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Int. j. econ. manag. soc. sci., Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014. pp.

810-815

TI Journals

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences


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ISSN:
2306-7276

Copyright 2014. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

A Survey of the Impact of Perceived Organizational Support on


Organizational Citizenship Behavior with Mediating Role of Affective
Commitment (Case Study: Shafa Private Hospital of Sari City)
Abbas Ali Rastgar
Assistant professor of business administration department, Semnan university, Semnan, Iran

Ali Asghar Firuzjaeyan


Assistant professor, Department of sociology, university of mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

Mojtaba Firuzjaeyan*
Ma student of executive management, Department of commercial management, Se,mam university, Semnan, Iran
*Corresponding author: mojtabafiruzjayan@gmail.com

Keywords

Abstract

Organizational citizenship behavior


Percieved organizational support
affective commitment

The present study attempted to evaluate the impact of perceived organizational support on organizational citizenship
behavior with mediating role of affective commitment. Affective commitment in this study is based on Allen and
Meyer model. The perceived organizational support is also based on Eisenberger model and organizational
citizenship behavior is based on 5-item model of Podsakoff. The study method is survey design. The data are
collected among 170 employees of hospitals. The data are collected via standard questionnaires of mentioned
variables. The studies showed that perceived organizational support is significantly associated with OCB and
affective commitment. It means that the higher the organizational support, the higher the affective commitment and
OCB. Also structural equation showed that independent variables determined 46% of the changes of OCB.

1.

Introduction

Today, organizations are encountered with complex environments. This change requires different and new approaches. One of the new strategies
is developing work environments with voluntarily collaboration of employees. The organizations without voluntarily inclination of people to
collaboration can not develop effectiveness of collective intellect. The difference between voluntarily and obligatory difference is of great
importance. In obligatory case, the person does his duty based on acceptable rules and standards of an organization and based on observing the
requirements. However, in voluntarily collaboration, extra-role duty is considered and people define their attempts and energy to actualize their
abilities for the benefit of organization. In this case, people ignore their personal benefits and they put responsibility on priority along others
benefits (Vigoda, 2000). The voluntarily behaviors the employees do for organization is the same as organizational citizenship behavior (Foote
and Tang, 2008).
One of the most important factors on doing voluntarily and extra-role behaviors of human resources in organization is organization support. This
factor is called Perceived Organizational Support. This concept refers to vital factors and the helps an employee needs for successful work
(Dolatabadi et al., 2012).
In addition to the direct impact of organizational support on OCB, it also has indirect effect and it affects other individual variables. One of the
variables is affective commitment of employees. Affective commitment is one of the dimensions of organizational commitment (Meyer ad
Allen, 1991). Meyer & Allen(1991) investigated organizational commitment from three dimensions of affective, continuous and normative
commitments. Affective commitment is defined as attachment to work and inclination to stay in organization (Meyer and Allen, 1991). The
employees with high affective commitment, due to more belief to the organizational values and goals and their high inclination to job in
organization show more extra-role behaviors.
Despite the importance of this issue in some organizations as hospital namely to present high quality care of patients, there is no study regarding
the investigation of the relationship between organizational support, affective commitment and citizenship behavior among hospital employees
in Iran. Thus, considering the investigation of dimensions of this concept and its effects on playing the main and minor roles of employees is
increased in service organizations like hospital. Thus, it is attempted to answer this question whether organizational support has significant
impact on OCB?
Noruzi (2012) conducted a study aimed to determine the effect of perceived organizational support on organizational commitment and OCB of
employees. The study population is 149 employees of physical education offices and all of them are selected as sample. The results showed that
perceived organizational support affected organizational commitment and OCB. Also, affective commitment had the highest role in determining
OCB. By increasing the affective commitment of employees, extra-role behaviors can also be increased.
Liu (2009) in the investigation of the relationship between perceived org antinational support and affective commitment in international firms
found that both in holding and affiliated firms, perceived organizational support and affective commitment were associated. The results of the
study showed that affective commitment as a partial mediating variable in holding company and a full mediating variable in affiliated companies
is important in relationship between perceived organizational support and OCB (Liu, 2009).
Rocha and Turner (2008) conducted a study with the purpose of the impact of perceived organizational support on organizational performance
based on the mediating role of organizational commitment and OCB and found that perceived organizational support among attitude variables is
effective on important behaviors and attitudes of employees like OCB, organizational commitment and inclination to leave job. Based on the
significant correlation evidences between affective commitment and OCB, commitment and OCB were not suitable predictors for effectiveness
and extra-role behaviors describe only a part of effectiveness. The studies regarding OCB showed that these behaviors in public and private
sector organizations had positive effects. The organizations, namely organizations in the third world countries requiring the major change of
efficiency increase should provide the ground as employees and managers surely apply all their experiences, capabilities and capacities to

