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Laboratory 5

Determination of Friction Factor in Pipe Flow

Prepared For:
Sayed Abedin CEE 367L
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering
University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Prepared By:
Group Poseidon
JaLynn Zito (Data Collected 10% & Calculations 15%, Objectives
5%, Conclusions and Recommendations 10%, & Questions 10%))
Tyla Treasure (Discussion of Results and Errors 25%, Executive
Summary 15% and Lab Procedure 10%))
Farid

Date Laboratory Performed: October 4, 2013


Date Submitted: October 18, 2013

Executive Summary
Friction loss is the loss of energy that occurs in pipe flow due to the viscous effects generated by
the surface of the pipe. In this experiment, the frictional headloss is determined in a PVC and
copper pipes of different diameters. The friction factor is a function of the pipes roughness and
Reynolds number, it can be determined by with various equations (Darcy-Weisbach) depending
on the type of flow and graphically using the Moody Diagram. Although the friction factor can
be found with these equations, it is still important to experimentally determine these values for
real world cases due to the uncertainty of the pipes actual material composition. In this
experiment, copper and PVC pipes of 1, .75 and .5 diameters are tested each with 5 different
trials on the Scott Flow Apparatus. The data showed direct proportionality with friction factor
and head loss; as the friction factor increases, the total head loss in the pipe also increases. The
results yielded in high percentage errors (1 copper: 62%) of the experimental friction values
compared with theoretical friction values. The reasoning for this discrepancy comes from several
factors including the assumption of idealized conditions and errors occurring during the
experiment.

Objectives
1. Determine the frictional headloss in pipes.
2. Determine experimental friction factors from the experimental headloss.
3. Compare experimental friction factors to theoretical friction factors.

Lab Procedure
Friction factors and relative roughness of different sizes of diameters and material properties are
determine in the laboratory. The sizes of diameters are from 0.5 inch to 1 inch; the material
properties are plastic and copper.
First, determine the temperature of the water and record this measurement. Second, make sure
that the valve that says L1 is closed and L6 is open all throughout the experiment. After making
sure of these steps are done, the determination for the head loss for the head loss from 0.5
diameter to 1 diameter for each plastic and copper.

The experiment set-up could be seen on Figure 1 and Figure 2.

Figure 1: Experiment Set-up

Figure 2: Set-up for plastic flow


apparatus

For the first part of the experiment, it intends to determine the head loss for 1 diameter pipe.
First, remove all the bubbles in the manometers to determine the measurements easily. Second,
close and open several valves to redirect the flow to the manometers attached. Third, start the
water flow through the pipe. The hose is attached to the Scott Flow apparatus to determine the
water flow rate. The start of the flow rate starts approximately and at least 2 gpm. Fourth,
increase the flow rate between 2 gpm and 5 gpm, and at least 5 measurements of flow rate are
needed. As the flow rate increase, head loss should be determined in the manometer.
For the second and third part of the experiment, it intends to determine the head loss for 0.75
and 0.5diameter pipe respectively. Repeat the steps from the first part experiment. However,
make into considerations the open and closed valves. At least 5 trials for each diameter
respectively are measured, ranging from flow rate of 2 gpm to 5 gpm.
These procedures are intended for both plastic and copper pipes. Therefore, at the end of the
laboratory the measurements include 5 trials for each 1, 0.75 and 0.5 diameter pipes for each
plastic and copper material.

Data Collected
3

Table 1: Headloss Measurement for 1 PVC Pipe


DATA TABLE 1: HEADLOSS MEASUREMENT FOR 1" PVC PIPE
20.1

Temperature (C)
Kinematic Viscosity (m2 /s)

0.000001002

1" PVC pipe Area (m2 )


Trial
1
2
3
4
5

hL f
(in)
0.5
0.625
1
1.375
1.75

0.000540428
hL f
(m)
0.0127
0.015875
0.0254
0.034925
0.04445

Q
(gpm)
2.5
3
3.5
4
5

(m3 /s)
0.000158
0.000189
0.000221
0.000252
0.000315

V
(m/s)
0.291853
0.350224
0.408594
0.466965
0.583706

Re
7642.413954
9170.896745
10699.379536
12227.862326
15284.827908

f
0.050337
0.043695
0.051364
0.054073
0.044045

e/Dexp
0.02
0.015
0.02
0.02
0.0125

e/Dtheo

smooth

Table 2: Headloss Measurement for 0.75 PVC Pipe


DATA TABLE 2: HEADLOSS MEASUREMENT FOR 0.75" PVC PIPE
20.1

Temperature (C)
Kinematic Viscosity (m2 /s)
0.75" PVC pipe Area (m2 )
hL f
Trial
(in)
1
2.125
2
3.125
3
3.625
4
4.75
5
6.75

0.000001002
hL f
(m)
0.053975
0.079375
0.092075
0.12065
0.17145

Q
(gpm)
2.3
3
3.5
4
5

(m3 /s)
0.000145
0.000189
0.000221
0.000252
0.000315

0.000332282
Re
V
(m/s)
0.436699
8966.721636
0.569608
11695.723873
0.664543
13645.011186
0.759477
15594.298498
0.949347
19492.873122

f
0.074965
0.064798
0.055224
0.055403
0.050387

e/Dexp
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02

e/Dtheo

smooth

Table 3: Headloss Measurement for 0.5 PVC Pipe


DATA TABLE 3: HEADLOSS MEASUREMENT FOR 0.5" PVC PIPE
20.1

Temperature (C)
Kinematic Viscosity (m2 /s)
0.5" PVC pipe Area (m2 )
hL f
Trial
(in)
1
9
2
12.25
3
15.5
4
19
5
21.5

