You are on page 1of 23

LYLE MCDONALD

NUTRITION

FOR MIXED SPORTS


w-am
i

M
Strength/Power Sports
Power Lifting
Olympic Lifting
T h r o w i n g Events
Arm Wrestling
Sprinting

COMPANION
SLIDES
Endurance Sports

Mixed Sports

Running
Cycling
X-Country Skiing
Rowing
Triathlon

Amercian Football
Rugby, Soccer
Middle Distance Events
Speed Skating
Combat Sports

)\

J|

) |

^^

RECOMPOSITION

www.bodyrecomposition.com

wmUIUUUUUVUUnUTTTTUUIIITTITn
Applied Sports Nutrition
for Team Sports

One Old Fart Story

Lyle McDonald

BODY

B
ODYi
RE C O M P O S I T I O N

RECOM POSIT! ON

Overall Agenda

Background Physiology
General and Performance Nutrition
Meal Planning
Around Workout and Competition Nutrition
Hydration
Supplements
Weight Gain/Weight Loss
Putting it All Together

Module 1: A Bit of Unapplied Theory

>

Continuum of Training

Sports Continuum
Pure Strength/Power

Mixed

Pure Endurance

Pure Strength/Power

Mixed

Pure Endurance

Powerlifting
Olympic lifting
Throwing events
Etc.

Football
Rugby
Soccer
Middle Distance Running
Etc.

Long Distance Running


Cycling
X-country skiing
Etc.

Strength/Power
Technique
Tactics
Work Capacity
Little 'endurance'

Requires some combination


of both the pure
strength/power and pure
endurance depending on the
specific event.

High Volume Endurance


Quality work (intervals,
etc.)
Efficiency
Technique
Tactics
Strength/power training
usually limited

czi
( \ i ws
gga
EDLJLJ
TW

BODYi
RECOM POSITION

RE C O M P O S I T I O N

Continuum of Adaptations
Pure Strength/Power

Mixed

Pure Endurance

Increased muscle mass


"Neural factors
Technique

Requires a combination of
the adaptations for pure
strength/power and
endurance depending on the
specifics.

Mitochondria
Cardiac adaptations
Enzymes of energy
production
Blood volume
Technique
Efficiency

Training stimulates adaptations, nutrition supports them.

Different Sports Have Different


Nutritional Requirements
One size fits all nutrition doesn't fit anybody
Sports nutritionist is an RD who runs
Uncritical application of carb requirements for high volume
endurance athletes to strength/power or mixed sport athletes

Hierarchy of Nutritional Requirements


Esoterica^

General Use
Supplements

Module 2: General and Performance


Nutrition

B
ODY
RECOM POSITION

Overall Daily
Nutrition
And Diet

B
ODYi
RECOM POSIT! ON

General Nutritional Tendencies


Pure Strength/Power
Energy
Protein
Carbs
Fat

Mixed

Pure Endurance

Energy Intake Part 2

Energy Intake Part 1


Can vary significantly between athletes and sports

40-50 cal/kg (18-22 cal/lb) at 90 minutes per day of training


Can be much higher given modern training volumes and loads

Also varies with a given training day-

Day off: 30-33 cal/kg (-15-16 cal/lb)


Medium training day (1 hour): 35-40 cal/kg
Heavy training day (90'+): 40-50 cal/kg or more

Sample Athletes

Use body composition changes as a determinant

Non-deliberate weight loss: eating too little


Body fat going up: eating too much
Variations in caloric intake generally from changes in daily
carbohydrate intake

Female specific issues

Female athletes notorious for undereating


Not losing weight but can't train or compete optimally

60kg female: 1800-3000 cal/day


100kg male: 3000-5000 cal/day

RECOMPOS ITION

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

Roles of Dietary Protein

Protein: Introduction
Many roles in the body: structural, hormones, energy, etc.
(next slide)
Only source of nitrogen in the diet
Provides Amino Acids

- 8 Essential (MUST come from the diet)


- 12 Non-essential (CAN be made in the body)
- Conditionally essential/etc.

Structural

Hormones

Neurotransmitters

Energetic

"Muscle
Hair
Skin
Bone
Connective tissues
Tryptophane
Serotonin
Tyrosine->
Dopamine,
Adrenaline,
Noradrenaline

Growth Hormone
IGF-1
Catecholamines
Thyroid (tyrosine)
Albumin

Other

Immune System
Gut Function
Anti-bacterial
Blood pressure
Analgesic effect

Glucose production
Ketone production
Alanine, leucine
burned in muscle

luiiiuwumiwuiiwiiwivwiiiiiimm
Daily Protein Recommendations:
Amount
Type of Sport

Male

Female

Mixed

2.5-3.0 g/kg

2.4-2.6 g/kg

Daily Protein Recommendations:


Type

Some protein found in most foods


Animal: red meat, chicken, fish, dairy
Vegetable: beans, nuts
Other: Fruits, vegetables, grains
No Single Best Protein Source (refer to handout)

Sample daily protein recommendations:


60 kg female athlete: 144-156 g/day
100 kg male athlete: 250-300 g/day
Note: Protein should be set by lean body mass.

