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E302 HEAT AND CALORIMETRY
(Abstract, methodology, introduction, GUIDE QUESTIONS, ANALYSIS, CONCLUSION)

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Heat capacity is a form of energy which transfers among particles in a substance (or

system) by means of kinetic energy of those particles. This paper discusses how to determine the

specific heat of a metal and the latent heat of fusion of an ice. This experiment will prove the

theory behind heat and calorimetry which is Q=mcDT.

INTRODUCTION

Heat is the form of energy that may be transferred if there is a difference in the

temperature. The amount of heat, Q, required to raise the temperature of a solid body at constant

pressure depends on the change in temperature, DT, of the body, its mass, m, and a characteristic

of the material forming the body called its specific heat, C. This relationship is expressed by the

equation Q = mCDT and the dimensions of C are thus heat per unit mass per unit temperature

change. The values of C do depend on temperature with those of common metals such as

aluminum and brass increasing a few percent as the temperature increases from 20C to 100C,

for example, while that for iron or steel increases about 10% over the same range. Since these are

not large changes, average specific heats are often quoted in handbooks for such fairly broad

temperature ranges.

Historically the amount of heat, Q, was originally expressed in terms of calories. The

calorie was defined most accurately as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1

gram of water from 14.5C to 15.5C at 1 atmosphere pressure. With this definition the specific

heat of water between 0C and 100C is 1.00 cal/gmC to within better than 1%. The use of the

calorie began before it was established that heat was a form of energy and that 1 calorie is the

equivalent of about 4.18 Joules. Thus in the SI system of units specific heats, that is the values of

C for particular materials, are expressed as J/kgC and there is no need for the calorie.

However, since so much work involving heat has used the calorie and since the specific heat of

water is unity when it is employed, it remains a common unit and will be used in this work. The

food Calorie, with a capital C is 1000 of these calories or 1 kilo-calorie.

The process of measuring quantities of heat exchanged is called calorimetry. In this experiment

the objective is to determine the specific heat of a metal and to determine the latent heat of fusion

of ice.

Theory:

We know that when two bodies, initially at different temperatures, are placed in intimate contact,

in time they will come to equilibrium at some intermediate temperature. Provided no heat is lost

to or gained from the surroundings, the quantity of heat lost by the hotter body is equal to that

gained by the colder body. This is the process which occurs in the method of mixtures that you

will use. The metal sample whose specific heat is to be measured is heated in boiling water to

about 100C. It is then quickly transferred to an aluminum calorimeter cup which contains cold

water of known temperature. When the metal sample and calorimeter cup come to equilibrium,

the common temperature is measured with a thermometer. It is assumed that the transfer of heat

between the thermometer and the system is small enough to be neglected. If the net heat

exchange with the surroundings can be kept small, then the heat lost by the metal sample equals

the heat gained by the water and the calorimeter cup.

Let Ms be the mass of the sample whose specific heat is Cs. Let Ts be its temperature before it is

placed in the calorimeter. Let Mw and Cw be the mass and specific heat of the water and let Mc

and Cc the mass and specific heat of the calorimeter cup. Denote the temperature of the water

and calorimeter cup before the sample is added by Tw and the final temperature of the mixture

by Tf. Now use these42 symbols to express mathematically the situation when a hot object (the

sample) is placed in contact with a cooler one (the water and the calorimeter cup) and the two are

allowed to exchange heat until they reach a common temperature. From this equation derive an

expression for the specific heat of the sample in terms of the other quantities.

METHODOLOGY

This experiment is entitled heat and calorimetry and is divided into two parts. First part

is determining the specific heat of metals. The materials used are electric stove, calorimeter,

thermometers, copper metal, aluminum metal, beaker, weights, digital weighing scale and a cup

ice.

In part 1 of the experiment we must boil water in the

beaker and then immerse the metal in it, one metal at a time. In this

part, it is important to immerse the metal in the boiling water for a

long time because we need to heat up the metal to absorb heat from

the boiling water, so that if we transfer the metal in the calorimeter,

we can get a loss error result. In the other hand, if we immerse the

metal for a short period of time, the metal will not absorb more

heat that will heat up the calorimeter. Let the metal absorbs heat

first and then measure its temperature using thermometer. We need

to wipe off the excess water that remains in the metal, because it can affect the initial

temperature. Water in the metal has different temperature than the metal that can have a result of

error in the experiment. And once measured, put the heated metal in the calorimeter with tap

water in it and then measure the calorimeter. Using the Law of Heat exchange, a derived

equation was made to solve for the specific heat of the metal. We computed for the percent error

by referring to table 1 for the actual specific heat of the aluminum metal.

