxvadasxvagvarad SeiZleba gaviazroT. literaturis alternatiuli istoriebic imis
mixedviT SeiZleba daiweros, Tu ras dausabamdeba, ra konceptualur RerZs daeqvemdebareba misi wakiTxva. arsebobs
literaturis wakiTxvis tradicia, hegelis mier dafuZnebuli, romelic xelovnebas, literaturas istoriisa da socialuri cvlilebebis konteqsts ukavSirebs. hegeli ecada aRmoeCina xelovnebis
ganviTarebis kavSiri saerTo istoriul
procesTan. es midgoma literaturis,
rogorc sinamdvilis formis, istoriaSi
moazrebis faqts warmoadgens. magram,
literatura, erTdroulad, istoriaSicaa da mis miRmac; literatura, upiratesad misi epikuri struqtura, aerTianebs istorias (sinamdviles) da miTs
(gamonagons), rogorc sinamdvilis proeqciis or dones racionalurs/realursa

`sparsuli ambis~ enigma

277

da iracionalurs/warmosaxviTs, romlebic adamianuri cnobierebis doneebs warmoadgenen amavdroulad.


literatura, rogorc sivrce, romelsac SeuZlia aRweros,
enobriv mocemulobaSi atvirTos ara marto arsebuli, aramed
SesaZlebeli, drois gareT dgas. zedrouli, mxatvruli gadmocemis istoriuli reprezentaciis gziT, SeiZleba moeqces wakiTxvis/aRqmis fokusSi da gaxdes Seswavlis obieqti, rac imas niSnavs, rom literatura ki ar moviazroT istoriaSi, aramed istoria - literaturaSi.
aqedan, literaturis wakiTxvis tradiciuli konceptis misi istorizmis WrilSi eqsplikaciis gverdiT, Cven mxatvruli
qsovilis mbadi elementebis - metadoneebis paradigmuli mniSvnelobebis dadgenisaken vuTiTebT. aseTi mniSvnelobis matareblad
nebismieri struqturuli erTeuli ar gamodgeba. paradigmuli
,,fesvis (mi)kvleva, misi latenturi bunebis gamo, rTul hermenevtikul operaciebs gulisxmobs; misi kavSiri Sida da gareteqstobriv mocemulobebTan, iseve rogorc mxatvruli qmnilebis
struqturuli determinizmi, hermenevtikuli Ziebebis sagania.
vfiqrob, ,,vefxistyaosnis originalobis problemaSi kidev moiZebneba aspeqtebi, romlebic am, ukvegadaWril, sakiTxs axleburad gadaiazrebs. teqstis dasavlur-aRmosavluri kulturuli
antinomia, am mxriv, kidev bevr saidumlos inaxavs.
***
msoflio literaturaSi albaT Znelad moiZebneba kulturul-esTetikuri identobis TvalsazrisiT ufro moulodneli
qmnileba, vidre ,,vefxistyaosania. siuJeturi geografiis siWrele, romelic mxatvruli warmosaxvis uprecedento sixSireebs
gamoxatavs, ,,vefxistyaosnis azrobrivi diapazonis erTi mxarea.
kidev ufro mniSvnelovania am sivrceebis semiotikur-semantikuri
dartvirTva - istoriul da mxatvrul xdomilebaTa kavSir-ukavSiroba. Sesabamisad, am umagaliTod interkulturul da multikulturul mxatvrul proeqciaSi originalobis tradiciuli
cneba ufro zusti definiciiT - (TviT)identobis gagebiT SeiZleba Canacvldes. vfiqrob, originalobis gansazRvra sakuTriv
teqstis TviTidentobis gverdis avliT qmnilebis mxatvruli
sxeulis Sesaxeb obieqtur debulebebaTa mSral sivrceSi dagvtovebs da verafers gvetyvis teqstis cocxali bunebis Sesaxeb,
romelic subieqturad ganicdeba.

278

nana trapaiZe

rogor ganvsazRvoT/gavmijnoT originalobisa da TviTidentobis gagebebi? teqstis originalobas recipienti sazRvravs. amdenad, igi SefasebiTi kategoriaa, romelSic teqsti obieqtia. aq
amosavali midgoma ,,ucxoobis, gansxvavebulobis gamoaSkaravebaa,
mniSvnelobs distancia siaxlesa da tradicias Soris. teqstis
TviTidentoba ki niSnavs teqstis sakuTar, pirad uwyebas/arCevans
gansazRvros Tavisi identoba - Tavisi kulturuli genezisi, poziciebi, perspeqtivebi. amdenad igi TviTSefasebiTi kategoriaa,
aq teqsti subieqtia, romelic sakuTari Tavis obieqtivacias axdens. igi gvauwyebs ara gansxvavebaTa, aramed msgavsebaTa, kavSirTa Sesaxeb mxatvruli gamoxatvis sivrceSi. Cveni msjelobebis
Sinagani veqtori teqst-obieqtidan teqst-subieqtisaken - originalobis sakiTxidan (TviT)identobis sakiTxisaken miemarTeba.
originaloba, rogorc SefasebiTi kategoria, literaturuli qmnilebis, mxatvruli saxeebis empiriuli, kulturuli, istoriuli ,,winasaxis gaazrebas, sagnisa da saxis, tradiciisa da
siaxlis mimarTebis dadgenas gulisxmobs.
SeuZlebelia adamiani iyos im azriT originaluri, rogorc RmerTi, romelic ararasagan qmnis. adamianuri Semoqmedeba
ukve arsebulis mowesrigebas/damuSavebas gulisxmobs, Sesabamisad, is warmoadgens gameorebas, baZvas. aqedan, originaloba arsebulis, ukveTqmulis gameorebaa (da ara igiveoba). cnobilia, goeTe Tavisi drois axalbeda avtorebs ukve damuSavebuli siuJetebis gamoyenebas urCevda. missave ,,fausts germanul folklorSi
mravali versia uswrebda win da es garemoeba damabrkolebeli
sulac ar aRmoCnda goeTes SemoqmedebiTi warmosaxvisTvis.
stiluri universalizmi, romelic Sua saukuneebSi isaxeba,
zedapiruli SexedviT, zRudavda SemoqmedebiT Tavisuflebas da
nergavda mxatvrul kliSeebs, magram sinamdvileSi igi codnis,
rogorc gamocdilebis, absolutizebas gulisxmobda da mxolod
exmareboda SemoqmedebiT Tavisuflebas. maRal literaturaSi
universalur da personalur gamocdilebaTa metaforuli mTlianobis rTuli labirinTi igulisxmeboda. Tavisuflebis gzebsac
ise araferi aCens, rogorc kanoni. maT Soris SemoqmedebiTi kanoni, romelic mxatvruli azrovnebis stadialur ganviTarebaSi
axal-axal stilur imperativebad yalibdeba xolme. originaloba,
stilis simZafre, tradiciis uaryofa es is poziciebia, romlebic pirovnebis individuaciisa da Tavisuflebis socio-politi-

