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Woodstock

Woodstock
Woodstock

Arnold Skolnick (who designed the logo) says that the dove on the guitar was actually designed to resemble a catbird (and it was originally perched
[1]
on a flute).
Location(s)

White Lake, New York


(site of original festival)

Years active

Original festival held in 1969; namesake events held in 1979, 1989, 1994, and
1999.

Founded by

Michael Lang, John P. Roberts, Joel Rosenman, Artie Kornfeld

Date(s)

scheduled: August 1517, 1969, but ran over to August 18

Genre

Rock and folk, including blues-rock, folk rock, jazz fusion, hard rock, latin rock,
and psychedelic rock styles.

Website

The Woodstock Festivals

[2]

Woodstock Music & Art Fair (informally, Woodstock or The Woodstock Festival) was a music festival, billed as
"An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music". It was held at Max Yasgur's 600-acre (2.4km; 240 ha,
0.94mi) dairy farm near the hamlet of White Lake in the town of Bethel, New York, from August 15 to August 18,
1969. Bethel, in Sullivan County, is 43 miles (69km) southwest of the town of Woodstock, New York, in adjoining
Ulster County.
During the sometimes rainy weekend, thirty-two acts performed outdoors in front of 500,000 concert-goers.[3] It is
widely regarded as one of the most pivotal moments in popular music history and was listed among Rolling Stone's
50 Moments That Changed the History of Rock and Roll.[4]
The event was captured in the 1970 documentary movie Woodstock, an accompanying soundtrack album, and Joni
Mitchell's song "Woodstock" which commemorated the event and became a major hit for Crosby, Stills, Nash &
Young.

Planning and preparation


Woodstock was initiated through the efforts of Michael Lang, John Roberts, Joel Rosenman, and Artie Kornfeld. It
was Roberts and Rosenman who had the finances. Lang had experience as a promoter and had already organized the
largest festival on the East Coast at the time, the Miami Pop Festival, which had an estimated 100,000 people attend
the two day event. Roberts and Rosenman placed the following advertisement in The New York Times and The Wall
Street Journal under the name of Challenge International, Ltd.: "Young men with unlimited capital looking for
interesting, legitimate investment opportunities and business propositions".[5]

Woodstock

Lang and Kornfeld noticed the ad, and the four men got together originally to discuss a retreat-like recording studio
in Woodstock, but the idea evolved into an outdoor music and arts festival, although even that was initially
envisioned on a smaller scale, perhaps featuring some of the big name artists who lived in the Woodstock area (such
as Bob Dylan and The Band). There were differences in approach among the four: Roberts was disciplined, and
knew what was needed in order for the venture to succeed, while the laid-back Lang saw Woodstock as a new,
relaxed way of bringing businesspeople together.[5] There were further doubts over the venture, as Roberts wondered
whether to consolidate his losses and pull the plug, or to continue pumping his own finances into the project.[5]
In April 1969, newly-minted superstars Creedence Clearwater Revival were the first act to sign a contract for the
event, agreeing to play for $10,000. The promoters had experienced difficulty landing big-name groups prior to
Creedence committing to play. Creedence drummer Doug Clifford later commented "Once Creedence signed,
everyone else jumped in line and all the other big acts came on." Given their 3:00 a.m. start time and non-inclusion
(at Creedence frontman John Fogerty's insistence) in the Woodstock film, Creedence members have expressed
bitterness over their experiences at the famed festival.[6]
Woodstock was designed as a profit-making venture, aptly titled "Woodstock Ventures". It famously became a "free
concert" only after it became obvious that the event was drawing hundreds of thousands more people than the
organizers had prepared for. Tickets for the event cost $18 in advance (equivalent to $75 in 2009 after adjusting for
inflation)[7] and $24 at the gate for all three days. Ticket sales were limited to record stores in the greater New York
City area, or by mail via a post office box at the Radio City Station Post Office located in Midtown Manhattan.
Around 186,000 tickets were sold beforehand and organizers anticipated approximately 200,000 festival-goers
would turn up.[8]

Selection of the venue


The concert was originally scheduled to take place in the 300-acre
(1.2km2) Mills Industrial Park (412839N 742149W) in the town
of Wallkill, New York, which Woodstock Ventures had leased for
$10,000 in the Spring of 1969.[9] Town officials were assured that no
more than 50,000 would attend. Town residents immediately opposed
the project. In early July the Town Board passed a law requiring a
permit for any gathering over 5,000 people. On July 15, 1969, the
Wallkill Zoning Board of Appeals officially banned the concert on the
basis that the planned portable toilets would not meet town code.[10]
Reports about the ban, however, turned out to be a publicity bonanza
for the festival.[11]

Max Yasgur's farm in 1968.

The crowd and stage in 1969.

According to Elliot Tiber in his 2007 book Taking Woodstock, Tiber


offered to host the event on his 15 acres (61000 m2) motel grounds,
and had a permit for such an event. He claims to have introduced the
promoters to dairy farmer Max Yasgur.[12] Lang, however, disputes
Tiber's account, and says that Tiber introduced him to a real estate
salesman, who drove him to Yasgur's farm without Tiber. Sam Yasgur,
Max's son, agrees with Lang's account.[13] Yasgur's land formed a
natural bowl sloping down to Filippini Pond on the land's north side.
The stage would be set at the bottom of the hill with Filippini Pond
forming a backdrop. The pond would become a popular skinny dipping

destination.
The organizers once again told Bethel authorities they expected no more than 50,000 people.