811

A Survey of the Impact of Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Citizenship Behavior with Mediating Role of Affective Commitment (Case St...
International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014.

maximize organizational goals. This is not possible unless the effective factors on development of OCB are identified and required grounds are
provided to implement these behaviors. The studies in this regard didnt evaluate the relationship between perceived organizational support,
affective commitment and OCB in a health service organization. By evaluation of affective commitment without the interference of other
organizational commitment variables, the present study applied hidden layers of relationship between these two concepts. Also, it is attempted to
evaluate one of the factors improving affective commitment that is perceived organizational support (Noruzi, 2012) and also evaluate its impact
on emotional commitment and extra-role behaviors and this is the difference between this study and other previous studies.
The development of hypotheses and conceptual model of study
Many theorists discussed about the dimensions of constituent components of OCB. Finally, the dimensions receiving much attention form the
researchers include Altruism, Conscientiousness, Civic virtue, Sportsmanship and Courtesy. These five dimensions are raised by Organ (1988)
and Podsakoff et al., (1990) by factor analysis method created standard evaluation scale for each of five dimensions and these scales were used
by many researchers to evaluate OCB (Organ, 1994).
Altruism: It is helping other members of organization regarding the relevant problems and duties like the employees helping the new members or
less skillful people.
Conscientiousness: It is voluntarily behaviors going beyond the minimum role requirements like a person working a lot in organization or the
employee how dont make rest a lot in the organization.
Courtesy: It is the attempts of employees to avoid work problems and stresses regarding others.
Sportsmanship: It is showing tolerance and sacrifice in non-ideal conditions of organization without complaining and protesting.
Civil virtue: It is the inclination to participation and in organizational life and presenting a good image of organization.
Eisenberger ideas were used for perceived organizational support. Eisenberger et al., (2001) in their studies showed that during social
interaction, beliefs, behaviors are exchange between two parties and they are of great importance for organization. Presenting each of beliefs,
thoughts and behaviors depends upon the perception of employees of acknowledgment and valuation of organization to them (Eisenberger et al.,
2001). As this perception is felt via the support from organization, it is called perceived organizational support.
The impact of affective commitment on organization performance is supported in various researches. The people with low commitment have
high leave and absence of work. Meyer and Allen (1991) viewed organizational commitment as a multi-dimensional concept. They presented a
three-componets model for organizational commitment. These dimensions include affective commitment, continuous and normative
commitments. Among these dimensions, due to its high importance, we investigated affective commitment. Affective commitment: Affective
commitment is affective attachment, belonging to work and tendency to stay in organization (Meyer & Allen, 1991).
Noruzi (2012) conducted a study aimed to determine the effect of perceived organizational support on organizational commitment and OCB of
employees. The study population is 149 employees of physical education offices and all of them are selected as sample. The results showed that
perceived organizational support affected organizational commitment and OCB. Also, affective commitment had the highest role in determining
OCB. By increasing the affective commitment of employees, extra-role behaviors can also be increased.
Liu (2009) in the investigation of the relationship between perceived org antinational support and affective commitment in international firms
found that both in holding and affiliated firms, perceived organizational support and affective commitment were associated. The results of the
study showed that affective commitment as a partial mediating variable in holding company and a full mediating variable in affiliated companies
is important in relationship between perceived organizational support and OCB (Liu, 2009).
Rocha and Turner (2008) conducted a study with the purpose of the impact of perceived organizational support on organizational performance
based on the mediating role of organizational commitment and OCB and found that perceived organizational support among attitude variables is
effective on important behaviors and attitudes of employees like OCB, organizational commitment and inclination to leave job. Based on the
significant correlation evidences between affective commitment and OCB, commitment and OCB were not suitable predictors for effectiveness
and extra-role behaviors describe only a part of effectiveness. The studies regarding OCB showed that these behaviors in public and private
sector organizations had positive effects. The organizations, namely organizations in the third world countries requiring the major change of
efficiency increase should provide the ground as employees and managers surely apply all their experiences, capabilities and capacities to
maximize organizational goals. This is not possible unless the effective factors on development of OCB are identified and required grounds are
provided to implement these behaviors. The studies in this regard didnt evaluate the relationship between perceived organizational support,
affective commitment and OCB in a health service organization. By evaluation of affective commitment without the interference of other
organizational commitment variables, the present study applied hidden layers of relationship between these two concepts. Also, it is attempted to
evaluate one of the factors improving affective commitment that is perceived organizational support (Noruzi, 2012) and also evaluate its impact
on emotional commitment and extra-role behaviors and this is the difference between this study and other previous studies.
The development of hypotheses and conceptual model of study
Many theorists discussed about the dimensions of constituent components of OCB. Finally, the dimensions receiving much attention form the
researchers include Altruism, Conscientiousness, Civic virtue, Sportsmanship and Courtesy. These five dimensions are raised by Organ (1988)
and Podsakoff et al., (1990) by factor analysis method created standard evaluation scale for each of five dimensions and these scales were used
by many researchers to evaluate OCB (Organ, 1994).
Altruism: It is helping other members of organization regarding the relevant problems and duties like the employees helping the new members or
less skillful people.
Conscientiousness: It is voluntarily behaviors going beyond the minimum role requirements like a person working a lot in organization or the
employee how dont make rest a lot in the organization.
Courtesy: It is the attempts of employees to avoid work problems and stresses regarding others.
Sportsmanship: It is showing tolerance and sacrifice in non-ideal conditions of organization without complaining and protesting.
Civil virtue: It is the inclination to participation and in organizational life and presenting a good image of organization.
Eisenberger ideas were used for perceived organizational support. Eisenberger et al., (2001) in their studies showed that during social
interaction, beliefs, behaviors are exchange between two parties and they are of great importance for organization. Presenting each of beliefs,
thoughts and behaviors depends upon the perception of employees of acknowledgment and valuation of organization to them (Eisenberger and et
al., 2001). As this perception is felt via the support from organization, it is called perceived organizational support.
The impact of affective commitment on organization performance is supported in various researches. The people with low commitment have
high leave and absence of work. Meyer and Allen (1991) viewed organizational commitment as a multi-dimensional concept. They presented a
three-componets model for organizational commitment. These dimensions include affective commitment, continuous and normative
commitments. Among these dimensions, due to its high importance, we investigated affective commitment. Affective commitment: Affective
commitment is affective attachment, belonging to work and tendency to stay in organization (Meyer & Allen, 1991).

