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Airfoil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about airfoils. For other types of foil, see Foil (disambiguation). For the kite, see Foil kite.

Airfoil From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about airfoils. For other types of foil,Foil (disambiguation) . For the kite, see Foil kite . Examples of airfoils in nature and within various vehicles. Though not strictly an airfoil, the dolphin fin obeys the same principles in a different fluid medium. An airfoil (in American English ) or aerofoil (in British English ) is the shape of a wing or blade (of a propeller , rotor , or turbine ) or sail as seen in cross-section . An airfoil-shaped body moved through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force . The component of this force perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift . The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag . Subsonic flight airfoils have a characteristic shape with a rounded leading edge, followed by a sharp trailing edge, often with asymmetric curvature of upper and lower surfaces. Foils of similar function designed with water as the working fluid are called hydrofoils . The lift on an airfoil is primarily the result of its angle of attack and shape. When oriented at a suitable angle, the airfoil deflects the oncoming air, resulting in a force on the airfoil in the direction opposite to the deflection. This force is known as aerodynamic force and can be resolved into two components: lift and drag . Most foil shapes require a positive angle of attack to generate lift, but cambered airfoils can generate lift at zero angle of attack. This "turning" of the air in the vicinity of the airfoil creates curved streamlines which results in lower pressure on one " id="pdf-obj-0-11" src="pdf-obj-0-11.jpg">

Examples of airfoils in nature and within various vehicles. Though not strictly an airfoil, the dolphin fin obeys the same principles in a different fluid medium.

An airfoil (in American English) or aerofoil (in British English) is the shape of a wing or blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine) or sail as seen in cross-section.

An airfoil-shaped body moved through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force. The component of this force perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift. The component parallel to the direction of motion is called drag. Subsonic flight airfoils have a characteristic shape with a rounded leading edge, followed by a sharp trailing edge, often with asymmetric curvature of upper and lower surfaces. Foils of similar function designed with water as the working fluid are called hydrofoils.

The lift on an airfoil is primarily the result of its angle of attack and shape. When oriented at a suitable angle, the airfoil deflects the oncoming air, resulting in a force on the airfoil in the direction opposite to the deflection. This force is known as aerodynamic force and can be resolved into two components: lift and drag. Most foil shapes require a positive angle of attack to generate lift, but cambered airfoils can generate lift at zero angle of attack. This "turning" of the air in the vicinity of the airfoil creates curved streamlines which results in lower pressure on one

side and higher pressure on the other. This pressure difference is accompanied by a velocity difference, via Bernoulli's principle, so the resulting flowfield about the airfoil has a higher average velocity on the upper surface than on the lower surface. The lift force can be related directly to the average top/bottom velocity difference without computing the pressure by using the concept of circulation and the Kutta-Joukowski theorem. [1][2][3][4]

Contents

Introduction

side and higher pressure on the other. This pressure difference is accompanied by a velocity difference,Bernoulli's principle , so the resulting flowfield about the airfoil has a higher average velocity on the upper surface than on the lower surface. The lift force can be related directly to the average top/bottom velocity difference without computing the pressure by using the concept of circulation and the Kutta-Joukowski theorem . Contents  1 Introduction2 Airfoil terminology3 Thin airfoil theory4 Derivation of thin airfoil theory5 See also6 Notes7 References8 External links Introduction Streamlines around a NACA 0012 airfoil at moderate angle of attack Lift and Drag curves for a typical airfoil " id="pdf-obj-1-65" src="pdf-obj-1-65.jpg">

Streamlines around a NACA 0012 airfoil at moderate angle of attack

side and higher pressure on the other. This pressure difference is accompanied by a velocity difference,Bernoulli's principle , so the resulting flowfield about the airfoil has a higher average velocity on the upper surface than on the lower surface. The lift force can be related directly to the average top/bottom velocity difference without computing the pressure by using the concept of circulation and the Kutta-Joukowski theorem . Contents  1 Introduction2 Airfoil terminology3 Thin airfoil theory4 Derivation of thin airfoil theory5 See also6 Notes7 References8 External links Introduction Streamlines around a NACA 0012 airfoil at moderate angle of attack Lift and Drag curves for a typical airfoil " id="pdf-obj-1-69" src="pdf-obj-1-69.jpg">

Lift and Drag curves for a typical airfoil

A fixed-wing aircraft's wings, horizontal, and vertical stabilizers are built with airfoil-shaped cross sections, as are helicopter rotor blades. Airfoils are also found in propellers, fans, compressors and turbines. Sails are also airfoils, and the underwater surfaces of sailboats, such as the centerboard and keel, are similar in cross-section and operate on the same principles as airfoils. Swimming and flying creatures and even many plants and sessile organisms employ airfoils/hydrofoils: common examples being bird wings, the bodies of fish, and the shape of sand dollars. An airfoil-shaped wing can create downforce on an automobile or other motor vehicle, improving traction.

Any object with an angle of attack in a moving fluid, such as a flat plate, a building, or the deck of a bridge, will generate an aerodynamic force (called lift) perpendicular to the flow. Airfoils are more efficient lifting shapes, able to generate more lift (up to a point), and to generate lift with less drag.

A lift and drag curve obtained in wind tunnel testing is shown on the right. The curve represents an airfoil with a positive camber so some lift is produced at zero angle of attack. With increased angle of attack, lift increases in a roughly linear relation, called the slope of the lift curve. At about 18 degrees this airfoil stalls, and lift falls off quickly beyond that. The drop in lift can be explained by the action of the upper-surface boundary layer, which separates and greatly thickens over the upper surface at and past the stall angle. The thickened boundary layer's displacement thickness changes the airfoil's effective shape, in particular it reduces its effective camber, which modifies the overall flow field so as to reduce the circulation and the lift. The thicker boundary layer also causes a large increase in pressure drag, so that the overall drag increases sharply near and past the stall point.

Airfoil design is a major facet of aerodynamics. Various airfoils serve different flight regimes. Asymmetric airfoils can generate lift at zero angle of attack, while a symmetric airfoil may better suit frequent inverted flight as in an aerobatic airplane. In the region of the ailerons and near a wingtip a symmetric airfoil can be used to increase the range of angles of attack to avoid spinstall. Thus a large range of angles can be used without boundary layer separation. Subsonic airfoils have a round leading edge, which is naturally insensitive to the angle of attack. The cross section is not strictly circular, however: the radius of curvature is increased before the wing achieves maximum thickness to minimize the chance of boundary layer separation. This elongates the wing and moves the point of maximum thickness back from the leading edge.

Supersonic airfoils are much more angular in shape and can have a very sharp leading edge, which is very sensitive to angle of attack. A supercritical airfoil has its maximum thickness close to the leading edge to have a lot of length to slowly shock the supersonic flow back to subsonic speeds. Generally such transonic airfoils and also the supersonic airfoils have a low camber to reduce drag divergence. Modern aircraft wings may have different airfoil sections along the wing span, each one optimized for the conditions in each section of the wing.

