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Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 1 Matrices
Exercise 1A Solutions
1
a

4
Number of rows number of columns
=22

Number of rows number of columns


=23

Number of rows number of columns


=14

Number of rows number of columns


=41

2
a

There will be 5 rows and 5 columns to


match the seating. Every seat of both
diagonals is occupied, and so the
diagonals will all be ones, and the rest of
the numbers, representing unoccupied
seats, will all be 0.
1 0 0 0 1
0 1 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 0

1 0 0 0 1
If all seats are occupied, then every
number in the matrix will be 1.
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1
i = j for the leading diagonal only, so the
leading diagonal will be all ones, and
the rest of the numbers 0.
1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

We can present this as a table with the


girls on the top row, and the boys on the
bottom row, in order of year level, i.e.
years 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 going from
left to right.
200 180 135 110 56 28

110 117 98 89 53 33
Alternatively, girls and boys could be
the two columns, and year levels could
run down from year 7 to 12, in order.
This would give:

200
180

135
110

56

28
5
a

110
117

98

89
53

33

Matrices are equal only if they have the


same number of rows and columns, and all
pairs of corresponding entries are equal.
The first two matrices have the same
dimensions, but the top entries are not
equal, so the matrices cannot be equal.
The last two matrices have the same
dimensions and equal first (left) entries,
so they will be equal if x = 4.
Thus, [0 x] = [0 4] if x = 4.
The first two matrices cannot be equal
because corresponding entries are not
equal, nor can the second and third for
the same reason.
The last matrix cannot equal any of the
others because it has different
dimensions. The only two that can be
equal are the first and third.
4 7 = x 7 if x = 4

1 2 1 2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

6
a

All three matrices have the same


dimensions and all corresponding
numerical entries are equal. They could
all be equal.
2 x 4 = y 0 4

1 10 3 1 10 3
= 2 0 4 if x = 0, y = 2
1 10 3

Let A, B, C and D be the columns and


rows, in that order.
There are no roads from A to A, so the top
left entry will be 0. There are 3 roads from
A to B, so the next entry right will be 3.
There is 1 road from A to C and no roads
directly from A to D, so the next two
entries right will be 1 and 0.
Continue to fill in the matrix.
0 3 1 0
3 0 2 1
1 2 0 1

0 1 1 0

Write it as set out, with each row


representing players A, B, C, D and E
respectively, and columns showing
points, rebounds and assists
respectively.
21 5 5
8 2 3

4 1 1
14 8 60

0 1 2

The entry corresponding to x is 2, and


the entry corresponding to y is 3, so
x = 2 and y = 3.

The entry corresponding to x is 3, and


the entry corresponding to y is 2, so
x = 3 and y = 2.

The entry corresponding to x is 4, and


the entry corresponding to y is 3,
so x = 4 and y = 3.

The entry corresponding to x is 3, and


the entry corresponding to y is 2,
so x = 3 and y = 2.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 1B Solutions
1

2
a

Add the corresponding entries.


X + Y = 1 + 3 = 4
2 + 0 2
Double each entry.
2X = 2 1 = 2
2 2 4
Multiply each entry in Y by 4 and add
the corresponding entry for X.
4Y + X = 4 3 + 1 = 13
4 0 + 2 2
Subtract corresponding entries.
X Y = 1 3 = 2
2 0 2
Multiply each entry by 3.
3A = 3 1 3 1 = 3 3
3 2 3 3 6 9
Add B to the previous answer.
3A + B = 3 3 + 4 0
6 9 1 2
= 1 3
7 7

4
a

Double each entry.


3 2 6 2 2 2 = 6 12 4


4 2 2 2 1 2 8 4 2

1 0 0 + 2 0 0 + 2 1 0

4 2 3 8 4 6 6 1 4
= 5 1 0
18 7 13
The average will be the total divided by 3,
so divide each entry by 3.
5 1 0
5 3 1 3 0 3 = 3 3

18 3 7 3 13 3 6 7 13
3 3

5
a

Multiply each entry by the factor.


2A = 2 2
0 4
3A = 3 3
0 6
6A = 6 6
0 12

As the matrices have the same


dimensions, corresponding terms can be
added. They will simply be added in the
opposite order.
Since the commutative law holds true for
numbers, all corresponding entries in the
added matrices terms will be equal, so the
matrices will be equal.
As the matrices have the same
dimensions, corresponding terms can be
added. The first matrix will add the first
two numbers, then the third, and the
second matrix will add the second and
third numbers first, then add the result to
the first number.
Since the associative law holds true for
numbers, all corresponding entries in the
added matrices terms will be equal, so the
matrices will be equal.
Multiply each entry by 2.
2A = 6 4
4 4

Multiply each entry by 3.


3B = 0 9
12 3

Add answers to a and b.


2A + 3B = 6 4 + 0 9
4 4 12 3
= 6 5
8 1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

6
a

Subtract a from b.
3B 2A = 0 9 6 4
12 3 4 4
= 6 13
16 7
Add corresponding entries.
1 0 + 1 1 = 0 1

0 3 2 0 2 3

Triple entries in Q, then add to


corresponding entries in P.
1 0 + 3 3 = 2 3

0 3 6 0 6 3

Double entries in P, then subtract Q


and add R.
2 0 1 1 + 0 4 = 3 3

0 6 2 0 1 1 1 7

7
a

If 2A 3X = B, then 2A B = 3X
3X = 2A B
X=2A1B
3
3
2
= 3 1 1 0 10
3 1 4 3 2 17
2 3 1 0 2 1 1 10

3
3
3
= 3
2

1 1 2 2 4 1 17
3
3
3
3

2
4

0 3

If 3A + 2Y = 2B then 2Y = 2B 3A
Y=B11A
2
= 0 10 1 1 3 1
2 1 4
2 17
0 3 3 10 3 1

2
2
=

2 3 1 17 3 4
2
2

9
23

2
= 2
1

11
2

X + Y = 150 + 160 90 + 90 100 + 120 50 + 40


100 + 100 0 + 0 75 + 50 0 + 0
= 310 180 220 90
200 0 125 0
The matrix represents the total production
at two factories in two successive weeks.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 1C Solutions
1

AX = 1 2 2
1 3 1
= 1 2 + 2 1
1 2 + 3 1

= 4
5
BX = 3 2 2
1 1 1
= 3 2 + 2 1
1 2 + 1 1
= 4
1
AY = 1 2 1
1 3 3
= 1 1 + 2 3
1 1 + 3 3
= 5
8
IX = 1 0 2
0 1 1
= 1 2 + 0 1
0 2 + 1 1

= 2
1
AC = 1 2 2 1
1 3 1 1
= 1 2 + 2 1 1 1 + 2 1
1 2 + 3 1 1 1 + 3 1
= 0 1
1 2
CA = 2 1 1 2
1 1 1 3
= 2 1 + 1 1 2 2 + 1 3
1 1 + 1 1 1 2 + 1 3
= 1 1
0 1

Use AC = 0 1
1 2
(AC)X = 0 1 2
1 2 1
= 0 2 + 1 1
1 2 + 2 1
= 1
0
Use BX = 4
1
C(BX) = 2 1 4
1 1 1
= 2 4 + 1 1
1 4 + 1 1
= 9
5
AI = 1 2 1 0
1 3 0 1
= 1 1 + 2 0 1 0 + 2 1
1 1 + 3 0 1 0 + 3 1
= 1 2
1 3
IB = 1 0 3 2
0 1 1 1
= 1 3 + 0 1 1 2 + 0 1
0 3 + 1 1 0 2 + 1 1
= 3 2
1 1
AB = 1 2 3 2
1 3 1 1
= 1 3 + 2 1 1 2 + 2 1
1 3 + 3 1 1 2 + 3 1
= 1 0
0 1
BA = 3 2 1 2
1 1 1 3
= 3 1 + 2 1 3 2 + 2 3
1 1 + 1 1 1 2 + 1 3
= 1 0
0 1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

2
A = AA = 1 2 1 2
1 3 1 3
= 1 1 + 2 1 1 2 + 2 3
1 1 + 3 1 1 2 + 3 3
= 3 8
4 11
2
B = BB = 3 2 3 2
1 1 1 1
= 3 3 + 2 1 3 2 + 2 1
1 3 + 1 1 1 2 + 1 1
= 11 8
4 3
Use CA = 1 1
0 1
A(CA) = 1 2 1 1
1 3 0 1
= 1 1 + 2 0 1 1 + 2 1
1 1 + 3 0 1 1 + 3 1

= 1 3
1 4
2
Use A = 3 8
4 11
2
A C = 3 8 2 1
4 11 1 1
= 3 2 + 8 1 3 1 + 8 1
4 2 + 11 1 4 1 + 11 1
= 2 5
3 7

2
a

A product is defined only if the number


of columns in the first matrix equals the
number of rows of the second.
A has 2 columns and Y has 2 rows, so
AY is defined.
Y has 1 column and A has 2 rows, so
YA is not defined.
X has 1 column and Y has 2 rows, so
XY is not defined.
X has 1 column and 2 rows, so X 2 is not
defined.
C has 2 columns and I has 2 rows, so CI
is defined.
X has 1 column and I has 2 rows, so XI
is not defined.

