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Optimal Capacitor

Placement

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

Problem of Var Flow in


P
Power
Systems
S t
Loads and delivery apparatus (e
(e.g.,
g lines
and transformers) are inductive in nature
Most power systems operate at a lagging
power factor
Resulting system capacity reduced, system
loss increased and system voltage
decreased

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

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Purposes of Shunt
C
Capacitor
it A
Applications
li ti
Var support Primary benefit for
transmission systems and secondary benefit
for distribution systems
Voltage control Primary benefit for both
transmission and distribution systems
System capacity increase Secondary
benefit for transmission systems and primary
benefit for distribution systems
1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

Slide 3

Purposes of Shunt
C
Capacitor
it A
Applications
li ti
System power loss reduction Secondary
benefit for transmission systems and primary
benefit for distribution systems
Billing charge reduction Not applied to
transmission systems but a primary benefit
f
for distribution systems

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

Slide 4

General Process for Placing


Sh t C
Shunt
Capacitors
it
Determine bank size in kvar
Determine connection location
Determine a control method
Determine
D t
i a connection
ti ttype ((wye or delta)
d lt )

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

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General Methods for


C
Capacitor
it Pl
Placementt
Rules of Thumb
Power Flow
Based
Optimal

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

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Optimal Capacitor
Pl
Placement
t in
i ETAP
Genetic Algorithm - Use Genetic method to
find optimal (sub optimal) solution
Expert System Initialization- Use power
system knowledge to find a good initial
solution

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

Slide 7

Genetic Algorithm
An optimization technique based on the
theory of nature selection
An iterative procedure that maintains a
constant-size population of candidate
solutions
Coding, initialization
initialization, fitness evaluation
evaluation,
Coding
selection, crossover, mutation

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

Slide 8

ETAP OCP Capabilities


Find capacitor
capacitors
s best location and bank size
Minimize the total cost of installation and operation
Handle radial or meshed balanced networks (PS
5.0)
User selectable capacitor placement purpose
Global or individual constraints

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

Slide 9

ETAP OCP Capabilities


Analysis capacitor control method and
review capacitor impact on the system with
load duration setting
Speed and precision ratio control by users
Determine available capacitor installation
locations by users

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

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ETAP OCP Capabilities


Determine maximum capacitor size using
maximum load and determine switchblade
capacitor size using minimum load
Use average or source energy cost
Focus on saving during the whole planning
period

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

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Display Results
LF results for maximum loads
New capacitor locations and sizes

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

Slide 12

Plot Results
Loss reduction savings during the planning
period
Capacitor operation cost during the planning
period
Profit during the planning period

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

Slide 13

Report Results
Load Flow related reports
Capacitor locations and sizes
Load flow results for maximum, average and
minimum loads
Branch capacity release

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

Slide 14

Example
Run NR Load Flow and look at bus voltages
(critical under voltage is set to 95% and
marginal under voltage is set to 98%)
Switch to OCP mode and look at the study
case settings
Run OCP and look at the voltage
improvements

1996-2010 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Optimal Capacitor Placement

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