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IbnTaymiyyah
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

TaqadDnAmadibnTaymiyyah(borninHarran,
Islamicscholar,Islamicphilosopher
January22,1263diedinDamascus,September20,
1328attheageof65),fullname:TaqadDnAbu'l
IbnTaymiyyah
`AbbsAmadibn`Abdalalmibn`AbdasSalm
Title
SheikhulIslam
IbnTaymiyyahalarrn(Arabic:
Born
10Rabi'alawwal661AH,or

),wasa
January22,1263CE[1]
SunniIslamicscholar(alim),SunniIslamicphilosopher,
Sunnitheologianandlogician.Helivedduringthe
Died
20DhualQi'dah728AH,or
troubledtimesoftheMongolinvasions.Hewasa
September26,1328(aged64
memberoftheschoolfoundedbyAhmadibnHanbal,
65)[2]
andisconsideredbyhisfollowers,alongwithIbn
Qudamah,asoneofthetwomostsignificantproponents
Damascus[1]
ofHanbalisminthemodernera,hisadherentsoften
Era
HighMiddleAges
refertothetwoas"thetwosheikhs"andIbnTaymiyyah
Region
MiddleEasternScholar
inparticularas"SheikhulIslam".[5][6]IbnTaymiyyah
wasnotableforhavingsoughtthereturnofSunniIslam
Denomination SunniIslam
towhatheviewedasearlierinterpretationsoftheQur'an
Jurisprudence Hanbali
andtheSunnah,andisconsideredtohavehad
Creed
Athari
considerableinfluenceincontemporaryWahhabism,
Salafism,andJihadism.[7][8]Heisrenownedforhisfatwa Influencedby
(takfir)issuedagainsttheMongolrulersdeclaringjihad
Influenced
byMuslimsagainstthemcompulsory,onthegrounds
thattheydidnotfollowShariaandassuchwerenot
Muslim,theirclaimstohaveconvertedtoIslamnotwithstanding.[9][7]Histeachingshadaprofound
influenceontheMuhammadibnAbdalWahhab,andotherlaterSunnischolars.

Contents
1Biography
1.1Death
2Views
2.1God'sattributes
2.2Mongolinvasionandotherstruggles
2.3Jihad
2.4Madh'hab
2.5NonMuslims
2.6Sufism
2.7Mosques
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2.8Analogicalreasoning
2.9Economicviews
3Works
4References
5Furtherreading
6Externallinks