AB = 2 0 0 0
0 0 3 2
= 2 0 + 0 3 2 0 + 0 2
0 0 + 0 3 0 0 + 0 2
= 0 0
0 0
No, because Q.2 part b shows that AB
can equal O, and A O, B O.

LX = [2 1] 2
3
= [2 2 + 1 3] = [7]
2
XL = [2 1]
3
= 2 2 2 1
3 2 3 1

= 4 2
6 3
A product is defined only if the number
of columns in the first matrix equals the
number of rows of the second.
This can only happen if m = n, in which
case both products will be defined.

a b d b

c d c a

= a d + b c a b + b a
c d + d c c b + d a
0 = 1 0
= ad bc

ad bc 0 1
0
For the equations to be equal, all
corresponding entries must be equal,
therefore ad bc = 1.
When written in reverse order, we get
d b a b

c a c d
= d a + b c d b + b d
ca+ac cb+ad
0 = 1 0
= ad bc

ad bc 0 1
0
Since ad bc = 1.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

We can use any values of a, b, c and d


as long as ad bc = 1.
For example, a = 5, d = 2, b = 3, c = 3
satisfy ad bc = 1 and give
AB = 5 3 2 3 = 1 0
3 2 3 5 0 1
BA = 2 3 5 3 = 1 0
3 5 3 2 0 1
Other values could be chosen.
One possible answer.
A = 1 2 , B = 0 1 , C = 1 2
4 3
2 3
2 1
1
+
0
2
+
1
1
= 3
A + B =

4 + 2 3 + 3 6 6
B + C = 0 + 1 1 + 2 = 1 3
2 + 2 3 + 1 0 4
A(B + C) = 1 2 1 3
4 3 0 4
= 1 1 + 2 0 1 3 + 2 4
4 1 + 3 0 4 3 + 3 4
= 1 11
4 24
AB = 1 2 0 1
4 3 2 3
= 1 0 + 2 2 1 1 + 2 3
4 0 + 3 2 4 1 + 3 4
= 4 7
6 13
AC = 1 2 1 2
4 3 2 1
= 1 1 + 2 2 1 2 + 2 1
4 1 + 3 2 4 2 + 3 1
= 5 4
10 11
AB + AC = 4 7 + 5 4
6 13 10 11
= 4 + 5 7 + 4
6 + 10 13 + 11
= 1 11
4 24

(B + C)A = 1 3 1 2
0 4 4 3
= 1 1 + 3 4 1 2 + 3 3
01+44 02+43
= 11 7
16 12
9

5 12 1 = 5 1 + 12 2

2.50 3.00 2 2.50 1 + 3.00 2


= 29
850
1 5 min plus 2 12 min means 29 min
for one milkshake and two banana splits.
The total cost is $8.50.
5 12 1 2 0

2.50 3.00 2 1 1
= 5 1 + 12 2 5 2 + 12 1 5 0 + 12 1
2.5 1 + 3 2 2.5 2 + 3 1 2.5 0 + 3 1
= 29 22 12
8.50 8.00 3.00
The matrix shows that John spent 29 min
and $8.50, one friend spent 22 min and
$8.00 (2 milkshakes and 1 banana split)
while the other friend spent 12 min and
$3.00 (no milkshakes and 1 banana split).

0
1
10 1

0
0
0
1
1

1
1
0
1
0

1
1

0
1

2.00
3.00
2.50

3.50

0 2.00 + 0 3.00 + 1 2.50 + 1 3.50


1 2.00 + 0 3.00 + 1 2.50 + 1 3.50

= 1 2.00 + 0 3.00 + 0 2.50 + 0 3.50


1 2.00 + 1 3.00 + 1 2.50 + 1 3.50

0 2.00 + 1 3.00 + 0 2.50 + 1 3.50

6.00
8.00
= 2.00

11.00

6.50

This shows the total amount spent on


magazines by each student. A spent $6.00,
B spent $8.00, C spent $2.00, D spent
$11.00 and E spent $6.50.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

11
a

c1
SC = s11 s12 s13 c2
s21 s22 s23
c3
= s11 c1 + s12 c2 + s13 c3
s21 c1 + s22 c2 + s23 c3
SC represents the income from car sales for each showroom.

c1 u1
SC = s11 s12 s13 c2 u2
s21 s22 s23

c3 u3
= s11 c1 + s12 c2 + s13 c3 s11 u1 + s12 u2 + s13 u3

s21 c1 + s22 c2 + s23 c3 s21 u1 + s22 u2 + s23 u3

SC now represents the income from each showroom for both new and used car sales.
d

CV gives the profit on each new car and each used car for the three models.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 1D Solutions
1
a

3
det(A) = 2 2 1 3
=1
1
A = 1 2 1 = 2 1
1 3 2 3 2

det(B) = 2 2 2 3
=2

B =1
2
1

2 2

3 2

The answer could also be given as


1 1
1

B =

1
1 1
2

2
a

Determinant = 3 1 1 4 = 1
1
A = 1 1 1 = 1 1
1 4 3 4 3

Determinant = 3 4 1 2 = 14
1
A = 1 4 1
14 2 3
2 1
14
= 7
1 3

7 14

Determinant = 1 k 0 0 = k
1 0
1
A = 1 k 0 = 1
k 0 1 0
k

Determinant
= cos cos sin sin
=1
since cos2 + sin2 = 1
1
A = 1 cos sin
1 sin cos

cos
sin

sin
cos

det(A) = 2 1 1 0 = 2
1
A = 1 1 1
2 0 2
1 1
= 2 2

0 1
det(B) = 1 1 0 3 = 1
1
B = 1 1 0
1 3 1
= 1 0
3 1
AB = 2 1 1 0
0 1 3 1
= 2 1 + 1 3 2 0 + 1 1
0 1 + 1 3 0 0 + 1 1

= 5 1
3 1
det(AB) = 5 1 1 3 = 2
1
(AB) = 1 1 1
2 3 5
1 1
2
= 2
3 5

2 2
1 1
1 1
A B = 2 2 1 0

3 1
0 1
1

1
1
1
= 2 1 + 2 3 2 0 + 2 1

0 1 + 1 3 0 0 + 1 1
1

= 1 2

3 1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

1 1
1 1
B A = 1 0 2 2
3 1 0 1

1
1 + 0 0 1 1 + 0 1

2
2
=

3 1 + 1 0 3 1 + 1 1
2
2

1
1

= 2 2
3 5

2 2
1
1 1
(AB) = B A

4
a

det(A) = 4 1 3 2 = 2
1
A = 1 1 3
2 2 4
1 3
= 2 2

1 2

If AX = 3 4 , multiply both sides


1 6
from the left by A 1 .
1
1
A AX = A 3 4
1 6
IX = X
1 3
= 2 2 3 4

1 6
1 2
1
3
1
3
= 2 3 + 2 1 2 4 + 2 6

1 3 + 2 1 1 4 + 2 6
= 0 7
1 8

10

If YA = 3 4 , multiply both sides


1 6
from the right by A 1 .
1
1
YAA = 3 4 A
1 6

YI = Y
1 3
= 3 4 2 2
1 6 1 2

1
3 + 4 1 3 3 + 4 2

2
2
=

1 1 + 6 1 1 3 + 6 2
2
2

5 7
2
= 2
11 21


2
2

5
a

If AX + B = C then AX = C B
AX = 3 4 4 1
2 6 2 2
= 1 5
0 4
det(A) = 3 6 2 1 = 16
1
A = 1 6 2
16 1 3
3 1
8
= 8
1 3

16 16
If AX = 1 5 , multiply both sides
0 4
from the left by A 1 .
1
1
A AX = A 1 5
0 4

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

IX = X

3 1
8 1 5
= 8
1 3 0 4

16 16
3 1+ 1 0 3 5 + 1 4

8
8
8
= 8
1

1 + 3 0 1 5 + 3 4
16
16
16
16
3 11
= 8 8
1 7

16 16
b If YA + B = C then YA = C B
YA = 3 4 4 1
2 6 2 2
= 1 5
0 4
1

From part a, A =

3
1
8
8

1 3
16 16

If YA = 1 5 , multiply both sides


0 4
from the right by A 1 .
1
1
YAA = 1 5A
0 4
YI = Y
3 1
1
5
8
8
=

0 4 1 3
16 16
1 3 + 5 1 1 1 + 5 3
8
16
8
16
=
3

0 +4 1 0 1+4 3
16
16
8
8
11 17
X = 16 16
1 3

4 4

A must be a11 0 .
0 a22
det(A) = a11 a22 0 0 = a11a22
det(A) 0 since a11 0 and a22 0 and
the product of two non-zero numbers
cannot be zero.
A is regular.
1
A = 1 a22 0
a11 a22 0 a11
1 0

= a11

0 1
a22

7 If A is regular, it will have an inverse, A 1 .


Multiply both sides of the equation AB = 0
from the left by A 1 .
1
1
A AB = A 0

IB = 0
B=0
8

Let A be any matrix a b .


c d
If the determinant is n, then the inverse
of A is given by 1 d b .
n c a
a b = 1 d b
c d n c a
a = d and d = a
n
n
a
Substituting for d, a = a n = 2
n
n
2
This gives n = 1 , or n = 1.
If n = 1, a = d and b = b, which gives
b = 0 and similarly c = 0.
det(A) = ad = a 2 = 1
This leads to two matrices, 1 0 and
0 1
1 0 .