BODY

RECOM POSITION

Daily Protein Recommendations:


Timing
Ideally get protein with each meal
Divide up daily total throughout the days meals
On training days, some part of the days totals will come
around training

Mix and match from different high quality sources


Protein from non-animal sources (e.g. grains, breads, etc.)
counts towards daily total as part of a mixed diet

BODY

RE C O M P O S I T I O N

Dietary Fats: Introduction


Primarily an energetic role
Stored body fat (long-term fuel storage)
Intramuscular triglycerides (IMTG)
Can affect physiology in other ways
-

Inflammation
Immune system function
Cell membrane fluidity
Etc.

Daily Fat Recommendations:


Amount
Type of Sport

Mixed

Male

1.1-2.2 g/kg

Female

1.1-2.2 g/kg

Dietary Fat Recommendations:


Type

Trans-fatty acids: processed foods, should be minimized


Saturated fat

- Primarily found in foods of animal origin


- Medium Chain Triglycerides (coconut oil, palm kernel oil)

Monounsaturated fat: vegetable oils, olive oil


Sample daily fat recommendations:
60 kg female athlete: 66-132 grams
100 kg male athlete: 110-220 grams

BODYS^

RECOM POSITION

Daily Fat Recommendations:


Timing
Ideally get fat with each meal
Divide up daily total throughout the days meals
Generally avoided around training (especially pre/during)
but acceptable post-workout

Polyunsaturated fat

- Two essential fatty acids: alpha-linoleic acid, linolenic acid


- Vegetable oils
- Fish oils: MUST be consumed daily.

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

Dietary Carbohydrate: Introduction


Primarily an energetic role
Muscle and liver glycogen
Blood glucose maintenance
Dietary carbohydrate myths
-

Insulin makes you fat


Carb conversion to fat
Carbs are 'bad'

uivuuuuuuuuimuuimiuiiimii
Daily Carbohydrate Recommendations:
Amount
Female

type of Sport

Male

Mixed

3.0-6.6 g/kg+ 3.0-6.6 g/kg+

Sample daily carbohydrate recommendations:


60 kg female athlete: 180-400 g/day
100 kg male athlete: 300-660 g/day

B
ODYf
RECOM POSITION

Daily Carbohydrate Recommendations:


Type Part 2
Fruits/vegetables must be part of the daily intake.
Also helps to ensure fiber intake
Starches: usually required to meet high carbohydrate
requirements of athletes
High caloric requirements of athletes may necessitate some
'junk food'

BODYf

R E C O M P O S1TIO N

Daily Carbohydrate Recommendations:


Type Part 1
Complex vs. Simple
Glycemic index (GI) and Glycemic Load
Sources:
Grains
Fruits
Vegetables
Other: Dairy

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

Daily Carbohydrate Recommendations:


Timing
Ideally get carbohydrates with each meal
Divide up daily total throughout the days meals
On training days, some part of the days totals will come
around training

BODYCfJ
R E C O M P O S ITIO N

Vitamins and Minerals


Nuts and bolts: support endless biological processes
Specific examples
-

Iron: critical for blood status


Zinc: hormone levels
Calcium: bone health, body composition
B12: Pernicious anemia

Module 3: Meal Planning

Generally only improve performance when correcting a


deficiency
Females more likely to be deficient in Iron, B12, Zinc

B O D Y iff

RECOMPOSITION

B
ODY
RECOMPOSITION

Learn to Eyeball

Basic Meal Planning


Most eat the same stuff over and over

The benefit of measuring for at least a little while

Once you get calorie counts for standard meals, you don't
have to track quite so much

Use standard estimates


-

Eating out is achievable: most places have calorie counts

Deck of cards ~= 120 grams meat (-25 grams protein)


Small fist ~= 100 grams carbs (25 grams carbs)
Tennis ball -=200 grams fruit (25 grams carbs)
Dietary fat: Vz ping pong ball ~= 14 grams (14 grams fat)

Eating out is achievable: most places have calorie counts


-

B
ODYf
R EC O M POSITION

Calorieking.com
Fitday.com

BODY

R E C O M P 0 S ITIO N

rfffiitfvvtvfvftiinvtfftfitfiifffiffttm

uvuuuuuuuuu
Modular Eating
Pick protein source first: often contains some fat or carbs
Pick carb source next: often contains some carbs or fat
Use fat to balance out the meal (e.g. add olive oil to salad)
While a little boring, makes adjusting food intake much
easier esp. carbohydrate intake.