Abbas Ali Rastgar, Ali Asghar Firuzjaeyan, Mojtaba Firuzjaeyan *

812

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014.

2.

Review of literature

Noruzi (2012) conducted a study aimed to determine the effect of perceived organizational support on organizational commitment and OCB of
employees. The study population is 149 employees of physical education offices and all of them are selected as sample. The results showed that
perceived organizational support affected organizational commitment and OCB. Also, affective commitment had the highest role in determining
OCB. By increasing the affective commitment of employees, extra-role behaviors can also be increased.
Liu (2009) in the investigation of the relationship between perceived org antinational support and affective commitment in international firms
found that both in holding and affiliated firms, perceived organizational support and affective commitment were associated. The results of the
study showed that affective commitment as a partial mediating variable in holding company and a full mediating variable in affiliated companies
is important in relationship between perceived organizational support and OCB (Liu, 2009).
Rocha and Turner (2008) conducted a study with the purpose of the impact of perceived organizational support on organizational performance
based on the mediating role of organizational commitment and OCB and found that perceived organizational support among attitude variables is
effective on important behaviors and attitudes of employees like OCB, organizational commitment and inclination to leave job. Based on the
significant correlation evidences between affective commitment and OCB, commitment and OCB were not suitable predictors for effectiveness
and extra-role behaviors describe only a part of effectiveness. The studies regarding OCB showed that these behaviors in public and private
sector organizations had positive effects. The organizations, namely organizations in the third world countries requiring the major change of
efficiency increase should provide the ground as employees and managers surely apply all their experiences, capabilities and capacities to
maximize organizational goals. This is not possible unless the effective factors on development of OCB are identified and required grounds are
provided to implement these behaviors. The studies in this regard didnt evaluate the relationship between perceived organizational support,
affective commitment and OCB in a health service organization. By evaluation of affective commitment without the interference of other
organizational commitment variables, the present study applied hidden layers of relationship between these two concepts. Also, it is attempted to
evaluate one of the factors improving affective commitment that is perceived organizational support (Noruzi, 2012) and also evaluate its impact
on emotional commitment and extra-role behaviors and this is the difference between this study and other previous studies.
The development of hypotheses and conceptual model of study
Many theorists discussed about the dimensions of constituent components of OCB. Finally, the dimensions receiving much attention form the
researchers include Altruism, Conscientiousness, Civic virtue, Sportsmanship and Courtesy. These five dimensions are raised by Organ (1988)
and Podsakoff et al., (1990) by factor analysis method created standard evaluation scale for each of five dimensions and these scales were used
by many researchers to evaluate OCB (Organ, 1994).
Altruism: It is helping other members of organization regarding the relevant problems and duties like the employees helping the new members or
less skillful people.
Conscientiousness: It is voluntarily behaviors going beyond the minimum role requirements like a person working a lot in organization or the
employee how dont make rest a lot in the organization.
Courtesy: It is the attempts of employees to avoid work problems and stresses regarding others.
Sportsmanship: It is showing tolerance and sacrifice in non-ideal conditions of organization without complaining and protesting.
Civil virtue: It is the inclination to participation and in organizational life and presenting a good image of organization.
Eisenberger ideas were used for perceived organizational support. Eisenberger et al., (2001) in their studies showed that during social
interaction, beliefs, behaviors are exchange between two parties and they are of great importance for organization. Presenting each of beliefs,
thoughts and behaviors depends upon the perception of employees of acknowledgment and valuation of organization to them (Eisenberger and et
al., 2001). As this perception is felt via the support from organization, it is called perceived organizational support.
The impact of affective commitment on organization performance is supported in various researches. The people with low commitment have
high leave and absence of work. Meyer and Allen (1991) viewed organizational commitment as a multi-dimensional concept. They presented a
three-componets model for organizational commitment. These dimensions include affective commitment, continuous and normative
commitments. Among these dimensions, due to its high importance, we investigated affective commitment. Affective commitment: Affective
commitment is affective attachment, belonging to work and tendency to stay in organization (Meyer & Allen, 1991).