0 1

11

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

If n = 1, a = d; there are no restrictions on


b and c but the determinant = ad bc = 1.
2
a + bc = 1 (since a = d)
If b = 0, a = 1, giving 1 0 , which
c 1
1
0

1 0 .
can be written
or

k 1 k 1
If b 0, a 2 + bc = 1 gives
b
2
a
, which
c = 1 a , giving
2
1 a a
b

includes the cases 1 k and 1 k


0 1
0 1
when a = 1.

12

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

13

Exercise 1E Solutions
1

First find the inverse of A.


det(A) = 3 1 1 4 = 1
1
A = 1 1 1 = 1 1
1 4 3 4 3
1
1
If AX = K then A AX = A K
1
IX = X = A K
X = 1 1 1
4 3 2
= 1 1 + 1 2
4 1 + 3 2
= 3
10
1

If AX = K then A AX = A K
1
IX = X = A K
X = 1 1 2
4 3 3
= 1 2 + 1 3
4 2 + 3 3
= 5
17
First find the inverse of A.
det(A) = 3 4 1 2 = 14
2 1
1
1
14
4
1

= 7
A =
14 2 3 1 3

7 14
1

If AX = K then A AX = A K
1
IX = X = A K
2 1
14 0
X = 7
1 3 1

7 14
2 0 + 1 1

14
= 7
1

0+ 3 1
14
7

1

= 14
3

14

If AX = K then A AX = A K
1
IX = X = A K
2 1
14 2
X = 7
1 3 0

7 14
2 2 + 1 0

14
= 7
1

2+ 3 0
14
7

4
= 7
2

7

3
a

2 4 x = 6

3 1 y 1

Determinant = 2 1 4 3 = 14
Inverse = 1 1 4
14 3 2
1 2
= 14 7
3 1

14 7

1 2
14 7 6

3 1 1
14 7
1 6 + 2 1
14

7
= 3 6 + 1 1

7
14

1
= 7
10

7
x = 1, y = 10
7
7

x =

y

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

1
15.43
= 1
15.43

1 2 x = 1


1 4 y 2

14

2.7

1.3
2.7 1.2
x

1.3 11.4
y
= 1 4.6 1.2 + 2.7 11.4
15.43 3.5 1.2 + 1.3 11.4

1
36.3

=
15.43 10.62
x 2.35, y 0.69

Inverse =

4.6

3.5
4.6

3.5

Determinant = 1 4 2 1 = 2
Inverse = 1 4 2
2 1 1
2 1

=
1 1

2 2
2 1
1
x =
1 1
y
2 2 2

2 1 + 1 2

1
1
1 + 2
2
2

4
=
3

2
x = 4, y = 3 or 1.5
2

Convert the second equation to


x + y = 4, giving
2 5 x = 10

1 1 y 4
Determinant = 2 1 5 1 = 7
Inverse = 1 1 5
7 1 2
x = 1 1 5 10
7

y
1 2 4
= 1 1 10 + 5 4
7 1 10 + 2 4

1
30

=
7 2
x = 30, y = 2
7
7

Solve the simultaneous equations


2x 3y = 7
3x + y = 5
2 3 x = 7

3 1 y 5
Determinant = 2 1 3 3 = 11
Inverse = 1 1 3
11 3 2
x = 1 1 3 7
11

y
3 2 5
= 1 1 7 + 3 5
11 3 7 + 2 5

1
22

=
11 11
x = 2, y = 1
The point of intersection is (2, 1).

If x is the number of books they are


buying and y is the number of CDs they
are buying, then the following equations
apply.
4x + 4y = 120
5x + 3y = 114
4 4 x = 120

5 3 y 114
Determinant = 4 3 4 5 = 8
Inverse = 1 3 4 = 1 3 4
8 5 4 8 5 4
x = 1 3 4 120
8

y
5 4 114
= 1 3 120 + 4 114
8 5 120 + 4 114

1
96

=
8 144
x = 12, y = 18
One book costs $12, a CD costs $18.

Re-write the second equation as


3.5x + 4.6y = 11.4, giving
1.3 2.7 x = 1.2

3.5 4.6 y 11.4


Determinant = 1.3 4.6 2.7 3.5
= 15.43

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

6
a 2 3 x = 3
4 6 y 6
b det(A) = 2 6 3 4 = 0, so the
matrix is singular.
c Yes. For example x = 0, y = 1 is an
obvious solution.
d You should notice that the second
equation is simply the first with both
sides multiplied by 2.
There is an infinite number of
solutions to these equations, just as
there is an infinite number of ordered
pairs that make 2x 3y = 3 a true
equation.

Enter the 4 4 matrix A and the 4 1


matrix B into the graphics calculator.
Fill in missing coefficients with zeros,
so that r + s = 1 becomes
0p + 0q + 1r + 1s = 1
1 1 1 1
5
A = 0 0 1 1 ; B = 1
2 1 2 0
2


0 1 0 1
0
2
1
A B= 4
1

2
p = 2, q = 4, r = 1, s = 2

15

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

16

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

The dimension is number of rows by


B
number of columns, i.e. 4 2.

A + B will have the same dimension as


A and B, i.e. m n.
A

The matrices cannot be added as they


E
have different dimensions.

The number of columns of Q is not the


same as the number of rows of P, so
E
they cannot be multiplied.

Determinant = 2 1 2 1
=4

D C = 1 3
2 3
= 1 2
2 1
= 1 0
1 3

1 2 3 1

1 1 0 2
3 3
1 1

3 0 1 2
0
C

Multiply every entry by 1.


M = 4 0
2 6
4
= 0
2 6

2M 2N = 2 0 2 2 0 4
3 1
3 0
0
4
0
8

6 2 6 0
= 0 4
C
12 2

Determinant = 1 2 1 1
= 1
1
2 1
Inverse =
1 1 1
= 2 1
1 1

10 NM = 0 2 0 2
3 1 3 1
= 0 0 + 2 3 0 2 + 2 1
3 0 + 1 3 3 2 + 1 1
= 6 2
D
3 5

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

17

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


Thus if x = a,
3a + 4y = 8
4y = 8 3a
y = 2 3a
4
The matrices may be expressed as
a

2 3a .

1
a

A+B=
=
AB=
=
(A + B)(A B) =
=

1 0 + 1


2 3 0
0 0

2 4
1 0 1


2 3 0
2 0

2 2
0 0 2 0

2 4 2 2
0 0

12 8

2
A = AA = 1 0 1 0
2 3 2 3
1
0

8 9
2
B = BB = 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
= 1 0
0 1
2
2
A B = 1 0 1 0
8 9 0 1
= 0 0
8 8

Find the inverse of 3 4 .


6 8
Determinant = 3 8 4 6 = 0
This is a singular matrix.
x
If A = , then this corresponds to the
y
simultaneous equations:
3 x + 4y = 8
6x + 8y = 16
The second equation is equivalent to the
first, as it is obtained by multiplying
both sides of the first by 2.

3
a

For a product to exist, the number of


columns of the first matrix must equal
the number of rows of the second.
This is true only for AC, CD and BE, so
these products exist.
DA = [2 4] 1 2
3 1
2
= 1 + 4 3
2 2 + 4 1

= 14
0
det(A) = 1 1 2 3 = 7
1
A = 1 1 2
7 3 1
1 2
1
1
2
or 7 7
=
3 1
7 3 1

7 7
1 4
AB = 1 2 1 1 6
5 1 2

3 8
= 1 1 + 2 1 + 1 3 1 4 + 2 6 + 1 8
5 1 + 1 1 + 2 3 5 4 + 1 6 + 2 8

= 2 0
2 2
det(C) = 1 4 2 3 = 2
1
C = 1 4 2
2 3 1
2 1

=
3 1

2
2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Find the inverse of 1 2 .


3 4
Determinant = 1 4 2 3 = 2
Inverse = 1 4 2
2 3 1
= 1 4 2
2 3 1
Multiply by the inverse on the right:
A = 5 6 1 4 2
12 14 2 3 1
= 1 2
3 5
2
2
A = 0

0
4
= 0

A =

1
2

0
0
2
0
4
0

0 2 0 0

2 0 0 2

0 0 2 0
0

0 0

0 1
2

1 0
2

The determinant must be zero.


1x24=0
x8=0
x=8

8
a

i MM = 2 1 2 1
1 3 1 3
= 3 5
5 8
ii MMM = MM(M)
= 3 5 2 1
5 8 1 3
= 1 18
18 19
iii Determinant = 2 3 1 1 = 7
1
M = 1 3 1
7 1 2
1
1
M M x = M 3
y
5
x = 1 3 1 3

7
1 2 5
y
= 1 14
7 7
= 2
1
x = 2, y = 1

18

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

19

Chapter 2 Algebra I
Exercise 2A Solutions
1
a

m Multiply indices:
Add indices:
3
4
3+4
7
=x
x x =x
Add indices:
5
3
5+
a a =a

n
3

=a

Add indices:
2
1
2
2+
x x x =x

=x

2 4

2 4

11
4

1
4 = x
x

2 7

=a

1
6

r
8

=a

2 7

=y

53

5 3

2
25
3 4
5
2 3 4
5
5

2n
)
=
2
(4
n
n

((2 ) n )

5 2
6 4
= 2 n (2 n )
5 6 2 4
=2 n
1 6
1
=2 n = 6
2n
Multiply the coefficients and add the
indices.
1
2

3
20 5

14
3 2

2 4

12

Multiply indices:
4
1
1 4
2
2 = 2
=x
x
x

= (1 2 4)x
2
= 8x

2 6
2 4
2 3
1
=ab a b a b
ab
2 + 2 + 2 6 + 4 + 3
=a
b
2 5
=a b

(ab ) a b

(2 p 4 p ((6p )) = 1
Anything to the power zero is 1.