`sparsuli ambis~ enigma

279

kur ideas moyva. magram maT Soris yvelaze ufro radikalurebi,


swored tradiciis flobaze saubroben (1).
codna tradiciis/istoriis, arsebul gamocdilebaTa
flobaa. adamiani misi damgrovebelmatarebelia. ase rom ar
iyos, gagebis aqti ver Sedgeboda warsulsa da awmyos, Taobebs,
adamianebs Soris. ar iarsebebda kulturuli komunikacia da memkvidreobiToba. metic, komunikaciis seriozuloba yovelTvis mis
siRrmeze, - istoriasa da tradiciaze migviTiTebs. amdenad, qmnadoba, rogorc Tavisufleba (da Tavisufleba, rogorc qmnadoba)
ara tradiciis miRma, aramed tradiciis wiaRSi Zevs.
dabolos, SemoqmedebiTi aqti, romelic istoriiT ar aris
aRbeWdili, win araferi uswrebs, ar arsebobs. aseTi mxolod
RvTaebrivi Semoqmedebaa. am gagebiT, ,,absoluturi originaloba
adamianisTvis SeuZlebelia misi (Se)moqmedeba yovelTvis iqneba
,,daRdasmuli istoriiT, imiT, rac misgan damoukideblad ukve
arsebobs.
originalobis mimarTebiT SinaarsSic, sinamdvileSi, mxolod veqtori Seicvala: Tu klasikur paradigmaSi igi gareT
adamianidan istoriisken, personaluridan zogadpersonalurisken,
sazogadosaken miemarTeboda, postklasikurSi SigniT, istoriidan adamianisaken zogadpersonaluridan personalurze gaxda
orienturebuli. Cveni realoba interpersonaluria. xolo adamiani ,,Sidaqseluri mexsierebiTi sistema, romelSic istorias Zinavs.
****
,,vefxistyaosnis originalobis sakiTxi misi Seswavlis saTaveebTan daisva. sakiTxis aqtualoba TviTon teqstis uwyebam ,,ese ambavi sparsuli, qarTulad naTargmanevi warmoSva. araerTma mecnierulma kvlevam daadastura poemis originaloba, - is,
rogorc ambavi, siuJeti, arafris gameorebas ar warmoadgens, miuxedavad imisa, rom arsebobda fabulebi, romlebic, SesaZloa,
avtoris siuJeturi modelis mokarnaxe yofiliyo.
,,vefxistyaosnis msoflmxedvelobrivi da gamomsaxvelobiTi Taviseburebis kvlevas araerTi naSromi mieZRvna. urTierTgansxvavebuli midgomebisa da daskvnebis miuxedavad, aravin davobs
imaze, rom Sua sakuneebSi, gamalebuli religiuri da kulturuli konfliqtebis pirobebSi, rusTvelis poemaSi polarizebul