Woodstock

Despite resident opposition and signs proclaiming, "Buy No Milk. Stop Max's Hippy Music Festival",[14] Bethel
Town Attorney Frederick W. V. Schadt and building inspector Donald Clark approved the permits, but the Bethel
Town Board refused to issue them formally. Clark was ordered to post stop work orders.

Free concert
The late change in venue did not give the festival organizers enough time to prepare. At a meeting three days before
the event, organizers felt they had two choices. One option was to improve the fencing and security which might
have resulted in violence; the other involved putting all their resources into completing the stage, which would cause
Woodstock Ventures to take a financial hit. The crowd, which was arriving in greater numbers and earlier than
anticipated, made the decision for them. The fence was cut the night before the concert.

The festival
The influx of attendees to the rural concert site in Bethel created a massive traffic jam. Fearing chaos as thousands
began descending on the community, Bethel did not enforce its codes.[10] Eventually, announcements on radio
stations as far away as WNEW-FM in Manhattan and descriptions of the traffic jams on television news programs
discouraged people from setting off to the festival.[15] [16] Arlo Guthrie made an announcement that was included in
the film saying that the New York State Thruway was closed.[17] The director of the Woodstock museum discussed
below said this never occurred.[18] To add to the problems and difficulty in dealing with the large crowds, recent
rains had caused muddy roads and fields. The facilities were not equipped to provide sanitation or first aid for the
number of people attending; hundreds of thousands found themselves in a struggle against bad weather, food
shortages, and poor sanitation.[19]
On the morning of Sunday, August 17, New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller called festival organizer John
Roberts and told him he was thinking of ordering 10,000 New York State National Guard troops to the festival.
Roberts was successful in persuading Rockefeller not to do this. Sullivan County declared a state of emergency.[15]
We were ready to rock out and we waited and waited and finally it was our turn ... there were a half million people asleep. These
people were out. It was sort of like a painting of a Dante scene, just bodies from hell, all intertwined and asleep, covered with mud.
And this is the moment I will never forget as long as I live: a quarter mile away in the darkness, on the other edge of this bowl, there
was some guy flicking his Bic, and in the night I hear, 'Don't worry about it John. We're with you.' I played the rest of the show for
that guy.
[6]

John Fogerty

regarding Creedence Clearwater Revival's 3 a.m. start time at Woodstock.

Although the festival was remarkably peaceful given the number of people and the conditions involved, there were
two recorded fatalities: one from what was believed to be a heroin overdose and another caused in an accident when
a tractor ran over an attendee sleeping in a nearby hayfield. There also were two births recorded at the event (one in a
car caught in traffic and another in a hospital after an airlift by helicopter) and four miscarriages.[20] Oral testimony
in the film supports the overdose and run-over deaths and at least one birth, along with many logistical headaches.
Yet, in tune with the idealistic hopes of the 1960s, Woodstock satisfied most attendees. There was a sense of social
harmony, which, with the quality of music, and the overwhelming mass of people, many sporting bohemian dress,
behavior, and attitudes helped to make it one of the enduring events of the century.[21]
After the concert, Max Yasgur, who owned the site of the event, saw it as a victory of peace and love. He spoke of
how nearly half a million people filled with possibilities of disaster, riot, looting, and catastrophe spent the three days
with music and peace on their minds. He states that "if we join them, we can turn those adversities that are the
problems of America today into a hope for a brighter and more peaceful future..."[5]

Woodstock

Sound
Sound for the concert was engineered by Bill Hanley, whose innovations in the sound industry have earned him the
prestigious Parnelli Award.[22] "It worked very well," he says of the event. "I built special speaker columns on the
hills and had 16 loudspeaker arrays in a square platform going up to the hill on 70-foot [21 meter] towers. We set it
up for 150,000 to 200,000 people. Of course, 500,000 showed up."[23] ALTEC designed 415 marine ply cabinets
that weighed in at half a ton apiece, stood 6 feet (1.8m) tall, almost 4 feet (1.2m) deep, and 3 feet (0.91m) wide.
Each of these enclosures carried four 15-inch (380mm) JBL D140 loudspeakers. The tweeters consisted of 42-Cell
& 210-Cell Altec Horns. Behind the stage were three transformers providing 2,000 amperes of current to power the
amplification setup.[24] For many years this system was collectively referred to as the Woodstock Bins.[25]

Performing artists
Thirty-two acts performed over the course of the four days:
Friday, August 15
Richie Havens
Swami Satchidananda gave the invocation for the festival

Sweetwater
Bert Sommer
Ravi Shankar
Tim Hardin
Melanie
Arlo Guthrie
Joan Baez

Saturday, August 16
Quill
Country Joe McDonald
John Sebastian

Santana
Keef Hartley Band
The Incredible String Band
Canned Heat
Mountain
Grateful Dead
Creedence Clearwater Revival
Janis Joplin with The Kozmic Blues Band[26]
Sly & the Family Stone
The Who
Jefferson Airplane

The Original Woodstock Poster with


the Wallkill, New York location

Woodstock
Sunday, August 17 to Monday, August 18

The Grease Band


Joe Cocker
Country Joe and the Fish
Ten Years After
The Band
Blood, Sweat & Tears
Johnny Winter featuring his brother, Edgar Winter
Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young
Paul Butterfield Blues Band
Sha-Na-Na
Jimi Hendrix