15

=a

3+1+ 3
2
2

=x

20 3
5

) =a

3
2

=y

Multiply indices:

(a
l

=x

x 2x 4x

Multiply indices:

(x ) = x

Multiply indices:

(y )

25
2

= 8x

7
2

Multiply the first two indices and add


the third:
5
2 2

Multiply indices:

(a ) = a

1+3
2

Subtract indices:
a a =a

Multiply the coefficients and add the


indices:

(a ) a = a
a
5 + 4
=a
1
=a =a

Subtract indices:
5
p = 5 2 = 7
p
p
2
p
34
6 6

=n

2x 4x = (2 4)x
1 + 2

Subtract indices:
8
x = 8 4 = 12
x
x
4
x

2
3

10 1
5

1
2

Subtract indices:
3
y = 3 7 = 4
y
y
7
y

1
2

1
10 5

(n ) = n

2 3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

2
a

1
2

25 = 25 = 5
1
3

64 = 64 = 4

1
16 2

9 =

16

1
2

16

1
2

1
2

16
= 1 =1
16 4
49 2 = 1
36
1

49 2
36

1

1
2

9
= 16 = 4
3
9

49
36
= 36 = 6
49 7
1
3

144 = 144 = 12

1
2

2.4 = 79.62624 79.63

34.6921 = 5.89

0.02 = 125 000

0.729 = 0.9

2.3045 = 1.23209. . . 1.23

(345.64)

= 0.14249. . . 0.14

2
5

(4.558) = 1.83607. . . 1.84


1
3

(0.064)

1 = (0.064) = 0.4
3

2 3

1
3
64 = 64
2
= 4 = 16
13
2

9 = 9
3
= 3 = 27
1
81 4

1
3

2
3

3
2

4.35 = 18.9225 18.92

128 = 128
3
=2 =8
3
7

3
a

27 = 27 = 3

23 = 1
5

20

16 =

81

16
=3
2

1
4
1
4

2 2 3 4
ab
b
2 4 = a
a b
4 7
=ab
2

2a 2 b
2a (2b)
2 4 =
2 2 4
(2a) b
2 a b
4 2 3
2
= 2 a2b 4
2 a b
4 2 2 2 3 4
=2
a
b
6 4 7
4 7
= 2 a b = 64a b

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

2 3

2 2 3 4
a b
b
2 4 = a
a b
0 1
=ab =b
2 3

In each case, add the fractional indices.

2 2 2

1
3

1
6

2
3

2+1 3+1

2+1+ 4
6
6 6

=2

1
6

=2

ab
a b
ab
2 4 1 1 = 2 + 1 4 + 1
a b
a b
a
b
3 4
= a3b5
a b
3 3 4 5
6 9
=a
=ab
b
2

21

1
4

2
5

a a a

1
10

= 1 6
2

5 + 8 + 2
20 20
20

=a

11
20

=a
2
3

(2a) 8b 4a 8b
2 4 =
2 4
16a b
16a b
2 3
32a b
=
2 4
16a b
2 2 3 4
= 32 a
b
16
4 7
= 2a b

5
6

2 2 2

4+5+ 4
6 6
6

2
3

=2

5
6

=2
2

2
5
1
1
3
2
3
2
2 2 = 2 2
4 + 15
6 6

19
6

=2
2 3

2 3

=2

1 1

16ab
2a b
2a b
(2a) b
2 4
1 1 =
2 4
16ab
(2a) b
8a b
8a b
2 3
1 1 1
2a
= 2b4 2 a b
16ab
8a b
1 + 1 2 + 1 3 + 1
2
a
b
=
2 + 1 4 + 1
8 16 a
b
0 1 2
2 ab
=
1 3
128a b
2 5
1 1 2 3
= 1 a
=ab
b
128
128

1
2
1
2
2
13
2 23 2 5 = 23 23 2 5

2+1+ 2
3 3
5

=2

3 2

ab

2 1

ab

1
3 2 3

1
2 1 3

= (a b ) (a b )
2 1
3
3

2
1 3

=ab ab

12 2 1
3 3
3

1
3

=ab

3 n

2 (2 )
2 8
= 2n
2n
4
2 16
2 2
n
3n
2 2
= 2n 4
2 2
n + 3n 2 n
2n
4
2
=
=2 2
4
2

=2

=a
n

3
5

2x

2x

3 2

ab ab

1
3 2 2

1
2 1 2

= (a b ) (a b )
3
2 1

=ab ab

1
2

3+1 1+ 1
2
2

=a

2x

3 6 3 2
x
2x
2x
= (2 3) 6 (2 3)
x
2x
2x
=6 6 6
x + 2x + 2x
=6
3x
=6

2 1

3 2

ab

2 1

ab

5 1
2 2

=ab

1
3 2 5

1
2 1 5

= (a b ) (a b )
2 1
5
5

3 2
5 5

=ab ab

3+2 2+ 1
5 5 5
5

=a

1
5

= ab

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4 2

3 1

a b ab

1
4 2 2

1
3 1 2

= (a b ) (a b )

3 2

ab

22

2 1

ab

3 1
2
2

2 1

3 2 3

abc

=a

3 2

g
1

b2
1 =
a
2
a

1
3 2 3 2

=abc

1
2 1 5 2

ab

1 5
2
2

3+1 1+ 1 3+ 5
2
2
2
2

5 1
2 2 4

=abc

=ab

4 2

1
3 2 2

1
4 2 2

3 1 2
(a b )
(a b )
2 1 5
3 1 (a b )
ab c
ab
3
2 1

= (a b c ) (a b c )
3
3
2 1
2

1 3
5 5

3 1
ab
a b
2 1 5
3 1 a b
ab c
ab

2 1 5

ab c

=a

32 2 1
5 5 5
5

1 1
2 2

1
2

2 1
5
5

=ab ab

2 + 3 1 + 1
2
2

=a

1
2 1 5

3 2
5 5

=a b ab
=a

1
3 2 5

= (a b ) (a b )

2 1

3 1
2

2
= 2a 1b 5 a3 b1 a b
ab c
ab
32
2
1 1 0 5

=a
=a
=a

1
2 2 5

5 2

2 3 1 1

3 1
2
2

bc a b ab

1 + 5 + 3 2 + 2 + 1
2
2
2 5

7
4 2 5

=a bc

3 1
2
2

ab

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

23

Exercise 2B Solutions
1
a

47.8 = 4.78 10 = 4.78 10

6728 = 6.728 10

79.23 = 7.923 10 = 7.923 10

The decimal point move 13 places to the


right = 75 684 000 000 000

The decimal point move 8 places to the


right = 270 000 000

The decimal point move 13 places to the


left = 0.000 000 000 000 19

43 580 = 4.358 10

0.0023 = 2.3 10

0.000 000 56 = 5.6 10

12.000 34 = 1.200 034 10


= 1.200 034 10

Fifty million = 50 000 000


7
= 5.0 10

10

23 000 000 000 = 2.3 10

0.000 000 0013 = 1.3 10

165 thousand = 165 000


5
= 1.65 10

0.000 014 567 = 1.4567 10

324 000 0.000 000 7 = 3.24 10 7 10


3
4000
4 10
5 + 7 3
= 3.24 7 10
4
5
= 5.67 10
= 0.000 056 7
6

2
a

3
a

5 240 000 0.8 = 5.24 10 8 10


7
42 000 000
4.2 10

41.92 10
7
4.2 10
3
4192 10
=
3
42 000 10
= 4192 = 262
42 000 2625
=

The decimal point moves 8 places to the


8
right = 1.0 10

The decimal point moves 23 places to


23
the right = 1.66 10

The decimal point moves 5 places to the


5
right = 5.0 10

The decimal point moves 3 places to the


3
left = 1.853 18 10

The decimal point moves 12 places to


12
the left = 9.463 10

The decimal point moves 10 places to


10
the right = 2.998 10

5
a

a = 3 2 10
4
4
3.215
b

3
3
= 2 10
106.8375. . .
3
= 1.2599. . . 10
106.8375. . .
3
= 0.011 792. . . 10 11.8
12

4
2 10
a
=
4
4
4 0.05
4b

12

2 4 10
4 0.000 006 25
3
1.189 2. . . 10
=
6
4 6.25 10
9
7
= 0.047 568. . . 10 4.76 10
=

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 2C Solutions
1
a

42 + 3x = 22
3x = 22 42
= 20
x = 20
3

2x 15 = 27
3
2x = 27 + 15
3
= 42
2x 3 = 42 3
2
3 2
x = 63

3x + 5 = 8 7x
3x + 7x = 8 5
10x = 3
x = 3 = 0.3
10

2 + 3(x 4) = 4(2x + 5)
2 + 3x 12 = 8x + 20
3x 10 = 8x + 20
3x 8x = 20 + 10
5x = 30
x = 30 = 6
5