0.000001002
hL f
(m)
0.2286
0.31115
0.3937
0.4826
0.5461

Q
(gpm)

2.5
3
3.4
4
4.5

(m /s)
0.000158
0.000189
0.000215
0.000252
0.000284

0.000187217
Re
V
(m/s)
0.842476
12984.561866
1.010972
15581.474239
1.145768
17659.004138
1.347962
20775.298985
1.516457
23372.211359

f
0.064034
0.060526
0.059624
0.052806
0.047213

e/Dexp
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01

e/Dtheo

smooth

Table 4: Headloss Measurement for 1 Copper Pipe


DATA TABLE 4: HEADLOSS MEASUREMENT FOR 1" COPPER PIPE
19.7

Temperature (C)
Kinematic Viscosity (m2 /s)

0.000001013

1" Copper pipe Area (m2 )


Trial
1
2
3
4
5

hL f
(in)
0.375
0.75
1
1.25
1.625

0.00053209
hL f
(m)
0.009525
0.01905
0.0254
0.03175
0.041275

Q
(gpm)
2.1
3
4
4.5
5

(m3 /s)
0.000132
0.000189
0.000252
0.000284
0.000315

V
(m/s)
0.248998
0.355712
0.474283
0.533568
0.592853

Re
6399.478378
9142.111969
12189.482625
13713.167953
15236.853281

f
0.051492
0.050463
0.037847
0.037380
0.039361

e/Dexp

e/Dtheo

0.014000
0.018000
0.006100 0.00614557
0.005200
0.006750

Table 5: Headloss Measurement for 0.75 Copper Pipe

DATA TABLE 5: HEADLOSS MEASUREMENT FOR 0.75" COPPER PIPE


19.7

Temperature (C)
Kinematic Viscosity (m2 /s)

0.000001013

0.75" Copper pipe Area (m2 )

0.000312088

Trial

hL f
(in)

1
2
3
4
5

2
2.5
2.875
3.25
4.25

hL f
(m)
0.0508
0.0635
0.073025
0.08255
0.10795

Q
(gpm)
2.5
3.1
3.5
4
4.5

(m3 /s)
0.000158
0.000196
0.000221
0.000252
0.000284

V
(m/s)
0.505389
0.626682
0.707544
0.808622
0.909700

Re
9947.627142
12335.057656
13926.677999
15916.203428
17905.728856

f
0.051054
0.041505
0.037444
0.032407
0.033485

e/Dexp

e/Dtheo

0.017
0.008
0.007 0.00802447
0.003
0.002

Table 6: Headloss Measurement for 0.5 Copper Pipe


DATA TABLE 6: HEADLOSS MEASUREMENT FOR 0.5" COPPER PIPE
19.7

Temperature (C)
Kinematic Viscosity (m2 /s)

0.000001013

0.5" Copper pipe Area (m2 )

0.000150428

Trial
1
2
3
4
5

hL f
(in)
1.875
2.625
4.625
7.75
15

hL f
(m)
0.047625
0.066675
0.117475
0.19685
0.381

Table 7: Percent Error of

Q
(gpm)
0.7
1.01
1.8
2.25
3.45

Q
(m3 /s)
4.42E-05
6.37E-05
1.14E-04
1.42E-04
2.18E-04

V
(m/s)
2.94E-01
4.24E-01
7.55E-01
9.44E-01
1.45E+00

Re
4.01E+03
5.79E+03
1.03E+04
1.29E+04
1.98E+04

f
9.85E-02
6.62E-02
3.67E-02
3.94E-02
3.24E-02

e/Dexp

e/Dtheo

0.06
0.04
0.006 0.01155819
0.01
0.002

and

Calculations
Experimental Velocity:

Velocity
Flow Rate
Area

Friction Factor:

Friction Factor
Head Loss
Diameter
Gravity

Velocity

Reynolds Number:

Reynolds Number
Velocity
Diameter
Head Loss
(

Percent Error:

Discussion of Results and Errors


1" COPPER PIPE

TRIAL
1
2
3
4
5

AVERAGE
PERCENT
PERCENT
ERROR
ERROR
-127.80625
-192.89375
0.7415625 -62.881469
15.38625
-9.8351562

0.75" COPPER PIPE


AVERAGE
PERCENT
PERCENT
TRIAL
ERROR
ERROR
1
-111.85188
2
0.305
3
12.766875 7.782125
4
62.614375
5
75.07625
0.5" COPPER PIPE
AVERAGE
PERCENT
PERCENT
TRIAL
ERROR
ERROR
1
-419.1125
2
-246.075
3
48.08875 -104.18425
4
13.48125
5
82.69625

Conclusion and Recommendations


While the results were different from the expectations, the use of the Scott Flow device in
determining the friction factor of a given pipe helped highlight the importance of laboratory
testing and experiments in both fluid mechanics and in hydraulics engineering as a whole.
Knowledge of how friction affects fluid flow is an essential part of the design process of a
system where fluid flow is involved; like pipes, wastewater management, oil transportation and
drainage basin design. Thus it becomes important to understand how to determine the friction
factor in a laboratory setting, which this lab succeeded in doing.

Questions
NONE