F i t

II

I T

RECOM P O S I T I O N

Goals of Around Workout Nutrition

Module 4: Around Workout and


Competition Nutrition

B
ODYf)
DECOMPOSITION

Four Phases of Around Workout


Nutrition
1

|ii|

hi

| iv 1 [7] |ii|

| Training"]

hi

| iv

| Training""!

6am 7am 8am 9am 10am 11am 12pm 1pm 2pm 3pm 4pm 5pm 6pm 7pm 8pm 9pm

Key
Phase 1:1-4 hours before training
Phase II: 0-30 minutes before training (including warmup)
Phase III: During workout
Phase IV: Immediately after training to 1-2 hours afterwards

Each phase has distinct but overlapping effects.

Goals
Timing

Pre-Workout Nutrition
Part 1
Top off liver/muscle glycogen
Part of daily ongoing nutrition
1-4 hours before training
Not skipped with few exceptions
Weight class issues
Fasted endurance training
Technical workouts
Athletes training first thing in the morning

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

Immediate Pre-Workout Nutrition


Part 1

Goals

Timing

Appropriate blood glucose levels (central drive)


Hydration
Pre workout protein/amino acids: may improve
adaptation
30 minutes to start of training
Rebound blood sugar issues
Warming up inhibits insulin response

Pre-Workout Nutrition
Part 2

Size of meal

Size of athlete
Type of workout (volume/intensity)
How long between meal and training

Content

Mixed meal (protein, carbs, fat, fiber)


How long until training?
Variability between athletes

B
ODY
RECOMPOSITION

Pre-Workout Nutrition
Part 2

Liquids generally > solids

Also helps with hydration

Carbs: faster acting (dextrose, glucose, maltodextrin)


Proteins
Rapidly digesting (whey/soy)

Fat and fiber: should be avoided


Creatine: for strength/power workouts

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

11 r *111111111* \ \ % % v11 i n t

wvmmmvmvvTTTT
)uring Workout

Part 1

Goals
Timing

Nutrition

Improve performance during workout or competition


Decrease fatigue/enhance recovery during/after training
Overlaps with immediate pre-workout nutrition
Blood glucose rebound issue redux
Distributed vs. all at once
Nutrients in fluid sipped through training
11/hour maximum fluid intake

B
ODYf
RECOMPOSITION

Goals
-

Timing

Post-Workout Nutrition
Part 1
Glycogen resynthesis
Rehydration
Initiate/improve adaptations to training
Enhance recovery to prepare for next workout
Immediately following training to 1-2 hours afterwards
Timing issues
Immediate vs. delayed
When is next workout

Eventually shifts to normal daily nutrition

u mDuring
i i Workout
m mNutrition:
m MPartT2 T i )

Fluid

1 1/hour maximum, some may need less than this


Taste important (Sodium/Potassium)
What about gels/solids?

Carbohydrate intake

Protein
-

Numerous effects (performance, hormonal, immune


system)
All carbs more or less equivalent
30-60 g/hour (72 g/hour with multiple sugars)
Decrease protein breakdown/muscle damage
Improves recovery
Fast protein (whey/soy)
10-15 g/hour max.

Other: Avoid fat and fiber

B
ODYf
RECOMPOSITION

Post-Workout Nutrition: Part 2

Size: Enormous Variability

Nature of training
Goals of athlete (hypertrophy, fat loss, performance)

Glycogen resynthesis

Benefits (performance, training capacity, gene


expression)
Strength/power vs. endurance training
Time between bouts (24 hours vs. 4-6 hours)
Carbs vs. carbs + protein

Carbs + protein for the win


-

Carbs/insulin inhibit protein breakdown


Protein/amino acids stimulate protein synthesis

Post-Workout Nutrition: Part 3

Proteins

High-quality protein superior


BCAA/leucine
Fast vs. slow proteins (whey, casein, milk protein isolate)

Carbohydrates
Dextrose, maltodextrin, sucrose, fructose, starch

Fat/Fiber issues
Creatine
Solid vs. liquid meals
I ) /* | 1 V /
I ) I J | J I ^gpF