2x 3 = 5x
5 4
2x 20 3 20 = 5x 20
5
4
8x 15 = 100x
8x 100x = 15
92x = 15
x = 15
92

6x + 4 = x 3
3
6x 3 + 4 3 = x 3 3 3
3
18x + 12 = x 9
18x x = 9 12
17x = 21
x = 21
17

8 x = 15
2
x = 15 8
2
=7
x 2 = 7 2
2
x = 14

g
3x + 7 = 15
3x = 15 7
=8
x=8
3

5(2x + 4) = 13
10x + 20 = 13
10x = 13 20
= 7
x = 7 = 0.7
10

3(4 5x) = 24
12 + 15x = 24
15x = 24 + 12
= 36
x = 36
15
= 12 = 2.4
5

2
a

x + 2x = 16
2 5
x 10 + 2x 10 = 16 10
5
2
5x + 4x = 160
9x = 160
x = 160
9

24

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3x x = 8
4 3
3x 12 x 12 = 8 12
3
4
9x 4x = 96
5x = 96
x = 96 = 19.2
5

3x 2 + x = 18
2
4
3x 2 4 + x 4 = 18 4
2
4
2(3x 2) + x = 72
6x 4 + x = 72
7x = 72 + 4
= 68
x = 68
7

5x 4 = 2x
4 3 5
5x 60 4 60 = 2x 60
4
3
5
75x 80 = 24x
75x 24x = 80
51x = 80
x = 80
51

x 4 + 2x + 5 = 6
4
2
x 4 4 + 2x + 5 4 = 6 4
2
4
2(x 4) + (2x + 5) = 24
2x 8 + 2x + 5 = 24
4x = 24 + 8 5
= 27
x = 27 = 6.75
4

3 3x 2(x + 5) = 1
10
6
20
3 3x 60 2(x + 5) 60 = 1 60
10
6
20
6(3 3x) 20(x + 5) = 3
18 18x 20x 100 = 3
38x = 3 18 + 100
= 85
x = 85
38

25

3 x 2(x + 1) = 24
4
5
3 x 20 2(x + 1) 20 = 24 20
4
5
5(3 x) 8(x + 1) = 480
15 5x 8x 8 = 480
13x = 480 15 + 8
= 487
x = 487
13

2(5 x) + 6 = 4(x 2)
7
3
8
2(5 x) 168 + 6 168 = 4(x 2) 168
8
7
3
42(5 x) + 144 = 224(x 2)
210 + 42x + 144 = 224x 448
42x 224x = 448 + 210 144
182x = 382
x = 382 = 191
182 91

3
a

3x + 2y = 2; 2x 3y = 6
Use elimination. Multiply the first equation
by 3 and the second equation by 2.
9x + 6y = 6
c
4x 6y = 12
d
c + d:
13x = 18
x = 18
13
Substitute into the first equation:
3 18 + 2y = 2
13
54 + 2y = 2
13
2y = 2 54
13
28
=
13
y = 14
13

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

5x + 2y = 4; 3x y = 6
Use elimination. Multiply the second
equation by 2.
5x + 2y = 4
c
6x 2y = 12
d
c + d:
11x = 16
x = 16
11
Substitute into the second, simpler
equation:
3 16 y = 6
11
48 y = 6
11
y = 6 48
11
18
y=
11

2x y = 7; 3x 2y = 2
Use substitution. Make y the subject of
the first equation.
y = 2x 7
Substitute into the second equation:
3x 2(2x 7) = 2
3x 4x + 14 = 2
x = 2 14
x = 12
Substitute into the equation in which y is
the subject:
y = 2 12 7
= 17

x + 2y = 12; x 3y = 2
Use substitution. Make x the subject of
the first equation.
x = 12 2y
Substitute into the second equation:
12 2y 3y = 2
5y = 2 12
= 10
y=2
Substitute into the first equation:
x + 2 2 = 12
x + 4 = 12
x=8

7x 3y = 6; x + 5y = 10
Use substitution. Make x the subject of
the second equation.
x =10 5y
Substitute into the first equation:
7(10 5y) 3y = 6
70 35y 3y = 6
38y = 6 70
= 76
y = 76 = 2
38
Substitute into the second equation:
x + 5 2 = 10
x + 10 = 10
x=0

15x + 2y = 27; 3x + 7y = 45
Use elimination. Multiply the second
equation by 5.
15x + 2y = 27
c
15x + 35y = 225 d
c d:
33y = 198
y = 198 = 6
33
Substitute into the second equation:
3x + 7 6 = 45
3x + 42 = 45
3x = 45 42
=3
x=1

26

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

27

Exercise 2D Solutions
1
a

Let the value of Bronwyns sales in the


first week be $s.
s + (s + 500) + (s + 1000) + (s + 1500) + (s + 2000) = 17 500
5s + 5000= 17 500
5s = 12 500
s = 2500
The value of her first weeks sales is $2500.

Let d be the number of dresses bought


and h the number of handbags bought.
65d + 26h = 598
d + h = 11
Multiply the second equation by 26 (the
smaller number).
65d + 26h = 598 c
26d + 26h = 286 d
c d:
39d = 312
d = 312 = 8
39
h + 8 = 11
h=3
Eight dresses and three handbags.

Let the courtyards width be w metres.


3w + w + 3w + w = 67
8w = 67
w = 8.375
The width is 8.375 m.
The length = 3 8.375 = 25.125 m.

Let p be the full price of a case of wine.


The merchant will pay 60% (0.6) on the
25 discounted cases.
25p + 25 0.6p = 2260
25p + 15p = 2260
40p = 2260
p = 56.5
The full price of a case is $56.50.

4(x 2) = 60
4x 8 = 60
4x = 60 + 8
= 68
x = 17

The length of the square is 2x + 7.


4
2
2x + 7 = 49
4

2x + 7 = 7
4
2x + 7 = 7 4 = 28
2x = 28 7 = 21
x = 10.5

The equation is length = twice width.


x 5 = 2(12 x)
x 5 = 24 2x
x + 2x = 24 + 5
3x = 29
x = 29
3

y = 2((2x + 1) + (x 3))
= 2(2x + 1 + x 3)
= 2(3x 2)
= 6x 4

Q = np

If a 10% service charge is added, the total


price will be multiplied by 110%, or 1.1.
R = 1.1pS

Using the fact that there are 12 lots of


5 min in an hour (60 12 = 5),
60n = 2400
5

a = circumference 60
360
60
= 2(x + 3)
360
= 2(x + 3) 1
6

= (x + 3)
3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Let x be the number of houses with an


$11 500 commission and y be the
number of houses with a $13 000
commission.
We only need to find x.
x + y = 22
11 500x + 13 000y = 272 500
To simplify the second equation, divide
both sides by 500.
23x + 26y = 545
Using the substitution method:
23x + 26y = 545
y = 22 x
23x + 26(22 x) = 545
23x + 572 26x = 545
3x = 545 572
= 27
x=9
He sells nine houses with an $11 500
commission.

It is easiest to let the third boy have


m marbles, in which case the second boy
will have 2m marbles and the first boy
will have 2m 14.
(2m 14) + 2m + m = 71
5m 14 = 71
5m = 85
m = 17
The first boy has 20 marbles, the second
boy has 34 and the third boy has 17
marbles, for a total of 71.

Let Belindas score be b.


Annies score will be 110% of Belindas
or 1.1b.
Cassies will be 60% of their combined
scores: 0.6(1.1b + b) = 0.6 2.1b
= 1.26b
1.1b + b + 1.26b = 504
3.36b = 504
b = 504
3.36
= 150
Belinda scores 150
Annie scores 1.1 150 = 165
Cassie scores 0.6 (150 + 165) = 189

28

Let r km/h be the speed Kim can run.


Her cycling speed will be (r + 30) km/h.
Her time cycling will be 48 + 48 3 = 64 min.
Converting the times to hours ( 60) and
using distance = speed time gives the
following equation:
r 48 + (r + 30) 64 = 60
60
60
48r + 64(r + 30) = 60 60
48r + 64r + 1920 = 3600
112r + 1920 = 3600
112r = 1680
r = 1680 = 15
112

10 Let c g be the mass of a carbon atom


and x g be the mass of an oxygen atom.
(o is too confusing a symbol to use)
22
2c + 6x = 2.45 10
x=c
3
Use substitution.
22
2c + 6 c = 2.45 10
3
22
2c + 2c = 2.45 10
22
4c = 2.45 10
22
c = 2.45 10
4
23
= 6.125 10
x=c
3
23
= 6.125 10
3
23
2.04

10
The mass of an oxygen atom is
23
2.04 10 g.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

29

Exercise 2E Solutions
1

Let k be the number of kilometres


travelled in a day. The unlimited
kilometre alternative will become more
attractive when 0.32k + 63 > 108.
Solve for 0.32k + 63 = 108:
0.32k = 108 63
= 45
k = 45 = 140.625
0.32
The unlimited kilometre alternative will
become more attractive when you travel
more than 140.625 km.
Let g be the number of guests. Solve for
the equality.
300 + 43g = 450 + 40g
43g 40g = 450 300
3g = 150
g = 50
Company A is cheaper when there are
more than 50 guests.

