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tachymetry

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TACHEOMETRY

What is tacheometry??

Easy and cheap method of collecting much

topographic data.

Tachymetry (or tacheometry) also called

stadia surveying in countries like

England and the United States

means fast measurement; rapid and

efficient way of indirectly measuring

distances and elevation differences

Tacheometry

Concept

Determine distances indirectly using triangle

geometry

Methods

Stadia

Establish constant angle and measure length of

opposite side

Length increases with distance from angle

vertex

Stadia System

The theodolite/auto level is directed at

the level staff

the distance is measured by reading the

top and bottom stadia hairs on the

telescope view.

Measurement

Electronic Tacheometry:

Uses a total station which contains an

EDM, able to read distance by reflecting off

a prism.

Subtense Bar system:

An accurate theodolite, reading to 1" of

arc, is directed at a staff, two pointings

being made and the small subtended angle

measured

Equipment

Measurement can be taken with

theodolites, transits and levels and stadia

rods

While in the past, distances were

measured by the surveyors chain or

tape

This can be done easier and faster using a

telescope equipped with stadia hairlines in

combination with a stadia rod (auto level

and staff)

Tacheometry: Stadia

L1

L2

0.5L1

d1

tan(0.5 )

d1

d2

0.5L 2

d2

tan(0.5 )

Stadia Readings

Upper Hair

Middle Hair

Lower Hair

a, b stadia hairs

S = rod intercept

F = principal focus of objective lens

Stadia Principles

c

b

a

b'

a'

S

F

B

f = focal length

i = stadia hair spacing

c = distance from instrument

center to objective lens

center

K = stadia constant

C = f/i = stadia interval factor

d = distance from focal point to rod

D = distance from instrument center

to rod

Stadia Equations

From similar triangles

d S

f

i

f

d S KS

i

D CS K

Horizontal sights

H CS K

V 0

usuallyC 100,K 0

H 100S

Inclined sights

H CScos2 Kcos

H 100Scos2

V CS 12 sin2 Ksin

V 100S 12 sin2

Constant determination

In practice, the multiplicative constant generally

equals 100 and the additive constant equals zero.

This is certainly the case with modern

instruments by may not always be so with older

Theodolites.

The values are usually given by the makers but

this is not always the case.

It is sometimes necessary to measure them in an

old or unfamiliar instrument.

The simplest way, both for external and internal

focusing instruments, is to regard the basic

formula as being a linear one of the form:

D = C.S + K

For example:

Distance

Readings

Intervals

(m)

upper

Stadia

Centre

Lower

Stadia

upper

lower

total

30.000

1.433

1.283

1.133

0.15

0.15

0.30

55.000

1.710

1.435

1.160

0.275

0.275

0.55

90.000

2.352

1.902

1.452

0.450

0.450

0.90

D

=C.S + K

30.00 = 0.300 * C + K

90.00 = 0.900 * C + K

therefore C = 100 & K = 0

Any combination of equations gives the same result, showing

that the telescope is anallatic over this range, to all intents

and purposes.

S

h

hi

A

L = C S cos + K ,

D = L cos

Then ;

D = CS cos2 + K cos ;

V = L sin = ( C S cos + K ) sin

= 1/2 C S sin 2 + K sin ;

L = h i + V h = R.L. of B - R.L. of A

Where : h is the mid hair reading

hi

V

A

D = CS cos2 + K cos ;

= 1/2 C S sin 2 + K sin ;

L = - h i + V + h = R.L. of A - R.L. of B

may be elevation or depression

Example

From point D three points A, B and C have been observed as

follows:

Staff

points

bearing

Vertical

angles

Stadia readings

85 30

5 12

(1.10,1.65,2.20)

125 10

(2.30,2.95,3.60)

104 30

9 30

(1.45,2.15,2.85)

tacheometeric constant = 100 , find:

i) the horizontal distance to the staff points and their reduced

levels.

ii) distance AB , BC , and CA.

A

H1

D

H3

B

H2

C

Staff

points

bearing

Vertical

angles

Stadia readings

85 30

5 12

(1.10,1.65,2.20)

125 10

(2.30,2.95,3.60)

104 30

9 30

(1.45,2.15,2.85)

Solution

For line DA

S1 = 2.20 1.10 = 1.10 m

H1 = 100 x 1.10 x Cos2 (+5o 12) = 109.0964 m

V1 = 109.0964 x tan (+5o 12) = + 9.929 m

R.L.of A = 150.10 + 1.40 + 9.929 1.65 =159.779

m.

For line DB

S2 = 3.60 2.30 = 1.30 m.

H2 = 100 x 1.30 x Cos2 (+00.00) = 130 m.

V2 = 130 x tan (+00.00) = + 00.00 m.

R.L. of B =150.10 + 1.40 + 00.00 2.95 = 148.55 m.

For line DC

S3 = 2.85 1.45 = 1.40 m.

H3 = 100 x 1.40 x Cos2 (+9o 30) = 136.186 m.

V3 = 136.186 tan (+9o 30) = + 22.790 m.

R.L. of C = 150.10 + 1.40 + 22.79 2.15 = 172.140

m.

1 = 104o 30 85o 30 = 19o 00

2 = 125o 10 104o 30 = 20o 40

= 19o 00 + 20o 40 = 39o 40

From Triangle DAC

AC =

AC = 48.505 m

BC= (130.000) 2 (136.186) 2 2 1030.000 136.186 cos 200 40

BC= 48.133 m

AB= (130.000) 2 (109.096) 2 2 1030.000 109.096 cos 190

AB= 83.471 m

Tangential system

Horizontal line of sight :

D = S / tan

1

1

2

2

S

D = S / ( tan 2 tan 1 )

1m

1m

For distance up to 80 m

Subtense bar

theodolite

2m

D = cot( / 2 )

plan

1

D1 = cot (1/2)

D2 = cot (2/2)

D = D1 + D2

Auxiliary

Theodolite 1

base

900

Theodolite 2

X = ( 2D )1/2 ;

X = cot ( /2 ) , D = X cot , D = X/2 cot /2

x/2

x/2

1

1

2

2

D1

X

X

D

D

D2

= 0.7( 2D )1/2 ;

= cot ( /2 ) ,

= X ( cot 1 + cot 2 ) ,

= X/2 [ cot (1/2) + cot (2/2) ]

x/2

Electronic Tacheometry

(Total Station)

The stadia procedure is used less and less

often these days, more commonly

geomatic engineers use a combination

theodolite-EDM known in jargon as a total

station.

Often these instruments are connected to

a field computer which stores readings

and facilitates the processing of the data

electronically.

Electronic Tacheometry

This instrumentation has facilitated the

development of this method of detail and

contour surveying into a very slick

operation.

It is now possible to produce plans of

large areas that previously would have

taken weeks, in a matter of days.

The math's behind the operation is very

simple, it is in effect the same as the

stadia formulae with the term for the

distance replaced by the measured slope

distance.

reflector

D

Hr

A

HI

B

S = D cos

R.L.of point A = R.L.of point B + HI + V - Hr

1. Set up the instrument (Theodolite) at a

reference point

2. Read upper, middle, and lower hairs.

3. Release the rodperson for movement to

the next point.

4. Read and record the horizontal angle

(azimuth).

5. Read and record the vertical angle

(zenith).

Error Sources

There are 4 main sources of error:

Staff Readings

Tilt of the Staff

Vertical Angle

Horizontal Angle

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