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Grammar Reference

STARTER UNIT Language review

Determiners

Parts of speech

Articles

Els determinants acompanyen els noms, per no els


qualifiquen. Hi ha diversos tipus de determinants.

Les paraules es classifiquen en categories gramaticals (parts


of speech), com ara el verb, el nom i ladjectiu. Identificar les
diferents categories ajuda a entendre com es construeixen
les frases.

The man has got a beard.

Verbs

Possessive adjectives

Els verbs descriuen accions, fets i estats. Tot seguit tens


diferents formes verbals o tipus de verbs:

My aunt is a doctor. Her job is very stressful.

I nfinitives
Linfinitiu s la forma bsica del verb, la que es troba als
diccionaris. Sutilitza amb to darrere dalguns verbs i sense
to darrere dels verbs modals.

Adverbs

I want to go home.
Gerunds
La forma en -ing (o gerund) s una forma del verb que
funciona com un nom. Tamb es fa servir darrere dalguns
verbs.

I hate cleaning.
Present participles
El participi present sutilitza en temps verbals que
descriuen accions que sestan produint en un determinat
moment. Tamb s una forma en -ing.

I am cleaning.
Past participles
El participi passat sutilitza per construir formes verbals
compostes.

Ive seen that film twice.

Quantifiers

A lot of people came to the party.

Els adverbis modifiquen els verbs: afegeixen informaci


sobre el lloc, el moment, la manera o la causa de lacci. Els
adverbis tamb poden modificar certs adjectius.

He drives carefully.
Youre really late!

Pronouns
Els pronoms es fan servir en lloc dels noms.

I liked the book.


Maria went out.

I liked it.
She went out.

Prepositions
Les preposicions precedeixen un nom o pronom i fan
referncia a un lloc, direcci, moment o mtode.

I put the cup on the table.


I go to school by car.

Conjunctions
Les conjuncions uneixen paraules o expressions. Poden
aparixer al comenament, al mig o al final de la frase.

Auxiliaries
Els verbs auxiliars (be, do i have) no aporten cap significat
concret, sin que acompanyen altres verbs per construir
formes negatives, interrogatives i certs temps verbals.

I was disappointed because it was raining.


She was very angry. However, she soon forgave me.

They dont enjoy horror films.


We have finished.

Els pronoms personals substitueixen un nom o un sintagma


nominal. Sutilitzen quan ja es coneix la persona o lobjecte a
qu es refereix el parlant. Eviten repetir les paraules.

Nouns
Els noms fan referncia a persones, objectes, llocs, qualitat i
activitats.

Money cant buy happiness.


Atenci! Hi ha dos tipus de noms: comptables i
incomptables.

Id like a sandwich and some water, please.

Adjectives
Els adjectius qualifiquen els noms i els pronoms (en
descriuen propietats).

The car is red.


Atenci! En angls, ladjectiu no concorda en gnere ni en
nombre amb el nom (s invariable).

They are beautiful houses.

Personal pronouns

Subject pronouns
Els pronoms de subjecte (I, you, he, she, it, we, they)
substitueixen el nom o sintagma nominal que fa de subjecte
de la frase. En angls, els pronoms de subjecte no es poden
ometre.

He was late again!


They enjoyed the show.

Object pronouns
Els pronoms dobjecte (me, you, him, her, it, us, them)
substitueixen el nom o sintagma nominal que fa dobjecte
directe dun verb o de complement duna preposici.

She really likes him.


Is that present for me?
Grammar Reference73

Possessive pronouns

Larticle definit sutilitza

Els pronoms possessius (mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs)


sutilitzen per indicar possessi.

per referir-se a una cosa concreta.

If you havent got a pen, you can borrow mine.


Their house is bigger than ours.
Atenci! No shan de confondre els pronoms possessius i els
adjectius possessius (my, your, his, her, its, our, their), que
van davant del nom.

The book is hers. (= pronom possessiu)


Its her book. (= adjectiu possessiu)

What does the article say? (= larticle que ests llegint)


quan noms hi ha una unitat dalguna cosa.

They have travelled all over the world.


Sara is in the garden.

Omission of the article


No es fa servir article

Reflexive pronouns

a mb noms en plural i noms incomptables quan fan


referncia a persones o objectes en general.

Els pronoms reflexius (myself, yourself / yourselves, himself,


herself, itself, ourselves, theirselves) sutilitzen quan lobjecte
directe de la frase coincideix amb el subjecte.

Petrol is expensive.
I love films.

He hurt himself while he was playing tennis.


I bought a present for myself.

amb certes expressions de lloc i de temps:

Definite and indefinite articles


Indefinite articles
Larticle indefinit (a / an) es colloca davant dels noms
comptables en singular.

I have a brother.
La forma a precedeix noms que comencen amb consonant,
mentre que an es colloca davant de noms que comencen
amb vocal.

an applea boy
Atenci! Aquesta norma saplica als sons i no pas a
les lletres. Hi ha vocals que es pronuncien amb un so
consonntic, i consonants que no sonen i s com si la
paraula comencs amb vocal.

a uniforman hour
Larticle indefinit sutilitza
p
 er esmentar alguna cosa per primera vegada, i quan no
es fa referncia a un element concret.

Theyve got a house in France.


There is a bookshop on the High Street.
amb els noms de professions.

He wants to be a teacher.
She is a dancer.
A / an no es fa servir amb noms incomptables ni amb noms
comptables en plural.

I need some advice.My friends are students.


Atenci! Sutilitza a, i no pas one, per parlar delements
individuals. Noms es fa servir one quan es vol emfasitzar o
especificar aquest nombre.

Ive got a cat.


Ive only got one cat, but my sister has got three.

Definite articles

at / from home
to / at / in / from church
to / in / from class
by bus / train
to / in hospital

in / out of bed
at / to university / school
last / next week
on Monday
in May

Comparatives and superlatives


Formes
Adjectiu

Comparatiu

Superlatiu

Monosllab acabat
en -e

adjectiu + -r

the + adjectiu
+ -st

nice

nicer

the nicest

Monosllab acabat
en consonant +
vocal + consonant

adjectiu (amb
consonant final
duplicada) + -er

the + adjectiu
(amb consonant
final duplicada)
+ -est

big

bigger

the biggest

Bisllab acabat
en -y

adjectiu (sense
-y) + -ier

the + adjectiu
(sense -y) + -iest

funny

funnier

the funniest

Altres adjectius
monosllabs o
bisllabs

adjectiu + -er

the + adjectiu +
-est

clever

cleverer

the cleverest

De tres o ms
sllabes

more + adjectiu

the most +
adjectiu

expensive

more expensive

the most expensive

Atenci! Alguns adjectius tenen formes irregulars per al


comparatiu i el superlatiu.
Adjectiu

Comparatiu

Superlatiu

good
bad
far

better
worse
further

the best
the worst
the furthest

Larticle definit (the) precedeix tot tipus de noms: comptables


i incomptables, en singular i en plural.

Usos

Did you buy the milk?


The TV is broken.
The students are learning English.

Televisions are cheaper than computers.


Some things are more important than others.

74 Grammar Reference

El comparatiu sutilitza per comparar coses.

El superlatiu descriu qualitats en grau mxim.

hbits i accions que es repeteixen.

The USA is the richest country in the world.


Her family is the most important thing in her life.

I go out every Saturday night.


We often watch films.

As ... as descriu qualitats del mateix grau.

The present continuous

John is as tall as his brother. (= Sn igual dalts.)


The second film was as good as the first. (= Van ser igual de

Formes

bones.)

El present continuous es construeix amb be + participi


present.

Not as as t el mateix significat que less than.

Afirmativa

The second exam wasnt as difficult as the first.


She isnt as old as her sister.

STARTER UNIT Present tenses

am (m)

He / She / It

is (s)

infinitiu

-ing

You / We / They are (re)

I am (Im) going out with Paul.


He is (Hes) waiting for me.

The present simple


Formes
El present simple es construeix amb linfinitiu (o linfinitiu +
-s en la tercera persona del singular).
Afirmativa
I / You / We / They

infinitiu

He / She / It

infinitiu

-s

We play. She plays.

Negativa
I

am not (m not)

He / She / It

is not (isnt)

You / We / They

are not (arent)

infinitiu

-ing

I am not (Im not) learning French.


She is not (She isnt) going out with him.
Interrogativa

Negativa
I / You / We / They

do not (dont)

He / She / It

does not (doesnt)

infinitiu

I do not (dont) play. He does not (doesnt) play.

I / you / we / they

Does

he / she / it

Do you play?

infinitiu

Does she play?

Atenci!
E
 n general, les formes negativa i interrogativa es
construeixen amb el verb auxiliar do / does. Ara b, quan
el verb principal s be, have got o un verb modal, no
sutilitza lauxiliar do / does.

Are you in the same class? No, were not.


I havent got a girlfriend.
Lortografia dalguns verbs canvia quan shi afegeix la -s.
Verbs acabats en...
-o, -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x

Shi afegeix -es.


watch + -es
watches

consonant + -y

La -y se substitueix per -ies.


stud + -ies
studies

watch
study

Usos
El present simple sutilitza per descriure
fets i estats.

I love pizza.
She goes to my school.

Is

he / she / it

Are

you / we / they

infinitiu

-ing

Are you meeting your girlfriend?


Is it raining outside?

Interrogativa
Do

Am

Atenci! En general, el participi present es construeix amb


linfinitiu + -ing. Ara b, lortografia dalguns verbs canvia
quan shi afegeix -ing.
Verbs acabats en...
consonant + -e

Selimina la -e.
mak + -ing
making

-ie

Se substitueix -ie per -y.


l + -y + -ing
lying

-l

Es duplica la -l.
travell + -ing
travelling

consonant + vocal +
consonant (amb una
sllaba o accent a la
darrera sllaba)

Es duplica la consonant final.

run
forget

runn + -ing
forgett + -ing

make
lie

travel

running
forgetting

Usos
El present continuous fa referncia a...
accions que sestan produint mentre es parla.

Im waiting for my friends.


Shes watching TV.
situacions temporals.

My dads working in London this week.


Shes revising for her exams at the moment.
Grammar Reference75

Stative verbs

Verbs acabats en...

Hi ha verbs que mai no sutilitzen en present continuous.


Sn els anomenats verbs destat o stative verbs. Tot seguit
tens els ms habituals:

-e

Selimina la -e.
phon + -ed
phoned

verbs que expressen pensaments i opinions.

consonant + -y

Se substitueix -y per -ie.


marri + -ed
married

-l

Es duplica la -l.
travell + -ed
travelled

consonant + vocal +
consonant (amb una
sllaba o accent a la
darrera sllaba)

Es duplica la consonant
final.

stop
admit

stopp + -ed
admitt + -ed

phone

marry

agree knowrememberthinkunderstand

I remember your face.

travel

verbs que expressen gustos i preferncies.


hate likelovepreferwant

We like the new teacher.


verbs relatius als sentits.

stopped
admitted

Molts verbs tenen formes irregulars de participi passat.

sound looksmelltaste

Irregular Verb List, pgines 127128

This soup tastes of chicken.


Atenci!

Usos

Think es considera un verb destat quan significa


tenir una opini. En canvi, es pot utilitzar en present
continuous quan vol dir tenir pensaments o idees sobre
alguna cosa.

El present perfect simple sutilitza per descriure...

I think their music is great!


Be quiet. Im thinking.

Weve moved house.


Ive been to the supermarket.
a ccions o situacions que van comenar en el passat i que
continuen en lactualitat.

The present perfect simple


Formes
El present perfect simple es construeix amb have + participi
passat.
Afirmativa
I / You / We / They

have (ve)

He / She / It

has (s)

How long has he lived in Barcelona?


He has worked there for five years.
e xperincies del passat per a les quals no sespecifica
una referncia temporal.

Hes met a lot of interesting people.


Shes travelled all over the world.

participi passat

The past simple and the present perfect simple, pgina 77


Atenci! Sovint sutilitza been (en comptes de gone) com a
participi passat de go per descriure fets que ja shan acabat.

We have (Weve) worked.


She has (Shes) worked.

Marta has been to London. (= Hi ha anat i nha tornat.)


Marta has gone to London. (= Encara hi s.)

Negativa
I / You / We / They

have not (havent)

He / She / It

has not (hasnt)

participi passat

for

Interrogativa
Have

I / you / we / they

Has

he / she / it

for and since


For i since es fan servir amb el present perfect per descriure
la durada dun estat o acci que va comenar en el passat i
continua en lactualitat.

I have not (havent) worked.


He has not (hasnt) worked.

participi passat

Have you worked?


Has it worked?
Atenci!
L a majoria de participis passats es construeixen amb
linfinitiu + -ed. Ara b, lortografia dalguns verbs canvia
quan shi afegeix -ed.

76 Grammar Reference

a ccions o situacions del passat que tenen un efecte en el


present.

For indica quant de temps ha durat una acci o un estat.

Shes worked here for three months.


Weve known them for years.

since
Since fa referncia al moment concret en qu es va iniciar
un estat o una acci.

Shes worked here since last summer.


Hes been at this school since 2006.

Atenci! En angls, les frases que contenen for i since tenen


el verb en present perfect.

UNIT 1 Past tenses

Ive lived here for two years. no pas I live here for two years.
Ive known him since last summer. no pas I know him since last
summer.

The past simple

still, yet, just and already

El past simple dels verbs regulars es construeix amb


linfinitiu + -ed.

Aquestes expressions de temps sovint sutilitzen en frases


que tenen el verb en present perfect simple.

still
Still emfasitza el fet que una situaci no ha canviat. En el
present perfect, still noms sutilitza en frases negatives, i es
colloca entre el subjecte i el verb auxiliar have.

It still hasnt stopped raining!


Its seven oclock, and they still havent arrived!

yet
Yet sutilitza en frases interrogatives per preguntar si una
acci sha acabat. Es colloca al final de la frase.

Has she finished yet?


Have you watched the DVD yet?
Yet sutilitza en frases negatives per referir-se a una acci
que encara no sha acabat, per que esperem que finalitzi
en el futur. Es colloca al final de la frase.

Im worried because Lara hasnt phoned yet.


They havent bought their new car yet.
Atenci! Yet no es fa servir en frases afirmatives.

Formes

Afirmativa
I / You / He / She / It / We / They

-ed

He phoned me last night. They lived next door.


Negativa
I / You / We / They / He /
She / It

did not (didnt)

infinitiu

I didnt meet your last girlfriend. My sister didnt like her.


Interrogativa
Did

I / you / he / she / it / we / they

infinitiu

Did it rain last night? Where did you meet him?


Atenci!
Lortografia dalguns verbs canvia quan shi afegeix -ed.
The present perfect simple, pgina 76
Alguns verbs tenen formes irregulars per al past simple.
Irregular Verb List, pgines 127128

just

Usos

Just fa referncia a una acci que fa poc que ha tingut lloc.


Es colloca entre lauxiliar have i el participi passat del verb
principal.

El past simple descriu...

Tom has just left.


Ive just seen Martha.

infinitiu

accions i fets que es van acabar en el passat.

Did you do your homework last night?


estats del passat.

He was very ill a few years ago.

already
Already es fa servir per remarcar que una acci ja sha
acabat. Es colloca entre lauxiliar have i el participi passat
del verb principal.

Hes only fifteen, but hes already made his first million.
Im not hungry. Ive already eaten.
Atenci!
Still, yet, just i already tamb sutilitzen amb altres temps
verbals.

fets que van tenir lloc repetidament en el passat.

We had a test every month.

The past simple and the present perfect simple


El past simple descriu estats o accions que es van acabar
en el passat.

I lived in Albacete when I was six years old. (= Ara no visc a


Albacete.)

They still live in Madrid.


She cant swim yet.
Hes already got his own motorbike.

El present perfect simple descriu estats o accions que van


comenar en el passat i continuen en el present.

En general, no es fan servir amb el past simple.

El past simple sutilitza si sespecifica quan va passar


alguna cosa (mitjanant una expressi de temps).

The train has just left. no pas The train just left.
We have already had lunch. no pas We already had lunch.

Ive lived in Albacete since 2004. (= Encara visc a Albacete.)

I visited London last weekend.


El present perfect simple sutilitza si no sespecifica quan
va passar alguna cosa.
Have you been to LA? (= Tant s quan.)

Grammar Reference77

The past continuous

The past perfect simple

Formes

Formes

El past continuous es construeix amb was / were + participi


present.

El past perfect simple es construeix amb had + participi


passat.

Afirmativa

Afirmativa

I / He / She / It

was

You / We / They

were

infinitiu

-ing

I / You / He / She / It / We / They

had

participi
passat

He had left.They had gone.

He was waiting for me.


They were kissing.

Negativa

Negativa
I / He / She / It

was not (wasnt)

You / We / They

were not (werent)

infinitiu

-ing

I / You / He / She /
It / We / They

Interrogativa
Had

Interrogativa
I / he / she / it

Were

you / we / they

infinitiu

participi passat

I hadnt remembered.They hadnt phoned me.

He wasnt working yesterday.


They werent getting on very well.

Was

had not (hadnt)

-ing

Was it snowing?
Were you listening to me?
Atenci! Lortografia dalguns verbs canvia quan shi afegeix
-ing.
The present continuous, pgina 75

Usos
El past continuous fa referncia a...
a ccions que sestaven desenvolupant en un moment del
passat.

At midnight, I was going to bed.


Yesterday morning we were sitting outside.
a ccions del passat que van ser interrompudes per una
altra acci.

He was talking to his girlfriend when I saw him.


We were waiting at the bus stop when he shouted to us.

I / you / he / she / it /
we / they

participi passat

Had you told her? Had they gone?

Usos
El past perfect simple sutilitza
p
 er descriure accions o situacions del passat que van
tenir lloc abans daltres accions o situacions.

Id only seen snow on television before I visited the mountains.