Let a be the number of adults and c the


number of children.
45a + 15c = 525 000
a + c = 15 000
Multiply the second equation by 15.
45a + 15c = 525 000
c
15a + 15c = 225 000
d
c d:
30a = 300 000
a = 10 000
10 000 adults bought tickets.

Let $m be the amount the contractor paid a


man and $b the amount he paid a boy.
8m + 3b = 2240
6m + 18b = 4200
Multiply the first equation by 6.
48m + 18b = 13 440
c
6m + 18b = 4200
d
c d:
42m = 9240
m = 220

Substitute in the first equation:


8 220 + 3b = 2240
1760 + 3b = 2240
3b = 2240 1760
= 480
=
b 160
He paid the men $220 each and the boys $160.
5

Let the numbers be x and y.


x + y = 212
c

=
42
x y
d
c + d:
2x = 254
x = 127
127 + y = 212
y = 85
The numbers are 127 and 85.

Let x L be the amount of 40% solution


and y L be the amount of 15% solution.
Equate the actual substance.
0.4x + 0.15y = 0.24 700
= 168
x + y = 700
Multiply the second equation by 0.15.
0.4x + 0.15y = 168
c
0.15x + 0.15y = 105
d
c d:
0.25x = 63
x = 63 4
= 252
252 + y = 700
y = 448
Use 252 L of 40% solution and 448 L of
15% solution.

Form two simultaneous equations.


x + y = 220
c
x
x = y 40
2
x y = 40
d
2
c + d:
3x = 180
2
x = 120
120 + y = 220
y = 100
They started with 120 and 100 marbles
and ended with 60 each.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Let $x be the amount initially invested at


10% and $y the amount initially
invested at 7%. This earns $31 000.
0.1x + 0.07y = 31 000
When the amounts are interchanged, she
earns $1000 more, i.e. $32 000.
0.07x + 0.1y = 32 000
Multiply the first equation by 100 and
the second equation by 70.
10x + 7y = 3 100 000 c
4.9x + 7y = 2 240 000 d
c d:
5.1x = 860 000
x = 860 000 168 627.451
5.1
10 168 627.451 + 7y = 3 100 000
1 686 274.51 + 7y = 3 100 000
7y = 1 413 725.49
y = 201 960.78
The total amount invested is
x + y = 168 627.45 + 201 960.78
= $370 588.23

Let a be the number of adults and s the


number of students who attended.
30a + 20s = 37 000
c
a + s = 1600
20a + 20s = 1600 20
= 32 000
d
c d:
10a = 5000
a = 500
500 + s = 1600
s = 1100
500 adults and 1100 students attended
the concert.

30

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

31

Exercise 2F Solutions
1
a

v = u + at
= 15 + 2 5
= 25
I = PrT
100
600
5.5 10
=
100
= 330

S = 2r(r + h)
= 2 10.2 (10.2 + 15.6)
1653.48

V = 4 r h
3
2
= 4 3.58 11.4
3
612.01

s = ut + 1 at
2

T = 2

v = u + 2as
2
= 4.8 + 2 2.25 13.6
= 91.04
v = 91.04
9.54

2
a

v = u + at
v u = at
a=vu
t

S = n(a + l)
2
2S = n(a + l)
a + l = 2S
n
2S
a

l=
n

A = 1 bh
2
2A = bh
b = 2A
h

l
g

P=IR
P = I2
R

1.45
9.8
= 2 0.3846. . .
2.42
= 2

2
= 25.6 3.3 + 1 1.2 3.3
2
77.95

c =a +b
2
2
= 8.8 + 3.4
= 89
c = 89
9.43

V = r h
2
= 4.25 6
340.47

1=1+1
f v u
= 1 + 1 = 10
3 7 21
f = 21
10
= 2.1

I=
e

P
R

s = ut + 1 at
2
2
1
s ut = at
2
2
2(s ut) = at
2(s ut)
a=

2
t

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

E = 1 mv
2
2
2E = mv
2
v = 2E
m
v=

Q = 2gh
2
Q = 2gh
2
h=Q
2g

xy z = xy + z
xy xy = z + z
2xy = 2z

x = 2z
2y
= z
y

F = 9C + 32
5
9
= 28 + 32
5
= 82.4

F = 9C + 32
5
9C
F 32 =
5
9C = 5(F 32)

C = 5(F 32)
9
Substitute F = 135.
C = 5(135 32)
9
515
=
9
57.22

2E
m

ax + by = x b
c
ax + by = c(x b)
ax + by = cx bc
ax cx = bc by
x(a c) = b(c + y)

x = b(c + y)
ac
= b(c + y)
ca
mx + b = c
xb
mx + b = c(x b)
mx + b = cx bc
mx cx = bc b
x(m c) = b(c + 1)

x = b(c + 1)
mc

4
a

S = 180(n 2)
= 180(8 2)
= 1080
S = 180(n 2)
S =n2
180
n= S +2
180
1260
+2
=
180
=7+2=9
Polygon has 9 sides (a nonagon).

5
a

V = 1 r h
3
2
= 1 3.5 9
3
3
115.45 cm

V=1 h
3
2
3V = r h
3V
h= 2
r
3 210
= 2
4
12.53 cm

32

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

V = 1 r h
3
2
3V = r h
2
r = 3V
h
2

r=

3V
h

3 262
10
5.00 cm
=

6
a

S = n (a + l)
2
= 7(3 + 22)
2
= 66.5

S = n (a + l)
2
2S = n(a + l)
2S = a + l
n
a = 2S l
n
2
= 1040 156
13
=4

S = n (a + l)
2
2S = n(a + l)
n = 2S
a+l
= 2 110
25 + 5
= 11
There are 11 terms.

33

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

34

Exercise 2G Solutions
1
a

2x + 3x = 4x + 9x
3
2
6
13x
=
6

3a a = 6a a
2 4
4
5a
=
4

3h + 5h 3h = 6h + 5h 12h
4
8
2
8
h
=
8

3x y x = 9x 2y 4x
4 6 3
12
5x

2y
=
12

3 + 2 = 3y + 2x
xy
x y

5 + 2 = 5x + 2(x 1)
x1 x
x(x 1)
5x
+ 2x 2
=
x(x 1)
= 7x 2
x(x 1)

3 + 2 = 3(x + 1) + 2(x 2)
(x 2)(x + 1)
x2 x+1
3x
+ 3 + 2x 4
=
(x 2)(x + 1)
5x 1
=
(x 2)(x + 1)

2x 4x 3
x+3 x3 2
= 4x(x 3) 8x(x + 3) 3(x + 3)(x 3)
2(x + 3)(x 3)
2
2
2
= 4x 12x 8x 24x 3(x 9)
2(x + 3)(x 3)
2
2
2
= 4x 12x 8x 24x 3x + 27
2(x + 3)(x 3)
2
= 7x 36x + 27
2(x + 3)(x 3)

3
4(x + 1) + 3
4 +
=
2
x + 1 (x + 1) 2
(x + 1)
4x + 4 + 3
=
2
(x + 1)
= 4x + 72
(x + 1)

a 2 + a + 3a = 8(a 2) + 2a + 3a
8a
4 8
a
2
= 5a + 8a 16
8a

2x 6x 4 = 10x (6x 4)
5x
5x
2
2
= 10x 6x + 4
5x
2
= 4x + 4
5x
2
= 4(x + 1)
5x

3
3
2
= 2
x + 4 x2 + 8x + 16 x + 4 (x + 4) 2
= 2(x + 4) 2 3
(x + 4)
= 2x + 8 23
(x + 4)
2x
+5
=
2
(x + 4)

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3 +
2
= 3(x + 4) + 2
x 1 (x 1)(x + 4) (x 1)(x + 4)
= 3x + 12 + 2
(x 1)(x + 4)
= 3x + 14
(x 1)(x + 4)
3 2 + 4
x 2 x + 2 x2 4
4
= 3 2 +
x 2 x + 2 (x 2)(x + 2)
= 3(x + 2) 2(x 2) + 4
(x 2)(x + 2)
3x
+
6 2x + 4 + 4
=
(x 2)(x + 2)
x + 14
=
(x 2)(x + 2)

3
5
+ 2
x 2 x2 + 5x + 6 x + 3
3
= 5
+ 2
x 2 (x + 2)(x + 3) x + 3
= 5(x + 3)(x + 2) 3(x 2) + 2(x 2)(x + 2)
(x 2)(x + 2)(x + 3)
2
2
= 5(x + 5x + 6) 3x + 6 + 2(x 4)
(x 2)(x + 2)(x + 3)
2
2
= 5x + 25x + 30 3x + 6 + 2x 8
(x 2)(x + 2)(x + 3)
2
= 7x + 22x + 28
(x 2)(x + 2)(x + 3)
x y 1 = ( x y)( x y) 1
xy
xy
2
= ( x y) 1
xy