3.

Methodology

This study is correlation. It is attempted to present a clear image of study population features, we can interpret what exists without any effect on
results of the study. Based on the limited study population, sampling method is total count. The data collection measure is questionnaire. Thus,
OCB questionnaire of Podsakoff et al., (1990) is applied. This questionnaire includes 24 items and 5 components. The reliability of this
questionnaire is reported as 90% by Shekarkan et al., (2001). The standard questionnaire of Eisenberger et al., as perceived organizational
support with 7 items is applied. In addition, the affective commitment inventory of Allen and Meyer (1990) was used after repetitive reviews
with 8-item questionnaire of affective commitment. It is also evaluated based on five-item Likert scale. The reliability coefficient of affective
commitment questionnaire of Allen and Meyer (1990) is reported as 85% by them.
The collected data were used for descriptive and inference analysis. To do this, the researcher applied SPSS and AMOS software. To describe
the variables, frequency of variables was reported. For hypothesis test, SPSS software was used and for evaluation of variables, Pearson and path
analysis were applied. 170 people responded the questionnaire. Based on the information received from samples 35.88% of respondents were
men and the rest were women. From age aspects, 30.6% of people were less than 30 and 48.8% 30-40 years and 18.2% were 40-50 years and the
rest were more than 50 years. Also, 38.8 of sample people were single and the rest married.
Hypotheses test: To evaluate the hypotheses, the data were analyzed by Spss, AMOS software. Pearson correlation test is used for analysis and
structural equations were used for multi-variate analysis and direct and indirect relations between independent and dependent variables.
Table 1. The comparison of main variables based on gender with t-test of independent groups
Subscale
Perceived organizational support
Affective commitment
OCB

Gender
Man
Woman
Man
Woman
Man
Woman

N
60
107
61
108
59
105

Mean
17
21
23
27
72
93

SD
6
7
8
6
23
10

Sig

-3.024

0.303

-2.787

0.066

-6.679

0.000

813

A Survey of the Impact of Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Citizenship Behavior with Mediating Role of Affective Commitment (Case St...
International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014.

As shown in the table, there is no significant association between perceived organizational support and affective commitment but as shown in the
table, this relation is significant for OCB and it means the mean OCB is more among women than men.
Table 2. Correlation test between affective commitment and organizational commitment componets
Variable
Conscientiousness
Sportsmanship
Courtesy
Altruism
Civil virtue

Correlation
0.53
0.62
0.71
0.54
0.55

Sig
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Table 3. Correlation test between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment components
Variable
Conscientiousness
Sportsmanship
Courtesy
Altruism
Civil virtue

Correlation
0.43
0.47
0.62
0.42
0.43

Significance level
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Table 4. Correlation matrix between perceived organization support, affective commitment and OCB
Variable
Perceived organizational support
Affective commitment
OCB