Declined invitations
Bob Dylan, in whose backyard the festival was placed (to get the poet laureate of the counterculture to come out
and play) was never in serious negotiation. Instead, Dylan signed in mid-July to play the Isle of Wight Festival of
Music, on August 31. Dylan set sail for England on the Queen Elizabeth 2 on August 15, the day the Woodstock
Festival started. His son was injured by a cabin door and the family disembarked. Dylan, with his wife Sarah,
flew to England the following week. Dylan had been unhappy about the number of hippies piling up outside his
house in the nearby town of Woodstock.[27]
The Beatles/John Lennon: woodstockstories.com [28] presents two scenarios as to why The Beatles did not
perform. The first is that promoters contacted John Lennon to discuss a Beatles performance at Woodstock, and
Lennon said that the Beatles would not play unless there was also a spot at the festival for Yoko Ono's Plastic
Ono Band, whereupon he was turned down.[29] The website claims the more likely explanation is that Lennon
wanted to play but his entry into the United States from Canada was blocked by President Richard Nixon.[30] [31]
The Beatles were in any case on the verge of breaking up. Also, they had not performed any live concerts since
August 1966, three full years before the festival (not including their impromptu rooftop concert given on January
30, 1969 a few months before).
Jeff Beck Group was scheduled to play on Sunday, but a few days before Woodstock, Nicky Hopkins left the
band and the rest of the group disbanded. However, Nicky Hopkins did play at Woodstock after all by playing
with Jefferson Airplane.
The Doors were considered as a potential performing band, but canceled at the last moment; according to guitarist
Robby Krieger, they turned it down because they thought it would be a "second class repeat of Monterey Pop
Festival", and later regretted that decision.[32]
Led Zeppelin was asked to perform, their manager Peter Grant stating: "We were asked to do Woodstock and
Atlantic were very keen, and so was our U.S. promoter, Frank Barsalona. I said no because at Woodstock we'd
have just been another band on the bill." However, the group did play the 1st Atlanta International Pop Festival on
July 5, as one of 22 bands at the two-day event. Woodstock weekend, Zeppelin performed south of the festival at
the Asbury Park Convention Hall in New Jersey. Their only time out taken was to attend Elvis Presley's show at
the International Hotel in Las Vegas, on August 12.[33]
The Byrds were invited, but chose not to participate, figuring Woodstock to be no different from any of the other
music festivals that summer. There were also concerns about money. As bassist John York remembers: "We were
flying to a gig and Roger [McGuinn] came up to us and said that a guy was putting on a festival in upstate New
York. But at that point they weren't paying all of the bands. He asked us if we wanted to do it and we said, 'No'.
We had no idea what it was going to be. We were burned out and tired of the festival scene. [...] So all of us said,
'No, we want a rest' and missed the best festival of all.'"[34]

Woodstock
Tommy James and the Shondells declined an invitation. Lead singer Tommy James stated later: "We could have
just kicked ourselves. We were in Hawaii, and my secretary called and said, 'Yeah, listen, there's this pig farmer
in upstate New York that wants you to play in his field.' That's how it was put to me. So we passed, and we
realized what we'd missed a couple of days later."[35]
The Moody Blues were included on the original Wallkill poster as performers, but decided to back out after being
booked in Paris the same weekend.[36]
Spirit also declined an invitation to play, as they already had shows planned and wanted to play those instead, not
knowing how big Woodstock would be.[37]
Joni Mitchell was originally slated to perform, but canceled at the urging of her manager to avoid missing a
scheduled appearance on The Dick Cavett Show.[38] [39]
Lighthouse declined to perform at Woodstock.[40]
Roy Rogers was asked by Lang to close the festival with Happy Trails but he declined.[41]

Media coverage
Very few reporters from outside the immediate area were on the scene. During the first few days of the festival,
national media coverage emphasized the problems. Front page headlines in the New York Daily News read "Traffic
Uptight at Hippiefest" and "Hippies Mired in a Sea of Mud". Coverage became more positive by the end of the
festival, in part because the parents of concertgoers called the media and told them, based on their children's phone
calls, that their reporting was misleading.[15] [42]
The New York Times covered the prelude to the festival and the move from Wallkill to Bethel.[14] Barnard Collier,
who reported from the event for the Times, asserts that he was pressured by on-duty editors at the paper to write a
misleadingly negative article about the event. According to Collier, this led to acrimonious discussions and his threat
to refuse to write the article until the paper's executive editor, James Reston, agreed to let him write the article as he
saw fit. The eventual article dealt with issues of traffic jams and minor lawbreaking, but went on to emphasize
cooperation, generosity, and the good nature of the festival goers.[15] [42] When the festival was over, Collier wrote
another article about the exodus of fans from the festival site and the lack of violence at the event. The chief medical
officer for the event and several local residents were quoted as praising the festival goers.[20] [43]
Middletown, New York's Times Herald-Record, the only local daily newspaper, editorialized against the law that
banned the festival from Wallkill. During the festival a rare Saturday edition was published. The paper had the only
phone line running out of the site, and it used a motorcyclist to get stories and pictures from the impassable crowd to
the newspaper's office 35 miles away in Middletown.[1] [44] [45] [46]