Movable high-lift devices, flaps and sometimes slats, are fitted to airfoils on almost every aircraft. A trailing edge flap acts similarly to an aileron; however, it, as opposed to an aileron, can be retracted partially into the wing if not used.

A laminar flow wing has a maximum thickness in the middle camber line. Analyzing the NavierStokes equations in the linear regime shows that a negative pressure gradient along the flow has the same effect as reducing the speed. So with the maximum camber in the middle, maintaining a laminar flow over a larger percentage of the wing at a higher cruising speed is possible. However, with rain or insects on the wing, or for jetliner speeds, this does not work. Since such a wing stalls more easily, this airfoil is not used on wingtips (spin-stall again).

Schemes have been devised to define airfoils an example is the NACA system. Various airfoil generation systems are also used. An example of a general purpose airfoil that finds wide application, and predates the NACA system, is the Clark-Y. Today, airfoils can be designed for specific functions using inverse design programs such as PROFOIL, XFOIL and AeroFoil. XFOIL is an online program created by Mark Drela that will design and analyze subsonic isolated airfoils. [5]

Airfoil terminology

A laminar flow wing has a maximum thickness in the middle camber line. Analyzing the <aNavier Stokes equations in the linear regime shows that a negative pressure gradient along the flow has the same effect as reducing the speed. So with the maximum camber in the middle, maintaining a laminar flow over a larger percentage of the wing at a higher cruising speed is possible. However, with rain or insects on the wing, or for jetliner speeds, this does not work. Since such a wing stalls more easily, this airfoil is not used on wingtips (spin-stall again). Schemes have been devised to define airfoils – an example is the NACA system . Various airfoil generation systems are also used. An example of a general purpose airfoil that finds wide application, and predates the NACA system, is the Clark-Y . Today, airfoils can be designed for specific functions using inverse design programs such as PROFOIL, XFOIL and AeroFoil. XFOIL is an online program created by Mark Drela that will design and analyze subsonic isolated airfoils . Airfoil terminology Airfoil nomenclature The various terms related to airfoils are defined below :  The suction surface (a.k.a. upper surface) is generally associated with higher velocity and  lower static pressure. The pressure surface (a.k.a. lower surface) has a comparatively higher static pressure than the suction surface. The pressure gradient between these two surfaces contributes to the lift force generated for a given airfoil. The geometry of the airfoil is described with a variety of terms :  The leading edge is the point at the front of the airfoil that has maximum curvature  (minimum radius) . The trailing edge is defined similarly as the point of maximum curvature at the rear of the airfoil. " id="pdf-obj-3-26" src="pdf-obj-3-26.jpg">

Airfoil nomenclature

The various terms related to airfoils are defined below: [6]

The suction surface (a.k.a. upper surface) is generally associated with higher velocity and

lower static pressure. The pressure surface (a.k.a. lower surface) has a comparatively higher static pressure than the suction surface. The pressure gradient between these two surfaces contributes to the lift force generated for a given airfoil.

The geometry of the airfoil is described with a variety of terms :

The leading edge is the point at the front of the airfoil that has maximum curvature

(minimum radius). [7] The trailing edge is defined similarly as the point of maximum curvature at the rear of the airfoil.

The chord line is the straight line connecting leading and trailing edges. The chord

length, or simply chord,

 The <a href=chord line is the straight line connecting leading and trailing edges. The chord length , or simply chord , , is the length of the chord line. That is the reference dimension of the airfoil section. Different definitions of airfoil thickness An airfoil designed for winglets (PSU 90-125WL) The shape of the airfoil is defined using the following geometrical parameters:  The mean camber line or mean line is the locus of points midway between the upper and  lower surfaces. Its shape depends on the thickness distribution along the chord; The thickness of an airfoil varies along the chord. It may be measured in either of two ways: o Thickness measured perpendicular to the camber line . This is sometimes o described as the "American convention" ; Thickness measured perpendicular to the chord line . This is sometimes described as the "British convention". Some important parameters to describe an airfoil's shape are its camber and its thickness . For example, an airfoil of the NACA 4-digit series such as the NACA 2415 (to be read as 2 - 4 - 15) describes an airfoil with a camber of 0.02 chord located à 0.40 chord, with 0.15 chord of maximum thickness. Finally, important concepts used to describe the airfoil's behavior when moving through a fluid are:  The aerodynamic center , which is the chord-wise length about which the pitching  moment is independent of the lift coefficient and the angle of attack. The center of pressure , which is the chord-wise location about which the pitching moment is zero. Thin airfoil theory " id="pdf-obj-4-14" src="pdf-obj-4-14.jpg">

, is the length of the chord line. That is the reference

dimension of the airfoil section.

 The <a href=chord line is the straight line connecting leading and trailing edges. The chord length , or simply chord , , is the length of the chord line. That is the reference dimension of the airfoil section. Different definitions of airfoil thickness An airfoil designed for winglets (PSU 90-125WL) The shape of the airfoil is defined using the following geometrical parameters:  The mean camber line or mean line is the locus of points midway between the upper and  lower surfaces. Its shape depends on the thickness distribution along the chord; The thickness of an airfoil varies along the chord. It may be measured in either of two ways: o Thickness measured perpendicular to the camber line . This is sometimes o described as the "American convention" ; Thickness measured perpendicular to the chord line . This is sometimes described as the "British convention". Some important parameters to describe an airfoil's shape are its camber and its thickness . For example, an airfoil of the NACA 4-digit series such as the NACA 2415 (to be read as 2 - 4 - 15) describes an airfoil with a camber of 0.02 chord located à 0.40 chord, with 0.15 chord of maximum thickness. Finally, important concepts used to describe the airfoil's behavior when moving through a fluid are:  The aerodynamic center , which is the chord-wise length about which the pitching  moment is independent of the lift coefficient and the angle of attack. The center of pressure , which is the chord-wise location about which the pitching moment is zero. Thin airfoil theory " id="pdf-obj-4-22" src="pdf-obj-4-22.jpg">

Different definitions of airfoil thickness

 The <a href=chord line is the straight line connecting leading and trailing edges. The chord length , or simply chord , , is the length of the chord line. That is the reference dimension of the airfoil section. Different definitions of airfoil thickness An airfoil designed for winglets (PSU 90-125WL) The shape of the airfoil is defined using the following geometrical parameters:  The mean camber line or mean line is the locus of points midway between the upper and  lower surfaces. Its shape depends on the thickness distribution along the chord; The thickness of an airfoil varies along the chord. It may be measured in either of two ways: o Thickness measured perpendicular to the camber line . This is sometimes o described as the "American convention" ; Thickness measured perpendicular to the chord line . This is sometimes described as the "British convention". Some important parameters to describe an airfoil's shape are its camber and its thickness . For example, an airfoil of the NACA 4-digit series such as the NACA 2415 (to be read as 2 - 4 - 15) describes an airfoil with a camber of 0.02 chord located à 0.40 chord, with 0.15 chord of maximum thickness. Finally, important concepts used to describe the airfoil's behavior when moving through a fluid are:  The aerodynamic center , which is the chord-wise length about which the pitching  moment is independent of the lift coefficient and the angle of attack. The center of pressure , which is the chord-wise location about which the pitching moment is zero. Thin airfoil theory " id="pdf-obj-4-26" src="pdf-obj-4-26.jpg">

An airfoil designed for winglets (PSU 90-125WL)

The shape of the airfoil is defined using the following geometrical parameters:

The mean camber line or mean line is the locus of points midway between the upper and

lower surfaces. Its shape depends on the thickness distribution along the chord; The thickness of an airfoil varies along the chord. It may be measured in either of two ways:

o

Thickness measured perpendicular to the camber line. [8][9] This is sometimes

o

described as the "American convention"; [8] Thickness measured perpendicular to the chord line. [10] This is sometimes described as the "British convention".