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kulturaTa dapirispireba moxsnilia. amasTan, samyaros kulturuli polusebis epikuri proeqcia mxatvruli qsovilis iseT
uwyvet da mTlian sxeuls qmnis, rom gadakveTebis, mijnebis mikvleva, an kidev kulturuli elementebis erTmaneTisagan gamoxSirva SeuZlebeli xdeba. magaliTad, aRmosavluri enobriv-terminologiuri aparatiT SeiZleba gamoTqmuli iyos astraluri samyaros Sesaxeb berZnul-laTinuri saazrovno tradicia; personaJTa personalur eTosSi nivelirebulia religiur gansxvavebulobaTa sakiTxi da religiuri uwyebebis oficialuri specifika.
rusTaveli genialurad manipulirebs, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas,
kninobiTi TviTcnobierebis (ubralo gamleqsavis - ,,ese ambavi
sparsuli, qarTulad naTargmanevi) da aRmatebiTi TviTcnobierebis (didi xelovanis - ,,aw ena minda gamoTqmad, guli da xelovaneba..) poziciebiT. am TvalsazrisiT, rusTaveli, albaT, pirveli
avtoria, romelic teqstis privilegias avtoris privilegias
upirispirebs: igi sakuTar Tavs formaluri momwesrigeblis
(,,leqsad gardavTqvi) rangSi warmoadgens. SeiZleba vifiqroT,
amiT igi, erTi mxriv, avtor-gadamweris Suasukuneobriv ideas
miyveba. avtor-gadamweri ki ar qmnis (Txzavs), aramed zeSTagonebis karnaxiT iwers RvTiur xmas; meore mxriv ki teqstis pirveladobis, misi xalxurobis xarisxSi ayvanis xelov(a)nebiTa da am
gziT TviTlikvidaciiT ,,avtoris sikvdilis struqturalistur
konceptsac swvdeba, romlis mixedviT, ierarqia avtori-teqsti,
icvleba ganfenilobiTi poziciiT - teqsti-avtori. SeiZleba
vTqvaT, saavtoro/individualuri da xalxur/koleqtiuri Semoqmedeba aRniSnuli inversiis sxvadasxva poziciebs gamoxataven,
amitomac erTi (saavtoro literatura) naraciuli fenomenia,
romelSic teqsts qmnis avtori, meore - aseve naraciuli, romelSic teqsti qmnis avtor(eb)s.
umaRles SemoqmedebiT gancdasa da ostatobas SeuZlia
xelovanis roli postpoziciurad gadaanacvlos avtoridan (personidan) teqstisaken (upirovno werisaken) da ase daadasturos
xelovnebis namdvilyofa, sinamdvilesTan damokidebulebaSi misi
upiratesobis WeSmariteba. am azriT, homerosi, rusTaveli, servantesi, Seqspiri, vaJa-fSavela xalxuri avtorebi arian. maT
,,mokles avtori, rogorc pirovnuli fenomeni da aCvenes pirovnulisagan gasvlis/Tavisuflebis is simaRle, romelic erTdroulad iTvisebs kidec yovelgvar literaturul wesrigs, tradicias da imavdroulad gadalaxavs mas, rogorc amas tradiciis

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armcodne, ,,marginaluri xalxuri sityviereba sCadis... amdenad,


rusTavelis originaloba xalxuri cnobierebis originalobaa (am
azris aramoralisturi konteqstiT). SemTxveviTi araa mosazreba,
romelic ,,vefxistyaosnis fabulas qarTul xalxur zepirsityvierebasTan akavSirebs (a. xaxanaSvili, m. Ciqovani, e. qoriZe).
miuxedavad imisa, rom, faqtobrivad, poema am ,,gavlenasac uaryofs, teqstis Rrma hermenevtikuli uwyeba sakmaod logikur da
mosalodnel miTiTebas gamoxatavs poemis xalxuri fesvebis ZiebisaTvis.
mas Semdeg, rac poemis siuJeturi originaloba sakamaTo
aRar aris, misi originalobis problema poemis TavisTavadi bunebis, erTi mxriv, poeturi gamomsaxvelobis da, meore mxriv, poemis sinamdvilesTan mimarTebis sakiTxis dazustebas unda dakavSireboda; xmac, romelic teqstis TviTidentobis Sesaxeb gvauwyebs, aq unda gaJRerebuliyo. aseTi midgoma, romelic teqstis
hermenevtikuli avtonomiis aRiarebidan amodis, sityvierebaSi sinamdvilis proeqciis racionaluri (realur-istoriuli) da iracionaluri (warmosaxviTi) doneebis amokiTxvis specifikur, meToduri TvalsazrisiT, gansazRvruli principis armqone, intuiciur refleqsias ukavSirdeba im sagulisxmo miTiTebis karnaxiT,
romlis Tanaxmad, warmosaxviTi samyaro warmosaxvis ZaliT ganimarteba. teqstologiur-hermenevtikuli kvleva ori Semxvedri
poziciaa, romlis Sedegadac teqsturi saidumloebebi zedapirisaken amodian.
amdenad, poemis TviTidentobis saidumlos amocnoba/gagebisaTvis rezultaturi SeiZleba iyos wakiTxvis ara eqsplikaciuri, aramed implikaciuri ,,strategia, romlis mixedviT qmnilebis mniSvnelobiT sixSireebs drois mimarT wrfivi ganvcroba
aqvs, xolo sivrcis mimarT wriuli. aqedan kiTxva/amocana: ra
aris ,,wertili, sadac dro da sivrce ikveTebian. Tu xelovnebis metaforul-alegoriuli gamomsaxvelobis dafaruli (ideuri) da ,,zedapiruli (formaluri) bunebis ambivalentobas Cveni
gonebisa da emociebis velSi movixelTebT, kidev erTi aRmomCenebi viqnebiT imisa, rom xelovneba sinamdvilisagan iqmneba. sinamdvilis simarTle imdenad didia, rom mas ver vxedavT da mxolod xelovnebis fokusSi SeiZleba Seicnobodes. teqsti-metafora es aris sinamdvilis akumulirebuli sidide, romlis azrobrivi da emociuri moculoba sinamdvilis ukuproporciulia da
warmosaxvis Zalis pirdapirproporciuli. realoba, simarTle