The films
The documentary film, Woodstock, directed by Michael Wadleigh and edited by Thelma Schoonmaker and Martin
Scorsese, was released in 1970. Artie Kornfeld (one of the promoters of the festival) came to Fred Weintraub, an
executive at Warner Bros., and asked for money to film the festival. Previously, Artie had been turned down
everywhere else, but Fred Weintraub became his hero and, against the express wishes of other Warner Bros.
executives, Weintraub put his job on the line and gave Kornfeld $100,000 to make the film. Woodstock helped to
save Warner Bros at a time when the company was on the verge of going out of business. The book Easy Riders,
Raging Bulls details the making of the film.
Wadleigh rounded up a crew of about 100 from the New York film scene. With no money to pay the crew, he agreed
to a double-or-nothing scheme, in which the crew would receive double pay if the film succeeded and nothing if it
bombed. Wadleigh strove to make the film as much about the hippies as the music, listening to their feelings about
compelling events contemporaneous with the festival (such as the Vietnam War), as well as the views of the
townspeople.[47]

Woodstock
Woodstock received the Academy Award for Documentary Feature.[48] The film has been deemed culturally
significant by the United States Library of Congress. In 1994, Woodstock: The Director's Cut was released and
expanded to include Janis Joplin as well as additional performances by Jefferson Airplane, Jimi Hendrix, and
Canned Heat not seen in the original version of the film. In 2009, the film was re-released on DVD. This release
marks the film's first availability on Blu-ray disc.
Another film on Woodstock named Taking Woodstock was produced in 2009 by Taiwanese filmmaker Ang Lee.[49]

The albums
Two "soundtrack" albums were released. The first, Woodstock: Music from the Original Soundtrack and More, was
a 3-LP (later 2-CD) album containing a sampling of one or two songs by most of the acts who performed. A year
later, Woodstock 2 was released as a 2-LP album. Both albums included recordings of stage announcements (e.g.,
"[We're told] that the brown acid is not specifically too good", "Hey, if you think really hard, maybe we can stop this
rain") and crowd noises (i.e., the "rain chant") between songs. In 1994, a third album, Woodstock Diary was released.
Tracks from all three albums, as well as numerous additional, previously-unreleased performances from the festival,
but not the stage announcements and crowd noises, were reissued by Atlantic as a 4-CD box set titled Woodstock:
Three Days of Peace and Music.
An album titled Jimi Hendrix: Woodstock also was released in 1994, featuring only selected recordings of Jimi
Hendrix at the festival. A longer double-disc set, Live at Woodstock (1999) features nearly every song of Hendrix's
performance, omitting just two pieces that were sung by his rhythm guitarist.
In 2009, Joe Cocker released a live album of his entire Woodstock set. The album contained eleven tracks, ten of
which were previously unreleased.
In 2009, complete performances from Woodstock by Santana, Janis Joplin, Sly & the Family Stone, Jefferson
Airplane, and Johnny Winter were released separately by Sony BMG/Legacy, and were also collected in a box set
entitled The Woodstock Experience. Also in 2009, Rhino Records issued a 6-CD box set, Woodstock: 40 Years On:
Back to Yasgur's Farm, which includes further musical performances as well as stage announcements and other
ancillary material.[50]

Aftermath
Max Yasgur refused to rent out his farm for a 1970 revival of the festival, saying "As far as I know, I'm going back
to running a dairy farm." Yasgur died in 1973, but his son still runs the dairy farm.[51]
Bethel voters tossed out their supervisor in an election held in November 1969 because of his role in bringing the
festival to the town. New York State and the town of Bethel passed mass gathering laws designed to prevent any
more festivals from occurring. Attempts were made to prevent people from visiting the site, its owners spread
chicken manure, and during one anniversary tractors and state police cars formed roadblocks. 20,000 people gathered
at the site in 1989 during an impromptu 20th anniversary celebration. A local man put up a monument at the site, and
in 1997 a community group put up a welcoming sign for visitors. Unlike Bethel, the town of Woodstock made
several efforts to cash in on its notoriety. Bethel's stance changed in recent years, and the town now embraces the
festival. Efforts have begun to forge a link between Bethel and Woodstock.[52]
Approximately 80 lawsuits were filed against Woodstock Ventures. The movie financed settlements and paid off the
$1.4 million dollars of debt Woodstock Ventures had incurred from the festival.[15]

Woodstock

Woodstock site today


A plaque has been placed at the original site commemorating the festival. The field and the stage area remain
preserved in their rural setting. A concert hall has been erected up the hill, and the fields of the old Yasgur farm are
still visited by people of all generations.
In 1997, the site of the concert and 1400 acres
(5.7km2) surrounding was purchased by Alan Gerry
for the purpose of creating the Bethel Woods Center for
the Arts. The Center opened on July 1, 2006, with a
performance of the New York Philharmonic. On
August 13, 2006, Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young
performed to 16,000 fans at the new Center 37 years
after their historic performance at Woodstock.
The Museum at Bethel Woods opened in June 2008.
The Museum contains film and interactive displays,
text panels, and artifacts which explore the unique
experience of the Woodstock festival, its significance
as the culminating event of a decade of radical cultural
transformation, and the legacy of the Sixties and
Woodstock today.