Some important parameters to describe an airfoil's shape are its camber and its thickness. For example, an airfoil of the NACA 4-digit series such as the NACA 2415 (to be read as 2 - 4 - 15) describes an airfoil with a camber of 0.02 chord located à 0.40 chord, with 0.15 chord of maximum thickness.

Finally, important concepts used to describe the airfoil's behavior when moving through a fluid are:

The aerodynamic center, which is the chord-wise length about which the pitching

moment is independent of the lift coefficient and the angle of attack. The center of pressure, which is the chord-wise location about which the pitching moment is zero.

Thin airfoil theory

An airfoil section is displayed at the tip of this <a href=Denney Kitfox aircraft, built in 1991. Airfoil of Kamov Ka-26 helicopters Thin airfoil theory is a simple theory of airfoils that relates angle of attack to lift for incompressible, inviscid flows. It was devised by German-American mathematician Max Munk and further refined by British aerodynamicist Hermann Glauert and other s in the 1920s. The theory idealizes the flow around an airfoil as two-dimensional flow around a thin airfoil. It can be imagined as addressing an airfoil of zero thickness and infinite wingspan . Thin airfoil theory was particularly notable in its day because it provided a sound theoretical basis for the following important properties of airfoils in two-dimensional flow : (1) on a symmetric airfoil, the center of pressure and aerodynamic center lies exactly one quarter of the chord behind the leading edge (2) on a cambered airfoil, the aerodynamic center lies exactly one quarter of the chord behind the leading edge (3) the slope of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack line is units per radian As a consequence of (3), the section lift coefficient of a symmetric airfoil of infinite wingspan is: where is the section lift coefficient, is the angle of attack in radians, measured relative to the chord line. (The above expression is also applicable to a cambered airfoil where measured relative to the zero-lift line instead of the chord line.) is the angle of attack Also as a consequence of (3), the section lift coefficient of a cambered airfoil of infinite wingspan is: " id="pdf-obj-5-2" src="pdf-obj-5-2.jpg">

An airfoil section is displayed at the tip of this Denney Kitfox aircraft, built in 1991.

An airfoil section is displayed at the tip of this <a href=Denney Kitfox aircraft, built in 1991. Airfoil of Kamov Ka-26 helicopters Thin airfoil theory is a simple theory of airfoils that relates angle of attack to lift for incompressible, inviscid flows. It was devised by German-American mathematician Max Munk and further refined by British aerodynamicist Hermann Glauert and other s in the 1920s. The theory idealizes the flow around an airfoil as two-dimensional flow around a thin airfoil. It can be imagined as addressing an airfoil of zero thickness and infinite wingspan . Thin airfoil theory was particularly notable in its day because it provided a sound theoretical basis for the following important properties of airfoils in two-dimensional flow : (1) on a symmetric airfoil, the center of pressure and aerodynamic center lies exactly one quarter of the chord behind the leading edge (2) on a cambered airfoil, the aerodynamic center lies exactly one quarter of the chord behind the leading edge (3) the slope of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack line is units per radian As a consequence of (3), the section lift coefficient of a symmetric airfoil of infinite wingspan is: where is the section lift coefficient, is the angle of attack in radians, measured relative to the chord line. (The above expression is also applicable to a cambered airfoil where measured relative to the zero-lift line instead of the chord line.) is the angle of attack Also as a consequence of (3), the section lift coefficient of a cambered airfoil of infinite wingspan is: " id="pdf-obj-5-8" src="pdf-obj-5-8.jpg">

Airfoil of Kamov Ka-26 helicopters

Thin airfoil theory is a simple theory of airfoils that relates angle of attack to lift for incompressible, inviscid flows. It was devised by German-American mathematician Max Munk and further refined by British aerodynamicist Hermann Glauert and others [11] in the 1920s. The theory idealizes the flow around an airfoil as two-dimensional flow around a thin airfoil. It can be imagined as addressing an airfoil of zero thickness and infinite wingspan.

Thin airfoil theory was particularly notable in its day because it provided a sound theoretical basis for the following important properties of airfoils in two-dimensional flow: [12][13]

(1) on a symmetric airfoil, the center of pressure and aerodynamic center lies exactly one quarter of the chord behind the leading edge (2) on a cambered airfoil, the aerodynamic center lies exactly one quarter of the chord behind the leading edge

(3) the slope of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack line is

An airfoil section is displayed at the tip of this <a href=Denney Kitfox aircraft, built in 1991. Airfoil of Kamov Ka-26 helicopters Thin airfoil theory is a simple theory of airfoils that relates angle of attack to lift for incompressible, inviscid flows. It was devised by German-American mathematician Max Munk and further refined by British aerodynamicist Hermann Glauert and other s in the 1920s. The theory idealizes the flow around an airfoil as two-dimensional flow around a thin airfoil. It can be imagined as addressing an airfoil of zero thickness and infinite wingspan . Thin airfoil theory was particularly notable in its day because it provided a sound theoretical basis for the following important properties of airfoils in two-dimensional flow : (1) on a symmetric airfoil, the center of pressure and aerodynamic center lies exactly one quarter of the chord behind the leading edge (2) on a cambered airfoil, the aerodynamic center lies exactly one quarter of the chord behind the leading edge (3) the slope of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack line is units per radian As a consequence of (3), the section lift coefficient of a symmetric airfoil of infinite wingspan is: where is the section lift coefficient, is the angle of attack in radians, measured relative to the chord line. (The above expression is also applicable to a cambered airfoil where measured relative to the zero-lift line instead of the chord line.) is the angle of attack Also as a consequence of (3), the section lift coefficient of a cambered airfoil of infinite wingspan is: " id="pdf-obj-5-46" src="pdf-obj-5-46.jpg">

units per radian

As a consequence of (3), the section lift coefficient of a symmetric airfoil of infinite wingspan is:

where
where

is the section lift coefficient,

is the angle of attack in radians, measured relative to the chord line.

(The above expression is also applicable to a cambered airfoil where measured relative to the zero-lift line instead of the chord line.)

