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Source localization using spherical microphone arrays has re-
ceived attention due to the ease of array processing in the
spherical harmonics (SH) domain with no spatial ambigu-
ity. In this paper, we address the issue of near-field source
localization using a spherical microphone array. In particu-
lar, three methods that jointly estimate the range and bear-
ing of multiple sources in the spherical array framework, are
proposed. Two subspace-based methods called the Spherical
Harmonic MUltiple SIgnal Classification (SH-MUSIC) and
the Spherical Harmonics MUSIC-Group Delay (SH-MGD)
for near field source localization, are first presented. Addi-
tionally, a method for near-field source localization using the
Spherical Harmonic MVDR (SH-MVDR) is also formulated.
Experiments on near-field source localization are conducted
using a spherical microphone array at various SNR. The SH-
MGD is able to resolve closely spaced sources when com-
pared to other methods.

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Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

{rhegde,lalank}@iitk.ac.in

ABSTRACT

Source localization using spherical microphone arrays has received attention due to the ease of array processing in the

spherical harmonics (SH) domain with no spatial ambiguity. In this paper, we address the issue of near-field source

localization using a spherical microphone array. In particular, three methods that jointly estimate the range and bearing of multiple sources in the spherical array framework, are

proposed. Two subspace-based methods called the Spherical

Harmonic MUltiple SIgnal Classification (SH-MUSIC) and

the Spherical Harmonics MUSIC-Group Delay (SH-MGD)

for near field source localization, are first presented. Additionally, a method for near-field source localization using the

Spherical Harmonic MVDR (SH-MVDR) is also formulated.

Experiments on near-field source localization are conducted

using a spherical microphone array at various SNR. The SHMGD is able to resolve closely spaced sources when compared to other methods.

Index Terms MUSIC, Spherical Harmonics, Nearfield, Group delay

1. INTRODUCTION

Spherical microphone array processing has been a growing

area of research in the last decade [1, 2]. This is primarily

because of the relative ease with which array processing can

be performed in the spherical harmonics (SH) domain without

any spatial ambiguity [3].

Various algorithms have been proposed for far-field

source localization using spherical microphone array. Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques (ESPRIT) [4] algorithm is extended for spherical array

in [5]. Multiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) [6] is implemented in terms of spherical harmonics in [7]. In [8], room

acoustics analysis is presented using spherical array, based on

SH-MUSIC in frequency domain. All these source localization methods deals with planar wavefront of far-field sources.

However, in applications like Close Talk Microphone (CTM),

video conferencing etc, the planar wavefront assumption is

This work was funded by the DST project EE/SERB/20130277. The

author L. Kumar was supported by TCS Research Scholarship Program

TCS/CS/20110191.

no more valid. In [9], design of a low order spherical microphone array is proposed to acquire the sound from near field

sources. Near-field criterion for spherical array is discussed

in [10]. However, spherical array has not been utilized for

near-field source localization. In [11], 2-Dimensional (2D)

MUSIC spectrum is presented for multiple near-field sources

using Uniform Linear Array (ULA). In this work, we propose

3D SH-MUSIC spectrum for range and bearing (elevation,

azimuth) estimation of multiple near-field sources. MVDR

[12] and MUSIC-Group Delay (MGD) spectrum [1316]

have also been studied for near-field source localization using

spherical array of microphone. The primary contribution of

this work is in the proposal of novel methods for near-field

source localization in spherical harmonics domain.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2,

signal model in spherical harmonics domain is presented. The

near-field criteria is discussed, followed by the development

of SH-MUSIC, SH-MGD and SH-MVDR methods. The proposed method is evaluated in Section 3. Section 4 concludes

the paper.

2. NEAR-FIELD SOURCE LOCALIZATION USING

SPHERICAL MICROPHONE ARRAY

In this Section, a mathematical derivation of 3-Dimensional

MUSIC spectrum is presented using spherical harmonics for

near-field sources. The SH-MUSIC utilizes the magnitude

spectrum. However, magnitude spectrum suffers from severe environmental conditions like low SNR, reverberation

and closely spaced sources. In [16], a high resolution source

localization based on the MUSIC-Group delay spectrum over

ULA has been proposed. The method is non-trivially extended for planar arrays in [14, 15] and for spherical array

in [13]. In all these works, far-field source were considered.