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daujereblad gamWvirvaled gadadis xelovnebaSi swored im myife kedlis gamo, romelic xelovnebasa da sinamdviles Soris arsebobs. magram mas Semdeg, rac es zRvari aRqmiTi da droiTi fenebis wyalobiT gasqelebas iwyebs, gadasvlis ,,xazi Znelad SesamCnevi xdeba, idRabneba, ris gamoc mxatvrul proeqcias aRmqmelis cnobierebaSi istoriuli (namdvili) ekvivalenti ekargeba.
amitom is mTlianad fiqciis aspeqts iZens da istoriis mimarT
dgeba rogorc originaluri, - rogorc empiriuli SeuZleblobaSesaZlebloba...
teqstebi, romlebsac farTo kultruli ganvrcoba aqvT,
imiT xasiaTdebian, rom sinamdviles ,,uSualod miyvebian(2).
drosTan erTad, Sordeba ra istoriul Zirs, teqsti miT ufro
eufleba Tavis masStabs, radgan mxatvruli ,,ekrani ukve aCens
ara marto imas, rac iyo, aramed imasac, rac SeiZleboda yofiliyo. metaforis arafiqsirebuli da moZravi buneba aseTia.
yvelaze alegoriuli teqstebi yvelaze ,,zedmiwevniTi
teqstebia sinamdvilis mimarT. ,,zedmiwevniTobis samalavi empiriuli masStabebis sididea, romelic swored sididis gamo xdeba
SeumCneveli. empiriul sidideebs xelovneba mikrodoneebad - metaforis atomur (daunawevrebel) elementebamde amWidroebs, riTac viRebT sinamdvilis kondensaciis gansakuTrebul, TiTqos
hermetul, TviTkmar ganzomilebas, romelsac teqst-metaforas
veZaxiT da romelic, Tavis mxriv, azrobriv-emociuri simxurvaliT empiriuli ,,afeTqebebis energias atarebs. amdenad, sinamdvilisadmi yovelgvari romantikuli (an revanSistuli) ganwyobis miRma, mxatvruli da aramxatvruli samyaroebis urTierTdabadebis fizikur-metafizikuri kanoniT, xelovneba iseve warmoSobs sinamdviles, rogorc sinamdvile - xelovnebas(3).
Tu mkiTxvelisaTvis arc Tu martivi inteleqtualuri
operaciebia Casatarebeli xelovnebisa da sinamdvilis mimarTebis,
vityodiT, uaRresad delikaturi sakiTxis garSemo, xelovanisTvis, SemoqmedebiT gonSi, es (mimarTebis delikaturoba) imTaviTve nagulisxmev-gancdilia da moulodneli mxatvrul-azrobrivi
TamaSebiT warmoaCens xolme Tavs (4). amgvari TamaSis formad
SeiZleba ironia mogvevlinos.
ironia warmosaxvis sawyisia. ,,ese ambavi sparsuli rusTveluri ironiis centria, romlis garSemoc iZerweba teqstis
realur-mxatvruli da mxatvrul-mistikuri gradaciebi. igi Tavs
adasturebs iq, sadac ,,qarTuli ambavi warmodgenilia rogorc

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283

sparsuli. ironia poemaSi isaxeba rogorc zRaprisa da istoriis, vityviT, erT mniSvnelobiT aspeqtSi moqcevis mxatvruli TamaSi, romelSic yvelaferi iyo da ara iyo, - sinamdvilisa da
warmosaxvis Serwymis anasxleti, romelic Tvals Wris, gaarCio
mijnebi..
magram ra empiriuli, kulturuli gamocdilebebi dgas
TviTon ironiuli sawyisis ukan? aq Tamamad SeiZleba vilaparakoT istoriuli, socialuri, kulturuli sivrceebis Sesaxeb,
romelic, cnobilia, Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi farTod iyo
gaxsnili. ,,geografiuli bediswera, romelmac gansazRvra qarTuli kulturis profili, erTdroulad stabiluri fenomenicaa
da dinamiuric, ramdenadac geografia ucvlelia, bediswera ki
SeiZleba icvlebodes(?)...
,,sparsuli kulturuli geografiis momniSvneli uwyebaa,
romelic, cxadia, pirdapiri azriT sparsuls ar udris. igi erTgvari ,,saidentifikacio kodia, romelic drosTan erTad ixsneba da sxvadasxva Sinaarsebs /interpretaciebs Sobs.
qarTuli literaturis kulturuli konteqsti Sua saukuneebSi erTdroulad aris ebrauli, bibliuri samyaro, warmodgenili qristianizaciis politikuri kursiT da im originalurmTargmnelobiTi kulturiT, romliTac qarTul niadagze bibliuri swavlebis aTviseba xdeboda (aTonelTa mTargmnelobiTi skola), rasac fundamenturi mniSvneloba hqonda qveynis sulieri,
kulturuli da politikuri radiusis gansazRvraSi. da, meore
mxriv, religiuri moralizmisagan Tavisufali epikuri esTetikuri imoralizmi, romelic CvenSi sparsuli eposis saxiT Semovida
da cnobierebisa da gemovnebis im simaRles efuZneboda da gamoxatavda, romelSic eTikurisa da esTetikuris winaaRmdegoba nivelirdeba.
vefxistyaosnis mxatvrul velSi moxvedrili kulturuli
Sreebi warmosaxviTad, fiqciurad aRibeWdaven kulturuli garemos Rrma zedapirs. am velis mixedviT misi empiriuli donis rekonstuireba saxifaTo saqmea, radgan atarebs risks, erTmaneTSi
agverios kulturisa da cnobierebis centrebi da periferiebi...
miT ufro, rom rusTavelis polisiuJeturi samyaro, upiratesad, utopiur-antiutopiuri (an/da irealur-realuri) diskursis
matarebelia, xolo siuJeturi sibrtyis meqanikuri Setrialeba
sagnebsa da movlenebs istoriul mdebareobas ver daubrunebs,

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iseve rogorc arc sworxazovan identifikaciebs SeuZlia aRadginos istoria.


