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Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the

earth from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package
of economic interest to the miner.
Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil
shale, gemstones, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay.
Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown
through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining
in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such
as petroleum, natural gas, or even water.
Mining of stone and metal has been done since pre-historic times. Modern mining
processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a
proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and finalreclamation of the land
after the mine is closed.
The nature of mining processes creates a potential negative impact on the environment
both during the mining operations and for years after the mine is closed. This impact
has led most of the world's nations to adopt regulations designed to moderate the
negative effects of mining operations. Safety has long been a concern as well, and
modern practices have improved safety in mines significantly.

History world

Since the beginning of civilization, people have used stone, ceramics and,
later, metals found close to the Earth's surface. These were used to make
early tools and weapons; for example, high quality flint found in northern France and
southern England was used to create flint tools. Flint mines have been found
in chalk areas where seams of the stone were followed underground by shafts and
galleries. The mines at Grimes Graves are especially famous, and like most other flint
mines, are Neolithic in origin (ca 4000 BC-ca 3000 BC). Other hard rocks mined or
collected for axes included the greenstone of the Langdale axe industry based in
the English Lake District.
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The oldest known mine on archaeological record is the "Lion Cave" in Swaziland,
which radiocarbon dating shows to be about 43,000 years old. At this
site paleolithic humans minedhematite to make the red pigment ochre. Mines of a
similar age in Hungary are believed to be sites where Neanderthals may have
mined flint for weapons and tools
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Introduction[edit]
The tradition of mining in the region is ancient and underwent modernization
alongside the rest of the world as India gained independence in 1947. The economic
reforms of 1991 and the 1993 National Mining Policy further helped the growth of the
mining sector. India's minerals range from both metallic and nonmetallic types. The metallic minerals compriseferrous and non-ferrous minerals,
while the nonmetallic minerals comprise mineral fuels, precious stones, among
others.
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D.R. Khullar holds that mining in India depends on over 3,100 mines, out of which
over 550 are fuel mines, over 560 are mines for metals, and over 1970 are mines for
extraction of nonmetals. The figure given by S.N. Padhi is: 'about 600 coal mines, 35
oil projects and 6,000 metalliferous mines of different sizes employing over one
million persons on a daily average basis.' Both open cast mining and underground
mining operations are carried out and drilling/pumping is undertaken for extracting
liquid or gaseous fuels. The country produces and works with roughly 100 minerals,
which are an important source for earning foreign exchange as well as satisfying
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domestic needs. India also exports iron ore, titanium,manganese, bauxite, granite,
and imports cobalt, mercury, graphite etc.
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Unless controlled by other departments of the Government of India mineral resources


of the country are surveyed by the Indian Ministry of Mines, which also regulates the
manner in which these resources are used. The ministry oversees the various aspects
of industrial mining in the country. Both the Geological Survey of India and
the Indian Bureau of Mines are also controlled by the ministry. Natural
gas, petroleum and atomic minerals are exempt from the various activities of the
Indian Ministry of Mines.
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Mining history india

Flint was known and exploited by the inhabitants of the Indus Valley
Civilization by the 3rd millennium BCE. P. Biagi and M. Cremaschi of Milan
University discovered a number ofHarappan quarries in archaeological excavations
dating between 1985-1986. Biagi (2008) describes the quarries: 'From the surface the
quarries consisted of almost circular empty areas, representing the quarrypits, filled
with aeolian sand, blown from the Thar Desert dunes, and heaps of limestone block,
deriving from the prehistoric mining activity. All around these structures flint
workshops were noticed, represented by scatters of flint flakes and blades among
which were typical Harappan-elongated blade cores and characteristic bullet cores
with very narrow bladelet detachments.' Between 1995 and 1998, Accelerator mass
spectrometry radiocarbon dating dating of Zyzyphus cf. nummularia charcoal found in
the quarries has yielded evidence that the activity continued into 1870-1800 BCE.
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Minerals subsequently found mention in Indian literature. George Robert Rappon


the subject of minerals mentioned in India's literatureholds that:
Sanskrit texts mention the use of bitumen, rock salt, yellow
orpiment, chalk, alum, bismuth, calamine, realgar, stibnite, saltpeter, cinnabar, arsenic
, sulphur, yellow and red ochre, black sand, and red clay in prescriptions. Among the
metals used were gold, silver, copper, mercury, iron, iron ores, pyrite, tin,
and brass. Mercury appeared to have been the most frequently used, and is called by
several names in the texts. No source for mercury or its ores has been located.
Leading to the suggestion that it may have been imported.
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