RECOMPOSITION

Concerns About Around Workout


Nutrition

Fat gain

- Especially female/weight class athletes

Negative hormonal response


All basically unwarranted

Post-Workout Nutrition: Part 4

Rehydration
-

Water not optimal: sodium/potassium increase retention


1.5 L fluid needed for every 1kg weight loss during
training

The Power of Milk

Superior to water or sports drinks for rehydration


Pros
Whey + casein = fast + slow protein (> soy)
Inexpensive, readily available, TASTY!
Cons
May require excessive amounts for large athletes
Lactose intolerance/dairy allergies
Use as a base to add other nutrients (carbs/protein)

B
ODYCt
RECOMPOSITION

Competition Nutrition

Rule #1: Don't change anything the day of a competition


Test out different pre, immediate pre- food combinations
during training, not on game day
Nothing fundamentally changes from around workout
concepts

Dynamics of game vs. practice (e.g. chances to drink


during game)

Post-workout

May take precedence


Let's talk about alcohol

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

B
ODY
RECOMPOSITION

/ I t I I I' * 1 1 * t f 1 1 1 1 1 1 * t * 1 1 1 1 1 * 1 1 % t H \

v\\\\\\\\TOYvnvmvi
Module 5: Hydration

RECOM POSIT ION

Hydration: Individuality

Water and electrolyte loss during activity can vary 10 fold


-

Sodium loss during activity

Quick and easy method


-

5 clear urinations per day, 2 after training

More accurate method


-

Weigh before and after training


Every 1kg weight loss requires 1.5 liter fluid to replace
Do NOT gain weight during training: hyponatremia
Currently impossible to estimate sodium losses easily

m i vnvm v m v m ini
I lydration: Introduction

Impact of hydration on performance

Even slight dehydration can impair performance


Extreme dehydration can cause heat stroke or death
Cramping issues

Hydration myths
-

8 glasses/day: pulled out of someone's butt


Drink X ml per pound body weight
Only water counts: nonsense
Caffeinated beverages

Thirst is imprecise

RECOMPOSITION

Hydration: Cramping

Very complicated
-

Interaction with sodium, potassium, magnesium and


others
Many find that the amino acid taurine helps

Sufficient hydration can only help but may not solve


problems
Lite salt for sodium/potassium intake
What about creatine?
Stimulants/ephedrine/fat burners and cramping
RECOMPOSITION

Hierarchy of Nutritional Requirements

Module 6: Supplements

BODY

RECOM P O S I T I O N

General Use Supplements: Part 1

Protein Powders
-

Useful for athletes who have trouble meeting high requirements


Convenience/portability/around workout nutrition
Whey/casein/milk protein isolate
Do NOT buy commercially

Basic multivitamin/mineral

B
ODY
RECOMPOS1TION

General Use Supplements: Part 2

Calcium
-

Especially for female athletes


800-1600 mg/day, calcium citrate

Vitamin D
-

- Men should be aware of iron overload


- Women should choose iron containing product

May be as important as fish oil


Problem in northern latitudes
Ideal to get blood work first. If not 2-4k IU per day.
Consider tanning lX/week (seriously)

Fish oils: A MUST!

Zinc/Magnesium

B
ODY
RhCOMPOS! HON

RECOM POSITION

Pills or liquids both acceptable


Flax oil: not ideal
Fatty Fish
1.8-3.0 g/day active EPA/DHA (-6-10X1 gram capsules)

/ i f f f t i 11* t i 1111 *

Commonly deficient in athletes


Helpful for sleep taken at bedtime
Magnesium oxide is poorly absorbed (citrate better)
Dose 25 mg zinc/400mg magnesium

BODY

vttlttffttttt

General Use Supplements: Part 3


Glutamine
-

May protect immune system function


High quality proteins/BCAA work better
Purely empirical: when starting to get sick, horse doses of
glutamine and Vitamin C help to kill it. Take 2-3 grams
glutamine and 500mg Vitamin C as often as you
remember.

Anti-oxidants
-

In isolated form, do not appear to improve performance


or health
In diet, they improve health
Excessive anti-oxidant intake from pills may impair
training adaptations

B
ODY
RECOMPOSITION

Performance Supplements: Part 2

Beta-Alanine
-

May help lactic athletes buffer


May increase work capacity in weight trainers, esp.
combined with creatine
400-800 mg 4X/day (pain in the ass) for 30 days
minimum
Can cause a histamine flush (tingling, burning)

Branched-chain amino acids


-

Very popular with bodybuilders


Mixed results in the literature in terms of performance
IMO: Unnecessary if sufficient protein being consumed

Pre-workout stimulants
-

Good old caffeine: 3-5 mg/kg 30-60 minutes before


Be careful with fat burners, can cause cramping

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

Creatine Monohydrate
-

Must have for strength/power athletes


Does increase body weight by l-2kg (water)
May improve repeated sprint performance
Loading approaches
20 g/day for 5 days (fastest but can cause
stomach upset)
10 g/day for 10 days (longer but less GI issues)
3 g/day for 30 days (longest but no chance of
stomach upset)
End result is the same
Creatine monohydrate is fine, expensive products
are only more expensive, not better.
Maintain with 3-5 g/day before/after heavy
workouts

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

Everything else

Esoterica

There are a zillion supplements that might or might not do


something
In 20 years in the field, I've seen thousands come and go.
Most go. Few live up to the hype and they are the one still
being used a year later.
When you have everything else dialed in on a day to day
basis, consider this stuff. Until then, focus on what matters.