They hadnt found a new house when they sold their old one.
p
 er fer referncia a accions o situacions que van tenir lloc
abans dun moment concret del passat.

By the time I was sixteen, Id lived in three different houses.


Id never failed an exam before this one.
amb lexpressi it was the first / second / third time.

It was the third time that wed been to the hotel.


Atenci!
Alguns verbs tenen formes irregulars de participi passat.
Irregular Verb List, pgines 127128
Observa la diferncia entre aquestes frases:

I made dinner last night. I started at seven oclock and I finished


at ten past seven.


We ate dinner at eight oclock.
(= Lacci es va acabar a les vuit.)

We were eating dinner at eight oclock.
(= Lacci encara sestava desenvolupant, a les vuit.)

We had eaten dinner at eight oclock.
(= Lacci ja shavia acabat abans de les vuit.)

E
 l past continuous fa referncia a accions que sestaven
desenvolupant en un moment concret del passat.

Time expressions

The past simple and the past continuous


El past simple descriu accions que es van acabar en el
passat.

What were you doing at five past seven? I was making dinner.
El past simple i el past continuous es combinen utilitzant
when i while. Lordre dels dos temps verbals pot variar a la
frase.

While I was eating, the phone rang.


The phone rang while I was eating.

78 Grammar Reference

Les expressions de temps relacionen accions del passat:


indiquen quina es va fer primer o si van passar alhora.

as, while and when


As, while, i when sutilitzen amb el past continuous per
indicar que dues accions del passat van tenir lloc alhora.

As / While / When I was walking home, I met George.

Atenci! As i while noms sutilitzen quan una acci llarga s


interrompuda per una de ms curta. When es pot fer servir
quan una acci llarga s interrompuda, o tamb quan dues
accions de poca durada passen al mateix temps.

She broke her arm when she fell off her bike.

would
Formes
Afirmativa
I / You / He / She / It / We / They

would

infinitiu

When I was a child, I would spend my holidays in Menorca.

after
After destaca el fet que una acci va passar desprs duna
altra. Sovint es fa servir el past perfect simple amb after.

After we had finished our meal, we went out to the cinema.


She phoned me after the plane had landed.

Negativa
I / You / He / She / It / We /
They

wouldnt

infinitiu

We wouldnt have lunch until 2 oclock.

as soon as
As soon as sutilitza per indicar que una acci va passar
immediatament desprs duna altra. Normalment es fa servir
el past simple o el past perfect simple amb as soon as.

I ran downstairs as soon as I saw the postman.


As soon as I had finished work, I went home.

Would

I / you / he / she / it /
we / they

infinitiu

Would you swim in the sea every day?

Usos

used to

Would + infinitiu tamb sutilitza per referir-se a accions o


hbits del passat.

Formes

In the evenings, my grandfather would sit by the fire and read.

Afirmativa
I / You / He / She / It / We / They

used to

infinitiu

I used to hate vegetables.


We used to play computer games every night.

did not (didnt)


use to

Aquesta estructura pertany al registre formal de la llengua


escrita. En angls parlat es fa servir used to o el past simple.

When I was a child, I would spend my holidays in Menorca.


When I was a child, I used to spend my holidays in Menorca.
When I was a child, I spent my holidays in Menorca.

Negativa
I / You / He / She /
It / We / They

Interrogativa

infinitiu

Atenci! Would no sutilitza per referir-se a estats del passat.


En aquests casos es fa servir used to o el past simple.

I didnt use to get on with my brother.


They didnt use to like each other.

When I was younger, I used to like sweets.


o When I was younger, I liked sweets.
no When I was younger, I would like sweets.

Interrogativa
Did

I / you / he / she /
it / we / they

use to

infinitiu

Did you use to go out with Sally?


What class did you use to be in?

UNIT 2 Future forms


will

Atenci! No sha de confondre used to amb be used to


(estar acostumat a) o get used to (acostumar-se a).
get / be used to, pgina 90

Formes
Afirmativa
I / You / He / She / It / We / They

Usos
Used to sutilitza per referir-se a accions, hbits o situacions
del passat que ja no es donen en el present.

She used to hate him. (= Ja no lodia.)

no pas

We used to go out for two

infinitiu

will not
(wont)

infinitiu

I will (Ill) ask her.


He will (Hell) be late again.
Negativa
I / You / He / She / It / We / They

Atenci! For i since no sutilitzen amb used to.

We went out for two years.


years.

will (ll)

I will not (wont) be at school next week.


We will not (wont) forget.

Grammar Reference79

Interrogativa
Will

I / you / he / she / it / we /
they

infinitiu

Will you tell him?


What will he say?

fer prediccions basades en indicis presents en el moment


en qu es parla.

They only left home ten minutes ago. They are going to be late.
Atenci! Tant will com be going to serveixen per fer
prediccions.
will descriu prediccions genriques sense cap indici.

Usos

I think it will rain next week.

Will sutilitza per...

be going to expressa prediccions basades en indicis.

fer prediccions o donar opinions sobre el futur.

Look at the sky! Its going to rain.

I think he will love the present.


Im worried we wont get there in time.
e xpressar decisions que es prenen de manera espontnia
mentre es parla.

I dont know your sister. OK. Ill introduce you.

no pas

Els adverbis never, ever, just, only o still solen aparixer en


frases que contenen be going to. Es colloquen entre el verb
be i going to.

Im just going to ring my boyfriend.


Is he ever going to ask her out?

Atenci! Per oferir-se a fer alguna cosa, sutilitza will, i no


pas el present simple.

Ill help you.

Time expressions with be going to

I help you.

The present continuous with future meaning

Time expressions with will

Formes

Les frases amb will sovint contenen adverbis com ara never,
ever, just, only o still. Aquests adverbis es colloquen entre
will i el verb principal.

Usos

I will never speak to him again.

be going to

The present continuous, pgina 75

El present continuous sutilitza per referir-se a plans a curt


termini o preparatius. En aquestes frases se solen especificar
moments i llocs concrets.

What are you doing at the weekend?


I am seeing Mike on Saturday.

Formes
Afirmativa
I

am (m)

You / We / They

are (re)

He / She / It

is (s)

going to

Atenci! Tant be going to com el present continuous es


fan servir per parlar de plans. En general, sutilitza el
present continuous quan es tracta de plans a curt termini i
sinclouen referncies a moments i llocs concrets.

infinitiu

Im going to stay with Ellie.


Im meeting Ruth at the cinema this evening.

I am (Im) going to meet her tonight.


They are (Theyre) going to have an argument.

The present simple with future meaning

Negativa

Formes

am not (m not)

You / We / They

are not (arent)

He / She / It

is not (isnt)

going to

The present simple, pgina 75

infinitiu

Usos
El present simple fa referncia a fets futurs que apareixen en
taules dhoraris.

I am (Im) not going to pass this exam.


This film is not (isnt) going to be very good.

The next train leaves at six oclock.


Lessons start on 12th September.

Interrogativa
Am

Are

you / we / they

Is

he / she / it

going to

Is she going to be at the party?


Who are you going to meet?

Usos
Be going to sutilitza per
descriure plans i intencions.

What are you going to wear to the party?

80 Grammar Reference

infinitiu

Future time clauses


Les expressions temporals before, after, as soon as, when
i while es poden utilitzar per referir-se al futur. La frase
principal cont will o be going to, mentre que la frase
subordinada temporal (de futur) s en present simple.

I will phone you when I get home.


Im going to have a gap year before I go to university.
Well go to bed after this programme finishes.
Ill clean the kitchen while you do the washing up.
Atenci! Will no apareix mai desprs de les expressions de
temps before, after, as soon as, when i while.

Well have dinner after you get home.


no pas Well have dinner after you will get home.

The future perfect simple

Atenci! La majoria de participis presents es construeixen


amb infinitiu + -ing. Ara b, lortografia dalguns verbs canvia
quan shi afegeix -ing.

Formes
El futur perfect simple es construeix amb will have +
participi passat.

The present continuous, pgina 75

Usos

Afirmativa
I / You / He / She /
It / We / They

will (ll) have

El future continuous descriu...

participi passat

a ccions que sestaran desenvolupant en un moment


determinat del futur.

I will (Ill) have finished by the time you get here.

At two oclock Ill be playing basketball.

Negativa
I / You / He / She /
It / We / They

will not (wont)


have

a ccions que continuaran desenvolupant-se durant un


perode de temps en el futur.

participi passat

Well be working on our project all evening.

The film will not (wont) have finished by eight oclock.

Atenci! Observa la diferncia entre aquestes frases:

Ill do my homework at seven oclock.

Interrogativa
Will

(= Els comenar a aquesta hora.)

I / you / he / she /
it / we / they

have

participi
passat

Ill be doing my homework at seven oclock.


(= A aquesta hora els estar fent.)

Ill have done my homework at seven oclock.

Will you have eaten?

(= A aquesta hora els tindr acabats.)

Atenci!
L a majoria de participis passats es construeixen amb
infinitiu + -ed. Ara b, lortografia dalguns verbs canvia
quan shi afegeix -ed.
The present perfect simple, pgina 76
Molts verbs tenen formes irregulars de participi passat.
Irregular Verbs List, pgines 127128

Usos
El future perfect descriu una acci que shaur acabat en
algun moment concret del futur. Aquest moment sindica
amb una sintagma encapalat per by.

By eight oclock, I will have finished my homework.


Will you have read the book by next week?
Well have left school by this time next year.

Formes
El future continuous es construeix amb will be + participi
present.
Afirmativa
will be

infinitiu

-ing

At eight oclock tonight I will be watching the match on TV.


Negativa
I / You / He / She /
It / We / They

will not
(wont) be

infinitiu

-ing

At eight oclock tonight I wont be working.

I / you / he / she /
it / we / they

Proposici condicional

Proposici principal

If the train is late,

Ill phone you.

Lordre de les proposicions pot variar a la frase.


Proposici principal

Proposici condicional

Ill phone you

if the train is late.

Hi ha diversos tipus de frases condicionals: de grau zero, de


primer grau, de segon grau i de tercer grau.

The zero conditional


Formes
if + present simple,

present simple

present simple

if + present simple

If I see clothes I like, I buy them.


The alarm sounds if a fire starts.

Usos
El condicional de grau zero sutilitza per...

Interrogativa
Will

Les frases condicionals consten de dues parts: la proposici


condicional (encapalada per if) i la proposici principal,
que descriu el resultat de la condici anterior.

Quan la proposici condicional encapala la frase, shi sol


afegir una coma al darrere. Si la proposici principal va en
primer lloc, no shi afegeix la coma.

The future continuous

I / You / He / She /
It / We / They

UNIT 3Conditionals

be

infinitiu

-ing

d
 escriure fets genrics, que sempre passen de la mateixa
manera.

If water reaches 0C, it freezes.

What will you be doing at seven oclock this evening?

Grammar Reference81

d
 escriure situacions que sempre tenen el mateix resultat
o les mateixes conseqncies.

The third conditional

If I feel tired, I go to bed early.

Formes
if + past perfect,

The first conditional


Formes

would have + infinitiu

would have + infinitiu

if + present simple,

will + infinitiu

will + infinitiu

if + present simple

If it rains tomorrow, well stay at home.


Ill be upset if I fail my exam.
Atenci! Will no sha dutilitzar mai en la proposici
condicional.

If the weather is nice, we will go to the beach.


no pas If the weather will be nice, we will go to the beach.

if + past perfect

If she hadnt helped us, we would have had a lot of problems.


You wouldnt have done anything if I hadnt told you.

Usos
El condicional de tercer grau sutilitza per referir-se a fets
hipottics del passat, s a dir, esdeveniments que no van
tenir lloc.

If I had got to the airport on time, I wouldnt have missed the plane.
(= No vaig arribar a temps a laeroport, aix que vaig perdre
lavi.)

If they hadnt been late, they would have got a ticket.

(= Van arribar tard, de manera que es van quedar sense


entrada.)

Usos
El condicional de primer grau sutilitza per...
d
 escriure fets que s possible, o fins i tot probable, que
sesdevinguin en el futur.

If I have time tonight, Ill help you.


We wont make a difference if we dont try.

unless
Unless sutilitza en la proposici condicional per expressar
una condici negativa. Significa si no s que.

formular promeses i advertncies.

Well be late unless we go now. = Well be late if we dont go now.


Ill come with you unless Im busy. = Ill come with you if Im not busy.

If you cook dinner, Ill do the washing up.


If you dont do any revision, you wont pass your exam.

had and would

The second conditional

Had i would tenen la forma contracta d, que sutilitza en les


frases condicionals.

Formes
if + past simple,

would + infinitiu

would + infinitiu

if + past simple

If I had a lot of money, Id travel all over the world.


Wed go to that restaurant if it wasnt so expensive.
De vegades could substitueix would a la proposici principal:

If I had a mobile phone, I could call him.


Atenci! En el registre formal, were pot substituir was amb I,
he, she, it a la proposici condicional.

If I were you, I wouldnt take the job.


If he were stronger, hed be a better tennis player.

Usos
El condicional de segon grau sutilitza per...
fer referncia a situacions imaginries del present.

If I won the lottery Id (= I would) buy a sports car.


If youd (= you had) told me, Id (= I would) have understood.
Had noms es pot contreure en d quan funciona com a
auxiliar, mai si s el verb principal.

If Id (= verb auxiliar) worked harder, I d have passed the exam.


If I had (= verb principal) a lot of money, Id travel to the USA.

UNIT 4 Relative clauses


who, which, where and when
Els pronoms relatius sutilitzen per afegir una proposici (de
relatiu) a una frase. Fan referncia al nom que precedeix la
proposici de relatiu:
which fa referncia a objectes.

This is the CD which I bought.

who es refereix a persones.

The woman who wrote that song.


If I were a millionaire, I wouldnt work.

when marca referncies temporals.

referir-se a fets imaginaris o poc probables del futur.

where fa referncia a llocs.

(= No sc milionria.)


If I won the lottery, Id have a big party for all my friends.
(= Probablement no em tocar la loteria.)

Id stay in a hotel if I went to London.

(= Probablement no anir a Londres.)

82 Grammar Reference

That was the day when we arrived.

This is the house where he was born.

that

El pronom relatiu no es pot ometre si s el subjecte de la


proposici de relatiu.

That pot substituir who o which en les proposicions de


relatiu.

Hes the boy who / that lives near me.

Hes the singer that (= who) Ive met.


Heres the album that (= which) we bought.

El pronom where es pot ometre, per llavors cal afegir una


preposici locativa al final de la frase.

En angls s molt habitual fer servir that darrere de


something, anything, everything, nothing, all i els superlatius.

This is the house where we lived. This is the house we lived in.

Heres something that you can listen to.


Have you got anything thats similar?
Her parents give her everything that she wants.
Its the worst record that Ive ever bought.

whose

That tamb pot substituir when en les proposicions de


relatiu.

(= Sn els nens. La seva mare s una cantant famosa.)

El pronom relatiu whose marca referncies de possessi i


pertinena.

Theyre the children whose mother is a famous singer.


Thats the boy whose dog was run over.

(= Aquest s el noi. El seu gos va ser atropellat.)

I remember the day when I started school.


I remember the day that I started school.

El pronom relatiu whose no es pot ometre mai en una


proposici de relatiu.

That es pot utilitzar en lloc de where, per cal afegir una


preposici locativa al final de la frase.

This is the house where we lived.


This is the house that we lived in.

The person whos (= who is) staying next door plays loud music in
the mornings.
Thats the girl whos (= who has) just got a recording contract.

Prepositions in relative clauses


Si la proposici de relatiu cont un verb al qual va associat
una preposici, aquesta preposici se sol collocar darrere el
verb.

We told you about this song.

This is the song that we told you about.


Did you speak to that guy?

Is that the guy who you spoke to?

Defining and non-defining relative clauses


Defining relative clauses
Les proposicions de relatiu especificatives aporten
informaci essencial sobre el nom que segueixen. Sense la
proposici de relatiu, no s clar a quina persona, objecte,
lloc o moment es refereix el parlant.

Shes the singer who visited my school.

Quan la proposici de relatiu fa referncia a un lloc, es


poden utilitzar dues estructures:

Who, which i that es poden ometre quan sn lobjecte


directe de la proposici de relatiu.

where (sense preposici)

Non-defining relative clauses

that / which + preposici

This is the restaurant. Paul went to it.


This is the restaurant where Paul went.
This is the restaurant which Paul went to.
This is the restaurant that Paul went to.

Atenci! No sha de confondre whose amb whos (la forma


contracta de who is o who has).

Les proposicions de relatiu explicatives ofereixen informaci


addicional, per no essencial, sobre el nom que segueixen.
Si les eliminem, continua quedant clar a quina persona,
objecte, lloc o moment es refereix el parlant.

Si la proposici de relatiu marca una referncia temporal, en


general no es fa servir lestructura which + preposici, sin
when sense preposici.

Tuesday is the day. We usually have a test on this day.


Tuesday is the day when we usually have a test.
Tuesday is the day which we usually have a test on.
Tuesday is the day that we usually have a test on.

Omission of relative pronouns


El pronom relatiu es pot ometre si s lobjecte directe de la
proposici de relatiu. Si va seguit dun subjecte i un verb, s
probable que sigui lobjecte.

The band, who are starting a tour next week, have just released
their third album.
Cal fer servir comes per separar la proposici de relatiu
explicativa de la resta de la frase.

The tickets, which cost over 50 each, are available online.


She was born in Bogot, which is the capital of Colombia.
Es poden combinar dues frases simples fent servir una
proposici de relatiu explicativa.

My uncle is called Carl. Hes a singer.

My uncle, whos a singer, is called Carl.


o My uncle, whos called Carl, is a singer.

Thats the guitar (that / which) they gave me.


Hes the boy (that / who) I was going to the concert with.
Sovint someten els pronoms relatius who, which, that, where
i when, sobretot en angls parlat.

Thats the boy (who) Maria is going out with.


Ill never forget the day (when) I started school.