An airfoil section is displayed at the tip of this <a href=Denney Kitfox aircraft, built in 1991. Airfoil of Kamov Ka-26 helicopters Thin airfoil theory is a simple theory of airfoils that relates angle of attack to lift for incompressible, inviscid flows. It was devised by German-American mathematician Max Munk and further refined by British aerodynamicist Hermann Glauert and other s in the 1920s. The theory idealizes the flow around an airfoil as two-dimensional flow around a thin airfoil. It can be imagined as addressing an airfoil of zero thickness and infinite wingspan . Thin airfoil theory was particularly notable in its day because it provided a sound theoretical basis for the following important properties of airfoils in two-dimensional flow : (1) on a symmetric airfoil, the center of pressure and aerodynamic center lies exactly one quarter of the chord behind the leading edge (2) on a cambered airfoil, the aerodynamic center lies exactly one quarter of the chord behind the leading edge (3) the slope of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack line is units per radian As a consequence of (3), the section lift coefficient of a symmetric airfoil of infinite wingspan is: where is the section lift coefficient, is the angle of attack in radians, measured relative to the chord line. (The above expression is also applicable to a cambered airfoil where measured relative to the zero-lift line instead of the chord line.) is the angle of attack Also as a consequence of (3), the section lift coefficient of a cambered airfoil of infinite wingspan is: " id="pdf-obj-5-68" src="pdf-obj-5-68.jpg">

is the angle of attack

Also as a consequence of (3), the section lift coefficient of a cambered airfoil of infinite wingspan is:

where

where is the section lift coefficient when the angle of attack is zero. Thin airfoil theorystall of the airfoil, which usually occurs at an angle of attack between 10° and 15° for typical airfoils . Derivation of thin airfoil theory From top to bottom: • Laminar flow airfoil for a RC park flyer • Laminar f low airfoil for a RC pylon racer • Laminar flow airfoil for a manned propeller aircraft • Laminar flow at a jet airliner airfoil • Stable airfoil used for flying wings • Aft loaded air foil allowing for a large main spar and late stall • Transonic supercritical airfoil • Supersonic leading edge airfoil Colors: Black = laminar flow, red = turbulent flow , grey = subsonic stream , blue = supersonic flow volume The airfoil is modeled as a thin lifting mean-line (camber line). The mean-line, y(x), is considered to produce a distribution of vorticity along the line, s. By the Kutta condition , " id="pdf-obj-6-4" src="pdf-obj-6-4.jpg">

is the section lift coefficient when the angle of attack is zero.

Thin airfoil theory does not account for the stall of the airfoil, which usually occurs at an angle of attack between 10° and 15° for typical airfoils. [14]

Derivation of thin airfoil theory

where is the section lift coefficient when the angle of attack is zero. Thin airfoil theorystall of the airfoil, which usually occurs at an angle of attack between 10° and 15° for typical airfoils . Derivation of thin airfoil theory From top to bottom: • Laminar flow airfoil for a RC park flyer • Laminar f low airfoil for a RC pylon racer • Laminar flow airfoil for a manned propeller aircraft • Laminar flow at a jet airliner airfoil • Stable airfoil used for flying wings • Aft loaded air foil allowing for a large main spar and late stall • Transonic supercritical airfoil • Supersonic leading edge airfoil Colors: Black = laminar flow, red = turbulent flow , grey = subsonic stream , blue = supersonic flow volume The airfoil is modeled as a thin lifting mean-line (camber line). The mean-line, y(x), is considered to produce a distribution of vorticity along the line, s. By the Kutta condition , " id="pdf-obj-6-16" src="pdf-obj-6-16.jpg">

From top to bottom:

• Laminar flow airfoil for a RC park flyer • Laminar flow airfoil for a RC pylon racer • Laminar flow airfoil for a manned propeller aircraft • Laminar flow at a jet airliner airfoil • Stable airfoil used for flying wings • Aft loaded airfoil allowing for a large main spar and late stall • Transonic supercritical airfoil • Supersonic leading edge airfoil

Colors:

Black = laminar flow,

red = turbulent flow, grey = subsonic stream, blue = supersonic flow volume

The airfoil is modeled as a thin lifting mean-line (camber line). The mean-line, y(x), is

considered to produce a distribution of vorticity

where is the section lift coefficient when the angle of attack is zero. Thin airfoil theorystall of the airfoil, which usually occurs at an angle of attack between 10° and 15° for typical airfoils . Derivation of thin airfoil theory From top to bottom: • Laminar flow airfoil for a RC park flyer • Laminar f low airfoil for a RC pylon racer • Laminar flow airfoil for a manned propeller aircraft • Laminar flow at a jet airliner airfoil • Stable airfoil used for flying wings • Aft loaded air foil allowing for a large main spar and late stall • Transonic supercritical airfoil • Supersonic leading edge airfoil Colors: Black = laminar flow, red = turbulent flow , grey = subsonic stream , blue = supersonic flow volume The airfoil is modeled as a thin lifting mean-line (camber line). The mean-line, y(x), is considered to produce a distribution of vorticity along the line, s. By the Kutta condition , " id="pdf-obj-6-44" src="pdf-obj-6-44.jpg">

along the line, s. By the Kutta condition,

the vorticity is zero at the trailing edge. Since the airfoil is thin, x (chord position) can be used instead of s, and all angles can be approximated as small.

From the BiotSavart law, this vorticity produces a flow field

the vorticity is zero at the trailing edge. Since the airfoil is thin, x (chord position)Biot Savart law , this vorticity produces a flow field where where is the location where induced velocity is produced, is the location of the vortex element producing the velocity and is the chord length of the airfoil. Since there is no flow normal to the curved surface of the airfoil, balances that from the component of main flow , which is locally normal to the plate – the main flow is locally inclined to the plate by an angle . That is: This integral equation can by solved for , , after replacing x by as a Fourier series in That is with a modified lead term (These terms are known as the Glauert integral). The coefficients are given by and By the Kutta Joukowski theorem , the total lift force F is proportional to " id="pdf-obj-7-11" src="pdf-obj-7-11.jpg">

where

the vorticity is zero at the trailing edge. Since the airfoil is thin, x (chord position)Biot Savart law , this vorticity produces a flow field where where is the location where induced velocity is produced, is the location of the vortex element producing the velocity and is the chord length of the airfoil. Since there is no flow normal to the curved surface of the airfoil, balances that from the component of main flow , which is locally normal to the plate – the main flow is locally inclined to the plate by an angle . That is: This integral equation can by solved for , , after replacing x by as a Fourier series in That is with a modified lead term (These terms are known as the Glauert integral). The coefficients are given by and By the Kutta Joukowski theorem , the total lift force F is proportional to " id="pdf-obj-7-15" src="pdf-obj-7-15.jpg">