Biography
IbnTaymiyyawasbornin1263inHarrantownofanlurfaprovinceofmoderndayTurkeyintoawell
knownfamilyoftheologiansanddiedinDamascus,Syria,outsideoftheMuslimcemetery.His
grandfather,AbualBarkatMajdadDinibnTaymiyyahalHanbali(d.1255)wasareputableteacherofthe
Hanbalischooloflaw.Likewise,thescholarlyachievementsofibnTaymiyyah'sfather,Shihabaldeen
'AbdalHaleemibnTaymiyyah(d.1284)werewellknown.BecauseoftheMongolinvasion,ibn
Taymiyyah'sfamilymovedtoDamascusin1268,whichwasthenruledbytheMamluksofEgypt.Itwas
herethathisfatherdeliveredsermonsfromthepulpitoftheUmayyadMosque,andIbnTaymiyyah
followedinhisfootstepsbystudyingwiththescholarsofhistime.
IbnTaymiyyahacquaintedhimselfwiththesecularandreligioussciencesofhistime.Hedevotedattention
toArabicliteratureandlexicographyaswellasstudyingmathematicsandcalligraphy.
Asforthereligioussciences,hestudiedjurisprudencefromhisfatherandbecamearepresentativeofthe
Hanbalischoolofthought.Thoughheremainedfaithfulthroughouthislifetothatschool,whosedoctrines
hehadmastered,healsoacquiredaknowledgeoftheIslamicdisciplinesoftheQur'anandtheHadith.He
alsostudiedtheology(kalam),philosophy,andSufism.[10]HewrotepolemicsagainstChristiansand
Sufis.[11]HisstudentIbnQayyimAlJawziyyawrotethefamouspoem"OChristWorshipper"which
examinedthedogmaoftheTrinitypropoundedbymanyChristiansects.
HistroubleswithgovernmentbeganwhenhewentwithadelegationofulamatotalktoGhazanKhan,the
KhanoftheMongolIlkhansinIran,tostophisattackontheMuslims.Itisreportedthatnoneoftheulama
daredtosayanythingtotheKhanexceptIbnTaymiyyahwhosaid:
"YouclaimthatyouareMuslimandyouhavewithyouMu'adhdhins,Muftis,Imamsand
Shaykhsbutyouinvadedusandreachedourcountryforwhat?Whileyourfatherandyour
grandfather,Hulaguwerenonbelievers,theydidnotattackandtheykepttheirpromise.But
youpromisedandbrokeyourpromise."[12]
IbnTaymiyawasimprisonedseveraltimesforconflictingwiththeijmaofjuristsandtheologiansofhis
day.HespenthislastfifteenyearsinDamascus.Themostfamousofhisstudents,IbnQayyim,wasto
shareinIbnTaymiyyah'srenewedpersecutions.FromAugust1320toFebruary1321IbnTaymiyyahwas
imprisonedonordersfromCairointhecitadelofDamascusforsupportingadoctrinethatwouldcurtailthe
easewithwhichaMuslimmancoulddivorcehiswife.
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Death
Whenhewasultimatelybannedfromhavinganybooks,furtherchargesofheresywerebroughtagainstIbn
Taymiyyaforhisassertionthatadivorcepronouncedininnovativefashiondoesnottakeeffect,againstthe
consensusofthescholarswhichstipulatedthatitdoes,thoughinnovative.Afterspendingtheyears131921
injail,hewasjailedagainin1326untilhisdeathtwoyearslaterfordeclaringthatonewhotravelstovisit
theProphet'sgravecommitsinnovation(bidah).HewasburiedintheSuficemeteryinDamascuswhere
othermembersofhisfamilyhadbeenburiedbeforehim.[13][14]HisstudentalDhahabipraisedhimlavishly
as"thebrilliantshaykh,imam,eruditescholar,censor,jurist,mujtahid,andcommentatoroftheQur'an,"but
acknowledgedthatIbnTaymiyya'sdisparagingmannersalienatedevenhisadmirers.Forexample,the
grammarianAbuHayyanalGharnatipraisedIbnTaymiyyauntilhefoundoutthathebelievedhimselfa
greaterexpertintheArabiclanguagethanSibawayh,whereuponhedisassociatedhimselffromhisprevious
praise.IbnTaymiyyah'sadmirersoftendeemedhimasSheikhulIslam,anhonorifictitlewithwhichheis
sometimesstilltermedtoday.[15][16][17]Hemaybeconsideredattherootofmanylaterreformist
movements,particularlytheAlWahhabiyyaandlaterradicalIslamist.[18]

Views
God'sattributes
IbnTaymiyyahwasaccusedbyhisopponentsofbeing
anthropomorphicinhisstancetowardsNamesandAttributesof
God.However,inhiscelebratedworkAlAqidahAlWaasitiyyah,
IbnTaymiyyahrefutesthestanceoftheMushabbihah(thosewho
likenthecreationwithGod:anthropomorphism)andthosewho
deny,negate,andresorttoallegorical/metaphoricalinterpretations
oftheDivineNamesandAttributes.Hecontendsthatthe
methodologyoftheSalafistotakethemiddlepathbetweenthe
extremesofanthropomorphismandnegation/distortion.[19]He
furtherstatesthattheSalafaffirmedalltheNamesandAttributesof
Godwithouttashbih(establishinglikeness),takyeef(speculatingas
to"how"theyaremanifestedinthedivine),tateel
(negating/denyingtheirapparentmeaning)andwithouttaweel
(givingitsecondary/symbolicmeaningwhichisdifferentfromthe
apparentmeaning).IbnTaymiyyah'shighlyintellectualdiscourseat
explaining"TheWisePurposeofGod,HumanAgency,andthe
ProblemsofEvil&Justice"usingGod'sattributesasameanshas
beenillustratedbyDr.JonHooverinhiswork"IbnTaymiyyah's
TheodicyofPerpetualOptimism".[20]

ImageofGhazanKhan,ahistorical
figureharshlyrebukedbyIbn
Taymiyyah,mainlyduetohisconstant
stateofhostilitytowardstheMamluks
ofEgypt.