1
1
0.69
0.52

2
1
0.66

3
1

The above table shows the correlation test between OCB components and affective commitment and perceived organizational support. As shown
in the table, there is a high and positive correlation between all components of OCB, affective commitment and perceived organizational
support. The correlation of OCB with affective commitment is 0.66 and with perceived organizational support 0.52. It means that the higher the
perceived organizational support of the employees, the OCB is also increased and this is occurred if affective commitment is increased. In
addition, Table 3 shows that perceived organizational support has positive and significant association with affective commitment as 0.69 and it
shows that if organizational support is increased, the commitment and attachment of employees are increased.
Multi-variate analysis: Based on AMOS software, the relations between independent and dependent variables are investigated as structural
model. The coefficient of determination or total effect of independent variables on dependent variables is 0.46.

e1
e1

e3

e2

0.85

0.72

0.74

e4

e5

0.67

0.69

0.49

Affective
commitment

Conscientiousness Civil virtue

Altruism

0.85

0.92

Courtesy Sportsmanship
0.82
0.86

0.86
0.58

0.69

Perceived
organizational
support

OCB
0.13

0.46

e1

Figure 1. The empirical model of the relationship between organizational culture variables and organizational commitment

Table 5. The various impacts of perceived organizational support and affective commitment on OCB
Variable
Perceived Organizational Support
Affective Commitment

Direct effect
0.13
0.58

Indirect effect
0.40
-

Total effect
0.53
0.58

Abbas Ali Rastgar, Ali Asghar Firuzjaeyan, Mojtaba Firuzjaeyan *

814

International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences Vol(3), No (12), December, 2014.

Table NO 5 indicates the multiple effects of perceived organizational support and organizational commitment on OCB. Perceived organizational
support besides the direct impact on OCB, has another impact by affective commitment and its direct impact is 0.13% and its indirect effect is
40%. Affective commitment has direct impact on OCB and it is 58%. Thus, affective commitment has influence on OCB and it is more than the
direct and indirect effects of perceived organizational support on OCB and it needs specific attention.

4.

Discussion and conclusion

To study the hypothesis, there was a correlation between perceived organizational support and OCB of employees and the following results were
achieved:
The results of data analysis as it was said in table 4 showed that perceived organizational support had significant impact on OCB (P<0.05). The
reliability of this relation is 99% and the direction is positive. As it was said, perceived organizational support had positive and significant
impact as 0.52 on OCB. In other words, it determines as 0.52. It can be said by increasing support perceived by the employees, extra-role
behaviors or OCB is increased. The results of the study supported the results of previous studies as Doayi and Borjalilour (2010), Noruzi (2012),
Piercy et al., (2006), Asgari et al., (2008), Shen et al., (2010), Noruzi et al., (2011).
To study the hypothesis, there was a correlation between perceived organizational support and affective commitment of employees and the
following results were achieved:
The results of the analysis of data showed that perceived organizational support had significant impact on affective commitment (P<0.05) and
reliability is 99% and the impact is positive and 0.69. Thus, it can be said by increasing support of organization, affective commitment and
belonging of employees to organization is increased. The results of the study are in line with the results of the previous studies as Doayi and
Borjalilour (2010), Panachio (2009), Aube et al., (2007) and Arshadi (2011).
To study the hypothesis, there was a correlation between affective commitment and OCB of employees and the following results were achieved:
The results of the data analysis showed that according to Table 4, affective commitment had significant impact on OCB (P<0.05), reliability 99%
and the direct of impact is positive. As it was shown, the commitment of employees as 0.52 had positive and significant impact on OCB and
determines it. It can be said, by increasing affective commitment of employees to their organization, their belonging and their inclination to stay
in organization and extra-role behaviors and OCB of employees are increased.
The results of the study are in line with the study of Arizi and Golparvar (2009), Meyer et al., (2002), Chen and Francesco (2003), Chiang and
Chun (2011), Bakhsi et al., (2011), Gutam et al., (2004). In other words, they are consistent with each other as the mentioned studies emphasized
on the positive and significant association of these two variables.
Generally, all organizations namely health based organizations including private or public hospitals need a great change, otherwise no
efficiency is achieved and the rules of OCB should be considered. OCB is a new phenomenon in this regard. It can be said, OCB exists in
various communities but culture and its nature has unavoidable impact on OCB.
Thus, it is recommended that authorities of health centers namely private hospitals by participation of employees and presenting organizational
support of their employees via giving facilities, participation in employees-based decision making, acknowledging their efforts, establishing
friendly relations and applying humanistic leadership styles along increasing organizational commitment and imp roving OCB of employees
attempt to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in health.

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