Max Yasgur's Farm in 1999

Woodstock 40th anniversary


There was worldwide media interest in the 40th anniversary of Woodstock in 2009.[53] A number of activities to
commemorate the festival took place around the world. On August 15, at the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts
overlooking the original site, the largest assembly of Woodstock performing alumni since the original 1969 festival
performed in an eight-hour concert in front of a sold-out crowd. Hosted by Country Joe McDonald, the concert
featured Big Brother and the Holding Company performing Janis Joplin's hits (she actually appeared with the
Kozmic Blues Band at Woodstock, although that band did feature former Big Brother guitarist Sam Andrew),
Canned Heat, Ten Years After, Jefferson Starship, Mountain and the headliners, The Levon Helm Band. At
Woodstock, Levon Helm played drums and was one of the lead vocalists with The Band. Paul Kantner was the only
member of the 1969 Jefferson Airplane line-up to appear with Jefferson Starship. Tom Constanten, who played
keyboard with the Grateful Dead at Woodstock, joined Jefferson Starship on stage for several numbers. Jocko
Marcellino from Sha Na Na also appeared, backed up by Canned Heat.[54] Richie Havens, who opened the
Woodstock festival in 1969, appeared at a separate event the previous night.[55] Crosby, Stills & Nash and Arlo
Guthrie also marked the anniversary with live performances at Bethel earlier in August 2009.
Another event occurred in Hawkhurst, Kent (UK), at a Summer of Love party, with acts including two of the
participants at the original Woodstock, Barry Melton of Country Joe and the Fish and Robin Williamson of The
Incredible String Band, plus cover bands for Santana and the Grateful Dead.[56] On August 14 and 15, 2009, a 40th
anniversary tribute concert was held in Woodstock, IL and was the only festival to receive the official blessing of the
"Father of Woodstock", Artie Kornfeld.[57] Kornfeld later made an appearance in Woodstock with the event's
promoters.
Also in 2009, Michael Lang and Holly George-Warren published The Road to Woodstock, which describes Lang's
involvement in the creation of the Woodstock Music & Arts Festival, and includes personal stories and quotes from
central figures involved in the event.

Woodstock

Cultural references
As one of the biggest rock festivals of all time and a cultural touchstone for the late Sixties, Woodstock has been
referenced in many different ways in popular culture. The phrase "the Woodstock generation" became part of the
common lexicon. Tributes and parodies of the festival began almost as soon as the final chords sounded. Charles
Schulz is said to have named his recurring Peanuts bird character Woodstock in tribute to the festival. In April 1970,
Mad magazine published "I Remember, I Remember The Wondrous Woodstock Fair" that parodies the traffic jams
and the challenges of getting close enough to actually hear the music.[58] In 1973, the stage show National
Lampoon's Lemmings portrayed the "Woodchuck" festival, featuring parodies of many Woodstock performers.[59]
Contemporary culture continues to remember Woodstock, with Time magazine naming "The Who at Woodstock
1969" to the magazine's "Top 10 Music-Festival Moments" list on March 18, 2010.[60]
In 2005, Argentine writer Edgar Brau published Woodstock, a long poem commemorating the festival. An English
translation of the poem was published in January 2007 by Words Without Borders.[61]

Gallery

A man stands behind Woodstock


stage area facing sloping field at
Bethel Woods

Woodstock plaque

A man points to where the


original stage stood in 1969

A rainy day
(August 15,
1969)

References
[1] http:/ / www. woodstock69. com/ wsrprnt1. htm
[2] http:/ / www. woodstock. com
[3] "State Investigating Handling of Tickets At Woodstock Fair". New York Times: p.45. August 27, 1969. Michael Lang stated 400,000
attended, half of them did not have a ticket.
[4] "Woodstock in 1969" (http:/ / www. rollingstone. com/ news/ story/ 6085488/ woodstock_in_1969). Rolling Stone. 2004-06-24. . Retrieved
2008-04-17.
[5] Robert Stephen Spitz (1979). Barefoot in Babylon. The Viking Press, New York. ISBN0670148016.
[6] Bordowitz, Hank (2007). Bad Moon Rising: The Unauthorized History of Creedence Clearwater Revival. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review
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[7] CPI Conversion factors 1774 to est. 2018, in dollars of 1996 (http:/ / oregonstate. edu/ cla/ polisci/ faculty-research/ sahr/ cv1996. pdf)
[8] "BBC ON THIS DAY 1969: Woodstock music festival ends" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ onthisday/ hi/ dates/ stories/ august/ 18/
newsid_2760000/ 2760911. stm). BBC News. 1969-08-18. . Retrieved 2008-04-17.
[9] Tiber, Elliot. "How Woodstock Happened... Part 1 (http:/ / www. discoverynet. com/ ~barnes/ wsrprnt1. htm), Discoverynet, reprinted from
The Times Herald-Record, Woodstock Commemorative Edition (1994)
[10] http:/ / www. woodstock69. com/ wsrprnt3. htm
[11] Tiber, Elliot. "How Woodstock Happened... Part 2 (http:/ / www. discoverynet. com/ ~barnes/ wsrprnt2. htm), Discoverynet, reprinted from
The Times Herald-Record, Woodstock Commemorative Edition (1994)
[12] Tiber, Elliot; Tom Monte (2007). Taking Woodstock. SquareOne Publishers. ISBN0757002935.
[13] Bleyer, Bill (2009-08-08). "The road to Woodstock runs through Sunken Meadow State Park." (http:/ / www. newsday. com/ long-island/
nassau/ road-to-woodstock-runs-through-sunken-meadow-1. 1357820). Newsday. . Retrieved 2009-08-25.
[14] Shepard, Richard F. (1969-07-23). "Pop Rock Festival Finds New Home". The New York Times.
[15] Woodstock Now & Then VH1 and The History Channel 2009 Documentary
[16] Collier, Barnard L. (August 16, 1969). "200,000 Thronging To Rock Festival Jam Roads Upstate". New York Times: pp.1, 31. A state police
official said, "We're just going to reroute everybody; Sullivan County is filled up."
[17] Woodstock Film