Grammar Reference83

Atenci!
That no sutilitza mai en les proposicions de relatiu
explicatives. Sempre shi ha de fer servir who o which.

The song, which got to number one, was written by a 15-yearold. no pas The song, that got to number one, was written by a
15-year-old.

Pronouns and possessive adjectives


Quan passem una frase de lestil directe a lestil indirecte,
canvien les paraules i expressions relatives al parlant: per
exemple, els pronoms i els adjectius possessius.

E
 n una proposici de relatiu explicativa mai no es pot
ometre el pronom.

We arrived late, she said.

She said that they had arrived late.


My sister studies Tourism, she said.

She said that her sister studied Tourism.

The lead singer, who is only eighteen, lives with his parents.
no pas The lead singer, is only eighteen, lives with his parents.

Time and place expressions


Time

UNIT 5 Reported speech

Estil directe

Estil indirecte

now

then, at that moment

Forma

today

that day

tonight

that night

Lestil indirecte sutilitza per reproduir el que ha dit una altra


persona, sense citar les seves paraules textuals.
Estil directe

Estil indirecte

this (morning / afternoon /


evening / week / month / year)

that (morning / afternoon /


evening / week / month / year)

Fame is the only thing I live for.

He said that fame was the only


thing he lived for.

yesterday

the day before

last (week / month / year)

the (week / month / year)


before

(two minutes) ago

(two minutes) earlier

tomorrow

the next day, the following day

next (week / month / year)

the next (week / month / year),


the following (week / month /
year)

En el registre formal, es fa servir that per introduir la


proposici que cont el que ha dit una altra persona. En el
registre informal, that es pot ometre.

I want to be a celebrity, said the girl.

The girl said (that) she wanted to be a celebrity.


Atenci! En lestil indirecte no es fan servir cometes (... en
angls i ... en catal).

Tense changes in reported speech

Place

Quan es passa una frase de lestil directe a lindirecte, el


temps del verb canvia per anar enrere en el temps.

Estil directe

Estil indirecte

I love Chinese food.


She said she loved Chinese food.
Were leaving on Saturday.
They said they were leaving on
Saturday.

this

that

these

those

here

there

Estil directe

Estil indirecte

present simple

past simple

I wait

I waited

present continuous

past continuous

I am waiting

I was waiting

present perfect simple

past perfect simple

I have waited

I had waited

past simple

past perfect simple

I waited

I had waited

past perfect simple

past perfect simple

I had waited

I had waited

am / is / are going to

was / were going to

Im going to wait

I was going to wait

Atenci! El past perfect simple no canvia en lestil indirecte.

They had already left.

84 Grammar Reference

She said that they had already left.

Modal verbs in reported speech


La majoria de verbs modals (per exemple, should, could,
would, might, ought to) no canvien en lestil indirecte.

You should sing.

She said that I should sing.

Ara b, will, can i must s que canvien en lestil indirecte.


Estil directe

Estil indirecte

will

would

I will wait

I would wait

can

could

I can wait

I could wait

must

had to

I must wait

I had to wait

I can get her autograph.


He said that he could
get her autograph.
I will talk to her.
He said that he would talk to her.
You must pay.
They said that we had to pay.

say and tell


Els verbs say i tell tenen el mateix significat per es fan servir
de manera diferent:
say (+ that) + estil indirecte.
tell + objecte indirecte (+ that) + estil indirecte.

The police officer said (that) they had found the robbers.
The police officer told me that they had found the robbers.
no pas The police officer told they had found the robbers.
ni The police officer said me they had found the robbers.
Per reproduir instruccions i ordres en estil indirecte, es
fa servir lestructura tell + objecte indirecte + (not) + to +
infinitiu.

Sit down!
Dont talk!

He told me to sit down.


The teacher told us not to talk.

Atenci! Say no sutilitza per reproduir instruccions i ordres


en estil indirecte.

Dont worry!
He told me not to worry.
no pas He said me not to worry.

Reported questions
Quan passem preguntes de lestil directe a lindirecte, lordre
de les paraules canvia. En lestil indirecte lordre coincideix
amb el de les frases afirmatives.
Pregunta en estil directe

Pregunta en estil indirecte

How is he? she asked.

She asked (me) how he was.

Formes
Si la pregunta en estil directe contenia algun mot interrogatiu
(per exemple, who, why, when, how, what), es mant en
lestil indirecte.
Pregunta en estil directe
(amb mot interrogatiu)

Pregunta en estil indirecte

mot interrogatiu + verb


+ subjecte

mot interrogatiu + subjecte


+ verb

What are you doing? he asked


her.

He asked her what she was


doing.

Si la pregunta en estil directe s del tipus yes / no (s a dir,


no cont cap mot interrogatiu com ara who, why, when, how
o what), safegeix if o whether a la pregunta en estil indirecte.
Pregunta en estil directe
(sense mot interrogatiu)

Pregunta en estil indirecte

verb + subjecte

if / whether + subjecte +
verb

Are you famous? he asked her.

He asked her if / whether she


was famous.

Atenci! A ms de canviar lordre de paraules en les


preguntes destil indirecte, recorda que cal canviar el temps
dels verbs i tamb els pronoms i les expressions de temps.

UNIT 6 The passive


The present simple passive
Formes
La veu passiva es construeix amb be + participi passat. El
temps del verb be no canvia respecte a la veu activa.
Veu activa

Veu passiva

Many tourists visit Big Ben.

Big Ben is visited by many


tourists.

The present simple passive


Afirmativa
I

am (m)

You / We / They

are (re)

He / She / It

is (s)

participi passat

Shopping is enjoyed by many people.


Negativa
I

am (m not)

You / We / They

are (arent)

He / She / It

is (isnt)

participi passat

Russian isnt studied by the students.


Interrogativa
Am

Are

you / we / they

Is

he / she / it

participi passat

Are all the meals cooked by a chef?


Atenci! Alguns verbs tenen formes irregulars per al participi
passat.
Irregular Verb List, pgines 127128

The subject, the object and the agent


En la veu activa, el subjecte de la frase s tamb lagent de
lacci, s a dir, el que realitza aquesta acci. En canvi, en
passar aquesta frase a la veu passiva, lobjecte directe es
converteix en el subjecte. Per indicar qui realitza lacci,
safegeix by + el complement agent al final de la frase.
Veu activa

Music companies

advertise

the CDs.

Subjecte i agent

Verb (en la veu activa) Objecte


directe

Veu activa

The CDs

are advertised

by music companies.

Subjecte

Verb (en la veu passiva)

by + complement
agent

Grammar Reference85

Atenci! Alguns verbs no tenen una forma per a la veu


passiva. s el cas de verbs intransitius (verbs que expressen
accions per que no tenen objecte directe) com ara die,
sleep i swim.

quan lagent no s gaire important o s obvi.

Other tenses in the passive

No sempre es pot ometre by + complement agent. Algunes


frases necessiten un agent explcit perqu s una informaci
important.

En la veu passiva, el verb be es fa servir en el mateix temps


de la veu activa.
Veu activa

Veu passiva

Present continuous

is / are taking

is being taken

Present perfect

has / have taken

has / have been taken

Past simple

took

was / were taken

Past perfect

had taken
will

will take
be going to

is / are going to take

had been taken


will be taken

The window was broken while we were playing football.

My parents gave me the money.

The money was given to me by my parents.


Penlope Cruz will open the mall.

The mall will be opened by Penlope Cruz.

Transformations: active

passive

Per passar una frase de la veu activa a la veu passiva, s til


seguir els cinc passos segents.
Veu activa: They have banned hoodies.
1 Identifica lobjecte directe de la frase activa: hoodies
2 Collocal al comenament de la frase, s a dir, en posici
de subjecte: Hoodies
3 Identifica el temps del verb de la frase activa: have banned

= present perfect

is / are going to be taken

4 Utilitza el mateix temps per al verb be seguit del participi


passat del verb principal: have been + banned

can / must / should be taken

5 Decideix si cal incloure lestructura by + complement


agent:

verbs modals

can / must / should take

quan no es vol esmentar lagent.

The police have arrested the shoplifters. (present perfect)


The shoplifters have been arrested.
We must take his advice seriously. (verb modal)
His advice
must be taken seriously.

Usos
La veu passiva sutilitza...
p
 er subratllar lacci (el verb), i no pas qui o qu la
realitza (lagent).

We threw away our old TV last week.

(s important indicar qui el va llenar.)

Thousands of old TVs are thrown away every week.

Veu passiva: Hoodies have been banned.


no pas

ells.)

Hoodies have been banned by them. (No se sap qui sn

Transformations: passive

active

Per passar una frase de la veu passiva a la veu activa,


segueix els cinc passos anteriors, per en lordre invers.
Potser caldr afegir-hi un subjecte. Decideix qui podria ser el
responsable de lacci.
Veu passiva: They were being watched. (Qui els observava? No
se sap, de manera que no podem donar un nom.)

(No s important indicar qui els llena.)

p
 er posar la idea ms important al comenament de la
frase.

Adi Dasler invented the name Adidas in 1948.


The
name Adidas was invented in 1948 (by Adi Dasler).
They sell millions of trainers every year.
Millions of
trainers are sold every year.

Veu activa: Someone was watching them.


Veu passiva: The shopping centre was designed by a famous
architect. (Qui va dissenyar el centre comercial? La
informaci s important, aix que un arquitecte fams es
converteix en el subjecte de la frase activa.)

Omission of the agent

Veu activa: A famous architect designed the shopping centre.

En una frase passiva, by introdueix el complement agent (la


persona o cosa que realitza lacci).

have something done

The record company will release the album on Monday.

The album will be released on Monday by the record company.


By + complement agent somet...
quan no se sap qui s lagent.

My wallet has been stolen.

86 Grammar Reference

Forma
Lanomenat causatiu es construeix amb have (en qualsevol
temps verbal) + objecte directe + participi passat.
Subjecte

have

Objecte directe

participi passat

He

had

the room

painted.

Usos
Lestructura causativa have something done sutilitza
per descriure accions que no fem nosaltres, sin
que encarreguem de fer a alg altre, normalment un
professional. Aquesta estructura es pot utilitzar en qualsevol
temps verbal.

Amy had her camera repaired. (= Alg la va arreglar per ella.)


Com passa en la veu passiva, en aquest tipus de frases
tampoc cal especificar lagent de lacci.

Were having our house painted. (= s obvi que la pintar un


pintor, aix que somet lagent.)

Quan alg fa una acci que generalment sencarregaria a


una altra persona, shi pot afegir un pronom reflexiu per
donar-hi mfasi.

Theyre building the house themselves.


She cuts her hair herself.

Interrogativa
verb modal

I / you / he / she / infinitiu


it / we / they

Should I go?
Atenci! Cannot sescriu junt, com una sola paraula. Amb
altres verbs modals, not sescriu separat del verb.

Semi-modals and other verbs


Alguns verbs, anomenats semimodals, noms tenen una
o dues de les caracterstiques dels verbs modals. Ns un
exemple ought to, que es construeix amb to + infinitiu.
Altres verbs no compleixen cap de les caracterstiques
esmentades dels verbs modals, per funcionen duna
manera similar. s el cas de have to.
Afirmativa

UNIT 7 Modal verbs

I / You / We / They

have

He / She / It

has

to

infinitiu

He has to work.

Characteristics of modal verbs

Negativa

Els verbs modals tenen caracterstiques especials i aporten


un mats determinat al verb principal, com ara obligaci o
perms.

I / You / We / They

dont

He / She / It

doesnt

have

to

infinitiu

He doesnt have to work.

Formes
Els verbs modals comparteixen les caracterstiques segents:
E
 n general, precedeixen linfinitiu sense to del verb
principal (excepte ought to).

I must study harder.


She should get some advice.
per I ought to ask someone.

Interrogativa
Do

I / you / we / they

Does

he / she / it

have

to

infinitiu

Does he have to work?

No porten -s en la tercera persona del singular.

Ability, permission, obligation and advice

He can speak three languages.

can, cant

N
 o fan servir lauxiliar do / does en les formes negativa i
interrogativa ni en les respostes breus.

Can i cant sutilitzen per parlar dhabilitat i capacitat en el


present.

She might not come.


We must not be late.
Should I apply? Yes, you should.

I can use a computer.


I cant understand this.

Formen contraccions en les frases negatives.

I should not be late.


I shouldnt be late.
You must not park here.
You mustnt park here.
Can, must i should sn alguns dels verbs modals ms
utilitzats.

verb modal

infinitiu

He can go.

You mustnt go.

Can I leave now?


I cant go out until Ive finished my homework.

must, have to, mustnt, dont have to

You must work hard.


You have to do three years of training.
Dont have to (que no s un verb modal) indica que no hi ha
obligaci de fer una cosa.

Negativa
I / You / He / She /
It / We / They

El verb modal can tamb es fa servir per expressar perms


en el present.

Per expressar obligaci sutilitza must i have to (que no s


un verb modal).

Afirmativa
I / You / He / She /
It / We / They

verb modal + not (nt)

infinitiu

We dont have to work at weekends.


Mustnt expressa prohibici.

You mustnt lie on your application form.

Grammar Reference87

Atenci! Must i have to tenen un significat semblant en


la forma afirmativa, per totalment diferent en la forma
negativa. Musnt expressa una prohibici, mentre que dont
have to indica que no hi ha obligaci de fer una cosa.

I could walk when I was 11 months old.


She couldnt talk until she was three.

You mustnt work seven days a week.


You dont have to work seven days a week.

Be able to (que no s un verb modal) + infinitiu expressa


capacitat i habilitat en el futur.

should, shouldnt, ought to, ought not to

Ill be able to work weekends.


They wont be able to start until September.

Ought to i should sutilitzen per donar consells i fer


recomanacions.

You ought to / should apply for the job.


You ought not to / shouldnt spend so much on clothes.
Els verbs should i ought to tenen un significat semblant, per
ought to s una mica ms formal que should.

Speculation and deduction


could, may, might, must, cant
May, may not, might, might not i could sutilitzen per parlar
de fets possibles en el present o en el futur.

It could be a fantastic job.


They might enjoy that film.
You might not get an interview.
Cant i must expressen deduccions lgiques. Cant indica
que creiem o endevinem que una cosa s impossible.

Could i couldnt descriuen capacitat i habilitat en el passat.

Be able to tamb sutilitza per expressar capacitat i habilitat


en past simple, present perfect i past perfect.

I wasnt able to go.


They havent been able to find someone for the job.
We hadnt been able to arrange an interview.

Modal perfects
Alguns verbs modals sutilitzen amb have + participi passat
per referir-se a fets del passat.

Formes
Afirmativa
I / You / He / She /
It / We / They

Negativa

Must indica que estem convenuts del que diem.

I / You / He / She /
It / We / They

Atenci!
Can mai no es fa servir per parlar de fets que sn
possibles en el present o en el futur.

It could / might / may be a fantastic job.


no pas It can be a fantastic job.
May not i might not es poden utilitzar per negar
possibilitats del present i del futur, per could not no sha
de fer servir mai en aquest sentit.

He might / may not be at home.

(= s possible que no sigui a casa.)


no pas

He could not be at home.

Sutilitza cant, no pas mustnt, quan estem segurs que


una cosa s impossible.

Theres no answer. He cant be at home.


no pas He mustnt be at home.

can, could and be able to


Can i cant expressen capacitat i habilitat en el present.

I can use a computer.


I cant understand this.

verb
modal

not

participi
passat

have

participi
passat

You shouldnt have done that.


They might not have left yet.
Interrogativa
verb modal

I / you / he / she /
it / we / they

have

participi
passat

Should we have left a tip for the waiter?


Might she have forgotten your birthday?

Usos
might / may / could have + past participle
Might, may o could + have + participi passat sutilitzen per
descriure alguna cosa que era possible en el passat.

He might / may / could have left the company.


She may not / might not have taken the job.
Could have + participi passat tamb sutilitza per suggerir
accions que podrien haver tingut lloc en el passat, tot i que
ara ja s massa tard perqu es produeixin.

He could have been a doctor, but he didnt want to go to university.


might / may not have + past participle
Might o may + not have + participi passat es refereixen a
una cosa que segurament no va produir-se en el passat.

He might not have got your message.


They may not have gone to university.

88 Grammar Reference

have

He might have phoned her last night.


They must have left early.

It cant be midnight already!


Hes not here. He must be on holiday.

verb modal

couldnt have + past participle


Couldnt have + participi passat sutilitza per fer referncia a
una cosa que era impossible en el passat.

We couldnt have finished earlier.


Atenci! Observa la diferncia entre might / may not have i
could not have.

La forma negativa es construeix collocant not davant de la


forma en -ing.

Imagine not having friends!

Common verbs followed by an infinitive


Aquests verbs solen anar seguits de linfinitiu (amb to):

He might not / may not have seen you.

afford agreeappeararrangeaskattempt

He couldnt have seen you.

beg choosedaredecidedemand

(= s possible que no et vegs.)


(= s impossible que et vegs.)

cant have + past participle


Cant have + participi passat descriu una cosa que era
impossible en el passat.

He left the job after two weeks. He cant have enjoyed it.
He cant have understood the question.
must have + past participle
Must have + participi passat sutilitza per expressar certesa o
fer una deducci lgica sobre el passat.

deserve expectfailhesitatehopeintend
learn managemeanneedofferprepare
pretend promiserefuseseemthreaten
wait wantwish would like

Would you like to come out with us tonight?


She refused to accept my apology.
I didnt manage to speak to Helen.
La forma negativa es construeix collocant not davant de
linfinitiu.

You must have seen the advert.


They must have trained for a long time.

We agreed not to argue any more.


I decided not to go on the date.

Atenci! Must have + participi passat sutilitza per fer


deduccions en el passat, no pas per indicar obligaci.

Common verbs followed by a gerund or an infinitive

should have + past participle


Should have + participi passat expressa una opini sobre
fets del passat, tot i que ja sigui tard per canviar res.