where

the vorticity is zero at the trailing edge. Since the airfoil is thin, x (chord position)Biot Savart law , this vorticity produces a flow field where where is the location where induced velocity is produced, is the location of the vortex element producing the velocity and is the chord length of the airfoil. Since there is no flow normal to the curved surface of the airfoil, balances that from the component of main flow , which is locally normal to the plate – the main flow is locally inclined to the plate by an angle . That is: This integral equation can by solved for , , after replacing x by as a Fourier series in That is with a modified lead term (These terms are known as the Glauert integral). The coefficients are given by and By the Kutta Joukowski theorem , the total lift force F is proportional to " id="pdf-obj-7-19" src="pdf-obj-7-19.jpg">

is the location where induced velocity is produced,

the vorticity is zero at the trailing edge. Since the airfoil is thin, x (chord position)Biot Savart law , this vorticity produces a flow field where where is the location where induced velocity is produced, is the location of the vortex element producing the velocity and is the chord length of the airfoil. Since there is no flow normal to the curved surface of the airfoil, balances that from the component of main flow , which is locally normal to the plate – the main flow is locally inclined to the plate by an angle . That is: This integral equation can by solved for , , after replacing x by as a Fourier series in That is with a modified lead term (These terms are known as the Glauert integral). The coefficients are given by and By the Kutta Joukowski theorem , the total lift force F is proportional to " id="pdf-obj-7-23" src="pdf-obj-7-23.jpg">

is the location of the vortex

element producing the velocity and

the vorticity is zero at the trailing edge. Since the airfoil is thin, x (chord position)Biot Savart law , this vorticity produces a flow field where where is the location where induced velocity is produced, is the location of the vortex element producing the velocity and is the chord length of the airfoil. Since there is no flow normal to the curved surface of the airfoil, balances that from the component of main flow , which is locally normal to the plate – the main flow is locally inclined to the plate by an angle . That is: This integral equation can by solved for , , after replacing x by as a Fourier series in That is with a modified lead term (These terms are known as the Glauert integral). The coefficients are given by and By the Kutta Joukowski theorem , the total lift force F is proportional to " id="pdf-obj-7-29" src="pdf-obj-7-29.jpg">

is the chord length of the airfoil.

Since there is no flow normal to the curved surface of the airfoil,

the vorticity is zero at the trailing edge. Since the airfoil is thin, x (chord position)Biot Savart law , this vorticity produces a flow field where where is the location where induced velocity is produced, is the location of the vortex element producing the velocity and is the chord length of the airfoil. Since there is no flow normal to the curved surface of the airfoil, balances that from the component of main flow , which is locally normal to the plate – the main flow is locally inclined to the plate by an angle . That is: This integral equation can by solved for , , after replacing x by as a Fourier series in That is with a modified lead term (These terms are known as the Glauert integral). The coefficients are given by and By the Kutta Joukowski theorem , the total lift force F is proportional to " id="pdf-obj-7-35" src="pdf-obj-7-35.jpg">

balances that from the

component of main flow

the vorticity is zero at the trailing edge. Since the airfoil is thin, x (chord position)Biot Savart law , this vorticity produces a flow field where where is the location where induced velocity is produced, is the location of the vortex element producing the velocity and is the chord length of the airfoil. Since there is no flow normal to the curved surface of the airfoil, balances that from the component of main flow , which is locally normal to the plate – the main flow is locally inclined to the plate by an angle . That is: This integral equation can by solved for , , after replacing x by as a Fourier series in That is with a modified lead term (These terms are known as the Glauert integral). The coefficients are given by and By the Kutta Joukowski theorem , the total lift force F is proportional to " id="pdf-obj-7-41" src="pdf-obj-7-41.jpg">

, which is locally normal to the plate the main flow is locally

inclined to the plate by an angle

the vorticity is zero at the trailing edge. Since the airfoil is thin, x (chord position)Biot Savart law , this vorticity produces a flow field where where is the location where induced velocity is produced, is the location of the vortex element producing the velocity and is the chord length of the airfoil. Since there is no flow normal to the curved surface of the airfoil, balances that from the component of main flow , which is locally normal to the plate – the main flow is locally inclined to the plate by an angle . That is: This integral equation can by solved for , , after replacing x by as a Fourier series in That is with a modified lead term (These terms are known as the Glauert integral). The coefficients are given by and By the Kutta Joukowski theorem , the total lift force F is proportional to " id="pdf-obj-7-49" src="pdf-obj-7-49.jpg">

. That is:

This integral equation can by solved for

,
,

, after replacing x by

as a Fourier series in

That is

with a modified lead term

the vorticity is zero at the trailing edge. Since the airfoil is thin, x (chord position)Biot Savart law , this vorticity produces a flow field where where is the location where induced velocity is produced, is the location of the vortex element producing the velocity and is the chord length of the airfoil. Since there is no flow normal to the curved surface of the airfoil, balances that from the component of main flow , which is locally normal to the plate – the main flow is locally inclined to the plate by an angle . That is: This integral equation can by solved for , , after replacing x by as a Fourier series in That is with a modified lead term (These terms are known as the Glauert integral). The coefficients are given by and By the Kutta Joukowski theorem , the total lift force F is proportional to " id="pdf-obj-7-65" src="pdf-obj-7-65.jpg">

(These terms are known as the Glauert integral).

The coefficients are given by

and

By the KuttaJoukowski theorem, the total lift force F is proportional to

and its moment M about the leading edge to The calculated Lift coefficient depends only oncenter of pressure is aft of the 'quarter-chord' point 0.25 c, by The aerodynamic center , AC, is at the quarter-chord point. The AC is where the pitching moment M' does not vary with angle of attack, i.e., Impact of Globalization on Indian Culture by V. Sundaram What is Globalisation? People around the globe are more connected to each other today than ever before in the history of mankind. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available in all parts of the world. International travel is more frequent. International communication is commonplace. " id="pdf-obj-8-2" src="pdf-obj-8-2.jpg">

and its moment M about the leading edge to

and its moment M about the leading edge to The calculated Lift coefficient depends only oncenter of pressure is aft of the 'quarter-chord' point 0.25 c, by The aerodynamic center , AC, is at the quarter-chord point. The AC is where the pitching moment M' does not vary with angle of attack, i.e., Impact of Globalization on Indian Culture by V. Sundaram What is Globalisation? People around the globe are more connected to each other today than ever before in the history of mankind. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available in all parts of the world. International travel is more frequent. International communication is commonplace. " id="pdf-obj-8-6" src="pdf-obj-8-6.jpg">

The calculated Lift coefficient depends only on the first two terms of the Fourier series, as

The moment M about the leading edge depends only on

and , as
and
, as
and its moment M about the leading edge to The calculated Lift coefficient depends only oncenter of pressure is aft of the 'quarter-chord' point 0.25 c, by The aerodynamic center , AC, is at the quarter-chord point. The AC is where the pitching moment M' does not vary with angle of attack, i.e., Impact of Globalization on Indian Culture by V. Sundaram What is Globalisation? People around the globe are more connected to each other today than ever before in the history of mankind. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available in all parts of the world. International travel is more frequent. International communication is commonplace. " id="pdf-obj-8-14" src="pdf-obj-8-14.jpg">

The moment about the 1/4 chord point will thus be,

.
.