Companies I Personally Use

Buying Supplements
Never buy commercially (e.g. GNC)

Irueprotein.com (http://www.trueprotem.com)

Excellent for bulk protein and other supplements


5% discount for orders over 16 lbs.
No duty or brokerage fees

Online always cheaper although shipping/import can affect


that
Get together with teammates and order in bulk to defray
shipping costs

lfast400.com (http://wwwJiasl400.com)

Bulk powders and other daily use supplements


Fast shipping, good prices

Vitaglo.com (http://www.vitaglo.com)
Not so fast shipping sometimes
Excellent prices

B
ODY
RECOMPOSITION

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

Gaining Muscle: Part 1

Requires a surplus of calories AND building blocks

Can't make muscle out of thin air and wishful thinking

Proper training program: sufficient volume and frequency

Module 7: Changing Body


Composition

Surplus around weight training workouts


Athletes seeking mass gains should use the higher values
for post-workout nutrition listed in the handout

B
ODY
RECOMPOSITION

B
ODYCfi
RECOMPOSITION

t f t v t t f t t t v t t t t l t t t t t

vvvvmv\\\\\\\iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinTTiTrnnnt> 1
Gaining Muscle: Part 2
Actual rate of muscle mass gains is slow
- 1 kg/month or less for non-beginner males
- 0.5 kg/month for non-beginner females
At most a 300-500 cal/day surplus on training days

Female athletes may need 200-300 over maintenance

Calories beyond what is needed for maximal growth will


just make the athlete fat

Fat Loss: Part 2


Creating a deficit

Caloric restriction vs. increasing activity


Extensive tempo, low intensity work, etc. can burn
calories to create deficit without hurting training

Where to cut calories


Never protein

Carbs vs. fats


What about around workout nutrition

BODY

R E C O MP O S 1 T I O N

Requires a caloric deficit


No amount of food shifting and combining can get
around this

Fast vs. slow fat loss: pros and cons


-

In general, slower will hurt performance less


Faster gets the diet over faster

How m u c h fat is the athlete carrying


Fatter can lose faster than leaner

B
ODY
RECOMPOSITION

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

Fat Loss: Part 1

Putting it All Together: Sample 1

8am: Wake up, take caffeine to avoid homicidal tendencies


9-9:45am: Treadmill walk if needed to control body composition
10:30-llam: Eat breakfast. Take multivitamin, 5 fish oils, Calcium, Vitamin D
1:30pm: Take pre-workout caffeine
2:15pm: Begin warmup
2:45pm: Take first drink of around workout drink (60 grams carbs/30 grams
whey protein in 1 L fluid with 5 grams creatine)
3pm-5pm: Ice workout. Sip drink at 15-20 minute intervals.
5:10pm: Cool down, finish bottle of around workout nutrition.
5:30pm: Protein bar and soda on the way home.
7:30pm-8:30pm: Bike ride, Another during workout drink (45 grams carbs/15
grams whey protein in 1 L fluid).
9pm: Whole food dinner (red meat 3X/week). Calcium, Vitamin D, 5 fish oil
capsules.
10pm: Take zinc/magnesium to prepare for bed

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

Putting it All Together: Sample 2

6am: Wake up, take caffeine to avoid homicidal tendencies


7:15am: Start warmups
7:45am: Start sipping on during workout drink (60 grams carbs/30 grams whey
protein in 1 Lfluidwith 5 grams creatine)
10:10am: Finish drink while cooling down
11am: Whole food lunch, multivitamin, 5 fish oils, calcium, Vitamin D.
2-3pm: Sometimes whole food meal, sometimes protein bar
4pm: Caffeine pre-workout
5-6:30pm: Bike ride with during workout drink (45 grams carbs/15 grams
protein in 1 L fluid)
7pm: Whole food meal, fish oils, calcium, Vitamin D
9pm: Whole food meal.
10pm: Take zinc/magnesium to prepare for bed

BODY

RECOMPOSITION

BODY

RECOMPOSITION