Mongolinvasionandotherstruggles
WhathasbeencalledIbnTaymiyyah's"mostfamous"fatw[9]wasissuedagainsttheMongolsinthe
Mamluk'swar.IbnTaymiyyahdeclaredthatjihadupontheMongolswasnotonlypermissible,but
obligatory.HebasedthisrulinghisargumentthattheMongolscouldnot,inhisopinion,betrueMuslims
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despitethefactthattheyhadconvertedtoSunniIslambecausetheyruledusingwhatheconsidered'man
madelaws'(theirtraditionalYassacode)ratherthanIslamiclaworSharia.Becauseofthis,hereasoned
theywerelivinginastateofjahiliyyah,orpreIslamicpaganignorance.[21][7]
Apartfromthat,heledtheresistanceoftheMongolinvasionofDamascusin1300.Intheyearsthat
followed,IbnTaymiyyahwasengagedinintensivepolemicactivityagainst:
1. theRifa'iSufiorder,
2. theittihadiyahschool,aschoolthatgrewoutoftheteachingofIbnArabi,whoseviewswerewidely
denouncedasheretical.
In1306IbnTaymiyyahwasimprisonedinthecitadelofCairoforeighteenmonthsonthechargeof
anthropomorphism.Hewasincarceratedagainin1308forseveralmonths.
In2010agroupofIslamicScholarsinMardinarguedthatIbnTaymiyya'sfatwawasmisprintedintoan
orderto"fight"therulerwhoisnotapplyingIslamiclaw,butratheritmeansto"treat."[22]Theyhavebased
theirunderstandingontheoriginalmanuscriptintheAlZahiriyahLibrary,andthetransmissionbyIbn
Taymiyya'sstudentIbnMuflih.[23]

Jihad
IbnTaymiyyahwasnotedforemphasisheputontheimportanceofjihad.Hewrotethat
Itisinjihadthatonecanliveanddieinultimatehappiness,bothinthisworldandinthe
Hereafter.Abandoningitmeanslosingentirelyorpartiallybothkindsofhappiness.`(p.254)[24]
Hegaveabroaddefinitionofwhatconstituted`aggression`againstMuslimsandwhatactionsbynon
believersmadejihadpermissible.Hedeclared
Itisallowedtofightpeoplefor[notobserving]unambiguousandgenerallyrecognized
obligationsandprohibitions,untiltheyundertaketoperformtheexplicitlyprescribedprayers,
topayzakat,tofastduringthemonthofRamadan,tomakethepilgrimagetoMeccaandto
avoidwhatisprohibited,suchasmarryingwomeninspiteoflegalimpediments,eatingimpure
things,actingunlawfullyagainstthelivesandpropertiesofMuslimsandthelike.Itis
obligatorytotaketheinitiativeinfightingthosepeople,assoonastheProphet'ssummonswith
thereasonsforwhichtheyarefoughthasreachedthem.ButiftheyfirstattacktheMuslims
thenfightingthemisevenmoreurgent,aswehavementionedwhendealingwiththefighting
againstrebelliousandaggressivebandits.`[25][26]

Madh'hab

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IbnTaymiyyahcensuredthescholarsforblindlyconformingtotheprecedenceofearlyjuristswithoutany
resorttotheQur'anandSunnah.Hecontendedthatalthoughjuridicalprecedencehasitsplace,blindly
givingitauthoritywithoutcontextualization,sensitivitytosocietal
changes,andevaluativemindsetinlightoftheQur'anandSunnah
canleadtoignoranceandstagnancyinIslamicLaw.Ibn
TaymiyyahlikenedtheextremismofTaqlid(blindconformityto
juridicalprecedenceorschoolofthought)tothepracticeofJews
andChristianswhotooktheirrabbisandecclesiasticsasgods
besidesGod.
IbnTaymiyyahheldthatmuchoftheIslamicscholarshipofhis
timehaddeclinedintomodesthatwereinherentlyagainstthe
properunderstandingoftheQur'anandtheSunnah.Hestroveto:
1. revivetheIslamicfaith'sunderstandingoftrueadherenceto
Tawhid,
2. eradicatebeliefsandcustomsthatheheldtobeforeignto
Islam,and
3. torejuvenatecorrectIslamicthoughtanditsrelatedsciences.