In this work, group delay spectrum in spherical harmonics

domain has been developed for range and bearing estimation.

Beamforming based SH-MVDR is also formulated for nearfield source localization.

2.1. Signal processing in Spherical Harmonics domain

A spherical microphone array of order N with radius r and

number of sensors I is considered. A sound field of sphericalwaves with wavenumber k from L near-field sources is incident on the array. The lth source location is denoted by

is measured down from positive z axis, while the azimuthal

angle is measured counterclockwise from positive x axis.

Similarly, the ith sensor location is given by ri = (r, i ),

where i = (i , i ).

In spatial domain, the sound pressure at I microphones,

p(k) = [p1 (k), p2 (k), . . . , pI (k)]T , is written as

p(k) = V(k)s(k) + n(k)

vl (k) = [

|r1 rl |

,...,

|rI rl |

]T

(2)

n

X

(5)

n=0 m=n

m defined in Equation 6, and (.) denotes the complex conjugate.

s

(2n + 1)(n m)! m

Ynm (, ) =

Pn (cos)ejm

(6)

4(n + m)!

It is to be noted that Ynm are solution to the Helmholtz equation [18] and Pnm are associated Legendre function.

The acoustic pressure is sampled by the microphones on

the surface of the sphere. Hence, the SFT in the Equation 4

can be approximated by following summation

pnm (k, r)

=

I

X

ai p(k, r, i )[Ynm (i )]

(7)

i=1

0 n N, n m n

n

N

X

X

jn is spherical Bessel function, hn is spherical Hankel function, j is unit imaginary number and refers to first derivative.

The extra term in far-field mode strength for rigid sphere accounts for scattered pressure from the sphere. The range of

the source is captured in the Hankel function.

0

50

Farfield

Nearfield

100

150 1

10

10

10

mode strength for rigid sphere. Near-field source is at rl =

1m and order is varied from n = 0 (top) to n = 4 (bottom)

In general, the boundary between near-field and far-field is

decided by Fraunhofer distances [22]. However, these parameters do not indicate the extent of near-field in spherical

harmonics domain. For spherical array, the near-field criteria is presented in [10] based on similarity of near-field mode

strength (|bn (k, r, rl )|) and far-field mode strength (|bn (kr)|).

The two functions start behaving in similar way at krl N ,

for array of order N . This is illustrated in Figure 1 for rigid

sphere Eigenmike system [23] with rl = 1m and order varying from n = 0 to n = 4. Hence the near-field condition for

spherical array becomes

N

(13)

k

But rN F r, r being the radius of the sphere. So the highest

wavenumber possible is

rN F

pressure function with order N , Equation 5 can be written as

p(k, r, )

=

jn (kr)

hn (kr) , rigid sphere

hn (kr)

(12)

50

(4)

p(k, r, , ) =

= 4j n jn (kr)

(11)

(3)

sphere by p(k, r, , ), the Spherical Fourier Transform (SFT)

and its inverse is defined by [17],

Z 2 Z

p(k, r, , )[Ynm (, )] sin()dd

pnm (k, r) =

0

(10)

Magnitude(dB)

jk|rI rl |

(1)

of signal amplitudes, n(k) is I 1 vector of zero mean, uncorrelated sensor noise and (.)T denotes the transpose. The

steering matrix V(k) is expressed as

jk|r1 rl |

to far-field mode strength bn (kr) as [21]

(8)

n=0 m=n

jk|ri rl |

is p(k, r, i ) = e |ri rl | and it is given by [20]

n

N

X

X

ejk|ri rl |

bn (k, r, rl )Ynm (l ) Ynm (i ) (9)

=

|ri rl |

n=0 m=n

N

(14)

r

kmax

(15)

From Equations 13,14, rN F = r

k

Hence, for a source to be in near-field, the range of the source

should satisfy

kmax

(16)

r rl r

k

kmax =

100

80

SHMGD

SHMUSIC

1.5

1

60

40

0.5

20

0

100

0

100

80

60

40

Elevation()