In part 2 of the experiment, we are required to get the latent heat of fusion of ice. We

measure the calorimeter, water and the temperature of water and ice. We put the ice in the

calorimeter and melt it. Our initial temperature of ice is 0C. Since, it is hard to determine the

initial temperature of ice; we assume the initial temperature of ice by means of its property that

ices have a freezing point of 0C and melting point of 0C. We get the value of mass of ice by

subtracting the total mass from the water and calorimeter. And once the ice is being moved into

the calorimeter, it is important to wipe off the water from the surface of the ice, because excess

water can affect the mass of the ice when measuring it after melting it in the calorimeter. Since

we don't need the excess water, we could rather wipe it off to get less error. If there will be a

different mass of ice, then the latent heat will depend on the mass of the ice. We determine the

percentage error using 80 cal/g as the actual value of latent heat of ice.

ANALYSIS

This table is the Specific Heats of Substances and in

this table is where we will be comparing the results of what

we get in the experiment. In the first part of the experiment,

after doing the step by step procedures, we got 48

temperature for aluminum and 59

also got 22

and 22

initial

experimental specific heat of aluminum metal is 0.2406 cal/gcopper metal, the experimental specific heat is 0.0936 cal/g-

having a 2.07% error.

It is important to immerse the metal in the boiling water for a long time for it to let the

metal gain some heat so that it will reach its thermal equilibrium with the boiling water. The

water needs to be wipe off from the metal surface before dropping it into the calorimeter because

the water will have an additional temperature when its place on the calorimeter. The mixture

will have inappropriate equilibrium temperature. One advantage of using the stirrer of the

calorimeter in mixing the metal and water because it will shorten the time to reach the thermal

equilibrium of the mixture.

In the second part , the experimental latent heat of fusion of ice is 79.0676 cal/g while the

actual value is 80 cal/g. this have a percentage error of 1.655%. this means that there is only a

minimal error in the experiment.

For this part, the initial temperature of ice is 0 . In this part, it is also important to wipe

off the water from the ices surface before putting it in the calorimeter because excess water can

affect the mass of the ice when measuring it after melting in the calorimeter.

CONCLUSION

Our group was able to determine both the specific heat of the two metals given,

Aluminum and Copper. Another thing is to determine also the fusion of ice.

The experiment shows how heat of the surrounding can affect the temperature of an

object. Heat can be defined as the form of energy transferred to another object. There must be a

difference in temperatures of the substance to have heat or energy transfer. The specific heat is

the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius. The

relationship between heat and temperature change is expressed in the form shown below where c

is the specific heat. The relationship does not apply if a phase change is encountered, because the

heat added or removed during a phase change does not change the temperature. By this formula,

we can see the relationship of heat to mass and temperature. Heat is directly proportional to mass

and change in temperature. The object needs more heat, which means greater final temperature,

if there is greater mass, and vice versa. Also, from the equation and after the experiment, I can

conclude that heat absorb by the metal depends on the property of the metal to absorb heat. The

more heat it absorb the lesser the specific heat of that metal. They are inversely proportional to

each other. Another thing is mass of ice is inversely proportional to the latent heat. The more

weight the ice contain, the lesser the latent heat of fusion.

In the first part, the possible sources of errors are the time the metal is immersed in

boiling water, the measurement of temperature and the room temperature, since we are

performing in the laboratory with air conditioned room. This can be minimized by performing

the experiment fast and consistent. In the second part, the possible sources of errors are the room

temperature, The mass of ice before and after putting it in the calorimeter and the measurement

of temperature.

REFERENCES

http://www.physics.fsu.edu/users/ng/courses/phy2048c/lab/calorimetry/calorimetry.pdf

http://www.chm.davidson.edu/vce/calorimetry/heatcapacity.html

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