IbnTaymiyyahwitnessedconversions
toIslamasagrowingtrendamong
manyMongols.

IbnTaymiyyahbelievedthatthefirstthreegenerationsofIslam(Salaf)Muhammad,hiscompanions,and
thefollowersofthecompanionsfromtheearliestgenerationsofMuslimswerethebestrolemodelsfor
Islamiclife.Theirpractice,togetherwiththeQur'an,constitutedaseeminglyinfallibleguidetolife.Any
deviationfromtheirpracticewasviewedasbidah,orinnovation,andtobeforbidden.Healsopraisedand
wroteacommentaryonsomeofthespeechesofAbdulQadirGilani.[27]Hecriticizedtheviewsandactions
oftheRafaiyah.

NonMuslims
IbnTaymiyyahstronglyopposedborrowingfromChristianityorothernonMuslimreligions.InhistextOn
theNecessityoftheStraightPath(kitabiqtidaalsiratalmustaqim)hepreachedthatthebeginningof
Muslimlifewasthepointatwhich"aperfectdissimilaritywiththenonMuslimshasbeenachieved."To
thisendheopposedthecelebrationoftheobservanceofthebirthdayoftheIslamicprophetMuhammador
theconstructionofmosquesaroundthetombsofSufisaintssaying:"Manyofthem[theMuslims]donot
evenknowoftheChristianoriginsofthesepractices."[28]

Sufism
IbnTaymiyyahrejectedtwoviewsassociatedwithSufism.ForonehesaidthatsomeSufisinsultedGod
withtheirmonismadoctrine(seeminglysimilartopantheism)thatGod"encompassesallthings".[11]This
rejectionincludeddenouncingtheviewsofthemonistIbnArabi.[29]Forthesecondhesaidthattheview
thatspiritualenlightenmentisofagreaterimportancethanobeyingtheshariawasafailuretoproperly
followtheexampleofMuhammad(seeAntinomianism#Islam).[11]HenriLaousthoweversays,"Henever
condemnedfisminitself,butonlythatwhichheconsideredtobe,inthecaseoftoomanyfis,
inadmissibledeviationsindoctrine,ritualormorals."[30]
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Mosques
IbnTaymiyyahopposedgivinganyunduereligioushonorstomosques(eventhatofJerusalem,theAl
AqsaMosque),toapproachorrivalinanywaytheIslamicsanctityofthetwomostholymosqueswithin
Islam,MasjidalHaram(inMecca)andAlMasjidalNabawi(inMadina).[31]
IbnTaymiyyaheulogizedtheGhaznavidruler,statingthat:
HecommandedthatAhlulBidah(thepeopleofreligiousinnovation)bepubliclycondemnedin
sermonsfromtheminbars(pulpits)and,asaresult,theJahmiyyah,Hulooliyah,Mu'tazilah,and
Qadariyahwereallpubliclydenounced,alongwiththeAsharites.[32]

Analogicalreasoning
Later,IbnTaymiyyaharguedagainstthecertaintyofsyllogisticargumentsandinfavourofanalogy(qiyas).
Hearguesthatconceptsfoundedoninductionarethemselvesnotcertainbutonlyprobable,andthusa
syllogismbasedonsuchconceptsisnomorecertainthananargumentbasedonanalogy.Hefurther
claimedthatinductionitselfdependsonaprocessofanalogy.Hismodelofanalogicalreasoningwasbased
onthatofjuridicalarguments.[33][34]WorkbyJohnF.SowahasusedIbnTaymiyyah'smodelof
analogy.[34]

Economicviews
Heelaboratedacircumstantialanalysisofthemarketmechanism,withatheoreticalinsightunusualinhis
time.Hisdiscoursesonthewelfareadvantagesanddisadvantagesofmarketregulationandderegulation,
haveanalmostcontemporaryringtothem.[35]
IbnTaymiyyahcommentingonthepowerofsupplyanddemand:
"Ifdesireforgoodsincreaseswhileitsavailabilitydecreases,itspricerises.Ontheotherhand,
ifavailabilityofthegoodincreasesandthedesireforitdecreases,thepricecomesdown."[36]