jer kidev rusTvelologiis saTaveebTan daisva da Semdgom
damuSavda rusTvelis azrovnebis platonuri, aristoteluri,
neoplatonuri, qristianuli, miTologiuri, folkloruli safuZvlebis Sesaxeb mecnieruli mosazrebebi (vaxtang VI, T. bagrationi, m. brose, i. abulaZe, k. kekeliZe, a. SaniZe, iv. javaxiSvili, S. nucubiZe, p. ingoroyva, al. baramiZe, v.nozaZe, z.gamsaxurdia, m. gigineiSvili, el. xinTibiZe, g. imedaSvili, z.kiknaZe,
m. karbelaSvili, x.zariZe da sxva). am veqtorebiT ganisazRvra
poemis kulturuli siRrme da areali. magram, sagulisxmoa faqti, romelic gamoixateba rusTavelis Sesaxeb istoriuli qronikebis dumilSi. es sakiTxic rusTvelologiuri kvlevebis saTaveebisaken gvabrunebs... magram Cven gvinda SevniSnoT rusTavelisa
da misi Tanamedroveobis mimarTebis ,,genetikuri aspeqti, gavakeToT aqcenti kiTxvaze sad aris ,,vefxistyaosnis warmomSobi
wyaro: istoriaSi (empiriaSi) Tu xelovnebaSi (SesaZleblobaSi/warmosaxvaSi). ra Tqma unda, - orivegan. magram sakmarisia daviwyoT argumentebis Zieba, rom umal vdgebiT, erTi mxriv, sinamdvilis, istoriis deficitisa da, meore mxriv, mxatvrulad
proecirebuli realobis fantastikamde asuli siWarbis winaSe.
ase rom, arc codna gvaqvs sakmarisi istoriis danaxvisaTvis da
rac gvaqvs, sakmaod modelirebulia poeturi enisa da ideologiuri azris maqmanebiT (romlis moxsnas TviTon istoriis furceli Seewireboda); amasTan, arc xelovnebis qmnileba eqvemdebareba
,,mamravlebad damSlel kritikul referencias.
am konteqstSi Cndeba axali kiTxva: ras miemarTeba gansazRvreba ,,sparsuli mxatvruli fiqciis gareT? (vefxistyaosanSi
,,qarTuli samjeraa sul gamoyenebuli: ,,ar Seamoklos qarTuli..., ,,ra veRar mixvdes qarTulsa, ,,yma tkbili da tkbilqarTuli). arc erT SemTxvevaSi is ar warmoadgens qronotopul
mniSvnelobas. sakuTriv sparsuli qronotopis Sesaxeb, rogorc
sakmaod uxerxulis poemis zogadidealizebul sivrceSi, adrec
SeniSnula. es aRniSvna sakiTxis obieqturi sirTulis - metaforuli plastis gaTvaliswinebiT, kvlavac elodeba axal ganazrebebs. sakiTxis istoria ki aqcents prologSi miTiTebul ,,sparsulze akeTebs, romelic mTel siuJetur areals, qronotops
moicavs da TavisTavSi atarebs poemis mxatvrul drosivrcul
gradaciebs.

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saazrovno gamowvevebis winaSe gvayenebs ,,induri, ,,arabuli, sxva, sruliad virtualuri qronotopebi, romelTagan arc
erTs ar miewereba ambis warmoSoba. faqtia, ,,vefxistyaosanSi
warmosaxviT da istoriul samyaroTa gadakveTebi erTdroulad
zRapris iluziaSic gvtovebs da Tan kulturaTa dialogis Suasaukuneobrivi realiebis idumalebisken gviTiTebs.
sparsuli poezia CvenSi fufunebas warmoadgenda maTTvis,
visac misi dedanSi kiTxva SeeZlo. aseTi, cxadia, feodaluri
aristokratia iyo. Targmanebic, miuxedavad maTi saqveyno popularobisa, masebisTvis ar iqmneboda. es Txzulebebic TavianTi saTaurebiT, romlebic Sinaarss gamoxatavdnen, xalxSi legendarul saxelebamde (leili, majnuni, visi, ramini, xosrovi, Sirini...) dadioda da adamianad yofnis, garkveuli moraluri ganwyobilebis simboloebad kristalizdebodnen miuxedavad im winaaRmdegobisa, rasac isini kulturebis religiur-politikuri dapirispirebis pirobebSi awydebodnen. metic, qarTulma nacionalurma garemom xelic ki mihyo maT kulturul adaptacias, cxadia,
im universaluri esTetikuri da eTikuri safuZvlidan, romliTac es teqstebi da saxelebi gaCndnen da arsebobdnen. aseTad
SegviZlia moviyvanoT Teimuraz pirvelis Semoqmedeba, romelic
Tavis mTargmnelobiT saqmianobaSi sparsuli poeziis qristianizacias cdilobda.
i. javaxiSvili aRniSnavda: ,,Tumca ,,Sahname (,,rostomiani)
firdousisa, visramiani, qilila da damana, leil-majnuniani
sparsi mahmadiani mgosnebis dawerili iyo, magram qristiani qarTvelebic gatacebiT kiTxulobdnen. maTTvis es Txzulebebi xelovnebis Zvirfasi ganZi iyo. sxvaTa Soris, xom sparsuli xelovnebis wyalobiT aRorZinda qarTuli saero poeziac... qarTvelebisTvis sparsul mahmadianuri kultura ucxo ram ar yofila
da Tavisi politikuri mtrebis mwerlobas, mecnierebasa da xelovnebas isini did pativsa scemdnen (javaxiSvili1973, 306).
SeiZleba iTqvas, sparsuli poezia Sua saukuneebis saqarTveloSi iqca kulturis gamanayofierebel elementad, romlis
gareSec TviTformirebis vercerTi kulturuli TamaSi ver Sedgeba. istoriul WrilSi, sparsuli esTetikis araoficialuri
xma (me-11-12 ss.) im sivrces iWers, romelic qristianobis mier
gaZevebulma elinurma kulturam datova. ,,teritoriis amgvarad
aTviseba bunebrivi procesia kulturis sicocxlisaTvis. amis gareSe is ar arsebobs. kvdeba.