Alguns verbs poden anar seguits tant de la forma en -ing


com de linfinitiu sense que en canvi el significat. Alguns
daquests verbs sn: begin, hate, like, love, prefer, start.

He should have taken some advice from his friends, but he didnt.
I should have worn a suit but I havent got one.

I love learning languages. / I love to learn languages.


You should start to have some fun. / You should start having some
fun.

shouldnt have + past participle


Shouldnt have + participi passat expressa penediment o
crtica sobre fets del passat.

Other rules for gerunds and infinitives

They shouldnt have gone out late last night but they did.
She shouldnt have gone by car but she thought it would be quicker.

La forma en -ing sutilitza

UNIT 8 Gerunds and infinitives


Quan dos verbs van junts, el segon pot ser una forma en -ing
o un infinitiu (amb to).

They enjoy being with each other. (verb + forma en -ing)


I really want to go out with him. (verb + infinitiu)
Quan saprn un verb nou, s molt til saber si ha danar
seguit de la forma en -ing o de linfinitiu.

Verbs + gerund or infinitive


Common verbs followed by a gerund
Aquests verbs solen anar seguits de la forma en -ing:
admit adviseavoid cant help cant imagine

La forma en -ing i linfinitiu es fan servir en altres estructures.


darrere dalgunes preposicions.

I was angry with him for using my phone.


He thanked her by buying her some flowers.
q
 uan el verb funciona com un nom, generalment com a
subjecte de la frase.

Swimming is a good form of exercise.


Using mobile phones isnt allowed during the flight.
Linfinitiu sutilitza
per expressar finalitat.

I phoned her to ask about the party.


They wrote to the travel company to complain about
their holiday.
desprs dalguns adjectius.

She was scared to go into the room.


Im very happy to help you.

cant stand completeconsiderdiscussdislike


dont mind enjoyfinish give up imagine
keep mentionmindmisspractise
recommend regretreportresistrisksuggest

I regret going out with him.


Do you enjoy meeting new people?
I cant avoid seeing her every day at school.
Grammar Reference89

get / be used to
Be used to i get used to sutilitzen amb noms i amb la forma
en -ing del verb.
G
 et used to significa acostumar-se a. Fa referncia a un
procs.

Youll soon get used to the weather here.


After a few years, I got used to travelling all the time.
B
 e used to significa estar acostumat a. Fa referncia a
un estat.

I dont find this food strange, because Im used to it.


Im used to living in a city.
Atenci! No shan de confondre les dues estructures
anteriors amb used to + infinitiu.
used to, pgina 79

I used to live in Madrid. (= Hi vaig viure en el passat, per ara


ja no.)

90 Grammar Reference

Phrasal Verb Reference


STARTER UNIT Literal and idiomatic phrasal verbs
Els phrasal verbs estan formats per un verb i una partcula. La partcula pot ser una
preposici o un adverbi, com ara, in, out, on, off, for, over.
Alguns phrasal verbs tenen un significat literal, que podem deduir del que volen dir el
verb i la partcula perqu mantenen el seu significat habitual.

The teacher told the students to sit down.


Alguns phrasal verbs, en canvi, tenen un significat idiomtic. El verb i la partcula no
ens ajuden a entendre qu vol dir el phrasal verb. Nhem daprendre el significat com
si fos una paraula nova.

Hes looking for a job.


De vegades, un mateix phrasal verb pot tenir un significat literal i un altre didiomtic.

Look up there! Is that an aeroplane?


I looked up her number in the telephone directory.
1 Fixat en els phrasal verbs en negreta. Tenen un significat literal o idiomtic?
1 Put down your pens and stop writing!
2 I had just got on the train when the doors closed.
3 I give up! Whats the answer?
4 Can you see through that window?
5 My grandma has taken up salsa dancing.
6 Mikes on holiday, but hes coming back tomorrow.

UNIT 2 Phrasal verbs with up and down


Algunes partcules ens poden ajudar a desxifrar qu vol dir un phrasal verb. Els
phrasal verbs que contenen les partcules up i down solen indicar un procs, o
laugment o disminuci dalguna cosa.

It will warm up.Far ms calor.


It will cool down.Far ms fred.
La partcula up tamb pot expressar la idea dacabar una acci.

Eat up! Menja-tho tot.


Youve used up the milk! Thas acabat tota la llet.
The rain has cleared up.Ha parat de ploure.
2 Completa les frases amb up o down.
1 The bus company has put
2 Can you speak
3 Slow
4 Cheer

its prices, due to the rising cost of petrol.

? I cant hear you.

! Youre going too fast!


! Things arent that bad.

5 Hes very stressed. He really needs to calm


6 Ill tidy

the kitchen.

Phrasal Verb Reference91

UNIT 4 Separable and inseparable phrasal verbs


Els phrasal verbs es divideixen en tres grups: separable (separables), inseparable
(inseparables) i intransitive (intransitius).
1 Separable
Aquests phrasal verbs sn transitius (s a dir, tenen un objecte directe). Quan
lobjecte directe s un nom, es pot collocar tant davant com darrere de la partcula.

Well pick the guests up. oWell pick up the guests.


Quan lobjecte directe s un pronom, sha de collocar davant de la partcula.

Well pick them up.

no

Well pick up them.

2 Inseparable
Aquests phrasal verbs tamb sn transitius, per en aquest cas, si lobjecte directe
s un nom, sempre sha de collocar darrere de la partcula.

Hes looking for a job. no Hes looking a job for.


Quan lobjecte directe s un pronom, tamb sha de collocar darrere de la
partcula.

Hes looking for it. no Hes looking it for.


Els phrasal verbs amb dues partcules sempre sn inseparables.

I get on with my sister.

no

I get my sister on with.

3 Intransitive
Els phrasal verbs intransitius no tenen objecte directe, de manera que el verb no
se separa mai de la partcula.

Were going away this weekend.


Quan aprenguis un nou phrasal verb i prenguis nota del significat, apunta tamb
a quin daquests tres grups pertany. Un bon diccionari tindicar si el verb i la
partcula es poden separar o no.
Molts diccionaris (i lapartat Phrasal Verb List de la pgina 123) indiquen que un
phrasal verb es pot separar collocant sb / sth (somebody o something) entre el
verb i la partcula:

pick sb / sth

up

Solen indicar que un phrasal verb s inseparable collocant sb / sth al final:

look for sth


Els phrasal verbs intransitius solen aparixer sols, sense sb / sth:

go away
3 Indica si els phrasal verbs segents sn separables, inseparables o intransitius.
1 grow up
2 carry out
3 look up (= check in a dictionary)
4 think of
5 put up with
6 bring in
4 Ordena les paraules en negreta per construir frases. Si hi ha ms duna resposta
possible, escriu-les totes dues.
1 He lot / in / a / month / brings / of / every / money
2 What you / her / do / of / think / ?
3 I village / grew / very / up / in / small / a
4 You brothers very annoying. do / put / how / you / up / him / with / ?
5 Scientists experiment / carried / laboratory / the / a / out / in
6 Im not sure if this phrasal verb is separable. will / look / I / it / up

92 Phrasal Verb Reference

UNIT 7 Phrasal verbs with more than one meaning


Molts phrasal verbs tenen ms dun significat. De vegades, les seves caracterstiques
gramaticals tamb poden variar.

Please turn the radio / heating / air conditioning up. (transitive / separable)
(= augmenta la potncia perqu tingui un volum ms alt, escalfi ms, refredi ms,
etc.)
Si us plau, apuja la rdio / la calefacci / laire condicionat.
The police turned up five minutes later. (intransitive)
(= arribar)
La policia va aparixer al cap de cinc minuts.

Quan busquis un nou phrasal verb al diccionari, recorda que, a ms de mirar el


significat, thas de fixar en lestructura gramatical del verb per poder-lo utilitzar
correctament.
5 Quants significats tenen, aquests phrasal verbs? Utilitza un diccionari. Per a cada
significat, comprova si el phrasal verb s separable, inseparable o intransitiu.
1 hold up
2 come across
3 take off
4 make up
5 pick up
6 get through
6 Completa les frases amb un phrasal verb adequat de lexercici 5.
1 Hes got a great CV, but he doesnt
2 My dad used to

stories

well in interviews.

for us when we were young.

3 I thought the exams would last for ever, but I


4 He
5 She

his glasses
the dog

6 The traffic

us

them.

and cleaned them.


and put him in his basket.
and we arrived ten minutes late.

UNIT 8 Phrasal verbs in contemporary language


Tots els phrasal verbs sn dun registre ms aviat informal: no sacostumen a utilitzar
en escrits formals. Alguns phrasal verbs noms es fan servir en contextos molt
colloquials.

Stop worrying and chill out! Para damonar-te i relaxat!


Constantment es creen phrasal verbs per expressar conceptes actuals o avenos
tecnolgics. Quan aquest llibre aparegui publicat, se nhauran inventat uns quants
de nous!
7 Relaciona els phrasal verbs en negreta 16 amb les definicions AF.
1 The DJ bigged up the bands new album.
2 My mum is going to freak out when she sees my new haircut.
3 When I email Anna, Ill copy you in.
4 Anna hangs out with Caroline and Gemma a lot.
5 Ive forgotten my password so I cant log in.
6 I crashed out on the sofa as soon as I got home.
A access a computer system or website
B send a copy of an email that you have written for someone else
C spend time with
D recommend enthusiastically
E fall asleep immediately because you are really tired
F get very angry or excited
Phrasal Verb Reference93

Writing Reference
A LHORA DE FER UNA REDACCI
1 Pensa

Abans de comenar a escriure, llegeix atentament
lenunciat de lexercici de redacci.

Pren nota de les teves idees.

Escriu paraules i expressions que et puguin ser tils.

Noms comptables i incomptables


I would like some informations. information
People is very kind. are
Infinitius i formes en -ing
Id like going to London. to go

You should to read this book. should read

2 Planifica
Organitza les teves idees en pargrafs.

Decideix quines idees haurien danar al comenament
i quines, al final.

Afegeix la resta didees seguint un ordre lgic.

Ortografia

3 Redacta
Utilitza paraules i expressions variades.
Inclou connectors per enllaar les idees.

Paraules acabades en -y

Repassa
Has utilitzat els temps verbals correctament?
Has evitat les repeticions tant com has pogut?
Has comprovat lortografia?

CORRECCI DERRORS

Consonants simples i dobles


We stoped at a garage. stopped
The door was openning. opening
He flys to London once a month. flies
He plaies football really well. plays

Verbs acabats en -e
Im makeing a cake. making
Paraules acabades en -ght
It is not righth to test on animals. right

Paraules que contenen la seqncia ie


I beleived him. believed

Mira devitar els errors ms habituals. Consulta el diccionari


sempre que tinguis dubtes sobre qualsevol paraula que
vulguis utilitzar.

Paraules que comencen en whWich one do you want? Which

Gramtica

Signes de puntuaci

Preposicions

Majscules

Comes

He is one of the most famous singers of the world. in


We went to the shop for buy ice creams. to
We went at the caf. to
It depends of various factors. on

Im going away on monday. Monday


My mother is french. French

I enjoyed the film, it was very exciting.

I enjoyed the film; it was very exciting.

Adjectius
She has beautifuls eyes. beautiful eyes
There were some paintings very old. very old paintings

Adverbis
I didnt go out as I was too much tired. too
I was such frightened that I couldnt move. so

Articles i altres determinants


My mother is teacher. is a teacher
I went to the school every day. to school



The money can cause many problems. Money


Hers hair is very long. Her
This shoes are too small. These
Every days are the same. Every day is

Pronoms
I think is wrong to buy pirated DVDs. it is
I like he. him

94 Writing Reference

Vocabulari
do / make: You should make exercise. do
say / tell: He said me to go home. told
only / alone: My grandmother lives only. alone
last / latest: I enjoyed the last Bond film. latest
as / like: I have blonde hair as my mother. like
all / everything: All is very expensive. Everything
for / during: We lived there during five years. for
borrow / lend: He borrowed me the book. lent
see / watch / look at: I love watching paintings. looking at
travel / journey / trip: We went on a travel through the
Sahara. journey

Problemes de traducci





He has 28 years old. is


We took a coffee. had
I am agree with you. agree
The film liked me. l liked the film.
My fathers met at university. parents
I think no. I dont think so.

CONNECTORS TILS
Per afegir idees
Al comenament duna frase: Also, Tamb, In addition, A ms a ms, Moreover, A ms a ms,
Whats more, s ms, As well as A ms de
Per unir paraules i proposicions: and i in addition to a ms de as well as a ms de
Al final duna frase: as well. tamb. too. tamb.

Per expressar causa


Al comenament duna frase: Due to A causa de Because Com que Because of A causa de
That is why (s) per aix (que) As Com que Since Ja que
Per unir paraules i proposicions: due to a causa de because perqu because of a causa de
as perqu since ja que
Al final duna frase: for that reason. per aquest motiu.

Per expressar efecte


Al comenament duna frase: As a consequence, Com a conseqncia, As a result, Com a resultat,
Consequently, En conseqncia, Therefore Per tant
Per unir paraules y proposicions: so aix que
Al final duna frase: as a consequence. com a conseqncia. as a result. com a resultat.

Per expressar finalitat


Al comenament duna frase: In order to Per (tal de) In order that Per tal que
Per unir paraules i proposicions: so that de manera que in order to per (tal de) in order that
per tal que
Al final duna frase: for this purpose. amb aquest propsit. to this end. amb aquest fi.

Per expressar contrast


Al comenament duna frase: However, No obstant aix, Nevertheless, Tanmateix, Nonetheless,
Tanmateix, One the one hand, Duna banda, On the other hand, Daltra banda,
Per unir paraules i proposicions: but per yet per although tot i que even though tot i que
despite (the fact that ) malgrat (que) in spite of (the fact that) malgrat (que)
Al final duna frase: , though. Per

Per expressar condici


Al comenament duna frase: As long as Amb la condici que Providing that Amb la condici que
Unless Si no s que
Per unir paraules i proposicions: as long as amb la condici que providing that amb la condici que
unless si no s que but only if per noms si

Per marcar la seqncia duna narraci


Al comenament duna frase: Before Abans de Before, Abans, After Desprs de Afterwards,
Desprs, After that, Desprs, First, Primer, Then Desprs, Finally, Al final,
In the end, Al final,
Per unir paraules i proposicions: before abans de after desprs de
Al final duna frase: afterwards. desprs. in the end. al final.

Per marcar la seqncia duna argumentaci


Al comenament duna frase: Firstly, En primer lloc, Secondly, En segon lloc,
Thirdly, En tercer lloc, Finally, Per acabar, Lastly, En darrer lloc,

Writing Reference95

UNIT 1 A narrative
Qu s, una narraci?
Una narraci descriu una ancdota o una histria, generalment escrita en passat.
Sol fer referncia a esdeveniments, entre els quals sovint sinclou un fet inesperat,
estrany o problemtic.

Estructura
Pargraf 1

Introducci
Descriu el moment, el lloc, els personatges i el context.

Pargraf 2

Fets ms importants
Descriu els fets ms destacats.

Pargraf 3

Final
Descriu el que va passar al final.

Contingut
Utilitza temps verbals de passat.
Inclou expressions de temps i de seqenciaci.
Uneix frases utilitzant expressions de temps.

Redacta un comenament interessant per a la teva histria. Pots comenar amb una
frase breu, una frase xocant, una pregunta, etc.
Utilitza adjectius i adverbis, i descriu els teus sentiments.
Utilitza intensificadors.
Divideix el text en pargrafs ben definits.
Escriu un final contundent per a la teva histria.

Vocabulari i expressions tils


Connectors tils, pgina 95

Temps verbals propis de la narraci


Les narracions sacostumen a redactar en passat. Fes servir diferents temps verbals
per organitzar les teves idees. Per exemple:
I was in the bank yesterday morning

Past simple

I was waiting in the queue when

Past continuous

The robbers had just arrived when

Past perfect
Present perfect
used to

I have never been so frightened in my life!

I used to think banks were boring places

Expressions de temps i de seqenciaci


Expressions que sutilitzen amb temps compostos
already everforjustneversinceyet
Seqncia principal
First, Then Next, Finally, In the end, Last of all,
Anterioritat i posterioritat
Before (+ past simple / past perfect)
After (+ past simple / past perfect)
Earlier (on),
Afterwards,
After that,
After a while,
Later (on),

96 Writing Reference

Simultanetat
As (+ past simple / past continuous)
While (+ past simple / past continuous)
When (+ past simple / past perfect simple)
As soon as (+ past simple / past perfect simple)

s de vocabulari variat
Adverbis
Amazingly, Fortunately,Incredibly,Luckily,Suddenly,Unfortunately,
Adjectius
amazed angryanxiouscoldconfuseddelighteddryexcited
exhausted freezinggladgrateful guilty happyhothungry
lonely miserablenervouspleasedproudrelievedsadscared
shocked surprisedterrifiedtiredupsetwarmworriedwet

Altres expressions tils


I have never been so happy / frightened / relieved / excited in my whole life!
It was the happiest / most frightening / most exciting moment of my life!
Ill always remember / Ill never forget
One of my happiest / worst memories
It was the best / worst day of my life.
Never again!

Exercici de redacci
My first camping trip
Last summer I went camping in the south of Spain
with some friends. I had never been camping before, so
I was really nervous . On the first day, we were staying
on a small campsite when disaster struck !
We were sitting in our tent at about eight oclock.
Everyone was tired and hungry because we had had
a busy day. Suddenly , it started to rain hard, and we
heard thunder. At first , I thought we were safe, but

Utilitza expressions de temps i de


seqenciaci
Utilitza temps verbals variats
Utilitza intensificadors
Descriu els sentiments dels
protagonistes
Utilitza adverbis per fer ms
interessant el text
Descriu els sentiments dels
protagonistes al final de la histria

then I saw the water coming in. The camp site was
flooding! By the time we realized what was happening ,
the water had already got inside our tent! Some people
came to rescue us, but we couldnt save our bags, and we
were absolutely terrified . As soon as we could , we
phoned for help.
In the end , it stopped raining, although our tents were
ruined. Luckily , nobody was hurt, but Ive never had
such a frightening experience Ill never forget it!