Works
IbnTaymiyyahleftaconsiderablebodyofwork(350workslistedbyhisstudentIbnQayyimAl
Jawziyya[37]and500byhisstudentalDhahabi[38])thathasbeenrepublishedextensivelyinSyria,Egypt,
Arabia,andIndia.ExtantbooksandessayswrittenbyibnTaymiyyahinclude:
AGreatCompilationofFatwa(MajmualFatwaalKubra)Thiswascollectedcenturiesafterhis
death,andcontainsseveraloftheworksmentionedbelow.
MinhajasSunnahanNabawiyyah(ThePathwayofasSunnahanNabawiyyah)Volumes1
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4.[39]
AlAqidahAlWaasitiyyah(TheCreedtothePeopleofWsi)
Dartarualaqlwaalnaql(Therejectionoftheconflictbetweenreasonandrevelation)10
Volumes.AlsocalledAlMuwfaqa("harmony").
Majmoo'alFatawa(CompilationofFatawa)Volumes136
alAqeedahAlHamawiyyah(TheCreedtothePeopleofHama,Syria)
alAsmawa'sSifaat(Allah'sNamesandAttributes)Volumes12
'alIman(Faith)
AlJawabasSahihlimanBaddalaDinalMasih(Literally,"TheCorrectResponsetothosewhohave
CorruptedtheDeen(Religion)oftheMessiah"AMuslimtheologian'sresponsetoChristianity)
sevenvolumes,overathousandpages.
asSarimalMaslulalaShatimarRasulTheDrawnSwordagainstthosewhoinsultthe
Messenger.WritteninresponsetoanincidentinwhichIbnTaymiyyahheardaChristianinsulting
Muhammad.Thebookiswellknownbecausehewroteitentirelybymemory,whileinjail,and
quotingmorethanhundredsofreferences.[40]
FatawaalKubra
FatawaalMisriyyah
arRadd'alaalMantiqiyyin(RefutationofGreekLogicians)
NaqdatTa'sis
alUboodiyyah(SubjectiontoGod)
Iqtida'asSiratalMustaqim'(FollowingTheStraightPath)
alSiyasaalshar'iyya
atTawassulwalWaseela
SharhFutuhalGhayb(CommentaryonRevelationsoftheUnseenbyAbdulQadirGilani)
SomeofhisotherworkshavebeentranslatedtoEnglish.Theyinclude:
TheFriendsofAllahandtheFriendsofShaytan
KitabalIman:TheBookofFaith
DiseasesoftheHeartsandtheirCures
TheRelieffromDistress
FundamentalsofEnjoiningGood&ForbiddingEvil
TheConciseLegacy
TheGoodlyWord
TheMadinanWay
IbnTaymiyyaagainsttheGreeklogicians
MuslimsUnderNonMuslimRule
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References
1. ^ab"IbnTaymiyya,TaqialDin(661728AH)/(12631328CE)"
(http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ip/rep/H039.htm).Muslimphilosophy.com.Retrieved20100609.
2. ^"IbnTaymiyyah:ProfileandBiography"
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3. ^MountainsofKnowledge,pg222
4. ^http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/John_F._Sowa.html
5. ^AbuZaydBakrbinAbdullah,MadkhalalmufassalilafiqhalImamAhmadibnHanbalwatakhrijatalashab.
Riyadh:Daral'Aminah,2007
6. ^Reynolds,GabrieldSaid(2012).TheEmergenceofIslam:Classicaltraditionsincontemporaryperspective.
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7. ^abcKepel,Gilles,TheProphetandthePharaoh,(2003),p.194
8. ^Kepel,Gilles(2003).Jihad:TheTrailofPoliticalIslam(http://books.google.com/books?
id=OLvTNk75hUoC&pg=PA318&dq=kepel+ibn+taymiyya&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1d_iU6CCA4qXyATawYHgBg&v
ed=0CEgQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=kepel%20ibn%20taymiyya&f=false).
9. ^abJanin,Hunt.Islamiclaw:theShariafromMuhammad'stimetothepresentbyHuntJaninandAndre
Kahlmeyer,McFarlandandCo.Publishers,2007p.79
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12. ^"SCHOLARSBIOGRAPHIES\8thCentury\ShaykhalIslaamIbnTaymiyyah"(http://www.fatwa
online.com/scholarsbiographies/8thcentury/ibntaymiyyah.htm).Fatwaonline.com.Retrieved20100609.
13. ^GeorgeMakdisi,ASufioftheQadiriyaOrder,p123.
14. ^JuanEduardoCampo,EncyclopediaofIslam,p340.ISBN1438126964
15. ^R.HrairDekmejian,Islaminrevolution:fundamentalismintheArabworld,pg.40.PartoftheContemporary
issuesintheMiddleEastseries.SyracuseUniversityPress,1995.ISBN9780815626350
16. ^IndexofAlQaedainitsownwords,pg.360.Eds.GillesKepelandJeanpierreMilelli.HarvardUniversity
Press,2008.ISBN9780674028043
17. ^DavidBukay,FromMuhammadtoBinLaden:ReligiousandIdeologicalSourcesoftheHomicideBombers
Phenomenon,pg.194.TransactionPublishers,2011.ISBN9781412809139
18. ^"HehasstronglyinfluencedmodernIslamforthelasttwocenturies.HeisthesourceoftheWahhbyah,a
strictlytraditionistmovementfoundedbyMuammadibnAbdalWahhb(died1792),whotookhisideasfrom
IbnTaymiyyahswritings.IbnTaymiyyahalsoinfluencedvariousreformmovementsthathaveposedthe
problemofreformulatingtraditionalideologiesbyareturntosources.[1]
(http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/280847/IbnTaymiyyah)