2
2

3 2

2 2

x 4y = 4y x
2y
2yx
x
2
= 2xy

3x y = 3x y
4y 6x 24yx
= xy
8

4x 12 = 48x
4
4
3
8x 24x
=2
x

x 3xy = x 6
6
2y
2y 3xy
2
= 6x 2
6xy
= x2
y

4 x a = a (4 x)
3a
4 x 3a(4 x)
=a
3

2x + 5
= 2x + 5
2
4x + 10x 2x(2x + 5)
= 1
2x
2

(x 1) =
(x 1)
2
x + 3x 4 (x 1)(x + 4)
= x1
x+4

x x 6 = (x 3)(x + 2)
x3
x3
=x+2

x 5x + 4 = (x 1)(x 4)
2
x(x 4)
x 4x

1
x
=
x

3 4x = 3 + 4x
x1 1x x1 x1
= 4x + 3
x1
3 + 2 = 3 2x
x2 2x x2 x2
= 3 2x
x2

35

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

5a
10a = 5a 6b
2
6b 12b2 10a
12b
2
30a b
=
2
120ab
= a
4b

x 2 x 4 = x 2 2x
2
2
x
x
2x
x 4
2

2x
=x2
(x 2)(x + 2)
x
2
= 2x
x(x + 2)
= 2x
x+2
l

x + 2 4x + 8
x(x 3) x2 4x + 3
= x + 2 4(x + 2)
x(x 3) (x 1)(x 3)
= x + 2 (x 1)(x 3)
4(x + 2)
x(x 3)

1
1
x
=
4
x

1
x
=
4x
2

4x
1
m 2x 2
= 2x x 2
x1 x 1 x1
4x
(x 1)(x + 1)
2x
=

2
x1
4x
2x(x + 1)
=
2
4x
=x+1
2x

3
a

1 + 2 = 3
x3 x3 x3

2 + 2 = 2(x 3) + 2(x 4)
(x 4)(x 3)
x4 x3
2x 6 + 2x 8
= 2
x 7x + 12
4x 14
= 2
x 7x + 12

3 + 2 = 3(x 3) + 2(x + 4)
(x + 4)(x 3)
x+4 x3
3x 9 + 2x + 8
=
2
x + x 12
5x 1
= 2
x + x + 12

2x + 2 = 2x(x + 4) + 2(x 3)
(x 3)(x + 4)
x3 x+4
2
2x + 8x + 2x 6
=
2
x + x 12
2
2x + 10x 6
= 2
x + x + 12

1
2 = 1 + 2(x 5)
2 +
2

5
x
(x 5)
(x 5)
1 + 2x 10
= 2
x 10x + 25
= 2 2x 9
x 10x + 25

3x
2 = 3x + 2(x 4)
2 +
2
x4
(x 4)
(x 4)
3x + 2x 8
= 2
x 8x + 16
= 2 5x 8
x 8x + 16

x 9 3x + 6 9
x3 x
x+2
(x
= 3)(x + 3) 3(x + 2) x
9
x3
x+2
3x(x

3)(x
+
3)(x
+
2)
=
9(x + 2)(x 3)
+
3)
x(x
=
3

3x 6x 2
9x 6 x 2 x + 5
x2
3x
=

2
3(3x 2) 6x2 x + 5
2x(x 2)
= 2
6x (3x 2)(x + 5)
x2
=
3x(3x 2)(x + 5)

36

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

1 2 = 1
x3 x3 x3
= 1
3x
2 5 = 2(x + 4) 5(x 3)
(x 3)(x + 4)
x3 x+4
2x + 8 5x + 15
=
2
x + x 12
23 3x
= 2
x + x 12

2x + 3x = 2x(x + 3) + 3x(x 3)
(x 3)(x + 3)
x3 x+3
2
2
2x + 6x + 3x 9x
=
2
x 9
2
5x 3x
= 2
x 9
1
2 = 1 2(x 5)
2
2

5
x
(x 5)
(x 5)
1 2x + 10
= 2
x 10x + 25
= 2 11 2x
x 10x + 25

4
1x +

2 +2=2 x4 +6
3 x4
x4 3

3 + 2 = 5
x+4
x+4
x+4

3 + x+4 =3+ x+4 x+4


x+4
x+4
3
+
+
4
x
=
x+4
x
= +7
x+4
3

2x
2
2x 2(x 6)
3
2 =
3
(x 6) (x 6)
(x 6)
2x 2x + 12
=
3
(x 6)
= 12 3
(x 6)

2x + 3 2x 4
x3
x4
(2x
+ 3)(x 3) (2x 4)(x 4)
=
(x 4)(x 3)
2
2
(2x 3x 9) (2x 12x + 16)
=
2
x 7x + 12
2
2
2x 3x 9 2x + 12x 16
=
2
x 7x + 12
9x 25
= 2
x 7x + 12

2 = 1x 1x +2
1x
1x
1

+
2
x
=
1x
= 3x
1x

3x 3x2 x + 4 = 3x 3x x + 4 x + 4
x+4
x+4
3
2
3x

3x
(x
+ 4)
=
x+4
3
3
2
= 3x 3x 12x
x+4
2
= 12x
x+4
3

f
l

37

2
3x
+ 3x x + 3 = 3x + 6x x + 3 x + 3
2 x+3
x+3
3
2
= 3x + 6x (x + 3)
x+3
3
3
2
= 3x + 6x + 18x
x+3
3
2
= 9x + 18x
x+3
2
= 9x (x + 2)
x+3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

5
a

1
3

(6x 3) (6x 3)

2
3

(6x 3)
1
3

2
3

(6x 3)
6x 3 1

(6x 3)

2
3

(6x 3) (6x 3) 1

(6x 3)
6x 4

= (2x + 3)

2x
(2x + 3)

2
3

2
3

(2x + 3) (2x + 3) 2x

(2x + 3)
3
(2x + 3)

2
3

2
3

2
3

(3 x) (3 x) 2x
(3 x)
3 x 2x
(3 x)
3 3x

2
3

2
3

2
3

2
3

(x 3)

(2x + 3)
2x + 3 2x

2
3

(3 x)
2
2
Since (3 x) = (x 3) , the answer is
3 3x
equivalent to
2 .

2
3

1
3

2
3

2
3

1
3

(3 x)

(2x + 3) 2x(2x + 3)

2x

1
3

2
3

1
3

2
3

= (3 x)

= (6x 3)

1
3

(3 x) 2x(3 x)
1
3

1
3

38

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 2H Solutions
1
a

ax + n = m
ax = m n
x=mn
a

1 =b
x+a x
Take reciprocals of both sides:
x+a=x
b
x
x = a
b
xx=a
b
x xb = a
b
x xb b = ab
b
x xb = ab
x(1 b) = ab
x = ab
ab

b = 2b
xa x+a
Take reciprocals of both sides:
xa=x+a
2b
b
x a 2b = x + a 2b
2b
b
2(x a) = x + a
2x 2a = x + a
2x x = a + 2a
x = 3a

x +n=x+m
n
m
x mn + n mn = x mn + m mn
m
n
2
2
nx + mn = mx + m n
2
2
nx mx = m n mn
x(n m) = mn(m n)
x = mn(m n)
nm
Note that n m = m + n
= 1(m n)

mn(n
m)
x=
nm
= mn

ax + b = bx
ax bx = b
x(a b) = b
x= b
ab
This answer is correct, but to avoid a
negative sign, multiply numerator and
denominator by 1.
x = b 1
a b 1
= b
ba

ax + c = 0
b
ax = c
b
ax = bc
x = bc
a

px = qx + 5
px qx = 5
x(p q) = 5
x= 5
pq

mx + n = nx m
mx nx = m n
x(m n) = m n
x= mn
mn
m
= +n
nm

39

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

b(ax + b) = a(bx a)
2
2
abx b = abx a
2
2
abx abx = a + b
2
2
2abx = a + b
2
2
x= (a +b )
2ab
2
2
=a b
2ab

p (1 x) 2pqx = q (1 + x)
2
2
2
2
p p x 2pqx = q + q x
2
2
2
2
p x 2pqx q x = q p
2
2
2
2
x(p + 2pq + q ) = q p
2
2
(q p )
x= 2
2
p + 2pq + q
2
2

= p q2
(p + q)
(p q)(p + q)
=
2
(p + q)
= pq
p+q

x1=x+2
a
b
x ab ab = x ab + 2ab
a
b
bx ab = ax + 2ab
bx ax = 2ab + ab
x(b a) = 3ab
x = 3ab
ba

x + 2x = 1
a b a + b a2 b2
x(a b)(a + b) + 2x(a + b)(a b) = (a + b)(a b)
2
2
a+b
ab
a b
x(a + b) + 2x(a b) = 1
ax + bx + 2ax 2bx = 1
3ax bx = 1
x(3a b) = 1
x= 1
3a b

40

p qx + p = qx 1
p
t
pt(p qx) + p pt = pt(qx 1)
t
p
2
p(p qx) + p t = t(qx 1)
2
2
p pqx + p t = qtx t
2
2
pqx qtx = t p p t
2
2
qx(p + t) = (t + p + p t)
2
2
2
2
x = t + p + p t or p + p t + t
q(p + t)
q(p + t)