Writing Reference97

UNIT 2 A topic essay


Qu s, un text temtic?
Un text temtic ofereix informaci sobre un tema determinat, sense proporcionar
arguments ni a favor ni en contra. Lautor pot expressar la seva opini breument al final,
per la part central del text ha daportar dades objectives.

Estructura
Pargraf 1

Introducci
Introdueix el tema en una o dues frases.

Pargraf 1

Primera idea
Explica la primera idea i la relaci que t amb el
ttol.

Pargraf 2

Segona idea
Explica la segona idea.

Pargraf 3

Tercera idea
Explica la tercera idea.

Pargraf 4

Conclusi
Resumeix la teva visi en una o dues frases.

Contingut
Aporta dades, no opinions.
Afegeix exemples que donin suport a les dades presentades.
Utilitza expressions de causa i efecte.
Evita repeticions fent servir sinnims i estructures variades.
Expressa la teva opini breument al final.

Vocabulari i expressions tils


Connectors tils, pgina 95
Per donar exemples
such as (+ nom / sintagma nominal)
like (+ nom / sintagma nominal)
For example, (+ frase)
For instance, (+ frase)
Per expressar causa
due to (+ nom / sintagma nominal)
because (+ frase)
because of (+ nom / sintagma nominal)
as (+ frase)
since (+ frase)
For that reason, (+ frase)
That is why (+ frase)
Per expressar efecte
As a consequence, (+ frase)
As a result, (+ frase)
Consequently, (+ frase)
Therefore, (+ frase)
(frase +) so (+ frase)

98 Writing Reference

s de sinnims
Noms
problem

difficultydilemmaobstaclequestion

solution

answerkey

result

effectconsequenceoutcome

situation

circumstancespositioncase
member of the public citizenindividual

person
Verbs

believeconsiderfeel be of the opinion be under the impression

think
see

regardviewperceive

Adjectius
big

largegreatsizeable

important
difficult

significantmajor
challengingproblematicharddemanding

essential

crucialvitalcritical

nice

pleasantattractiveenjoyable

Quantificadors
a lot of a large amount of

much
many

a lot of a large number of numerous

some

severalvarious a number of

not much

little a small amount of

not many

few a small number of

Intensificadors
very
quite

extremelytremendouslyimmensely
somewhatratherfairlyslightlyrelatively

Atenci! Molt poques paraules sn sinnims exactes. En la majoria de casos, el significat


varia una mica. Consulta el diccionari per decidir quina paraula s la ms encertada en
cada cas.

Exercici de redacci
How will the rising cost of fuel change our cities
in the future?
Our way of life is starting to change due to the increased cost
of fuel. If this continues, cities will be very different places in
the future.
As fuel will be expensive, people will not use cars as much and
cities will be less polluted. More people will walk or cycle, and
consequently, citizens will be fitter and healthier.

Introdueix el tema
Utilitza expressions de causa i
efecte
Utilitza sinnims per evitar
repeticions
Utilitza expressions per afegir
exemples
Expressa la teva opini a la
conclusi

Due to the small amount of traffic, cities will be safer for their
citizens. For example, children will be able to play outside
safely. In addition, there will be fewer accidents.
Because of the price of fuel, consumer items such as clothes
will cost significantly more. City-dwellers will therefore
spend less time shopping and more time relaxing outside.
I believe that the high cost of fuel will have a positive effect
on cities in the future. Due to the reduced number of cars,
they will be cleaner, safer and more pleasant.

Writing Reference99

UNIT 3 A formal letter


Qu s, una carta formal?
Les cartes formals sescriuen per adrear-se a empreses i organismes, no pas a gent que
coneixem personalment. Per exemple, per demanar una feina se sol escriure una carta
formal. Aquesta classe de cartes tenen una estructura i un estil de llengua especfics.

Estructura
Pargraf 1

Pargraf introductori
Explica per qu escrius la carta i on has vist loferta de feina.

Pargraf 2

Formaci i experincia
Descriu la teva formaci i qualsevol experincia professional que pugui
ser til per a la feina que sollicites.

Pargraf 3

Qualitats i aptituds personals


Descriu les teves qualitats i aptituds. Explica per qu tajudarien a fer
b la feina.

Pargraf 4

Pargraf final
Indica quan et podries incorporar al nou lloc de treball, mostra la teva
disposici a anar a una entrevista i acaba la carta.

Contingut
Utilitza una llengua formal.
No facis servir formes contractes.
Inclou verbs modals com ara would, should o could.
No utilitzis expressions colloquials.
Deixa clar el motiu pel qual escrius la carta.
Uneix les frases utilitzant and, but i because.
Divideix el text en pargrafs ben definits.

Vocabular y expressions tils


Connectors tils, pgina 95

Salutacions
Si no coneixes el destinatari: Dear Sir or Madam,
Si el destinatari s un home, per no en saps el nom: Dear Sir,
Si el destinatari s una dona, per no en saps el nom: Dear Madam,
Si coneixes el nom del destinatari: Dear Mr / Mrs / Ms / Miss (+ nom),

Per explicar el motiu descriure la carta


I am writing because
I am writing in response to
I am writing to (enquire / apply for / ask about / complain about / request)

Per sollicitar informaci


I would be interested to (know / find out )
I wonder if you could (send me / tell me / let me know)
I would be grateful if you would

Per descriure les teves aptituds i la teva experincia professional


As you will see from my / the enclosed CV,
I am suitable for the post because
I have experience of (+ forma en -ing)
I would describe myself as (+ adjectiu)
100 Writing Reference

Per descriure la documentaci que adjuntes


I enclose
Please find enclosed

Per seqenciar idees


First of all, Firstly, Secondly, Thirdly, Finally,

Altres expressions tils


I would like to point out that
I saw your advert in (newspaper) / on (website)
Please do not hesitate to contact me if you require any further information.
I have a few queries regarding

Expressions per acabar la carta


I look forward to your response.

I am available to

I look forward to hearing from you soon.

I would be happy to attend an interview.

Frmules de comiat
Si has utilitzat el nom del destinatari a la salutaci: Yours sincerely,
Si no has utilitzat el nom del destinatari a la salutaci: Yours faithfully,

Exercici de redacci
Group Leader wanted for Cambridge Summer Camp
Must speak English and at least one other European language (preferably Spanish), and
get on well with children and young people. Experience in organizing drama activities an
advantage. Applications should be sent to Cambridge Summer Camp, St Johns Lane,
Cambridge CB14 4SF. (From: www.student-summer-jobs.co.uk, 25 May 2009)

23 Preston Road
Peterborough PE1 4PU
27 May 2009
Human Resources Manager
Cambridge Summer Camp
St Johns Lane
Cambridge CB14 4SF

La teva adrea
La data
Crrec i adrea del
destinatari
Salutaci

Dear Sir or Madam,

Motiu pel qual escrius la


carta

I am writing in response to the advertisement for a Group Leader, which appeared


on the website www.student-summer-jobs.co.uk on 25 May. I would like to be
considered for the position, and I enclose a copy of my CV.

La teva formaci i la teva


experincia professional

I believe I am suitable for the post because I have experience of organizing activities
for children. As you will see from my CV, l am a member of a drama group which
organizes workshops and shows for under-10s. I have studied Spanish for five years,
and have been to Spain several times, so I also have the necessary language skills.
I am suitable for the post because I am sociable and hard-working. I am also a good
leader and I get on well with children of all ages.

Les teves qualitats i


aptituds personals
Utilitza una expressi
per acabar la carta i
una frmula de comiat
adequades

I am available to start work at the end of June and I would be happy to attend an
interview.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours faithfully,

Sally White
Sally White
Writing Reference101

UNIT 4 An opinion essay


Qu s, un article dopini?
En un article dopini, lautor explica i raona la seva visi sobre un tema. De vegades
respon a una pregunta, i altres vegades explica si est dacord o no amb una afirmaci.

Estructura
Pargraf 1

Introducci
Introdueix el tema en una o dues frases.

Pargraf 2

Opini
Expressa el que penses sobre el tema afegint i explicant les teves
raons una per una. Si pots, aporta dades per reforar la teva opini.

Pargraf 3

Conclusi
Resumeix la teva opini.

Contingut
Aporta fets i exemples senzills per reforar les teves idees.

No facis referncia a avantatges i desavantatges, ni plantegis arguments a favor o en
contra del tema: no es tracta de presentar un raonament equilibrat.
Utilitza termes de seqenciaci i connectors per enllaar pargrafs i frases.
Utilitza expressions adequades per expressar la teva opini.
Inclou expressions adequades per raonar la teva opini.
Aporta dades, com ara estadstiques, que contribueixin a reforar les teves idees.

Vocabulari i expressions tils


Connectors tils, pgina 95

Per expressar opinions


I think
I believe
In my opinion,
In my view,
It seems to me that
I feel (very strongly) that
As I see it,
As far as I am concerned,
It is clear to me that
I am convinced that
I am sure that

Per raonar opinions


This is because
One reason for my opinion is
My main reason is
Another reason is

102 Writing Reference

Per seqenciar idees


Firstly,
Secondly,
Thirdly,
Finally,
Lastly,

Per aportar dades


It is a well known fact that
Research has shown that
This is shown / demonstrated / proven by
On average,
According to a survey,

Per oferir informaci addicional


In addition,
What is more,
Moreover,
Furthermore,
also
too.
as well.

Per concloure larticle


To conclude,
To sum up,
All in all,
In conclusion,

Exercici de redacci
The government should make flying more
expensive. Do you agree?
At the moment, flying is relatively cheap, and many people
choose to travel by air. However, in my opinion, flying
should become more expensive.
Firstly, flying damages the environment. I feel very strongly
that we all need to fly less because planes cause so much
pollution. Research has shown that people fly more when
prices are low. For example, at the moment the average
European takes five or six flights a year.
Secondly, if the government increased the tax on air travel, it
could spend more money on greener forms of transport. For
example, it could improve train services, which people use
every day.

Introdueix el tema
Utilitza expressions dopini
Inclou termes de seqenciaci
Aporta dades que reforcin la teva
visi
Utilitza expressions per concloure
larticle
Resumeix la teva opini al final

In conclusion, air travel is bad for the environment


and people fly more when it is cheap. I think that if the
government made it more expensive, it could invest the
extra money in train travel. This would help to protect the
environment and it would benefit more people too.

Writing Reference103

UNIT 5 An informal letter or email


Qu s, una carta informal o correu electrnic?
Les cartes informals i els missatges de correu electrnic sacostumen a adrear a
persones que coneixem personalment. Sovint descriuen coses que ens passen i
plantegen preguntes. Lestructura i lestil de llengua que es fan servir a les cartes
informals sn diferents dels de les cartes formals.

Estructura
Pargraf 1

Salutaci i comentari inicial


Saluda el teu amic o amiga i pregunta-li com est.

Pargraf 2

Motiu pel qual escrius


Explica amb detall el motiu pel qual escrius la carta.

Pargraf 3

Informaci addicional
Aporta informaci addicional sobre la teva vida; per exemple,
explica alguna cosa que hagis fet fa poc o que fars aviat.

Pargraf 4

Conclusi i comiat
Acaba el teu correu electrnic i acomiadat del teu amic o amiga.

Contingut
Utilitza formes contractes en comptes de formes completes.
Formula preguntes directes.
Utilitza expressions colloquials.
Inclou expressions per omplir (falques).
Fes servir paraules breus i evita termes llargs dorigen llat.
Inclou signes dexclamaci i guions.

Vocabulari i expressions tils


Connectors tils, pgina 95

Salutacions
Hi (nom)

Hello!

Hi there!

Dear (nom),

Comentaris inicials
How are you?

How are things? All well, I hope.

Hows it going?

Hope alls well.

Hows life?

What have you been up to?

Per respondre a la carta duna altra persona


Thanks for your letter.
It was good / great to hear from you.
You asked about / You wanted to know about / Thanks for asking about
You asked me to tell you

Per anunciar novetats


Ive got some great news!
Guess what!
Youll never guess whats happened!

104 Writing Reference

Per disculpar-se
Im sorry I havent written for a while, but
Its been ages since I last wrote to you, but

Per afegir informaci addicional


What else? Oh, yes
I also wanted to tell you about
By the way,

Expressions per omplir (falques)


Well, Anyway, Otherwise,

Expressions per acabar la carta


Write soon.

Looking forward to hearing your news.

Keep in touch.

See you soon!

Comiats
Love,

All the best,

Lots of love,

See you,

Take care,

Exercici de redacci
Write to a friend who lives in another part of the country, and tell him or her
your news.

12 Greendale Avenue
Leicester LE2 5DX
3 November 2009
Dear Lucy,
How are things? All well, I hope! Thanks for your letter.
It was great to hear from you! Sorry I havent written
for a while Ive been really busy!
What have you been up to? Ive been busy studying for
exams, so Ill be really glad when theyre all finished!
Ive got a bit of a problem. I met a boy on holiday in the
summer, and now he wants to come and visit me. The
thing is, I got on well with him on holiday, and I thought
he was really cool, but now Im not sure, and I dont
know if Ill get on with him back at home. What should I
do?


Escriu la teva adrea

Escriu la data sota la teva adrea
Utilitza una salutaci informal

Pregunta al teu amic o amiga com
est

Utilitza expressions per donar les
grcies o demanar disculpes al teu
amic o amiga
Utilitza formes contractes

Utilitza una llengua informal
Inclou expressions per omplir
Utilitza expressions informals per
acabar la carta i acomiadar-te

Anyway, thats enough about my problems! I was


wondering if youd like to come and visit. Im having a
party next month. You can stay here, of course. Itd
be great to catch up.
Write soon!
Love,
Maria

Writing Reference105

UNIT 6 A discussion essay


Qu s, un text de debat?
En un text de debat es presenten dos costats duna argumentaci, generalment a partir
duna afirmaci. Al final del text, lautor dna la seva opini sobre aquesta afirmaci i
nexplica el perqu.

Estructura
Pargraf 1

Introducci
Escriu una afirmaci genrica sobre el tema.

Pargraf 2

Arguments a favor de lafirmaci


Aporta dos o tres punts a favor.

Pargraf 3

Arguments en contra de lafirmaci


Aporta dos o tres punts en contra.

Pargraf 4

Conclusi
Digues si ests dacord o no amb lafirmaci, i explica per qu.

Contingut
Inclou arguments a favor i en contra del tema.
Aporta exemples per donar suport a les teves idees.
Utilitza connectors per introduir nous elements i contrastar idees.
Expressa la teva opini al final del text.
Raona la teva opini.

Vocabulari i expressions tils


Connectors tils, pgina 95

Per oferir una argumentaci equilibrada


On the one hand On the other hand
There are advantages and disadvantages to
There are arguments for and against
There are positive and negative aspects of
Some people think / argue that , but / while other people think / argue that
People have different opinions on this subject.

Per introduir un argument


Another (dis)advantage / problem is (that)
Another argument for / against is
One (dis)advantage is

Per seqenciar largumentaci


Firstly,
Secondly,
Thirdly,
Lastly,
Finally,

106 Writing Reference

Per aportar dades


For example,
According to
It is clear that
Research has shown (that)
It has been proven that
We do not have any evidence that

Per expressar contrast


but
However,
Nevertheless,
although
even though
despite (+ nom) / (the fact that + frase)
in spite of (+ nom) / (the fact that + frase)
, though.

Per concloure
To conclude,
To sum up,
All in all,
In conclusion,

Exercici de redacci
All hunting is wrong and should be
against the law. Discuss.
People all over the world hunt and kill animals, but
more and more people now believe that it is wrong
and should be illegal. However, there are arguments
for and against making hunting illegal.
On the one hand, hunting has various benefits for
humans. Firstly, it is a cultural tradition in many
countries. Secondly, many people hunt for food.
Finally , some animals, such as foxes, do a lot of damage,
and hunting helps to control their numbers.
On the other hand, some forms of hunting can be
cruel. For example, some scientists say that fish suffer
pain when they are caught. Another argument
against hunting is that most Western forms of hunting
are purely for fun. According to a recent report, most
people who shoot in Britain never eat the animals that
they kill.

Introdueix el tema
Indica que hi ha dos aspectes a
largumentaci
Utilitza expressions adequades
per exposar una argumentaci
equilibrada
Utilitza expressions per seqenciar
largumentaci
Aporta proves i exemples
Utilitza expressions per concloure
Expressa la teva opini al final del
text

In conclusion, I would agree that hunting is acceptable


when people are killing animals for food. However,
I think that it should be illegal to kill any animal just
for fun because in my opinion this is cruel.

Writing Reference107

UNIT 7 A newspaper report


Qu s, una crnica periodstica?
Una crnica periodstica descriu un esdeveniment o incident i ofereix informaci sobre
quan i on va passar, i qui va afectar. Sol comenar amb un resum del que va passar, a
continuaci se nofereixen detalls i sovint acaba expressant una opini.

Estructura
Pargraf 1

Resum de lincident
Ofereix la informaci bsica, per no entris en detalls.

Pargraf 2

Informaci ms important
Fes una descripci ms detallada de lincident. Ofereix el punt de
vista de les persones implicades.

Pargraf 3

Final i opini
Descriu qu va passar al final i afegeix alguna opini sobre
lincident.

Contingut
Utilitza la veu passiva.
Inclou verbs introductoris adequats.
Ofereix lopini daltres persones sobre lincident.
Utilitza formes contractes en lloc de formes completes.
Utilitza expressions adequades per afegir informaci.
Utilitza expressions adequades per aportar dades que encara no shan confirmat.
Colloca els adjectius en lordre correcte.
Comena larticle amb un resum del que va passar.
Acaba el text amb lopini dalguna persona implicada.