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19. ^IbnTaymiyyah.SharhAlAqeedatIlWasitiyah(http://www.scribd.com/doc/24706466/SharhAlAqeedatIl
Wasitiyah).DarusSalamPublications."ThefollowersofAhlusSunnahwalJama'ahoccupyamoderateposition
betweentheAhlutTa'teel(Jahmiyyah)andAhlutTamtheel(Mushabbiha),andaremoderatebetweenthe
JabariyahsectandtheQadariyahsectregardingtheActsofAllah,andaremoderateaboutthePromisesofAllah
betweentheMurji'ahandtheWa'eediyahsectsamongQadariyahandaremoderateonmattersoftheFaithand
namesofthereligionbetweentheHarooriyahandMu'tazilah,andbetweentheMurji'ahandJahmiyahandare
moderateregardingtheCompanionsoftheProphet,peaceandblessingsbeuponhim,betweentheWa'eediyah
andtheKhawarij."
20. ^Hoover,Jon(2007).IbnTaymiyya'sTheodicyofPerpetualOptimism(http://www.brill.nl/ibntaymiyyas
theodicyperpetualoptimism)([OnlineAusg.].ed.).Leiden:Brill.pp.xii,276.ISBN9789004158474.
21. ^"TaqialDeenAhmadIbnTaymiyya"(http://www.pwhce.org/taymiyyah.html).Pwhce.org.Retrieved
20100609.
22. ^alTurayri,,ShaykhAbdalWahhab."TheMardinConferenceUnderstandingIbnTaymiyyahsFatwa"
(http://muslimmatters.org/2010/06/29/themardinconference%E2%80%93adetailedaccount/).MuslimMatters.
Retrieved29May2011.
23. ^"Areligiousbasisforviolencemisreadsoriginalprinciples"
(http://www.thenational.ae/thenationalconversation/comment/areligiousbasisforviolencemisreadsoriginal
principles).thenational.ae.Retrieved20121004.
24. ^Peters,Rudolph(1996).JihadinClassicalandModernIslam:AReader.Princeton:MarcusWiener.p.48.
25. ^DeLongBas,NatanaJ.(2004).WahhabiIslam:FromRevivalandReformtoGlobalJihad(Firsted.).New
York:OxfordUniversityPress,USA.pp.2523.ISBN0195169913.
26. ^Peters,Rudolph(1996).JihadinClassicalandModernIslam:AReader.Princeton:MarcusWiener.p.52.
27. ^G.F.Haddad(19960320)."IBNTAYMIYYAONFUTOOHALGHAYBANDSUFISM"
(http://www.abc.se/~m9783/n/itaysf_e.html).Retrieved20110324.
28. ^Muhammad`UmarMemon,IbnTaymiyya'sStruggleagainstPopularReligion,withanannotatedtranslation
ofKitabIqitada,theHague,(1976)p.78,210
29. ^Laoust1986,p.92.
30. ^Laoust,H.(1986)."IbnTaymiyya".InLewis,B.Mnage,V.L.Pellat,Ch.etal.EncyclopediaofIslam3(2
ed.).Leiden:Brill.p.953.ISBN9004081186.
31. ^"AMuslimIconoclast(IbnTaymiyyeh)onthe'Merits'ofJerusalemandPalestine",byCharlesD.Matthews,
JournaloftheAmericanOrientalSociety,volume56(1935),pp.121.[IncludesArabictextofmanuscriptofIbn
Taymiyya'sshortworkQa'idafiZiyaratBaytilMaqdis]
32. ^alJasim,pg.155
33. ^RuthMas(1998)."Qiyas:AStudyinIslamicLogic"
(http://www.colorado.edu/ReligiousStudies/faculty/mas/LOGIC.pdf).FoliaOrientalia34:113128.ISSN0015
5675(https://www.worldcat.org/issn/00155675).
34. ^abJohnF.SowaArunK.Majumdar(2003)."ConceptualStructuresforKnowledgeCreationand
Communication,ProceedingsofICCS2003"(http://www.jfsowa.com/pubs/analog.htm).Berlin:SpringerVerlag.
|chapter=ignored(help),pp.1636