20

0

20

80

60

40

Azimuth()

80

100

60

40

Elevation()

20

0

60

40

Azimuth()

80

100

(b)

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

SHMGD

SHMUSIC

(a)

20

0.4

0.2

0.4

0.2

0

1

0

1

0.5

Range(m)

0.5

Range(m)

0

10

20

30

50

40

Azimuth()

60

70

80

90

0

10

(c)

20

30

40

50

Azimuth()

60

70

80

90

(d)

Fig. 2. Illustration of Azimuth and Elevation estimation by (a) SH-MUSIC (b)SH-MGD. Illustration of range and azimuth

estimation using (c) SH-MUSIC (d) SH-MGD. The sources are at (0.4m,60 ,30 ) and (0.5m,55 ,35 ) at SNR 10dB.

spectrum for near-field source localization

This section presents formulation of the proposed SH-MUSIC

spectrum for near-field source localization. Substituting the

expression for pressure from Equation 9 in Equation 3, the

steering matrix in Equation 2 can be written as

V(k) = Y()[B(r1 )yH (1 ), , B(rL )yH (L )] (17)

where Y() is I (N + 1)2 matrix. A particular ith row

vector can be written as

y(i ) = [Y00 (i ), Y11 (i ), Y10 (i ), Y11 (i ), . . . , YNN (i )]

(18)

and y(l ) is 1 (N + 1)2 vector with similar structure as in

Equation 18 with angle l , l = 1, 2, , L. The (N + 1)2

(N + 1)2 matrix B(rl ) is given by

B(rl ) = diag(b0 (k, r, rl ), b1 (k, r, rl ), b1 (k, r, rl ),

b1 (k, r, rl ), . . . , bN (k, r, rl ))

(19)

Dependency of B(rl ) on k and r is dropped for notational

simplicity. Substituting (17) in (1), multiplying both side by

YH () and utilizing Equation 7, the data model becomes

pnm (k, r) = YH ()Y()[B(r1 )yH (1 ), ,

B(rL )yH (L )]s(k) + nnm (k)

(20)

weights used in Equation 7 and

pnm = [p00 , p1(1) , p10 , p11 , , pN N ]T .

(21)

YH ()Y()

= I.

(22)

pnm (k, r) = [B(r1 )yH (1 ), , B(rL )yH (L )]s(k)

+ nnm (k)

(23)

where B(rs )yH (s ) is taken to be look-up steering vector.

The 3-Dimensional MUSIC spectrum in spherical harmonics

domain can now be written as

1

NS H

H

y(s )BH SNS

[S

pnm pnm ] By (s )

(24)

The search is performed over rs as in Equation 16 and over

s with (0 s , 0 s 2). SNS

pnm is noise subspace obtained from eigenvalue decomposition of autocorrelation matrix, Spnm , defined as

PM U SIC (rs , s ) =

(25)

(rs , s ) corresponds to source location owing to orthogonality between noise eigenvector and steering vector. Hence, a

peak is obtained in MUSIC spectrum.

2.4. Near-field source localization using Spherical Harmonic MUSIC-Group Delay (SH-MGD) spectrum

The SH-MUSIC utilizes the magnitude of y(s )BH SNS

pnm as

it is clear from Equation 24 . The phase spectrum of MUSIC

is utilized in [1316] for robust source localization. A sharp

change in unwrapped phase is seen at the Direction of Arrival

(DOA) [14, 16]. Hence, the negative differentiation of unwrapped phase spectrum (Group delay) results in peak at the

DOAs. In practice, abrupt changes can occur in the phase due

to small variations in the signal caused by microphone calibration errors. Hence, the group delay spectrum sometimes

may have spurious peaks. The product of MUSIC and Group

delay spectra, called MUSIC-Group delay, removes such spurious peaks and gives high resolution estimation. The Spherical Harmonics MUSIC-Group delay (SH-MGD) spectrum is

computed as

PM GD (rs , s ) = (

U

X

u=1

(26)

where U = (N + 1)2 L, is the gradient operator, arg(.)

indicates unwrapped phase, and qu represents the uth eigenvector of the noise subspace, SNS

pnm . The first term within (.)

is the group delay spectrum. The gradient is taken with respect to (rs , s , s ).