Vocabulari i expressions tils


Connectors tils, pgina 95

Veu passiva
Past simple

Three people were injured.


The bank was being monitored by CCTV cameras.

Past continuous
Past perfect

He had been convicted of similar offences in the past.

Present perfect
will

Security has been improved since the incident.

They will be sentenced to at least two years in prison.

Verbs introductoris
say (that)
tell sb (that) / to (+ infinitiu)
comment (that)
remark (that)
complain (that)
insist (that)
explain (that)
remind sb (that) / to (+ infinitiu)
promise (that)
advise sb (to + infinitiu)
warn sb (that) / to (+ infinitiu)
order sb to (+ infinitiu)
instruct sb to (+ infinitiu)

108 Writing Reference

Verb + preposici
fine sb for
suspect sb of
acquit sb of
arrest sb for
charge sb with
accuse sb of
find sb guilty / not guilty of
convict sb of
sentence sb to

Per donar informaci addicional


also
too.
as well.
In addition,
Moreover,
What is more,
Furthermore,

Per aportar dades no confirmades


is reported to have (+ participi passat)
is believed to have (+ participi passat)
was seen (+ forma en -ing)
According to reports, (+ frase)
Apparently, (+ frase)

Exercici de redacci
Write a newspaper report about a bank robbery.

Three arrested after bank robbery


Two men were arrested in London last night after
robbing the Three Counties Bank in Richmond.
In addition, a third man was arrested for driving
the getaway vehicle.
The robbery took place late on Friday evening. Two
men were seen behaving suspiciously by Mr Edward
Jones, 55, who was driving past the bank. They
were wearing masks, he explained to reporters. He
noticed an old, white van parked opposite the bank
as well. I called the police and they advised me to
stay where I was, he said. They also warned me
not to approach the men. When the police arrived,
the robbers, who are reported to have stolen over
200,000, had escaped in the van. Luckily, Mr Jones
had made a note of the vans registration number.

Comena fent un resum del que va passar


Utilitza expressions per afegir informaci
Utilitza verbs introductoris variats
Colloca els adjectius en lordre correcte
Explica qu va passar al final
Ofereix alguna opini sobre el lincident

Thomas Black and John Williams were arrested


for the robbery. The third man, Robert Allen,
was charged with helping the criminals. A police
spokesman said, Mr Jones did the right thing.

Writing Reference109

UNIT 8 A biography
Qu s, una biografia?
Una biografia explica la vida duna persona. Ofereix informaci important sobre la
seva infantesa i la seva trajectria professional. En una biografia, els fets es relaten en
ordre cronolgic, des del naixement de la persona fins a la seva mort; si es tracta dun
personatge viu, satura en la descripci de la seva feina ms recent. Al final, sovint
descriu el motiu pel qual aquesta persona ha resultat interessant o influent.

Estructura
Pargraf 1

Introducci i infantesa
Descriu a qu es dedica la persona i aporta una o dues dades sobre
la seva infantesa.

Pargraf 2

Trajectria professional
Descriu els seus xits ms importants.

Pargraf 3

Informaci sobre activitats recents i conclusi


Explica el que ha fet recentment o, si la persona no s viva, indica
quan va morir. Finalment, explica per qu es considera una persona
influent.

Contingut
Utilitza temps verbals de passat per parlar duna persona que ja s morta.

Utilitza temps de present i el present perfect per referir-te a una persona que encara
s viva.
Introdueix termes de seqenciaci per marcar clarament lordre dels fets.
Inclou adjectius que descriguin el carcter de la persona.
Explica per qu aquesta persona s considerada una figura important.

Vocabulari i expressions tils


Connectors tils, pgina 95

Adjectius per descriure les persones


ambitious brilliant creative determined exceptional famous generous
hard-working idealistic imaginative influential inspiring intelligent popular
respected sensitive shy successful talented well-known wise world-class

Etapes de la vida
Els primers anys
was born in (lloc) on (data) / in (any)
At an early age,
His / Her early life was
He / She was educated at
At the age of
As a child, he / she
As a teenager, he / she
By the time he / she was years old,
Esdeveniments destacats
By 1998,
Soon afterwards,
The following year,
Later that year,
By the late 1950s,
Within (two years), he / she had

110 Writing Reference

Anys segents
He / She is best known for
He / She was the first person to
Recently, he / she
until his / her death in (1999).

Verbs i expressions verbals tils


live
grow up
spend time (+ forma en -ing)
develop
become the first person to
create
influence
pioneer
discover
manage to (+ infinitiu)
invent
break a record
top the charts
succeed in (+ forma en -ing)
win (a prize / an award) (for)
retire

Exercici de redacci
Write a biography of a famous actor.

A biography of Daniel Radcliffe


Daniel Radcliffe is a world-famous actor who has played the
leading role in the extremely successful Harry Potter films.

Explica per qu s famosa la


persona

He was born on 23 July 1989 in London and, as a child, he

Indican lany i lloc de naixement

loved drama. By the age of five, he had already developed an

Utilitza expressions de temps


variades

interest in acting. He grew up in London and was educated at


the Sussex House School, a boys school.

Explica la importncia que t la


persona en lactualitat

By the time Radcliffe was ten, he had already appeared in


a television drama. In 2000, he was chosen to play Harry in
Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone. Since then, he has
appeared in several other films and plays as well as the Harry
Potter films. He left school when he was seventeen because he
wanted to concentrate on acting.
Radcliffe is a very popular and talented actor, and is one of
the richest actors in the world today. He has only just started
his career, and has a great future ahead of him.

Writing Reference111

Word-building Reference
UNIT 1Adjective and adverb suffixes

Alguns adverbis tenen la mateixa forma que ladjectiu:

This car is fast. You can drive fast in this car.


Paul is a hard worker. Paul works hard.
We climbed to a really high place. We climbed really high.
Holly is always late. Holly always arrives late.
The picture isnt straight. The picture wasnt put up straight.

Es poden formar adjectius afegint sufixos a certs noms i


verbs. Dos dels sufixos ms comuns que safegeixen a verbs
per formar adjectius sn -ed i -ing.

E
 ls adjectius acabats en -ed solen descriure estats i
sentiments.

L adverbi well s una forma irregular, completament


diferent de ladjectiu good.

Adjectives ending in -ed and -ing

Verb

Sufix

Adjectiu

frighten

-ed

frightened

I felt very frightened.


E
 ls adjectius acabats en -ing descriuen la persona o cosa
que causa aquest estat o sentiment.
Verb

Sufix

Adjectiu

frighten

-ing

frightening

The film was very frightening.


Tot seguit tens uns quants exemples comuns de verbs que
formen adjectius amb aquests sufixos:

amaze |amuse|annoy|bore|embarrass|excite
frighten |irritate|terrify|thrill|tire|worry
Atenci!
Els adjectius acabats en -ing segueixen les mateixes
regles ortogrfiques que els participis presents.
The present continuous, WB pgina 75
E
 ls adjectius acabats en -ed segueixen les mateixes regles
ortogrfiques que els participis passats.
The present perfect simple, WB pgina 76

Forming adverbs from adjectives


La majoria dels adverbis es formen afegint -ly a un adjectiu.

quick + -ly

quickly

De vegades cal fer altres canvis ortogrfics.

Sergio is a good footballer.

Sergio plays football well.

UNIT 2 Negative prefixes


Sovint safegeix un prefix negatiu a un adjectiu, un verb o un
nom per obtenir-ne lantnim.

Negative adjective prefixes


Hi ha diversos prefixos negatius que es poden utilitzar amb
adjectius. Tot seguit en tens alguns dels ms comuns:

asymmetrical
un- happy
unhappy
dis- organized
disorganized
non- violent
non-violent
a- symmetrical

Atenci! Se sol collocar un gui darrere del prefix non-,


per no es fa servir gui amb els altres prefixos.
No hi ha regles que ens indiquin quin prefix cal utilitzar, sin
que sha daprendre la forma negativa de cada paraula. Ara
b, quan ladjectiu prov del llat, s que hi ha unes regles
per saber quin prefix es fa servir.

Adjectives derived from Latin


Davant de paraules derivades del llat se sol fer servir el
prefix negatiu in-, per aquest prefix canvia quan la paraula
comena per certes lletres.
Adjectiu positiu

Adjectiu negatiu

Adjectius que comencen per m- i p-

im- + adjectiu

Adjectiu

Adverbi

possible, moral

Adjectius acabats en -ble

adjectiu (sense -e) + -y

Adjectius que comencen per l-

literate

il- + adjectiu

comfortably

Adjectius acabats en -y

adjectiu (sense -y) + -ily

Adjectius que comencen per r-

ir- + adjectiu

Adjectius acabats en -ic

adjectiu + -ally

comfortable
happy

fantastic

happily

fantastically

Atenci!
S
 i ladjectiu ja acaba en -ly, no shi afegeix el sufix -ly. En
aquest cas es fa servir una locuci adverbial:

The man was friendly. He spoke to me in a friendly way.

112 Word-building Reference

responsible

impossible, immoral
illiterate

irresponsible

Atenci! Els adjectius que no deriven del llat sovint porten


altres prefixos, encara que comencin per m, p, l o r; per
exemple:

likely
unlikely
mistakeable
unmistakeable

Negative noun prefixes


Aquests sn els prefixos que sutilitzen ms amb els noms.
dis- order
non- fiction

disorder
non-fiction

Els noms derivats dadjectius solen tenir el mateix prefix


negatiu que ladjectiu.

asymmetrical
asymmetry
unhappy
unhappiness
disorganized
disorganization
non-violent
non-violence
impossible
impossibility
immoral
immorality
illiterate
illiteracy
irresponsible
irresponsibility

I work part time.

paint (verb)
painter (nom)
pacifism (nom)
pacifist (nom)
Molts daquests noms es formen de les maneres segents:

edit + -or
farm + -er

editor
farmer

Professions del camp


de la medicina o la
cincia

nom +
-ist

neurology + -ist
neurologist

Persones que toquen


un instrument
musical

nom +
-ist

violin + -ist
violinist

Professions de camps
que acaben en -c o
-cs

nom +
-ian

politics + -ian
politician

Atenci! Hi ha altres sufixos que sutilitzen sovint per a noms


de professions i activitats, com ara:
-ent
-man / woman

account (verb)
study (verb)
camera (nom)

The pool is fifty metres long.

Its a fifty-metre pool.

UNIT 5Noun, verb and adjective


prefixes

Sovint es fan servir prefixos per formar noms que fan


referncia a persones. Aquests noms solen descriure la feina
que fa una persona o les seves idees i creences, i sacostumen
a formar a partir de verbs i daltres noms.

-ant

Ive got a part-time job.

Quan ladjectiu compost est format per un nombre i una


unitat de mesura, la unitat de mesura es posa en singular.

UNIT 3Noun suffixes (1)

verb +
-er o -or

socialist
Modernist
racist

Sovint podem formar un adjectiu compost a partir duna


expressi de dues o ms paraules. Es colloca lexpressi
davant del nom i les paraules suneixen mitjanant un gui.

disappear
undo

Moltes professions

socialism
Modernism
racism

Un adjectiu compost est format per dues o ms paraules.

Aquests sn els prefixos que sutilitzen ms amb els verbs:


un- do

Persona (nom / adjectiu)

UNIT 4Compound adjectives

Negative verb prefixes


dis- appear

Creena, moviment o
ideologia (nom)

accountant
student
cameraman

Sovint safegeix un prefix a un adjectiu, nom o verb per


obtenir-ne lantnim (vegeu Unit 2). Per hi ha prefixos que
canvien el significat de les paraules daltres maneres.
Tot seguit tens alguns dels prefixos ms utilitzats:
Prefix

Significat

over-

massa

under-

no prou

ex-

antic

re-

una altra vegada

anti-

en contra de, contrari a

pro-

a favor de

extra-

fora de

super-

gran / ms del normal

hyper-

molt gran / ms del normal

trans-

a travs de

De vegades es colloca un gui desprs del prefix, sobretot


en els casos segents:
q
 uan el prefix acaba en la mateixa lletra amb qu
comena la paraula segent.
anti-intellectual
q
 uan la paraula segent s un nom que sescriu amb
majscula.
pro-European
desprs del prefix ex-.

ex-student

Tamb sutilitza el sufix -ist per fer referncia a persones


que tenen certes creences o prejudicis, o que pertanyen a
certs grups ideolgics. Aquests paraules poden ser noms o
adjectius i normalment deriven de noms acabats en -ism.

Word-building Reference113

UNIT 6Compound nouns


Un nom compost est format per dues o ms paraules.
Alguns noms compostos sescriuen com una sola
paraula. bookshop
Daltres suneixen mitjanant un gui (-). fox-hunting
Alguns sescriuen com dues paraules separades. police
officer
No hi ha regles que tajudin a saber com sescriu cada nom
compost. Consulta sempre un diccionari.
Molts noms compostos estan formats per adjectiu + nom.
En la forma del plural noms varia el nom.

We saw two polar bears.

We saw a polar bear.

Molts noms compostos estan formats per nom + nom. El


primer nom sol anar en singular, tot i que tingui un significat
plural.

I keep my books on a bookshelf.


En la forma del plural noms varia el segon nom.

Shes got two new handbags.

Shes got a new handbag.

UNIT 7 Noun suffixes (2)


Sovint es pot afegir el sufix -er (o -or) a un verb per formar
un nom (vegeu Unit 3). Aquest nom fa referncia a la
persona o cosa que fa lacci.

clean (verb)

cleaner (nom: persona o cosa)

Tamb molt sovint es pot afegir -ing a un verb per formar un


nom. El nom resultant fa referncia a lactivitat.

Cleaning your kitchen regularly is very important.


Quan fem servir la forma en -ing dun verb com si fos un
nom, aquesta forma verbal sanomena gerund.
Hi ha molts altres sufixos que es poden afegir a un verb
per formar un nom. Tot seguit tens alguns dels sufixos ms
utilitzats:
-age marry
marriage
-al arrive
-ance disturb
-ation organize
-ence depend
-ion possess
-ment achieve

arrival
disturbance
organization
dependence
possession
achievement

114 Word-building Reference

Speaking Reference
LLENGUATGE FUNCIONAL

Per fer una presentaci


Today Im going to talk about Avui parlar de

Per demanar informaci


What ? Qu ? / Quin ?
Which ? Quin ?
Who ? Qui ?
Where ? On ?
When ? Quan ?
How often (+ present simple)? Amb quina freqncia ?
How long (+ present perfect simple)? Quant fa que ? /
Quant temps ?

Ill begin by (+ forma en -ing) Comenar


Then Ill (+ infinitiu) Desprs
Firstly, En primer lloc,
Secondly, En segon lloc,
Thirdly, En tercer lloc,
Whats more, s ms,
Finally, Per acabar,
I hope youve found my talk interesting. Espero que la
xerrada us hagi semblat interessant.
Thank you for listening. Grcies per la vostra atenci.

Per reproduir una conversa


I asked Vaig preguntar
I wanted to know Volia saber
I wondered Em preguntava

IDEES I OPINIONS

He / She told me (that) (Ell / Ella) em va dir que

Per expressar acord

He / She said (that) (Ell / Ella) va dir que

I agree (with you). Hi estic dacord. / Estic dacord amb tu.

He / She replied (that) (Ell / Ella) va contestar que

I think so too. Jo tamb ho crec.

Per comentar els resultats duna enquesta

Youre right. Tens ra.

Most people said that La majoria de la gent va dir que

Per expressar desacord

Not many people said that No gaire gent va dir que

I disagree (with you). No hi estic dacord. /


No estic dacord amb tu.

The majority (dis)liked A la majoria (no) els va agradar


A few people thought that
Algunes persones pensaven que
According to several people,
Segons diverses persones,
Overall, people felt that
En general, la gent sentia que

Per demanar consell

I dont agree (with you). No hi estic dacord. /


No estic dacord amb tu.
Im not sure about that. No nestic segur.

Per expressar una opini


I think Penso que
I believe Crec que
In my opinion, Al meu entendre,

What should I (+ infinitiu)? Qu hauria de ?

In my view, Des del meu punt de vista,

Do you think I should (+ infinitiu)? Creus que hauria de ?

It seems to me that Em fa lefecte que

What if ? Qu et sembla si ?

As I see it, Tal com ho veig jo,

What would you do? Tu qu faries?

I feel (very strongly) that Crec (fermament) que

Can you give me some advice? Em pots aconsellar?

As far as Im concerned, Pel que fa a mi,

Per aconsellar
You should(nt) (+ infinitiu) (No) hauries de
If I were you, Id (+ infinitiu) Jo, en el teu lloc,

Its clear to me that Em sembla evident que


Im convinced that Estic convenut que
Im sure that Estic segur que

Whatever you do, (dont) (+ infinitiu)


Facis el que facis, (no)

Per convncer dalguna cosa

Per fer suggeriments

Dont you think that ? No creus que ?

You could (+ infinitiu) Podries


Couldnt you (+ infinitiu)? No podries ?

Havent you considered that ? No has pensat que ?


We shouldnt forget that No haurem doblidar que
Surely you must agree that Ests dacord que , oi?

Why dont you (+ infinitiu)? Per qu no ?

Speaking Reference115

Per reconixer que un altre t ra

Per fer comparacions

I see what you mean about


Entenc el que vols dir sobre

Both photos show Totes dues fotos mostren

Youve got a point about Tens ra sobre

One similarity is that they both


Una semblana s que totes dues

I understand what youre saying.


Entenc el que vols dir.

Like Photo A, Photo B shows


Igual que la foto A, la foto B mostra

I agree with you up to a point.


Estic dacord amb tu fins a un cert punt.