35. ^Baeck,Louis(1994).TheMediterraneantraditionineconomicthought.Routledge.p.99.ISBN041509301
5.
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36. ^Hosseini,HamidS.(2003)."ContributionsofMedievalMuslimScholarstotheHistoryofEconomicsand
theirImpact:ARefutationoftheSchumpeterianGreatGap".InBiddle,JeffE.Davis,JonB.Samuels,Warren
J.ACompaniontotheHistoryofEconomicThought.Malden,MA:Blackwell.p.28.
doi:10.1002/9780470999059.ch3(http://dx.doi.org/10.1002%2F9780470999059.ch3).ISBN0631225730
37. ^"IbnTaimiyah"(http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/introduction/wasiti/taimiyah_3.html#HEADING3).Usc.edu.
Retrieved20100609.
38. ^M.M.Sharif,AHistoryofMuslimPhilosophy,PakistanPhilosophicalCongress,p.798
39. ^See"IbnTaymiyyasCritiqueofShImmology.TranslationofThreeSectionsofhis"MinhjalSunna",by
YahyaMichot,TheMuslimWorld,104/12(2014),pp.109149.
40. ^"IbnTaymiyyahwrotetheentirebookasSarimalMaslulfrommemory!"
(http://iskandrani.wordpress.com/2008/02/07/ibntaymiyyahwrotetheentirebookassarimalmaslulfrom
memory/).Iskandrani.wordpress.com.20080207.Retrieved20100609.

Furtherreading
Kepel,GillesMuslimextremisminEgypt:TheProphetandpharaoh.Withanewprefacefor2003.
TranslatedfromFrenchbyJonRothschild.Berkeley&LosAngeles:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,
2003.Seepp.194199.
Little,DonaldP."DidIbnTaymiyyahaveascrewloose?",StudiaIslamica,1975,Number41,
pp.93111.
Makdisi,G."IbnTaymiyya:ASufioftheQadiriyaOrder",AmericanJournalofArabicStudies,
1973
Sivan,EmmanuelRadicalIslam:Medievaltheologyandmodernpolitics.Enlargededition.New
Haven&London:YaleUniversityPress,1990.Seepp.94107.
Michot,YahyaIbnTaymiyya:AgainstExtremisms.Textstranslated,annotatedandintroduced.
WithaforewordbyBruceB.LAWRENCE.Beirut&Paris:Albouraq,2012,xxxii&334p.EAN
9782841615551.
Michot,YahyaIbnTaymiyya:MuslimsundernonMuslimRule.Textstranslated,annotatedand
presentedinrelationtosixmodernreadingsoftheMardinfatwa.ForewordbyJamesPiscatori.
Oxford&London:InterfacePublications,2006.ISBN0955454522.
Michot,YahyaIbnTaymiyyasNewMardinFatwa.IsgeneticallymodifiedIslam(GMI)
carcinogenic?,in"TheMuslimWorld",101/2,April2011,pp.130181.
Michot,YahyaFromalMamntoIbnSabn,viaAvicenna:IbnTaymiyyasHistoriographyof
Falsafa,inF.OPWIS&D.REISMAN(eds.),"IslamicPhilosophy,Science,Culture,andReligion".
StudiesinHonorofDimitriGutas(LeidenBoston:Brill,2012),pp.453475.
Michot,YahyaBetweenEntertainmentandReligion:IbnTaymiyyasViewsonSuperstition,in
"TheMuslimWorld",99/1,January2009,pp.120.
Michot,YahyaMisledandMisleadingYetCentralintheirInfluence:IbnTaymiyyasViewson
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Taymiyyah

