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# 1.

## What are the four left turning tendencies?

a. Lift, weight, thrust, and drag
b. P-factor, downwash, interference drag, and adverse yaw
c. Spiraling slipstream, gyroscopic precession, P-factor, and torque

This is basic knowledge. Answer A involves the 4 forces of flight, not left turning
tendencies. In answer B, only P-factor is correct. Adverse yaw can be right turning
tendency. Downwash and interference drag have little to do with turning the airplane left.
This is not the best answer.
2.

## The term angle of attack is defined as the angle:

a. Between the airplanes flight path and relative wind
b. Between the airplanes longitudinal axis and the horizon
c. Formed by the chord line of the wing and relative wind

Answer A is a junk answer they are equal and opposite and there is not angle. Answer B
is angle of incidence, which is unchangeable by the pilot.
3.

Which
a.
b.
c.

## statement is true about drag?

When the airplane decelerates to a slower airspeed, parasite drag decreases
When the airplane accelerates to a faster airspeed, induced drag increases
Form drag, skin friction, and interference drag cause induced drag

In answer B, parasite drag increases as an aircraft gets faster. Parasite drag involves the
elements in answer C. So, if parasite drag increases with airspeed increase, there is less
carefully.
4.

## What is ground effect?

a. The result of the interference of the surface of the Earth with the airflow
b. The result of an alteration in airflow patterns increasing induced drag about the
wings of an airplane
c. The result of the disruption of the airflow patterns about the wings of an
airplane to the point where the wings will no longer support the airplane in
flight

Some of the answers are used by the FAA to trick you. Answers B and C tell you that the
airplane flies worse in ground effect. It actually flies better. A is the most correct answer.
Induced drag decreases, and the wings actually create more lift. We often sense ground
effect as a cushion of air or floating.
5.

## Flying at or below design maneuvering speed (Va) will:

a. Let the airplane become more resistant to stalls and recover from them easily
b. Cause the airplane to be more maneuverable
c. Allow the airplane to stall before excessive load factors are encountered

Remember the Vg diagram. Va has nothing to do with stall recovery or stall mechanics. The
airplane is not necessarily better at maneuvers at Va. We use Va to protect the airplane from
excessive load (Gs). The airplane will stall rather than break at or below Va.
6.

Loading the airplane to the most aft CG will cause the airplane to be:
a. More stable
b. Fly at a faster cruising speed
c. Easier to recover from a stall

The airplane is less stable with an aft CG, and is harder to recover from stalls. The nose is
harder to lower. There is a smaller angle of attack required at a given airspeed, so there is
less drag as a result. The airplane actually cruises faster with an aft CG.
7.

## What causes an airplane to spin?

a. One wing is stalled more than the other
b. Stalling the airplane while banking
c. One wing is stalled while the other wing is not
Remember that both wings are stalled in a spin, just not the same amount. The
airplane may stall in a turn, but if one is coordinated, the wings will stall at the
same time.

8.

a. The unwanted yawing caused by a low airspeed, high power setting, and high
angle of attack
b. A yaw produced by the lowered aileron while banking the airplane
c. A left turning tendency caused by the torque of the engine
Answer A has to do with left turning tendencies, not adverse yaw. Aileron drag
causes this the lowered aileron will produce more induced drag than the raised
aileron. This is encountered while rolling the airplane. Torque is not adverse yaw.

9.

Which
a.
b.
c.

## aircraft configuration produces the strongest wake turbulence?

Light, clean, and fast
Heavy, dirty, and slow
Heavy, clean, and slow

Lets discuss clean and dirty. This describes the slipstream, not how shiny the airframe is,
ect. A slow airplane flies at a higher angle of attack, creating more lift. When the wings
work harder to produce lift, there is more induced drag. If there are flaps down, the
airplane is dirty because of the drag. If flaps help the wings create lift, the wing does not
work as hard, and vortices at the wingtips are smaller. Obviously, a heavy airplane requires
more lift to fly. So, for the above reasons, the worst turbulence is produced by an airplane
that is heavy, clean, and slow.
10. The basic purpose of adjusting the fuel/air mixture at altitude is to:
a. Decrease the amount of fuel in the mixture in order to compensate for
increased air density
b. Decrease the fuel flow in order to compensate for decreased air density
c. Increase the amount of fuel in the mixture to compensate for the decrease in
pressure and density of the air

Remember that at higher altitudes, the air is thin. There arent as many air particles.
So, to balance the mixture and prevent the engine from drowning, one leans the
mixture. If you lean the mixture, you reduce the amount of fuel in it. This keeps the
proportions normal for combustion. Just remember, we lean at higher altitudes,
therefore, we take fuel away from the carburetor.