From this it follows that the center of pressure is aft of the 'quarter-chord' point 0.25 c, by

and its moment M about the leading edge to The calculated Lift coefficient depends only oncenter of pressure is aft of the 'quarter-chord' point 0.25 c, by The aerodynamic center , AC, is at the quarter-chord point. The AC is where the pitching moment M' does not vary with angle of attack, i.e., Impact of Globalization on Indian Culture by V. Sundaram What is Globalisation? People around the globe are more connected to each other today than ever before in the history of mankind. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available in all parts of the world. International travel is more frequent. International communication is commonplace. " id="pdf-obj-8-24" src="pdf-obj-8-24.jpg">

The aerodynamic center, AC, is at the quarter-chord point. The AC is where the pitching moment M' does not vary with angle of attack, i.e.,

and its moment M about the leading edge to The calculated Lift coefficient depends only oncenter of pressure is aft of the 'quarter-chord' point 0.25 c, by The aerodynamic center , AC, is at the quarter-chord point. The AC is where the pitching moment M' does not vary with angle of attack, i.e., Impact of Globalization on Indian Culture by V. Sundaram What is Globalisation? People around the globe are more connected to each other today than ever before in the history of mankind. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available in all parts of the world. International travel is more frequent. International communication is commonplace. " id="pdf-obj-8-33" src="pdf-obj-8-33.jpg">

Impact of Globalization on Indian Culture by V. Sundaram

and its moment M about the leading edge to The calculated Lift coefficient depends only oncenter of pressure is aft of the 'quarter-chord' point 0.25 c, by The aerodynamic center , AC, is at the quarter-chord point. The AC is where the pitching moment M' does not vary with angle of attack, i.e., Impact of Globalization on Indian Culture by V. Sundaram What is Globalisation? People around the globe are more connected to each other today than ever before in the history of mankind. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available in all parts of the world. International travel is more frequent. International communication is commonplace. " id="pdf-obj-8-38" src="pdf-obj-8-38.jpg">

What is Globalisation?

People around the globe are more connected to each other today than ever before in the history of mankind. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available in all parts of the world. International travel is more frequent. International communication is commonplace.

We live in an intensely interdependent world in which all the earth's peoples with their immense differences of culture and historical experience are compressed together in instant communication. We face today a world of almost infinite promise which is also a world of terminal danger. This phenomenon has been titled 'Globalization.'

'The Era of Globalization' is fast becoming the preferred term for describing the current times. Just as the Depression, the Cold War Era, the Space Age, and the Roaring 20's are used to describe particular periods of history; Globalization describes the political, economic, and cultural atmosphere of today. While some people think of Globalization as primarily a synonym for global business, it is much more than that. The same forces that allow businesses to operate as if national borders did not exist also allow social activists, labour organizers, journalists, academics, international terrorists and many others to work on a global stage.

British Imperialism or Western Colonialism did not die after the end of World War II when the West gave up its colonies in Africa, Asia, Latin America, West Indies and the East Indies. Gradually it changed itself into a more subtle form which is proving to be more harmful to all non-Western cultures both in the short run and the long run.

Indian culture which in effect means Hindu culture, Hindu religion, Hindu society, Hindu civilization, Hindu way of life are under the lethal threat of the ruthless forces of Globalization today. What went by the name of Colonialism in classical history textbooks produced in the days of British Raj has been replaced today by the synonym of Globalization. The unbridled expansion of western culture has continued at an accelerated rate along with the denigration and decline of Hindu culture, civilization, religion, art, literature and customs. This new Colonialism has taken on several new faces or rather put on new masks. It cleverly masquerades itself through labels and slogans like democracy, humanitarian rights, gender equality, internationalism, free trade and humanitarianism. In the name of modernization and Globalization it pretends to be uplifting peoples whom it is really exploiting. This is not very different in either kind or intent from old Western Colonialism ' British Imperialism in the Indian context ' which vaunted itself as the benign bringer of Civilization and culture to the uncivilized world. It was given the glorious title of 'White Man's Burden'.

In the Colonial Era in India from 1700-1875, British colonial expansion worked through military, economic, and religious methods. Military force was the primary and initial method. This was little more than organized banditry, stealing the gold, jewels and other treasures of India. Economic exploitation went hand in hand with the military conquest. Later it stooped so low in its methods as to get involved even with the drug and narcotic trades. Later economic exploitation developed into a fine art resulting in the exercise of total control over the natural resources and controlling the economy of India for long term gains.

Religion provided the needed rationale for this cruel plunder. All native Hindus were dismissed as heathens or pagans ' despicable creatures who don't have to be treated like human beings till they take their fateful decision to embrace Christianity. According to the missionaries who came to India to play second fiddle to the British Imperial rulers, Christianity was the only true religion. Jesus Christ was the only true God. All other religions like Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and many other traditional faiths and religions in India had to be eliminated to save the souls of India and Indians. All facets and all aspects of Hindu religion and Hindu society were dismissed as idolatry and superstition, in order to advance the noble Christian pursuit of salvation for the barbarous heathens of India.

Along with Christian religion came the rest of British or Western culture, thought and customs and the gradual end of traditional ways of life. Thus our traditional religions and cultures were gradually subverted or eliminated. The new Indian converts to Christianity were encouraged not only to give up their religion but their culture, which often had religious or spiritual implications as well. A good Indian Christian convert would dress like an Englishman and emulate English manners in all things. Thus in India the Hindus converted by the British to Christianity were encouraged to think, behave and live like Englishmen. This is what I call Macaulayism. This term derives from Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800 - 1859) who was a Member of the Governor General's Council in Calcutta in the 1830s. He introduced the English system of education to produce Brown Sahibs who were to be English in taste and temperament. This expectation was more than fulfilled even by 1900 and after our independence thanks to our Anglo-Saxon Prime Minister Nehru this process has been completed with consummate ruthlessness.

After the outward display and establishment of the forces of Colonialism, came an intellectual form that was less overt but more dangerous and explosively insidious. The British rulers attempted to colonize our minds by eliminating all our traditional schools and education systems through a progressive system of Western education. This they did in a country like India where Christianity failed to gain many converts. This gave British Colonialism in India the aura of a civilizing influence. Educated Indians having higher education in the colleges opened by the alien rulers in the latter half of the 19th century were made to believe that it was not colonial exploitation that the Englishmen were bringing to India but progressive Western values ' training our people in science, art and technology and teaching them better and more equitable forms of government. Native Indian people were helped to learn the skills of veneer of English civilization by becoming modern and rational.