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rusTavelis mier RmerTis, poeziisa da siyvarulis Sesaxeb


prologad warmodgenil traqtatSi Tavisi qmnilebis ,,sparsulad moxsenieba erTgvari algoriTmia, romelsac teqstis poetikuri da kulturologiuri sazrisi ukavSirdeba.
rusTvelologiuri tradicia ,,sparsuls ZiriTadad ori
azriT ganixilavs: pirdapiri (timoTe gabaSvili, n. mari) da gadataniTi (vaxtang VI -,,sparsSid es ambavi arsad ipoeba, k. kekeliZe, al. baramiZe, r. siraZe, sxvebi). pirveli aRiarebs, rom poema sparsuli warmoSobisaa, meore uaryofs am azrs da ,,sparsuls siuJetis gaucxoebis xerxad miiCnevs. arsebobs sxva, rogorc tradiciuli, ise axali kulturologiuri mimarTeba, romelic sakiTxs sparsul epikur samyarosTan dialogur poziciaSi
ganixilavs. am azris Tanaxmad, ,,vefxistyaosani warmoadgens sparuli samyaros daZlevas misi bolomde aTvisebis gziT, rac niSnavs, rusTaveli bolomde miyveba gavlenas da am gziT gadalaxavs mas (i. abulaZe, r. xalvaSi). ,,vefxistyaosnis enobrivi Taviseburebis Sesaxeb arsebul gamokvlevebSi gaanalizebulia sparsizmebis sakiTxi, gamokveTilia sakuTar saxelTa konceptualuri
roli poemaSi (i. abulaZe, k. kekeliZe, e. xinTibiZe, d. kobiZe,
z.gamsaxurdia, a. gvaxaria). es kvlevebi poemis mxatvruli da
kulturuli Sreebis analizs isaxavda miznad; maT warmoaCines
,,vefxistyaosnis enis poeturi da sociologiuri aspeqtebi,
teqstis struqturis, erTi mxriv, metafizikuri bazisi, meore
mxriv, kulturuli klimatis Taviseburebani.
vfiqrob, ,,sparsuli garda aRniSnuli mniSvnelobebisa,
romlebic, ZiriTadad, mis arametaforul da kulturologiur
arss ukavSirdeba, poetikuri konceptis matarebelic unda iyos.
amdenad, Cven im poziciebs mivyvebiT da vavrcobT, romlebic am
mxatvruli enigmis poetikuri arsis gaSifvras isaxavda miznad.
1. ,,sparsuli miniSnebaa mxatvruli qmnilebis Tematuri
qargis Sesaxeb. mijnuris velad gaWra sparsuli literaturisa
da misi mimbaZveli regionuli literaturis mTavari Tema iyo.
,,vefxistyaaosnis Temac, am gagebiT, sparsulia (am TvalsazrisiT, aRsaniSnavia ,,TamarianSi moyme-mogzauris saTavgadasavlo
CanarTebi).
2. amasTan, ,,sparsuli gulisxmobs epikur Txrobasac,
rac SuasaukuneebSi sparsuli poeziis umaRlesi forma iyo. aqedan, ,,sparsuli Janrul terminadac SeiZleba moviazroT. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom prologi mniSvnelovan adgils uTmobs

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287

ara marto poeziis universaluri bunebis, aramed arsebuli


mxatvruli praqtikis kritikul gaazrebas, mis xarisxobriv ranJirebis swored Janruli niSniT;
3. rac Seexeba ,,ambavs, igi fabulas niSnavs. taepis konteqstSi ki poeturi ambis miTurobas, moarulobas, xalxurobas
unda gulisxmobdes. amdenad, ,,tarielis ambavi gavrcelebuli,
cnobili/arapersonaluri gadmocemis ideas ukavSirdeba, rac poemis ideuri da formaluri siaxlis, gnebavT, sakuTriv poemis
originalobis konteqstSi orazrovan/ironiul uwyebad ikveTeba.
4. ,,sparsuli ambis Suasaukunebobrivi simbolur-alegoriuli sazrisi - ,,saRmrTo mijnurobis baZva - gamJRavnebulia
progologSi: ,,marT masve hbaZven, Tu oden ar siZven, SoriT
bndebian. am azriT, ,,sparsuli aRmosavlur esTetikasa da dasavlur sazriss amTlianebs. rusTaveli, rogorc epikosi, ,,leqsTa grZelTa mTxzveli, samyaros sazrismatarebel suraTs
qmnis. misi epikuri tilo mTlianobis esTetikas, kulturul antinomiaTa erTianobas gadmoscems, romelSic Suasaukuneebisa da
renesansuli idealis, aRmosavluri da dasavluri azrovnebis
sazrisebi erTad iyris Tavs.
5. ,,sparsuli ambavi ,,velad gaWris sakralur-simboluri planiT kidev erT dafarul azrs unda gamoxatavdes: mijnuroba, rogorc siSmage, feodaluri saukuneebis kulturul da
sazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi, vTqvaT ase, erTgvari ,,kontrkulturuli pozicia/ganwyobilebaa, romelsac samyaros socio-politikur wesrigSi kosmiuri diskursi Semoaqvs. Tanasworoba,
upirobo interpersonaluroba, romelic siyvarulis ideas axlavs, dramatul winaaRmdegobaSi modis adamianuri samyaros ierarqiul wesrigTan. mijnuroba ,,vefxistyaosanSi zekacur gonebriv da sulier Zalisxmevas niSnavs, (i)moralur da yovelwamier arCevans, rogorc wamis (yofnisa da cvalebadobis umciresi elementis) da maradisobis (,,uJamo Jamis) winaSe erTaderTi Rirebuli pozicia. amitom mijnurTa da mijnurobis idealizebis safuZveli kosmiuri wyobis, rogorc arsebulis, magram miuwvdomlisa da idealuris aRiarebisa da dafasebis ideiSi Zevs.
rusTavelma ,,kontr moxsna da mijnurobis mTeli eqstraordinaluri arsi sayovelTao sakacobrio wesrigis socialur-politikur struqturebs dausabama. SemTxveviTi araa, rom rusTaveli
prologSi RmerTis, Tamarisa da tarielis, rogorc gamoTqmisa
da qebis sagnTa triadas qmnis. pirveli kosmiuri Zalaa, meore