Figure 2 illustrates the performance of SH-MUSIC and

SH-MGD for range and bearing estimation using spherical

microphone array. The simulation was done considering open

sphere with two closely spaced sources at (0.4m,60 ,30 ),

(0.5m,55 ,35 ) and SNR 10dB. Figure 2(a) and 2(b) show

plots corresponding to elevation and azimuth estimation. It is

clear that SH-MGD exhibits higher resolving power. Plots in

Figure 2(c) and 2(d) show range and azimuth of the sources.

The high resolution of MGD is due to additive property of

group delay spectrum. The additive property is proved mathematically in our earlier work for ULA [16] and UCA [15].

While this is valid for spherical array also, the mathematical

proof is being developed.

2.5. The Spherical Harmonics MVDR (SH-MVDR) spectrum for range and bearing estimation

The conventional MVDR minimizes the contribution of interference impinging on the array from a DOA 6= s , while it

maintains certain gain in look direction s . On the similar

lines, the SH-MVDR spectrum for near-field source localization, can be written as

PM V DR (rs , s ) =

1

H

y(s )BH S1

pnm By (s )

(27)

3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

The proposed methods, SH-MUSIC, SH-MGD and SHMVDR are evaluated by conducting experiments on source

localization. The estimated range and bearing are tabulated at

various SNRs.

The proposed algorithm was tested in a room with dimensions, 7.3m 6.2m 3.4m. An Eigenmike microphone array [23] was used for the simulation. It consists of 32 microphones embedded in a rigid sphere of radius 4.2 cm. The

order of the array was taken to be N = 4. The source localization experiments are conducted at various SNR.

3.1. Experiments on source localization

Two sets of experiments were conducted. For the first experiment, two closely spaced narrowband sources were placed in

near-field region at (0.4m,60 ,30 ) and (0.4m,65 ,35 ). The

range of the sources was kept fixed at 0.4m. The experiments

were conducted at SNR 0dB and 8dB. The additive noise is

assumed to be zero mean Gaussian distributed. The mean

estimation for azimuth and elevation is presented in the first

part of the Table 1. In the second experiment, the sources

were positioned at (0.4m,60 ,30 ) and (0.5m,65 ,35 ). The

range and the azimuth were estimated at SNR 5dB and 10dB,

considering fixed elevation. The result shown in Table 1 is

obtained from 300 independent Monte Carlo trials. It is clear

that SH-MGD performs reasonably better than SH-MUSIC.

Both of these methods outperform MVDR.

Table 1. Localization experiments, Set 1 : SNR 0dB, 8dB for

fixed range. Set 2 : SNR 5dB, 10dB for fixed elevation

SNR

S

SH-MGD

SH-MUSIC

MVDR

S1 (60.46,29.82) (60.04,30.02) (58.35,29.22)

0dB

S2 (65.01,34.94) (65.00,35.00) (63.67,34.19)

S1 (60.00,29.96) (60.00,29.99) (61.15,29.33)

8dB

S2 (65.00,35.00) (65.00,35.00) (63.65,34.43)

S1 (0.416,29.91) (0.429,30.11) (0.367,29.26)

5dB

S2 (0.548,34.91) (0.560,34.49) (0.541,33.28)

S1 (0.409,30.00) (0.410,30.00) (0.406,30.06)

10dB

S2 (0.510,35.00) (0.514,35.00) (0.548,33.40)

4. CONCLUSION

In this work, 3-Dimensional SH-MUSIC, SH-MGD and SHMVDR are proposed for near-field source localization. Since

the phase spectrum of MUSIC is more robust to noise, the SHMGD indicates higher resolution. The proof of additive property of group delay in the spherical harmonics domain is currently being developed. The detailed relative performance of

SH-MUSIC and SH-MGD for closely spaced sources under

reverberation will be addressed in future work. The CramerRao bound for spherical harmonics is being developed for the

performance analysis of the proposed methods.

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