Per contrastar dues imatges

Per expressar una preferncia

In Photo A , whereas in Photo B


A la foto A , mentre que a la foto B

I really like / love (+ forma en -ing / infinitiu)


Magrada molt / Mencanta

In Photo A , while in Photo B


A la foto A , mentre que a la foto B

I really dont like / hate (+ forma en -ing / infinitiu)


No magrada gens / Odio

Unlike Photo A, Photo B shows


A diferncia de la foto A, la foto B mostra

Id (much) prefer to (+ infinitiu)


Mestimaria ms (amb diferncia)
Id prefer (nom) to (nom) Prefereixo a
Id rather (+ infinitiu) Mestimaria ms
Id very much like to (+ infinitiu) Magradaria molt
I wouldnt like to (+ infinitiu) No magradaria
I might consider (+ forma en -ing) Em plantejaria
Id never (+ infinitiu) Mai
I wouldnt dream of (+ forma en -ing)
Mai no se macudiria
Theres no way that Id (+ infinitiu)
Mai no se macudiria

Per preguntar per les preferncies dels altres


What about you? I tu?
Which (nom) would you prefer? Quin testimes ms?
Would you rather (infinitiu) or (infinitiu)?
Testimes ms o ?

FOTOS
Per descriure una foto

On the right / left, theres a(n) / there are


A la dreta / A lesquerra, hi ha un / uns
In the foreground / background, I can see
A primer terme / Al fons, veig
Theres a(n) / There are in the photo.
Hi ha un / uns a la foto.
The photo shows La foto mostra
You can see Shi veu / veuen

Per fer suposicions


He / She / It / They look(s) (+ adjectiu)
Ell / Ella / Aix sembla / Ells semblen
He / She / It / They look(s) like a (+ nom)
Ell / Ella / Aix sembla (un) / Ells semblen (uns)
It looks as if / though Sembla com si
Maybe its / theyre Potser s / sn
It / They might be Pot / Poden ser
Perhaps its / theyre Potser s / sn

116 Speaking Reference

Phonetic Symbols
Consonants

Vowels

/p/

as in pen /pen/

/i:/

as in see /si:/

/b/

as in big /bIg/

/I/

as in his /hIz/

/t/

as in tea /ti:/

/i/

as in twenty /"twenti/

/d/

as in do /du:/

/e/

as in ten /ten/

/k/

as in cat /k&t/

/&/

as in stamp /st&mp/

/g/

as in go /g@U/

/A:/

as in father /"fA:D@/

/f/

as in four /fO:/

/Q/

as in hot /hQt/

/v/

as in very /"veri/

/O:/

as in morning /"mO:nIN/

/s/

as in son /sVn/

/U/

as in football /"fUtbO:l/

/z/

as in zoo /zu:/

/u:/

as in you /ju:/

/l/

as in live /lIv/

/V/

as in sun /sVn/

/m/

as in my /maI/

/3:/

as in learn /l3:n/

/n/

as in near /nI@/

/@/

as in letter /"let@/

/h/

as in happy /"h&pi/

/r/

as in red /red/

Diphthongs (two vowels together)

/j/

as in yes /jes/

/eI/

as in name /neIm/

/w/

as in want /wQnt/

/@U/

as in no /n@U/

/T/

as in thanks /T&Nks/

/aI/

as in my /maI/

/D/

as in the /D@/

/aU/

as in how /haU/

/S/

as in she /Si:/

/OI/

as in boy /bOI/

/Z/

as in television /"telIvIZn/

/I@/

as in hear /hI@/

/tS/

as in child /tSaIld/

/e@/

as in where /we@/

/dZ/

as in German /"dZ3:m@n/

/U@/

as in tour /tU@/

/N/

as in English /"INglIS/

Phonetic Symbols117

Vocabulary List
STARTER UNITChanges

UNIT 1 Memory and experience

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 5

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 13

do a roleplay /%du: @ "r@UlpleI/ fer un joc de rol

appointment /@"pOIntm@nt/ cita, comproms

do an activity /%du: @n &k"tIv@ti/ fer una activitat

calendar /"k&lInd@(r)/ calendari

do an exercise /%du: @n "eks@saIz/ fer un exercici

diary /"daI@ri/ agenda

do sport /%du "spO:t/ fer esport

forget /f@"get/ oblidar

make a difference /%meIk @ "dIfr2@ns/ influir

learn by heart /%l3:n %baI "hA:t/ aprendre de memria

make a list /%meIk @ "lIst/ fer una llista

memorize /"mem@raIz/ memoritzar

make an effort /%meIk 2@n "ef@t/ esforar-se

memory /"mem@ri/ memria, record

make notes /%meIk "n@Uts/ prendre apunts

mind /maInd/ ment

make progress /%meIk "pr@Ugres/ progressar

recall /rI"kO:l/ recordar

pronounce /pr@"naUns/ pronunciar

record /rI"kO:d/ anotar

read aloud /%ri:d @"laUd/ llegir en veu alta

remember /rI"memb@(r)/ recordar

revise /rI"vaIz/ repassar, preparar un examen

remind /rI"maInd/ recordar

spell /spel/ lletrejar


write sth
down /%raIt "daUn/ escriure,
anotar alguna cosa

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 18


amazed /@"meIzd/ molt sorprs, allucinat
angry /"&Ngri/ enfadat
astonished /@"stQnISt/ molt sorprs, estupefacte
cross /krWQs/ enfadat
delighted /dI"laItId/ encantat
devastated /"dev@steItId/ desfet, destrossat
frightened /"fraItnd/ espantat
furious /"fjU@ri@s/ molt enfadat, furis
glad /gl&d/ content
heartbroken /"ha:tbr@Uk@n/ desconsolat
pleased /pli:zd/ alegre
scared /ske@d/ espantat
surprised /s@"praIzd/ sorprs
terrified /"terIfaId/ molt espantat, aterrit
thrilled /TrIld/ entusiasmat, emocionat
upset /Vp"set/ disgustat

Idioms and expressions, SB pgina 18


be over the moon /%bi: %@Uv@ D@ "mu:n/ estar boig dalegria
be scared stiff /%bi %ske@d "stIf/ estar mort de por
burst into tears /%b3:st %Int@ "tI@z/ esclafir a plorar
go bright red /%g@U %braIt "red/ posar-se vermell
not be able to believe (your) eyes
/%nQt %bi: %eIbl t@ bI%li:v %(jO:r) "aIz/
no poder creure el que veuen els teus ulls

118 Vocabulary List

UNIT 2 Our planet

UNIT 3 Ambition and motivation

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 25

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 37

bottle bank /"bQtl %b&Nk/ contenidor del vidre

achieve /@"i:v/ aconseguir

carbon footprint /%kA:b@n "fUtprInt/ petjada de carboni

achievement /@"i:vm@nt/ xit, triomf

dump /dVmp/ abocador

challenging /"&l@nIN/ estimulant, que suposa un repte

environment /In"vaIr@nm@nt/ medi ambient

fail /feIl/ suspendre, fracassar

get rid of /%get "rId @v/ desfer-se de

fulfil /fUl"fIl/ complir, dur a terme

green /gri:n/ ecolgic

get (sth) right /%get () "raIt/ fer (alguna cosa) b,


encertar-la

packaging /"p&kIIN/ embalatge, envasos


pollution /p@"lu:Sn/ contaminaci
recycle /ri:"saIkl/ reciclar
recycling bin /ri:"saIklIN %bIn/ contenidor de reciclatge
reuse /ri:"ju:z/ reutilitzar
rubbish /"rVbIS/ escombraries
rubbish bin /"rVbIS %bIn/ galleda de les escombraries
throw sth

away /%Tr@U @"weI/ llenar alguna cosa

waste (n. / v. / adj.) /weIst/ residus, malgastar, usat

get (sth) wrong /%get () "rQN/ fer (alguna cosa)


malament, equivocar-se
goal /g@Ul/ objectiu
motivated /"m@UtIveItId/ motivat
overcome /@Uv@"kVm/ superar
pass /pA:s/ aprovar
put pressure on /%pUt "preS@r %Qn/ pressionar
satisfying /"s&tIsfaIIN/ gratificant
strength /streNT/ virtut, punt fort

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 30

under pressure /%Vnd@ "preS@(r)/ pressionat, sota pressi

carbon offsetting /%kA:b@n "QfsetIN/ compensaci de les


emissions de CO2

weakness /"wi:kn@s/ punt dbil

climate change /"klaIm@t %eIn/ canvi climtic

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 42

congestion charge /k@n"es@n %A:/ taxa de circulaci

ad, advert /&d/ /"&dv3:t/ anunci

energy-saving /"en@i %seIvIN/ de baix consum

applicant /"&plIk@nt/ sollicitant

environmentally friendly /InvaIr@n%ment@li "frendli/ ecolgic

application form /&plI"keISn %fO:m/ (imprs de) sollicitud

exhaust fumes /Ig"zO:st %fju:mz/ gasos del tub


descapament

apply (for) /@"plaI %fO:(r), f@(r)/ sollicitar

fossil fuels /"fQsl %fju:@lz/ combustibles fssils

employer /Im"plOI@(r)/ patr, patrona

global warming /%gl@Ubl "wO:mIN/ escalfament del planeta

experience (n.) /Ik"spI@ri@ns/ experincia

greenhouse gases /"gri:nhaUs %g&sIz/ gasos defecte


dhivernacle

fill sth

polar ice caps /%p@Ul@r "aIs %k&ps/ casquets polars

interview (n.) /"Int@vju:/ entrevista

renewable energy /rI%nju:@bl "en@i/ energia renovable

boss /bQs/ cap

in /%fIl "In/ omplir alguna cosa

full-time /%fUl "taIm/ a temps complet, a jornada completa


job centre /"Qb %sent@(r)/ oficina de treball

sea level /"si: %levl/ nivell del mar

part-time /%pA:t "taIm/ a temps parcial, a mitja jornada

solar panel /%s@Ul@ "p&nl/ placa solar

position /p@"zISn/ lloc de treball, feina

unleaded petrol /Vn%ledId "petr@l/ gasolina sense plom

post /"p@Ust/ lloc de treball, feina

wind farm /"wInd %fA:m/ parc elic

reference (n.) /"refr@ns/ referncies


vacancy /"veIk@nsi/ vacant, oferta de feina
wages /"weIIz/ sou (setmanal)

Idioms and expressions, SB pgina 42


come to nothing /%kVm t@ "nVTIN/ quedar en no-res
get nowhere /%get "n@Uwe@(r)/ no aconseguir res
go places /"g@U %pleIsIz/ arribar lluny
make headway /%meIk "hedweI/ avanar, progressar
make it /"meIk %It/ triomfar, aconseguir lxit

Vocabulary List119

UNIT 4 Home and abroad

UNIT 5Relationships

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 49

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 61

abroad /@"brO:d/ a lestranger

acquaintance /@"kweInt@ns/ conegut, coneguda

border /"bO:d@(r)/ frontera

advice /@d"vaIs/ consell

culture shock /"kVl@ %SQk/ xoc cultural

classmate /"klA:smeIt/ company, companya de classe

currency /"kVr@nsi/ moneda

close (= adjective) /kl@Us/ ntim

custom /"kVst@m/ costum

discuss /dI"skVs/ comentar, parlar de

expatriate /eks"p&tri@t/ expatriat

fall out (with sb) /%fO:l "aUt (wID )/ renyir (amb alg)

foreign /"fQr@n/ estranger

get on (with sb) /%get "Qn (wID )/ avenir-se (amb alg)

foreigner /"fQr@n@(r)/ estranger, estrangera

gossip /"gQsIp/ xafardejar

homesick /"h@UmsIk/ que senyora del seu pas

habit /"h&bIt/ costum, hbit

hometown /"h@UmtaUn/ lloc de naixement


inhabitant /In"h&bIt@nt/ habitant

make up (with sb) /%meIk "Vp (wID )/ fer les paus (amb
alg)

mother tongue /"mVD@ %tVN/ llengua materna

pick on sb /"pIk %Qn / fer la guitza (a alg)

official language /@%fISl "l&NgwI/ llengua oficial

relative /"rel@tIv/ familiar, parent

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 54


crossing /"krQsIN/ travessia
flight /flaIt/ vol
journey /"3:ni/ viatge (trajecte danada o de tornada)
travel /"tr&vl/ viatge
trip /trIp/ viatge (complet, danada i tornada)
voyage /"vOII/ viatge (per mar)

stand up for sb /%st&nd "Vp f@ / defensar alg


trust /trVst/ confiar en

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 66


ask sb
out /%A:sk "aUt/ demanar a alg per sortir
(com a parella)
break up (with sb) /%breIk "Vp (wID )/ trencar (amb alg)
chat sb

up /%&t "Vp/ intentar lligar amb alg

cheat on sb /"i:t %Qn / ser infidel a alg

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 54

couple /"kVpl/ parella

arrivals hall /@"raIvlz %hO:l/ (sala d) arribades

date (n.) / (v.) /deIt/ cita, sortir amb

baggage reclaim /"b&gI %ri:kleIm/ recollida dequipatge

dump /dVmp/ deixar

boarding gate /"bO:dIN %geIt/ porta dembarcament

ex /eks/ ex (xicot, xicota)

check-in desk /"ek In %desk/ taulell de facturaci

fall for sb /"fO:l f@ / enamorar-se dalg

customs /"kVst@mz/ duana

flirt (with) /"fl3:t (wID)/ flirtejar (amb)

departure lounge /dI"pA:tS@ %laUn/ sortides, sala


dembarcament

get back together /%get %b&k t@"geD@(r)/ tornar a sortir


junts

passport control /"pA:spO:t k@n%tr@Ul/ control de passaports

go out (with sb) /%g@U "aUt (wID )/ sortir (amb alg)


row /raU/ baralla, discussi
stand sb

up /%st&nd "Vp/ deixar plantat alg

Idioms and expressions, SB pgina 66


break (someones) heart /%breIk "hA:t/ trencar el cor
(a alg)
hit it off /%hIt %It "Qf/ caures b
love at first sight /%lVv @t %f3:st "saIt/ amor a primera vista
pop the question /%pQp D@ "kwes@n/ declarar-se
the love of (your) life /D@ %lVv @v %(jO:) "laIf/ lamor de la
(teva) vida
tie the knot /%taI D@ "nQt/ casar-se

120 Vocabulary List

UNIT 6 Humans and animals

UNIT 7Crime

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 73

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 85

breed /bri:d/ reproduir-se

burgle /"b3:gl/ robar en una casa

cage /keI/ gbia

fare-dodge /"fe@ %dQ/ esquitllar-se, esmunyir-se

endangered species /In%deIn@d "spi:Si:z/ espcies en


perill dextinci

graffiti /gr@"fi:ti/ grafits


drop litter /%drQp "lIt@(r)/ llenar escombraries

ethical /"eTIkl/ tic

mug /mVg/ atracar

experiment /Ik"sperIm@nt/ experiment

pickpocket /"pIkpQkIt/ robar carteres

extinct /Ik"stINkt/ extint

pirate /"paIr@t/ piratejar

factory farm /"f&kt2ri %fA:m/ granja de cria intensiva

push (drugs) /%pUS "(drVgz)/ trafiquejar en drogues

free-range /%fri: "reIn/ de pags

rob /rQb/ robar

human guinea pig /"gIni %pIg/ conillet dndies hum

shoplift /"SQplIft/ robar en una botiga

hunt /hVnt/ caar

smuggle /"smVgl/ passar de contraban

in captivity /%In k&p"tIv@ti/ en captivitat

speed /spi:d/ superar el lmit de velocitat

laboratory /l@"bQr@tri/ laboratori

steal /stI@l/ robar

mistreat /mIs"tri:t/ maltractar

tout /taUt/ vendre a la revenda

research /rI"s3:/ recerca, investigaci

vandalize /"v&nd@laIz/ destrossar (intencionadament)

species /"spi:Si:z/ espcie


tame /teIm/ domar

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 90

vegetarian /ve@"te@ri@n/ vegetari

accuse sb of /@"kju:z @v/ acusar alg de

wildlife /"waIldlaIf/ fauna

acquit sb of /@"kwIt @v/ absoldre alg de

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 74

arrest sb for /@"rest f@/ detenir alg per


charge sb with /"A: wID/ acusar formalment alg de

carnivore /"kA:nIvO:(r)/ carnvor

convict sb of /k@n"vIkt @v/ declarar culpable alg de

feed (on) /"fi:d %(Qn)/ alimentar-se (de)

court /kO:t/ tribunal

food chain /"fu:d %eIn/ cadena alimentria

defendant /dI"fend@nt/ acusat, acusada

give birth to /%gIv "b3:T tu:/ parir, donar a llum

evidence /"evId@ns/ proves

herbivore /"h3:bIvO:(r)/ herbvor

fine /faIn/ multa

hibernate /"haIb@neIt/ hivernar

fine sb for /faIn f@/ multar alg per

invertebrate /In"v3:tIbr@t/ invertebrat

judge /V/ jutge, jutgessa

lay eggs /%le "egz/ pondre ous

jury /"U2@ri/ jurat

mammal /"m&ml/ mamfer

lawyer /"lO:j@(r)/ advocat, advocada

nocturnal /nQk"t3:nl/ nocturn

sentence sb to /"sent@ns t@/ condemnar alg a

offspring /"QfsprIN/ cria, cries

suspect sb of /s@"spekt @v/ sospitar dalg

omnivore /"QmnIvO:(r)/ omnvor

trial /"traI@l/ judici

predator /"pred@t@(r)/ depredador

verdict /"v3:dIkt/ veredicte

prey /preI/ presa

witness /"wItn@s/ testimoni

primate /"praImeIt/ primat


reptile /"reptaIl/ rptil
vertebrate /"v3:tIbr@t/ vertebrat
young (n.) /jVN/ cries, petits

Idioms and expressions, SB pgina 74


get it straight from the horses mouth /%get %It %streIt fr@m
D@ %hO:sIz "maUT/ saber una cosa de primera m
have butterflies in (your) stomach /%h&v %bVt@flaIz In (jO:)
"stVm@k/ tenir nervis a lestmac
let the cat out of the bag /%let D@ %k&t %aUt @v D@
"b&g/ anar-sen de la boca
take the bull by the horns /%teIk D@ %bUl %baI D@
"hO:nz/ agafar el bou per les banyes
wouldnt hurt a fly /%wUdnt %h3:t @ "flaI/ no faria mal a una
mosca

Vocabulary List121

UNIT 8 Thats entertainment!


Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 97
backstage /b&k"steI/ entre bastidors
big screen /%bIg "skri:n/ cine, gran pantalla
box office /"bQks %QfIs/ taquilla
cast /kA:st/ actors duna obra o pellcula, repartiment
interval /"Int@vl/ entreacte, intermedi
leading actor /"li:dIN %&kt@(r)/ actor, actriu principal
lines /laInz/ text
on stage /%Qn "steI/ a lescenari
performance /p@"fO:m@ns/ representaci, funci
play /pleI/ obra de teatre
rehearsal /rI"h3:sl/ assaig
script /skrIpt/ gui
sell-out /"sel %aUt/ ple, xit de taquilla
soundtrack /"saUndtr&k/ banda sonora
tribute band /"trIbju:t %b&nd/ un grup de msica que
nimita un altre a manera dhomenatge

Topic vocabulary, SB pgina 102


charts /A:ts/ la llista dxits
chorus /"kO:r@s/ tornada (duna can)
compilation /kQmpI"leISn/ recopilaci
cover /"kVv@/ versi
gig /gIg/ concert, actuaci
hit /hIt/ xit
latest /"leItIst/ ltim, ms recent
lead singer /%li:d "sIN@(r)/] cantant principal
lyrics /"lIrIks/ lletra duna can
release /rI"li:s/ publicar, posar a la venda
sample /"sA:mpl/ extreure fragments de
sing along (with sth) /%sIN @"lQN (wID )/ acompanyar
cantant
single /"sINgl/ single
track /tr&k/ can, tema (dun disc)
tune /tju:n/ melodia
verse /v3:s/ estrofa

122 Vocabulary List

Phrasal Verb List


En aquesta llista,
els phrasal verbs separables apareixen escrits amb sb / sth (= somebody o something) al mig:
pick sb / sth up
els phrasal verbs inseparables tenen sb / sth al final:
look for sth
els phrasal verbs intransitius no van acompanyats de sb / sth:
go away
Aprn-ne ms Phrasal Verb Reference WB pgina 92 (Separable and inseparable phrasal verbs)
/%A:sk "aUt/

demanar a alg per sortir (com a parella)

be into sth

/%bi: "Int@ /

ser aficionat a

break down

/%breIk "daUn/

descompondres

break into

/"breIk %Int@/

entrar a robar en, introduir-se (en alguna cosa)

break out (of sth)

/"breIk %aUt @v /

escapar-se (dalguna cosa)

break up (with sb)

/%breIk "Vp (wID )/

trencar (amb alg)

brighten up

/%braItn "Vp/

aclarir-se

ask sb

out

bring sth

in

/%brIN "In/

guanyar alguna cosa

bring sb

up

/%brIN "Vp/

pujar, criar (alg)

build sth

up

/%bIld "Vp/

crear, construir alguna cosa

carry sth

out

/%k&ri "aUt/

realitzar alguna cosa

/%&t "Vp/

intentar lligar amb alg

cheat on sb

/"i:t %Qn /

ser infidel a alg

chill out

/%Il "aUt/

relaxar-se

clear up

/%klI@r "Vp/

aclarir-se

cloud over

/%klaUd "@Uv@(r)/

ennuvolar-se

come across sth

/"kVm @%krQs /

trobar-se amb alguna cosa

come up (with sth)

/%kVm "Vp %(wID )/

acudir-se (alguna cosa)

cool down

/%ku:l "daUn/

refrescar

cut down (on sth)

/%kVt "daUn %(Qn )/

utilitzar, consumir menys (alguna cosa)

drop sb / sth

/%drQp "Qf/

deixar alg / alguna cosa

fall for sb

/"fO:l f@ /

enamorar-se dalg

fall out (with sb)

/%fO:l "aUt (wID )/

renyir (amb alg)

fill sth

/%fIl "In/

omplir alguna cosa

fit in

/%fIt "In/

integrar-se, encaixar

get away with sth

/%get @"weI wID /

no ser castigat per (fer) alguna cosa

get back together

/%get %b&k t@"geD@(r)/

tornar a sortir junts

get on (with sb)

/%get "Qn (wID )/

avenir-se (amb alg)

get together

/%get t@"geD@(r)/

ajuntar-se

go away

/%g@U @"weI/

marxar de viatge

go on

/%g@U "Qn/

continuar

go out (with sb)

/%g@U "aUt (wID )/

sortir (amb alg)

go over sth

/%g@U "@Uv@ /

revisar alguna cosa

grow up

/%gr@U "Vp/

crixer, criar-se

chat sb

up

off

in

Phrasal Verb List123

hack into sth

/"h&k %Int@ /

entrar illegalment en alguna cosa (sistema


informtic)

hold sth

/%h@Uld "Vp/

assaltar, atracar alguna cosa

keep sb away (from)

/"ki:p @%weI (fr@m)/

apartar alg (de)

let sb

/%let "daUn/

fallar a alg

look after sb / sth

/%lUk "A:ft@ /

cuidar-se dalg / dalguna cosa

look into sth

/"lUk %Int@ /

investigar alguna cosa

/%lUk "Vp/

buscar alguna cosa

look up to sb

/%lUk "Vp t@ /

admirar alg

make up (with sb)

/%meIk "Vp (wID )/

fer les paus (amb alg)

make up for sth

/%meIk "Vp f@ /

compensar alguna cosa

pick on sb

/"pIk %Qn /

fer la guitza (a alg)

/%pIk "Vp/

aprendre, adquirir alguna cosa

up
down

look sth

up

pick sb / sth

up

pick sth

up

/%pIk "Vp/

passar a buscar alg / alguna cosa

plug sth

in

/%plVg "In/

endollar alguna cosa

/%pUt "Qf/

molestar alg, fer passar a alg les ganes

put up with sb / sth

/%pUt "Vp %wID

suportar alg / alguna cosa

save sth

/%seIv "Vp/

estalviar alguna cosa

/%set "Qf/

sortir

/%set "Vp/

muntar

sing along (with sth)

/%sIN @"lQN (wID )/

acompanyar cantant

sort sth

/%sO:t "aUt/

ordenar, organitzar alguna cosa

/%st&nd "Vp/

deixar plantat alg

stand up for sb

/%st&nd "Vp f@ /

defensar alg

stay on

/%steI "Qn/

continuar

stop off

/%stQWp "Qf/

parar breument

take off

/%teIk "Qf/

enlairar-se

put sb

off
up

set off
set sth

up
out

stand sb

up

take sth

on

/%teIk "Qn/

adoptar alguna cosa

take sth

up

/%teIk "Vp/

comenar a fer, apuntar-se a alguna cosa

/%Tr@U @"weI/

llenar alguna cosa

tune in

/%tju:n "In/

sintonitzar

turn into sth

/"t3:n %Int@ /

convertir-se en alguna cosa

turn out

/%t3:n "aUt/

resultar

/%t3:n "Vp/

apujar (el volum d)alguna cosa

turn up

/%t3:n "Vp/

aparixer

warm up

/%wO:m "Vp/

augmentar la temperatura

wear off

/%we@r "Qf/

passar, desaparixer

throw sth

turn sth

away

up

work sth

out

/%w3:k "aUt/

resoldre, descobrir alguna cosa

write sth

down

/%raIt "daUn/

escriure, anotar alguna cosa

124 Phrasal Verb List

False Friend List


Algunes paraules angleses i catalanes sescriuen de manera semblant, per tenen un significat molt diferent.
Sn els anomenats falsos amics o false friends. Tot seguit tens alguns dels false friends ms habituals:
Angls

Catal

Catal

Angls

actual

real, de veritat

actual

current

actually

de fet

actualment

currently, nowadays

advice

consell

avs

warning, notice

advise (to)

aconsellar

avisar

warn

anxious

neguits

ansis

eager

arena

pista

arena (= sorra)

sand

argument

discussi

argument

plot, story

assist

auxiliar

assistir

attend

attend

assistir

atendre

pay attention

career

trajectria professional

carrera (universitria)

degree

carpet

moqueta

carpeta

folder

casual

informal, despreocupat

casual

accidental, chance

college

universitat, facultat

collegi (= escola)

school

be convenient

anar b (a alg)

ser convenient

be advisable

costume

vestit, disfressa

costum

custom

crime

delicte, delinqncia

crim

murder, serious crime

current

actual

corrent

ordinary

deception

engany

decepci

disappointment

discuss

parlar de

discutir (= barallar-se)

argue

discussion

debat

discussi

argument

dispose of

llenar

disposar de

have available

diversion

desviament

diversi

entertainment

educated

culte

educat

polite

education

ensenyament

educaci

upbringing

embarrassed

avergonyit

embarassada

pregnant

embarrassment

vergonya

embars

pregnancy

eventual

final, consegent

eventual

possible

eventually

finalment

eventualment

possibly

exit

sortida

xit

success

familiar

conegut

familiar

family (adj)

firm

empresa

firma

signature

idiom

expressi

idioma

language

large

gran

llarg

long

lecture

confrencia

lectura

reading

library

biblioteca

llibreria

bookshop

luxury

(de) luxe

luxria

lust

miserable

infeli

miserable

poor
False Friend List125

notes

apunts

notes

marks, grades

notice

avs

notcies

news

parent

pare o mare

parent

relative

particular

determinat

particular

private

presume

creure, suposar

presumir

show off

pretend

fer veure que

pretendre

want, expect

professor

catedrtic

professor

teacher

qualification

ttol

qualificaci

mark

quiet

callat, silencis, tranquil

quiet

calm, still

realize

adonar-se de

realitzar

carry out

record

enregistrar

recordar

remember, remind

rest

descansar

restar

take away

resume

reprendre

resumir

summarize

sensible

assenyat

sensible

sensitive

succeed

tenir xit

succeir

happen

success

xit

succs (= esdeveniment)

event

support

donar suport a

suportar

stand, tolerate

sympathetic

comprensiu

simptic

friendly

topic

tema

tpic

clich

translate

traduir

traslladar-se

move

ultimately

en ltima instncia

ltimament

recently

vicious

brutal, ferotge

vicis

depraved, dissolute

126 False Friend List

Irregular Verb List


Infinitive
be
bear
beat
become
begin
bend
bet
bite
bleed
blow
break
bring
build
burn
buy
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
dig
do
draw
dream
drink
drive
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
fly
forbid
forget
forgive
freeze
get
give
go
grow
hang
have
hear
hit
hold
hurt
keep
know
lead
learn
leave
lend
let
lie
light
lose
make

Past simple
/bi;/
/be@(r)/
/bi;t/
/bI"kVm/
/bI"gIn/
/bend/
/bet/
/baIt/
/bli;d/
/bl@U/
/breIk/
/brIN/
/bIld/
/b3;n/
/baI/
/k&tS/
/tSu;z/
/kVm/
/kQst/
/kVt/
/dIg/
/du;/
/drO;/
/dri;m/
/drINk/
/draIv/
/i;t/
/fO;l/
/fi;d/
/fi;l/
/faIt/
/faInd/
/flaI/
/f@"bId/
/f@"get/
/f@"gIv/
/fri;z/
/get/
/gIv/
/g@U/
/gr@U/
/h&N/
/h&v/
/hI@(r)/
/hIt/
/h@Uld/
/h3;t/
/ki;p/
/n@U/
/li;d/
/l3;n/
/li;v/
/lend/
/let/
/laI/
/laIt/
/lu;z/
/meIk/

was / were
bore
beat
became
began
bent
bet
bit
bled
blew
broke
brought
built
burnt, burned
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
dug
did
drew
dreamt, dreamed
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
flew
forbade
forgot
forgave
froze
got
gave
went
grew
hung
had
heard
hit
held
hurt
kept
knew
led
learnt, learned
left
lent
let
lay
lit
lost
made

Past participle
/wQz/
/bO;/
/bi;t/
/bI"keIm/
/bI"g&n/
/bent/
/bet/
/bIt/
/bled/
/blu;/
/br@Uk/
/brO;t/
/bIlt/
/b3;nt/, /b3;nd/
/bO;t/
/kO;t/
/tS@Uz/
/keIm/
/kQst/
/kVt/
/dVg/
/dId/
/dru;/
/dremt/, /dri;md/
/dr&Nk/
/dr@Uv/
/eIt/
/fel/
/fed/
/felt/
/fO;t/
/faUnd/
/flu;/
/f@"beId/
/f@"gQt/
/f@"geIv/
/fr@Uz/
/gQt/
/geIv/
/went/
/gru;/
/hVN/
/h&d/
/h3;d/
/hIt/
/held/
/h3;t/
/kept/
/nju;/
/led/
/l3;nt/
/left/
/lent/
/let/
/leI/
/lIt/
/lQst/
/meId/

been
borne
beaten
become
begun
bent
bet
bitten
bled
blown
broken
brought
built
burnt, burned
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
dug
done
drawn
dreamt, dreamed
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
flown
forbidden
forgotten
forgiven
frozen
got
given
been / gone
grown
hung
had
heard
hit
held
hurt
kept
known
led
learnt, learned
left
lent
let
lain
lit
lost
made

/bi;n/
/bO;n/
/"bi;t@n/
/bI"kVm/
/bI"gVn/
/bent/
/bet/
/"bItn/
/bled/
/bl@Un/
/"br@Ukn/
/brO;t/
/bIlt/
/b3;nt/, /b3;nd/
/bO;t/
/kO;t/
/"tS@Uzn/
/kVm/
/kQst/
/kVt/
/dVg/
/dVn/
/drO;n/
/dremt/, /dri;md/
/drVNk/
/"drIv@n/
/"i;t@n/
/"fO;l@n/
/fed/
/felt/
/fO;t/
/faUnd/
/fl@Un/
/f@"bIdn/
/f@"gQtn/
/f@"gIvn/
/"fr@Uz@n/
/gQt/
/"gIvn/
/bi;n/, /gQn/
/gr@Un/
/hVN/
/h&d/
/h3;d/
/hIt/
/held/
/h3;t/
/kept/
/n@Un/
/led/
/l3;nt/
/left/
/lent/
/let/
/leIn/
/lIt/
/lQst/
/meId/

Irregular Verb List127

Infinitive
mean
meet
pay
put
read
ride
ring
rise
run
say
see
sell
send
shake
shine
shoot
show
shut
sing
sink
sit
sleep
smell
speak
spell
spend
spill
spin
split
spoil
spread
spring
stand
steal
stick
sting
sweep
swim
swing
take
teach
tear
tell
think
throw
understand
wake
wear
win
write

128 Irregular Verb List

Past simple
/mi;n/
/mi;t/
/peI/
/pUt/
/ri;d/
/raId/
/rIN/
/raIz/
/rVn/
/seI/
/si;/
/sel/
/send/
/SeIk/
/SaIn/
/Su;t/
/S@U/
/SVt/
/sIN/
/sINk/
/sIt/
/sli;p/
/smel/
/spi;k/
/spel/
/spend/
/spIl/
/spIn/
/splIt/
/spOIl/
/spred/
/sprIN/
/st&nd/
/sti;l/
/stIk/
/stIN/
/swi;p/
/swIm/
/swIN/
/teIk/
/ti;tS/
/te@(r)/
/tel/
/TINk/
/Tr@U/
/Vnd@"st&nd/
/weIk/
/we@(r)/
/wIn/
/raIt/

meant
met
paid
put
read
rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sold
sent
shook
shone
shot
showed
shut
sang
sank
sat
slept
smelt, smelled
spoke
spelt, spelled
spent
spilt
spun
split
spoilt, spoiled
spread
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stung
swept
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
understood
woke
wore
won
wrote

Past participle
/ment/
/met/
/peId/
/pUt/
/red/
/r@Ud/
/r&N/
/r@Uz/
/r&n/
/sed/
/sO;/
/s@Uld/
/sent/
/SUk/
/SQn/
/SQt/
/S@Ud/
/SVt/
/s&N/
/s&Nk/
/s&t/
/slept/
/smelt/
/sp@Uk/
/spelt/
/spent/
/spIlt/
/spVn/
/splIt/
/spOIlt/, /spOIld/
/spred/
/spr&N/
/stUd/
/st@Ul/
/stVk/
/stVN/
/swept/
/sw&m/
/swVN/
/tUk/
/tO;t/
/tO;/
/t@Uld/
/TO;t/
/Tru;/
/Vnd@"stUd/
/w@Uk/
/wO;(r)/
/wVn/
/r@Ut/

meant
met
paid
put
read
ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sold
sent
shaken
shone
shot
shown
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slept
smelt, smelled
spoken
spelt, spelled
spent
spilt
spun
split
spoilt, spoiled
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
stuck
stung
swept
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
understood
woken
worn
won
written

/ment/
/met/
/peId/
/pUt/
/red/
/"rIdn/
/rVN/
/"rIzn/
/rVn/
/sed/
/si;n/
/s@Uld/
/sent/
/SeIkn/
/SQn/
/SQt/
/S@Un/
/SVt/
/sVN/
/sVNk/
/s&t/
/slept/
/smelt/
/"sp@Ukn/
/spelt/
/spent/
/spIlt/
/spVn/
/splIt/
/spOIlt/, /spOIld/
/spred/
/sprVN/
/stUd/
/st@Ul@n/
/stVk/
/stVN/
/swept/
/swVm/
/swVN/
/"teIkn/
/tO;t/
/tO;n/
/t@Uld/
/TO;t/
/Tr@Un/
/Vnd@"stUd/
/w@Ukn/
/wO;n/
/wVn/
/"rItn/