288

nana trapaiZe

istoriul-sakraluri da mesame mxatvrul-warmosaxviTi. ukanaskneli, - mxatvrul-warmosaxviTi, - amTlianebs kosmiursa da


istoriul sawyiss, rasac adamiani samijnuro eTikiT - iniciaciis (,,velad gaWris) Sedegad aRwevs.
dabolos: ra mimarTebaa poemis originalobas/TviTidentobasa da ,,sparsuls Soris? ,,sparsuli rusTveluri azrovnebis
etalonuri sazomia, romelsac igi aRiarebs da romelTan mimarTebaSic qmnis Tavis samyaros. aq mibaZva da Tavisufleba ambivalentur mniSvnelobebad warmosdgeba. rusTaveli, erTi mxriv,
dgas Tavis Tanamedrove kulturul konteqstSi, iRebs mas etalonur sazomad da aqedan epaeqreba mas. es aris erTgvari poeturi, kulturuli gapaeqreba tradicisaTan, kulturasTan, tendenciasTan. aRsaniSnavia, rom Zvel sparsul da qarTul samyaroSi
arsebobda gapaeqrebis tradicia. rusTvelologiaSi arsebobs kidec mosazreba qarTveli da sparsi poetebis, TviT rusTavelisa
da nizami ganjelis gapaeqrebis, rogorc namdvili faqtis, Sesaxeb (d.kobiZe 1978, 17-18). es aris SemoqmedebiTi Tavisuflebis
erTi ,,xazi; da meore: rusTaveli amas (qmnilebisagan Tavisuflebas/gamijvnas) aRwevs poemis arapersonaluri warmoSobis
rwmunebiT. TavisTavad es faqti iseve ar warmoadgens individualuri talantis dakninebis gamiznul xerxs, rogorc ,,sparsuli
raime negatiur koncepts, romelsac rusTaveli TiTqos ,,taqtikurad umklavdebodes. piriqiT, iseT warmoudgenlad maRali xarisxis fiqcionalizmSi, rogoric ,,vefxistyaosania, sparsulis
konceptualuri arsi ase sworxazovnad ver ganimarteba. miT ufro, Tu imasac gaviTvaliswinebT, ramdenad Semoikrebs poemis
msoflmxedvelobrivi birTvi dasavluri filosofiuri azrovnebis, qristianuli xedvis simaRleebs.
,,vefxsistyaosanis formaluri samoslisa da Sinaarsobrivi esenciis paradoqsuli mimarTeba antinomiurad gadaikveTeba
,,sparsulis semiotikaSi, xolo gadakveTis centraluri punqti
mxatvruli ironiaa, romelic erTdroulad eubneba hosa da aras
aRqmis nebismier proeqcias. ase rom, ,,sparsuli enobrivi TamaSis erT-erT pirvel dasturadac SeiZleba miviRoT literaturis istoriaSi, romelic rusTavelma xelovnebis reprezentaciis
velze esoden adre wamoiwyo da Rrmad Seasrula.
vfiqrobT, ,,sparsulis hermenevtikis Semdgomi kvleva gansakuTrebuli interesis sagnad SeiZleba iqces rogorc xelovnebisa da sinamdvilis (warmosaxvisa da istoriis) gadakveTis fa-