Woodstock
[18] Hill, Michael (2009-07-17). "Happy 40th birthday Woodstock baby, if you exist" (http:/ / www. google. com/ hostednews/ ap/ article/
ALeqM5gt-Otp7Z9HDOl0OrYThDqVcg2jVwD99G5ABG0). Associated Press. . Retrieved 2009-07-25.
[19] "Statement on the Historical and Cultural Significance of the 1969 Woodstock Festival Site" (http:/ / www. woodstockpreservation. org/
SignificanceStatement. htm). . Retrieved 2008-04-17.
[20] "Tired Rock Fans Begin Exodus" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ learning/ general/ onthisday/ big/ 0817. html). New York Times. 1969-08-18.
. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
[21] Andy Bennett; Simon Warner (May 2004). Remembering Woodstock. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN0754607143.
[22] "Father of Festival Sound" (http:/ / www. billhanley. org/ ). Bill Hanley. . Retrieved 2011-07-30.
[23] "Woodstock" (http:/ / www. billhanley. org/ projects/ 1969_08_15-woodstock/ ). Bill Hanley. . Retrieved 2011-07-30.
[24] Jerry Hopkins. Festival! The Book of American Music Celebrations. Macmillan Publishing 1970. New York. ISBN 0-02-580170-8
[25] Art Arena: http:/ / myweb. absa. co. za/ artarena/ . & #32; "From Live Peace in Toronto to the Thin End of Wedgies in Soweto" (http:/ /
www. 3rdearmusic. com/ hyarchive/ hiddenyearsstory/ pasafari. html). 3rdearmusic.com. . Retrieved 2011-07-30.
[26] "Janis Joplin entry" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 306112/ Janis-Joplin). Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006-09-24. .
Retrieved 2008-10-03.
[27] Bob Dylan. Chronicles Volume One. p.116. ISBN0743543092.
[28] http:/ / woodstockstories. com/
[29] This source is likely inaccurate, as the Plastic Ono Band was not formed until a month later.
[30] "Passing on Woodstock: Who and Why?" (http:/ / www. woodstockstory. com/ passingperformersbands. html). Woodstockstory.com. .
Retrieved 2011-07-30.
[31] This source is likely inaccurate, as John Lennon was in England at the time finishing the Beatles Abbey Road album.
[32] "RAY MANZAREK AND ROBBY KRIEGER LIVE CHAT LOG-July 3, 1996" (http:/ / www. doors. com/ ftp/ intervws/ july3. htm).
Doors.com. 1996-07-03. . Retrieved 2011-07-30.
[33] Lewis, Dave (1997). Led Zeppelin: The Concert File. Omnibus Press. ISBN978-0711953079.
[34] Johnny Rogan. The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited. Rogan House, London. p.293. ISBN095295401X.
[35] Liner notes to Tommy James and the Shondells: Anthology (album #R2 70920); compilation produced by Bill Inglot and Gary Peterson;
Rhino Records Inc.; pp8&12.
[36] "Passing On Woodstock: Who and Why" (http:/ / www. woodstockstory. com/ passingperformersbands. html). . Retrieved 2009-04-15.
[37] Liner notes on their album "Clear"
[38] Frank Houston (April 4, 2000). "Joni Mitchell" (http:/ / www. salon. com/ people/ bc/ 2000/ 04/ 04/ mitchell). Taking Woodstock.
Salon.com. . Retrieved April 9, 2011.
[39] "A Joni-Come-Lately To Woodstock" (http:/ / jonimitchell. com/ library/ view. cfm?id=220), Daily News (New York) (JoniMitchell.com),
August 13, 1998, , retrieved April 9, 2011
[40] Bush, John, "Biography" (http:/ / allmusic. com/ artist/ lighthouse-p11052/ biography), Allmusic
[41] "Woodstock producer: Roy Rogers, not Hendrix, could have closed" Washington Examiner, August 10, 2009 (http:/ / www.
washingtonexaminer. com/ politics/ blogs/ yeas-and-nays/ Woodstock-producer-Roy-Rogers-not-Hendrix-could-have-closed--52845107.
html)
[42] Fornatale, Pete (2009). Back to the Garden: The Story of Woodstock. Simon & Schuster. ISBN1416591192, 9781416591191.
[43] "Reporting Woodstock: Some contemporary press reflections on the festival" by Simon Warner in Remembering Woodstock, edited by Andy
Bennett (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004).
[44] Romm, Ethel Grodzins. "Sex, Drugs, Rock 'N Roll in Redneck Country" (http:/ / www. huffingtonpost. com/ ethel-grodzins-romm/
sex-drugs-rock-n-roll-in_b_259934. html) (2009)
[45] ""In His Own Words: The 'Record' on Woodstock"" (http:/ / www. recordonline. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/ 20090814/
ENTERTAIN2302/ 908149947/ -1/ NEWS). Recordonline.com. . Retrieved 2011-07-30.
[46] ""Woodstock: Celebrating the 40th Anniversary"" (http:/ / www. recordonline. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ section?Category=ENTERTAIN2302).
Recordonline.com. . Retrieved 2011-07-30.
[47] "How Woodstock Came To Be...(continued)" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20020106071119/ http:/ / www. geocities. com/
~music-festival/ how-w2. htm). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. geocities. com/ ~music-festival/ how-w2. htm) on 2002-01-06. .
Retrieved 2008-04-17.
[48] ""The Official Academy Awards Database"" (http:/ / awardsdatabase. oscars. org/ ampas_awards/ BasicSearchInput. jsp).
Awardsdatabase.oscars.org. . Retrieved 2011-07-30.
[49] IMDb.com (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt1127896/ )
[50] Rhino.com (2009-06-05). "Woodstock 40 Years On: Back to Yasgur's Farm boxed set" (http:/ / www. rhino. com/ rzine/ pressrelease.
lasso?PRID=628). Press release. . Retrieved 2009-08-16.
[51] "Max Yasgur Dies; Woodstock Festival Was on His Farm". The New York Times. 1973-02-09.
[52] Woodstock at 40: A tale of two towns (http:/ / www. recordonline. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/ 20090813/ ENTERTAIN2302/
908130310), Times-Herald Record (Middletown, NY), August 13, 2009
[53] Steve Israel. "Woodstock media frenzy as date draws closer Times-Herold Record August 13, 2009" (http:/ / www. recordonline. com/ apps/
pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/ 20090813/ NEWS/ 908130341). Recordonline.com. . Retrieved 2011-07-30.