Though all forms of Colonial Empire in the geographical sense came to an end after the II World War, yet the same forms of colonial exploitation continue even today in all parts of Asia, Africa and Latin America under the banner of that all-embracing umbrella called Globalization. Western Civilization in spite of its tall claims to support diversity is only promoting a worldwide monoculture ' the same basic values, institutions and points of view for everyone ' which it calls 'Globalization.' The brutal and stark truth is that western culture, with its declared pursuit of markets and commodities eliminates all true culture, which is based on quality and not quantity. It creates a culture of filthy lucre and lust for money all the way that submerges any true culture of refinement or spirituality ' a dismal culture in which everything can be bought and sold, possessed or capitalized on. All our capitalists and businessmen in India today are gloating and bloating about the ever rising tide of consumerism and consumer culture brought about by the ruthless march of Globalization. This in my view constitutes the greatest assault on Hindu culture and Hindu society by the draconian dragon of gargantuan Globalization.

Macaulayism of British India has become in letter and spirit the Globalization of today. Pound Sterling has been replaced by the US Dollar. To the people of India in general and educated Indians in particular, Globalization seems to be rather mild and well meaning, more like an imperceptible breeze, which blows in silently, fills up the psychological atmosphere, creates a mental mood, inspires an intellectual attitude and finally settles down as a cultural climate ' pervasive, protein and ubiquitous. It is not out to use a specified section of Indian society as a vehicle of its virulence. It is not like Islamism which wants to destroy the body of a culture in one fell sweep. It is not subtle like Christianity which subverts a society surreptitiously. Yet at the same time, it is a creeping toxaemia which corrodes the soul of our Hindu culture and corrupts

our time-honoured social systems in slow stages. And its target is every section of Indian society.

What has been its impact on culture in India? Every educated Indian seems to believe that nothing in Hindu India, past or present, is to be approved unless recognized and recommended by an appropriate authority in the West. There is an all-pervading presence of a positive, if not worshipful, attitude towards everything in western society and culture, past as well as present in the name of progress, reason and science. Nothing from the West is to be rejected unless it has first been weighed and found wanting by a Western evaluation.

Swamy Vivekananda foresaw the dangers of Globalization as early as in 1893 when he spoke at the Parliament of World Religions in Chicago. To quote his soul-stirring words: 'Shall India die? Then, from the world all spirituality will be extinct, all sweet-souled sympathy for religion will be extinct, all ideality will be extinct ; and in its place will reign the duality of lust and luxury as the male and female deities, with money as its priest, fraud, force, and competition its ceremonies, and human soul its sacrifice. Such a thing can never be'.

Precisely such a terrible thing is taking place in India today on account of the inexorable and immutable process of Globalization.

- See more at:

http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=2458#sthash.VmLRuVSZ.dpuf

ECONOMIC,SOCIAL AND CULTURAL IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INDIA

ECONOMIC,SOCIAL AND CULTURAL IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INDIA (This Paper was presented in the National Seminar on "Globalization: The New Challenges to the

Indian Society on March 6-7 at Satavahana University, Karimnagar - India)

-Dr.SVijayKumar Globalization is the buzzword in the contemporary world. Broadly

speaking, the term ‘globalization’ means integration of economies and societies

through cross country flows of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and people. Cross border integration can have several dimensions cultural, social, political and economic. In fact, cultural and social integration even more than economic integration. The focus of this paper is to study the impact of globalization on economic, social and cultural fabric of India.

Globalization has made countries to realize that nations can no longer be cocooned in their own cultural or economic nests but invariably be part of the larger picture which takes into account the competencies, interests and the

dependencies of economies world -wide. The zeal of globalization has even forced Governments to be tuned to the merits of a Global economy.

In Economics we have views on pro-globalization by Jagdish Bhagwati etc. who build on the economic notion that free trade helps everybody and lift the poor out of poverty, while we have the anti-globalization views by the likes of Vandana Shiva, Arundhati Roy, etc.,who see globalization as a way for multinational corporationss and multilateral institutions (World Bank, IMF) to change the rules all over the world to ensure better markets for the rich countries.

India opened up its economy in the early nineties following a major crisis of foreign exchange crunch that dragged the economy close to defaulting on loans. The response was a slew of domestic and external sector policy measures partly prompted by the immediate needs and partly by the demand of the multilateral organizations. The new economic policy introduced by our present Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, who was the then Finance Minister radically pushed forward in favour of a more open and market oriented economy.

Major measures initiated as a part of the liberalisation and globalization strategy in the early nineties included scrapping of the industrial licensing regime, reduction in the number of areas reserved for the public sector, amendment of the Monopolies and the Restrictive Ttrade Practices Act, start of the privatization programme, reduction in tariff rates and change over to market determined exchange rates.

The Economic impact due to Globalization:

  • 1. Globalization has given nations greater access to global markets, technology,

financial resources and quality services and skilled human resources.

  • 2. Improvement in and greater access to quality goods and services and an

exponential increase in the volume of trade.

  • 3. Access to global capital resources via the stock market and international debt

depending on the economic potential of nations and their markets.

4.

Access to technologies depending on the nations responsiveness to respect to

protection of IPR and the responsible usage of technologies.

  • 5. Access to the world markets to the skilled human resources from nations with

inherent intellectual and technical capabilities (the outsourcing of IT, Pharma, BPO and KPO work).

  • 6. Increase in exports of goods and services in which nations have their respective

competencies.

  • 7. Increased access to better and qualitative education.

  • 8. Increased the purchasing capability of the nation through the creation of a

sizeable middle class which is hungry for quality goods and services while there coexists a large poor class whose time is yet to come. One would expect that the

fruits of liberalization and globalization would have a trickle down effect through the collection of taxes and revenues by Government due to increased trade and commerce.

The SOCIAL impact due to Globalization:

  • 1. The free flow of Information both general and commercial.

  • 2. Globalization has through greater exposure liberalized our attitudes, reduced

our biases and predispositions about people, situations and communities worldwide.

  • 3. The advent of Information, Communication Technologies (ICT),

Nations have built greater awareness of themselves and the other countries and cultures of the world.

  • 4. One can see in India that inhibitions have been diluted because of the advent of

media and the medium of entertainment. This has also naturally had some affect on the old cultural values with the focus now being on consumerism and success ..

5. The experience in India is of relevance because of the greater cultural and literacy diversity between states and the economic divide between the urban and rural areas of India.

6. There has been a tremendous increase in consumerism, for goods and services whether necessary or perceived.

A distinct change in life-styles with rapid adaptation to worldwide trends.

The winds of globalization have been speeded up in this era of an Information Society and the increasing usage of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Greater awareness of markets and knowledge of Capital resources have opened up the floodgates of International competition and trade. The world today is a closer place due to these technologies which is indirectly fostering Globalization. But again for those citizens who do not have adequate literacy levels, the digital divide is proving to be further detrimental to their progress.

RURAL POOR:

In the villages, farmers are not much aware of global economic system. Most of the food crops are converted into cash crops. Sugar cane farmers are getting advance loan from banks and MNCs. They used to supply hybrid seedlings, fertilizers and highly advanced equipments. This equipment utility reduced the human labour force. Hence the rural people are shifting from place to place for want of labour for their livelihood. Natural manure is replaced by synthetic fertilizers. As there is a shift from food crops to export crops, the prices of food items went on high, and the poor people couldn't buy from their meager income. Similar trend continued for clothing, housing, transportation, health etc. So people were forced to consume less of even basic necessities.