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IbnTaymiyyahWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

theIkhwnalSaf,in"TheIkhwnalSafandtheirRasil.AnIntroduction".EditedbyNader
ELBIZRI.ForewordbyFarhadDAFTARY(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,inassociationwiththe
InstituteofIsmailiStudies,EpistlesoftheBrethrenofPurity),2008,pp.139179.
Michot,YahyaIbnTaymiyyasCommentaryontheCreedofalHallj,inA.SHIHADEH(ed.),
"SufismandTheology"(Edinburgh,EdinburghUniversityPress,2007),pp.123136.
Michot,YahyaAMamlkTheologiansCommentaryonAvicennas"RislaAawiyya".Beinga
TranslationofaPartofthe"DaralTaru"ofIbnTaymiyya,withIntroduction,Annotation,and
Appendices,PartI,in"JournalofIslamicStudies",14:2,Oxford,2003,pp.149203.
Michot,YahyaAMamlkTheologiansCommentaryonAvicennas"RislaAawiyya".Beinga
TranslationofaPartofthe"DaralTaru"ofIbnTaymiyya,withIntroduction,Annotation,and
Appendices,PartII,in"JournalofIslamicStudies",14:3,Oxford,2003,pp.309363.
Michot,YahyaIbnTaymiyyaonAstrology.AnnotatedTranslationofThreeFatwas,in"Journalof
IslamicStudies",11/2,Oxford,May2000,pp.147208.
Michot,YahyaIbnTaymiyyasCritiqueofShImmology.TranslationofThreeSectionsofhis
"MinhjalSunna",in"TheMuslimWorld",104/12,Hartford,Jan.April2014,pp.109149.
Michot,YahyaAnImportantReaderofalGhazl:IbnTaymiyya,in"TheMuslimWorld",103/1,
Hartford,January2013,pp.131160.

Externallinks
BritannicaConciseEncyclopedia
(http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=393043)
FatwaofMardinbyIbnTaymiyya

Wikisourcehasoriginal
textrelatedtothisarticle:
Author:IbnTaymiyyah
ArabicWikisourcehas
originaltextrelatedtothis
article:
IbnTaymiyyah

(http://www.academia.edu/2764324/George_Grigore._The_Historical_Context_of_Fatwa_of_Mardin
_given_by_Ibn_Taymiyya_1st_International_Symposium_of_Mardin_History_Papers._Imak_Ofset_
Basim_Yayin_Istanbul._2006_343351)
BooksbyIbnTaymiyyah(http://balagha.net/authors/ibntaymiyyah)
Collectionofinternetarticles/resources(http://abdurrahman.org/scholars/IbnTaimiyyah.html)
TheLife,Struggles,WorksandImpactofShaikhulIslamIbnTaymiyyah
(http://www.qsep.com/modules.php?name=assunnah&d_op=viewarticle&aid=183)
ShaykhulIslamIbnTaymiyyah'slettersfromprison
(http://muslimways.com/library/miscellaneous/ibntaymiyyahslettersfromprison.html)
BetweenShaykulIslaamIbnTaymiyyahandContemporaryTakfirisOnTheIssueofRebellion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Taymiyyah

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AgainstTyrannyandInjustice(http://muslimways.com/library/guardyourfaith/rebellionagainst
tyrannyandinjustice.html)
DiagramofteachersandstudentsofIbnTaymiyah(http://www.happybooks.co.uk/muhammadibn
abdullahlineageandfamilytree/studentssheikhsandteachersoffamousmuslimimamsand
scholarsinmuslimhistory.php?id=618)
Retrievedfrom"http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ibn_Taymiyyah&oldid=634047639"
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