10

Woodstock
[54] "Back to the Garden, Without the Shock, or All That Mud, Jon Pareles, New York Times, August16,2009" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/
2009/ 08/ 17/ arts/ music/ 17heroes. html). The New York Times. August 17, 2009. .
[55] "Woodstock 40th anniversary: Richie Havens kicks off festivities, John W. Barry, Poughkeepsie Journal, August14,2009" (http:/ / www.
poughkeepsiejournal. com/ article/ 20090814/ ENT04/ 90814008/ 1038/ ent/
Woodstock-40th-anniversary-at-Bethel-Woods--Richie-Havens-has-finished-his-performance). .
[56] "UK Summer of Love party" (http:/ / www. solparty. org. uk). Solparty.org.uk. 2011-06-07. . Retrieved 2011-07-30.
[57] http:/ / www. dailyherald. com/ story/ ?id=313625& src=58
[58] "Mad #134April1970" (http:/ / www. madcoversite. com/ mad134. html). Mad Magazine. April 1970. . Retrieved March 24, 2010.
[59] Clarke, Craig. "Original Off-Broadway Cast, National Lampoon's Lemmings" (http:/ / www. greenmanreview. com/ cd/
cd_va_nationallampoon_lemmings. html). Green Man Review. . Retrieved March 22, 2010.
[60] Fletcher, Dan (March 18, 2010), "The Who at Woodstock 1969" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ specials/ packages/ article/
0,28804,1885895_1885893_1885874,00. html), TIME, retrieved May 2, 2010
[61] "Edgar Brau" (http:/ / wordswithoutborders. org/ contributor/ edgar-brau/ ), Words Without Borders, retrieved May 2, 2010

Further reading
The Pied Piper of Woodstock by Artie Kornfeld. Spirit of the Woodstock Nation LLC, 2009. ISBN
978-0-615-32599-6.
Woodstock Experience by Michael Lang. Genesis Publications, 2009. ISBN 978-1-905662-09-8.
Roots of the 1969 Woodstock Festival: The Backstory to "Woodstock". WoodstockArts, 2009. ISBN
978-0-9679268-5-8.
The Road to Woodstock by Michael Lang. Ecco Publishing, 2009. ISBN 978-0-06-157655-3.
Young Men With Unlimited Capital: The Story of Woodstock by Joel Rosenman. Scrivenery Press, 1999. ISBN
978-1-893818-02-6.
1969: The Year Everything Changed by Rob Kirkpatrick. Skyhorse Publishing, 2009. ISBN 978-1-60239-366-0.
Woodstock: The Oral History, 40th Anniversary Edition by Joel Makower. SUNY Press/Excelsior Editions, 2009.
ISBN 978-1-4384-2974-8.
Woodstock: An Encyclopedia of the Music and Art Fair by James E. Perone

External links

Woodstock Museum (http://www.woodstockmuseum.com/)


Bethel Woods Center for the Arts/Woodstock Museum (http://www.bethelwoodscenter.org/)
The Woodstock Project (http://www.woodstockproject.com/woodstock/)
Listen to Paul Ingles 2 Hour Public Radio Special Back To The Garden: Woodstock Remembered 40th
Anniversary (free) (http://www.musicsojourn.com/POD/Prog/PI/POD_Archive/0001-0050/
PI_0017_Woodstock_Revisited.htm)
Bethel Woods Center for the Arts & The Museum at Bethel Woods (http://www.BethelWoodsCenter.org)
Woodstock (http://www.dmoz.org/Arts/Music/Concerts_and_Events/Festivals/Rock/Woodstock//) at the
Open Directory Project
Elsewhere during Woodstock (http://www.vfw.org/index.cfm?fa=news.magDtl&dtl=1&mid=5144)
Excerpt from "Pot, Skinny-Dipping, and Freedom Rock: Woodstock and the Year of the Outdoor Music Festival
(P.2)" by Rob Kirkpatrick (http://www.popmatters.com/pm/feature/
108471-pot-skinny-dipping-and-freedom-rock-woodstock-and-the-year-of-the-ou/)

11

Woodstock

Images
Woodstock: The Legendary Lineup (http://www.life.com/timeline/122/
woodstock-the-legendary-lineup#index/0) slideshow by Life magazine
Woodstock: LIFE's Best Photos (http://www.life.com/image/50591361/in-gallery/31192/
woodstock-lifes-best-photos) slideshow by Life magazine