Deaton (2003) opines that more than one fourth of the World's poor live in India. India's economic liberalization in the early 1990s resulted in high rates of growth, whether it reduced the numbers of poor or benefit only increasingly wealthy urban elite is a question. Because of growing inequality, consumption by the poor couldn't rise as fast as average consumption and poverty reduction was only about two-thirds of what it would have been had the distribution and consumption remained unchanged (Deaton, 2003). The gap between rural and urban areas widened because of the vast differences in the levels of literacy, availability of living facilities such as water, drainage, housing, power, lighting, food and transport etc.

TRIBAL:

There is an urgent need for improving the social and economic conditions of the tribal community and to solve their problems. India has failed to have a national policy of tribal development, to provide them with basic facilities like clean drinking water, education, employment and access to health facilities. Due to widespread corruption and negligence, there was ineffective implementation of programs for development of tribal communities. The tribal became ousters due to the construction of large dams. They lost their habitats

and livelihood. Tribal women had to walk several kilometers for safe drinking water. Thousands of them die every year due to starvation and epidemics. As the tribal are uneducated and ignorant, land protection was not possible for them.

When foreigners are allowed to exploit their traditional knowledge about medicinal plants their livelihoods are in danger.

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS:

Due to globalization food items are being exported to India in the form of increased consumption of meat, western fast food, sodas and cool drinks, which may result in public health crisis as speculated by certain researchers. The

rich biodiversity of India has yielded many healthy foods prepared from locally available organisms. But the marketing by MNCs with large advertisement campaigns lead the people to resort to their products (Mascarenhas, 2003).

Changes in social and cultural life:

Access to television grew from 10% of the urban population (1991) to 75% of the urban population (1999) and to 90% (2009).

Cable television and foreign movies became widely available for the first time and have acted as a catalyst in bulldozing the cultural boundaries.

All these technologies have changed perceptions and dreams of ordinary people.

Unmarried boys and girls are sharing same apartment and staying away from their parents.

Indian youths leaving education in mid-way and joining MNC's There has been a increase in the violence, particularly against women. Scientific and technological innovations have made life quite comfortable, fast and enjoyable.

More availability of cheap and filthy material (CD's or DVD's of Hollywood movies, porn movies, sex toys, foreign channels like MTV) in the name of liberalization.

In India, land-line or basic phone was a prestige symbol few years back but now you find people riding bicycle with a mobile in hand, talking or listening music or even clicking cameras of their phones targeting pretty girls or ladies.

Society has become more open compared to its earlier conservative look due to exposure to other cultures through DTH or cable network.

This has contributed to dating, celebration of friendship days/valentine day, modeling, fashion shows, rising number of call girls and make them more prone to sexually transmitted diseases.

People are less worried for government jobs as MNC's and private or public sector are offering more lucrative jobs.

Extension of internet facilities even to rural areas. In place of old cinema halls, multiplex theatres re coming up.

Old restaurants are now replaced by Mc. Donalds. Fast food and Chinese dishes have replaced juice corners and Parathas.

More inflow of money has aggravated deep rooted problem of corruption? More scandals and scams compared to pre-globalization era. Girls being blackmailed by their ex-boy friends using MMS Ban on TV channels for showing sex and violence violating all norms Girls/women being raped in moving vehicles or being blackmailed through new technology of photography, mobile camera, internet etc.

There is deterioration in social values as evident from less respect for ladies, older people.

The Merits of Globalization are as follows:

There is an International market for companies and for consumers there is a wider range of products to choose from.

Increase in flow of investments from developed countries to developing countries, which can be used for economic reconstruction.

Greater and faster flow of information (through TV, Internet) between countries and greater cultural interaction has helped to overcome cultural barriers.

Technological development has resulted in reverse brain drain in developing countries.

India gained highly from the LPG model as its GDP increased to 9.7% in 2007- 2008. In respect of market capitalization, India ranks fourth in the world.

The Demerits of Globalization are as follows:

The outsourcing of jobs to developing countries has resulted in loss of jobs in developed countries as a result, now they are following protectionism measures, for example USA is stopping BPO.

There is a greater threat of spread of communicable diseases.

There is an underlying threat of multinational corporations with immense power ruling the globe. For smaller developing nations at the receiving end, it could indirectly lead to a subtle form of colonization.

Even after globalization, condition of agriculture has not improved. The share of agriculture in the GDP is only 18%. The number of landless families has increased and farmers are still committing suicide.

Global recession impact on Indian economy resulted in loss of jobs in IT Sector.

Swami Vivekananda, who foresaw the hazards of globalization and impact of MNC culture in India as early as in 1893 when he spoke at the Parliament of World Religions in Chicago. Here are the golden verses for you,"'Shall India die? Then, from the world all spirituality will be extinct, all sweet-souled sympathy for religion will be extinct, all ideality will be extinct ; and in its place will reign the duality of lust and luxury as the male and female deities, with money as its priest, fraud, force, and competition its ceremonies, and human soul its sacrifice. Such a thing can never be'. Precisely such a terrible thing is taking place in India today on account of the inexorable and immutable process of Globalization".

Conclusion:

The process of globalization is not new. The globalization of the economic, social and cultural structures happened in all ages. Earlier the pace of such a process was so slow that we hardly noticed it. However, today with the advent of the information technology, newer means of communication have made the world a very small place. Not only the pace of the globalization process, but the penetration and integration of the changes induced in our day to day life has made the impact of globalization many fold higher. With this process the world has become one huge market place.

But seeing the positive effects of globalization, it can be said that very soon India will overcome these hurdles too and march strongly on its path of development.

R E F E R E N C E S

  • 1. Article on “Theorizing Globalisation” by Douglas Kellner – web source:

http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/papers/theoryglob.htm

  • 2. Wikipeida The free Encyclopedia- web source:

http://en.wikipedia.org./Westernization

  • 3. Article on “Brave New MC World” by Carla Binion web source:

http://www.peace.ca/bravenewmcworld:htm

4.

Doing Business in India: A cultural perspective

web source:

httm://stylusinc.com/business/India/business_india.htm

  • 5. Herald Tribune – the world’s daily newspaper – Globalisation brings new

cultural traits to India, by Thomas Fuller - web source:

  • 6. Bhargava P and Dave A, Inequalities in Rural Development: study of Rajathan,

Southern Economist, February 1, 2003, P5.

7. Buggi C, Reddy S and Gowda G, Impact of Globalization on Agrarian class structure. Its implications of Indian villages. Third Concept, January 2001, P 17-19.

  • 8. Deaton A. Is World Poverty falling? Southern Economist, January 2003, P. 21.

  • 9. Mascarenhas M. Unpalatable truth. The Hindu, June 22, 2003 p.1.

10. Mohammed C and Nazar M, The Role of Multinational corporations, Southern Economist, February 1, 2003. P.24