`sparsuli ambis~ enigma

289

rul da gacxadebul uwyebaTa CvenebisaTvis(5), ise sinamdvilis


mxatvrul-kritikuli aTvisebis gaazrebis TvalsazrisiT, radgan,
vgoneb, literatura, am mxriv, ufro mets ambobs, vidre istoriuli qronikebis mtvriani gamWvirvaloba, an, gnebavT, Tanamedrove
tele-radio-internet sivrceebis totaluri ,,gulwrfelobebi...
danarTi
1. tradiciis winaSe valdebulebis moxsnis safrTxeebi, romelsac ganmanaTlebloba gulisxmobda, jer kidev rusom igrZno, xolo
romantikosebma scades igi sulieri elitizmiTa da Taviseburi socialuri askeziT daezRviaT. genialoba, rogorc ukiduresi pirovnuloba,
romantizmma idealad aqcia. vin aris geniosi? geniosia is, vinc ,,TviTon aris istoria da ara misi matarebeli. magram romantikul elitizmSi aseTi mxolod rCeuli iyo, istoriaSi erTi. mogvianebiT, demokratizmSi rCeulobis, erTis idea mravalSi nivelirda, romelSic
mniSvnelobs yvela.
sagulisxmoa, rom geniosis es epoqiseuli idea, Tu SeiZleba
ase iTqvas, politikur gemovnebaSic SeiWra, romlis gamoxatulebadac
iqca napoleoni da romelic ase Zlier aitaca literaturam. igi adamianis, rogorc yovlismomcvelisa da yovlismpyrobelis politikuri
idealia. yovlismwvdomi da codniTmpyrobeli idealis literaturul
xatad ki warmosdgeba adamiani, romelic eZebs codnas/dafaruls, rac
sulis, rogorc idealuri sawyisis - ,,umecari sibrZnis wyaros daTmobas niSnavs. religiurad es dacemisa da ampartavnebis codvaa, - codnis, misi wyurvilis codva. codna codvaSi Zevs, amitomaa SeuZlebeli
misi floba eSmakis, rogorc borotebis meufis gareSe. aqedan, fausturi Tema, goeTes mier swored ganmanaTleblobisa da romantizmis xanaSi
Seqmnili.
adamianis istoriidan ,,gayvanis proeqti meoce saukuneSi postmodernulma qaosmosis ideam daasrula. masSi aistoriuloba da istorizmi Semxvedri sapirispiro mimarTulebebia, romelSic istoriis/drois ,,CarxiT gamarTuli mikrokosmosi (adamiani) cdilobs Secvalos
matrica.... jer mxolod wyveta da wyvetis efeqtebi - istoriasTan TamaSi Cans. drois wrfeze axal koordinatebs sayovelTao sicxade jer
ar miuRiaT...
2. sinamdviles ,,uSualod miyveba biblia,- igi erTdroulad
aris Zvel ebraelTa istoria, religia da poezia.
3. magaliTisTvis: Seqspiris hamleti sinamdvilis/simarTlis gamosaTqmelad mimarTavs xelovnebas/Teatrs, romelSic is faqtobrivi
sizustiT imeorebs momxdar ambavs, riTac cdilobs amxilos borotmoqmedi. rac ufro metia kavSiri xelovnebasa da sinamdviles Soris,

nana trapaiZe

290

rac ufro Rrmad Sedis xelovneba sinamdvileSi, miT ufro ,,zedapirze


Zevs simarTle, oRond mxolod ,,damnaSaveTaTvis, xolo ,,gulubryviloni mas verc xedaven. aq xelovanis sibrZne da siSlege erTmaneTTan
iseT mimarTebaSi gadadis, rogorc metaforuli enis erTdrouli idumaleba da sicxade.
4. SemoqmedebiTi cnobierebis es done, romelic zedapiruli azriT ki ar ironirebs sinamdvilis myofobas, mis moxelTeba/mouxelTeblobas (romelsac droiT sistemaSi mudam da mxolod namyo warsuli
moepoveba), aramed ironiiT warmoadgens ,,SemoqmedebiTi undilobis
stiqiur filosofiasac da niSneul SemoqmedebiT infantilizms, warmodgenilia qarTuli xalxuri zRapris frazeologiur eqspoziciaSi
,,iyo da ara iyo ra.
5. ,,sparsuli ambis siuJeturi done (arabuli da induri narativis mimarTebiTi orazrovneba) politikuri aspeqtiT gvafiqrebs da
CvenTvis bundovani istoriuli realiebisaken miemarTeba. aq, rogorc
Tematur, ise ideur doneze pirovnebis Tavisuflebisa da saxelmwifos
dilemaa problematizebuli. rogoric ar unda yofiliyo istoriuli
sinamdvile, faqtia, rom adamianebis, xalxis Tavisuflebis ideas (,,aTavisufle monebi - mdabioni, xalxi) warmoSobis saTave mxolod pirovnul cnobierebaSi rusTavelis genialur warmosaxvaSi ara aqvs. igi,
amasTan, politikuri cxovrebis, - feodalizmis krizisul wiaRSic unda amozrdiliyo (magaliTad, yuTlu arslanis politikuri ideebi...).

Lliteratura

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

i. abulaZe, rusTvelologiuri naSromebi, Tbilisi,


1967
k. kekeliZe, Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria,
Tbilisi, 1958
d. kobiZe, qarTul-sparsuli literaturuli urTierTobani, III, Tbilisi, 1978
g.lobJaniZe, qarTul-sparsuli literaturuli urTierTobebis kvlevis istoria, ix.:qarTul-sazRvargareTuli literaturuli urTierTobebis kvlevis istoria,
redaqtori e. xinTibiZe, Tbilisi, 2011
e. qoriZe ,vefxistyaosnisa da xalxuri,,tarielianis
urTierTmimarTeba, Tbilisi, 1999
iv. javaxiSvili, qarTveli eris istoria, Tbilisi, t.
me-2, 1973

`sparsuli ambis~ enigma

7.

291

r. xalvaSi, sparsulis gavlena da gavlenis SiSi,,vefxistyaosanSi // saerTaSoriso konferenciis masalebi


_ ,,humanitaruli mecnierebebi informaciul sazogadoebaSi, t. II, baTumi, 2010

nana trapaiZe

292

gamomcemloba `universali~
Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19,
E-mail: universal@internet.ge

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