12

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors


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A3RO, A8UDI, ABF, ACT1, AFClancy, Abc518, Accounting4Taste, Acer335, Adrian.benko, Agameofchess, Agathman, Aitias, Akamad, Alan Smithee, Alarichus, Alcuin, Aldie,
Alessandroandcharlie, Alex Monkey 1994, AlexBrainer, AllanHainey, Alphachimp, Amalthea, Amatulic, AmericanLeMans, Americasroof, AmiDaniel, Amrhingar, Andre Engels,
Andrewlp1991, Andyman1125, Angel caboodle, Angelofwisdom, Anger22, Annello, Antandrus, Anti Beat Box, Apresubu, ArchetypeRyan, Ashlux, Astralmaster, Atoma, Auric, AutoFire, Avin,
Avs5221, Awesomeness2012, B.Wind, B.d.mills, BRG, Backspace, Backtable, Barek, Barneyatbeaches, Barneyboo, Baron Dave, Beano, Beckettwatt, Belzebud, Benailes, Bender235, BertK,
Bethlier, Big iron, Bill.pollard, BillyPreset, Binabik80, Bjh21, Bkonrad, Blackngold29, Blockinblox, Bluejay Young, Bluerasberry, Bmds, Bmxatoakmtn, Bobak, Bobblewik, Bobet, Bodnotbod,
Bogdangiusca, Bonadea, Bongomatic, Bongwarrior, Bonnietonya, BorisAndDoris, Boston34strat, BostonMA, BoxOfficeButcher, BoxedRed, Brainhell, Brex3, Brotherman, Bruce1ee, Brusegadi,
Bryan Derksen, Buried Alien, Burntsauce, Burzmali, CDaly, CL, CWii, Calmer Waters, Caltas, Calvin 1998, CambridgeBayWeather, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CapPixel, Capricorn42,
Catdude, Cbben, Cedargang, Ceoil, Ceranthor, Cerisolab, Cgingold, Ch473, Chayster, Chea272, Chip Zero, Chowbok, Chris j wood, Christian75, Chromaticity, Chzz, CiudadanoGlobal,
Ckataboy, Clarince63, Clarityfiend, Classicrockfan42, Claudiadowling, Clay70, Closedmouth, Codernaut, Complex (de), Conversion script, Coolstreams, Copysan, Corpx, Cosprings,
Counterfact, Courcelles, CrazyChemGuy, Crazycomputers, Cresix, Crunch, Cst17, Cubs Fan, CurlyGirl93, CutOffTies, Cyanolinguophile, Cynical, DAJF, DO'Neil, Dabomb87, Dale Arnett,
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the bunnysuit, Fred26, FreplySpang, Freshfighter9, FromanylanD, Fuddle, Funandtrvl, Funeral, FuriousFreddy, Fvw, Fyrael, GCD1, Gabbygonewild, Gabe1972, Gadfium, Gaff, Gaius Cornelius,
Galwhaa, George100, George415, GeorgeStepanek, GeriatricCondition, Ghiraddje, Gilliam, Gjd001, Glassbreaker5791, Glen Dillon, Gobonobo, Gofishus, Gogo Dodo, Goldom, Gonzalo84,
Gopluvr, GregU, Grick, Griffinofwales, Grimhim, GripTheHusk, Gromit801, Ground Zero, Gsherry, Gspinoza, Guitarhippie54, Gulliveig, Gurch, Gurulegend, Gyrobo, Hailey C. Shannon,
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Jusdafax, JustAGal, Jwitkin, JzG, Jna runn, K-UNIT, KF, Kaboviouslywoodstock11, Kaiser matias, Kannie, Karl2620, Kbh3rd, Kchishol1970, Keesdelange, Kernel Saunters, Ketiltrout,
Ketsuekigata, Kevthegreat55, Kiac, Kingcrimson1973, Kirjtc2, Klassykittychick, KnowledgeOfSelf, Kohoutek1138, Koyaanis Qatsi, Kskowron, Kukini, Kungfuadam, Kuru, Ky1958,
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Marek Koudelka, Marek69, Markessa, Markjambas, Markmark12, Markt3, Martarius, Martin451, Marvshuman, Masonbarge, MattieTK, MayaSimFan, Mboverload, McPhail, McSly,
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anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image:Woodstock poster.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Woodstock_poster.jpg License: Fair Use Contributors: Dandin1, Gurch, Kelly, Marist1902, ZZfoxELITE
File:Woodstock redmond stage.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Woodstock_redmond_stage.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5
Contributors: Derek Redmond and Paul Campbell
File:Yasgur farm in 1968.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Yasgur_farm_in_1968.jpg License: unknown Contributors: JohnnyB256
Image:Original woodstock poster.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Original_woodstock_poster.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:JHvW
Image:Max Yasgurs Farm 2.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Max_Yasgurs_Farm_2.JPG License: Attribution Contributors: Heinrich und Friedl Winter
Image:Woodstock backstage.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Woodstock_backstage.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ky1958
Image:Woodstockpla.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Woodstockpla.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: 334a, Ale jrb, Bobbit bob, Zeppelin4life, 7
anonymous edits
Image:Manwoodstocktoday.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Manwoodstocktoday.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Zeppelin4life, 2 anonymous edits
File:Blankets.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Blankets.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Mark Goff

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

13