1 + 1 = 2
x + a x + 2a x + 3a
Multiply each term by (x + a)(x + 2a)(x + 3a).
(x + 2a)(x + 3a) + (x + a)(x + 3a) = 2(x + a)(x + 2a)
2
2
2
2
2
2
x + 5ax + 6a + x + 4ax + 3a = 2x + 6ax + 4a
2
2
2
2
2x + 9ax + 9a = 2x + 6ax + 4a
2
2
2
2
2x 9ax 2x 6ax = 4a 9a
2
3ax = 5a
2
x = 5a
3a
= 5a
3
ax + by = p ; bx ay = q
Multiply the first equation by a and the
second equation by b.
2
a x + aby = ap
c
2
b x aby = bp
d
c + d:
2
2
x(a + b ) = ap + bq
ap + bq
x= 2
2
a +b
Substitute into ax + by = p:
ap + bq +
by = p
a 2
2
a +b
2
2
2
2
a(ap + bq) + by(a + b ) = p(a + b )
2
2
2
2
2
a p + abq + by(a + b ) = a p + b p
2
2
2
2
2
by(a + b ) = a p + b p a p abq
2
2
2
by(a + b ) = b p abq
b(bp aq)
y=
2
2
b(a + b )

= bp2 aq2
a +b

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4
a

x + y = 1; x + y = 1
b a
a b
First, multiply both equations by ab,
giving the following:
bx + ay = ab
ax + by = ab
Multiply the first equation by b and the
second equation by a:
2
2
b x + aby = ab
c
2
2
a x + aby = a b d
c d:
2
2
2
2
x(b a ) = ab a b
2
2
ab a b
x= 2 2
b a
= ab(b a)
(b a)(b + a)
= ab
a+b
Substitute into bx + ay = ab:
b ab + ay = ab
a+b
2
ab (a + b) + ay(a + b) = ab(a + b)
a+b
2
2
2
ab + ay(a + b) = a b + ab
2
2
2
ay(a + b) = a b + ab ab
2
ay(a + b) = a b
2
y= ab
a(a + b)
= ab
a+b
Multiply the first equation by b.
abx + by = bc
c
x + by = d
d
c d:
x(ab 1) = bc d
x = bc d
ab 1
= d bc
1 ab

41

It is easier to substitute in the first


equation for x:
a bc d + y = c
ab 1
a(bc d)(ab 1) + y(ab 1) = c(ab 1)
ab 1
abc ad + y(ab 1) = abc c
y(ab 1) = abc c abc + ad
y(ab 1) = c + ad
y = ad c
ab 1
= c ad
1 ab
b

Multiply the first equation by a and the


second equation by b.
2
3
a x aby = a
c
2
3
d
b x aby = b
c d:
2
2
3
3
x(a b ) = a b
3
3
a b
x= 2
2
a b
2
2
= (a b)(a + ab + b )
(a b)(a + b)
2
2
= a + ab + b
a+b
In this case it is easier to start again, but
eliminate x.
Multiply the first equation by b and the
second equation by a.
2
2
abx b y = a b
e
2
2

=
abx a y ab
f
e f:
2
2
2
2
y( b + a ) = a b ab
2
2
y(a b ) = ab(a b)
ab(a b)
y= 2
2
a b
= ab(a b)
(a b)(a + b)
= ab
a+b

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Add the starting equations:


ax + by + ax by = t + s
2ax = t + s
x=t+s
2a
Subtract the starting equations:
ax + by (ax by) = t s
2by = t s
y=ts
2b

Multiply the first equation by a and the


second equation by b.
2
3
2
2
a x + aby = a + 2a b ab
c
2
2
3
d
b x + aby = a b + b
c d:
2
2
3
2
2
3
x(a b ) = a + a b ab b
3
2
2
3
a + a b ab b
x=
2
2
a b
2
2
(a + b) b (a + b)
=a
2
2
a b
2
2
(a b )(a + b)
=
2
2
a b
=a+b
Substitute into the second, simpler
equation.
2
2
b(a + b) + ay = a + b
2
2
2
ab + b + ay = a + b
2
2
2
ay = a + b ab b
2
ay = a ab
2
y = a ab
a
=ab

42

Rewrite the second equation, then


multiply the first equation by b + c and
the second equation by c.
(a + b)(b + c)x + c(c + c)y = bc(b + c)
c
acx + c(b + c)y = abc
d
c d:
x((a + b)(b + c) ac) = bc(b + c) + abc
2
x(ab + ac + b + bc ac) = bc(b + c + a)
2
x(ab + b + bc) = bc(a + b + c)
xb(a + b + c) = bc(a + b + c)
x = bc(a + b + c)
b(a + b + c)
=c
Substitute into the first equation. (It has
the simpler y term.)
c(a + b) + cy = bc
ac + bc + cy = bc
cy = bc ac bc
cy = ac
y = ac
c
= a

First simplify the equations.


3x 3a 2y 2a = 5 4a
3x 2y = 5 4a + 3a + 2a
3x 2y = a + 5
c
2x + 2a + 3y 3a = 4a 1
2x + 3y = 4a 1 2a + 3a
2x + 3y = 5a 1
d
Multiply by 3 and by 2.
9x 6y = 3a + 15
e
4x + 6y = 10a 2
f
e + f:
13x = 13a + 13
x=a+1
Substitute into :
2(a + 1) + 3y = 5a 1
2a + 2 + 3y = 5a 1
3y = 5a 1 2a 2
3y = 3a 3
y=a1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

5
a

s = ah
= a(2a + 1)

Make h the subject of the second equation.


h = a(2 + h)
= 2a + ah
h ah = 2a
h(1 a) = 2a
h = 2a
1a
Substitute into the first equation.
s = ah
= a 2a
1a
2
= 2a
1a

s = h + ah
2 2
2
= (3a ) + a(3a )
4
3
= 9a + 3a
3
= 3a (3a + 1)

as = a + 2h
= a + 2(a s)
= a + 2a 2s
as + 2s = 3a
s(a + 2) = 3a
s = 3a
a+2

s = 2 + ah + h
2
= 2 + a a 1 + a 1
a
a

2
2
1
=2+a 1+a 2+ 2
a
2
1
= 2a 1 + 2
a

Make h the subject of the second


equation.
as + 2h = 3a
2h = 3a as
h = 3a as
2
Substitute into the first equation.
2
3s ah = a
2
3s a(3a as) = a
2
2
6s a(3a as) = 2a
2
2
2
6s 3a + a s = 2a
2
2
2
a s + 6s = 2a + 3a
2
2
s(a + 6) = 5a
2
5a
s= 2
a +6

h=

Make h the subject of the second equation.


ah = a + h
ah h = a
h(a 1) = a
h= 1
a1
Substitute into the first equation.
as = s + h
as = s + a
a1
a
as s =
a1
s(a 1) = a
a1
1)
a(a
s(a 1)(a 1) =
a1
2
s(a 1) = a
a
s=
2
(a 1)

h + ah = 1
h(1 + a) = 1
1 = 1
(1 + a) a + 1
as = a + h
=a+ 1
a+1
+ 1) + 1
a(a
=
a+1
2
=a +a+1
a+1
2
s=a +a+1
a(a + 1)

43

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 2I Solutions
Use your CAS calculator to find the
solutions to these problems. The exact
method will vary depending on the
calculator used.
1
a x=ab
b

x=7

x = a a + 4ab 4b
2

x=a+c
2

2
a

(x 1)(x + 1)(y 1)(y + 1)

(x 1)(x + 1)(x + 2)
2

(a 12b)(a + 4b)

(a c)(a 2b + c)

3
a

axy + b = (a + c)y
bxy + a = (b + c)y
Dividing by y yields:
ax + b = a + c
y
a
bx + = b + c
y
let n = 1 and the equations become:
y
ax + bn = a + c
bx + an = b + c
x=a+b+c
a+b
+
a
b
y=
c
x(b c) + by c = 0
y(c a) ax + c = 0
(b c)x + by = c
ax + (c a)y = c
x = (a b c)
a+bc

a
b+c
y=
a+bc

44

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

45

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

5x + 2y = 0
2y = 5x
y= 5
2
x
Multiply both sides of the second
equation by 2.
3x + 2y = 36
c
6x 2y = 24
d
c + d:
9x = 60
x = 20
3
20
3
y = 12
3
20 y = 12
y=8
t 9 = 3t 17
t 3t = 9 17
2t = 8
t=4

m= np
n+p
+
=
m(n p) n p
mn + mp = n p
mp + p = n mn
p(m + 1) = n(1 m)
p = n(1 m)
1+m
3 2 = 3(x + 3) 2(x 3)
(x 3)(x + 3)
x3 x+3
3x + 9 2x + 6
=
2
x 9
+ 15
= x2
x 9

2 3

V = 1 h(l + w)
3
3V = h(l + w)
3V = hl + hw
hl = 3V hw
l = 3V hw
h
3V
=
w
h
2 3 2

8
C

4 6

9x y
(3x y )
= 2
2
2x y
2x y
2 5
= 9x y
2
2 5
=9x y
2

Y = 80% Z = 4 Z
5
X = 150% Y = 3 Y
2
3
4Z
=
2 5
12Z
=
10
= 1.2 Z
= 20% greater than Z

10 Let the other number be n.


x + n = 5x + 4
2
x + n = 2(5x + 4)
= 10x + 8
n = 10x + 8 x
= 9x + 8

9
A

2 3

9x y
3
15(xy)
2 3
9x y
=
3 3
15x y
= 9
15x
= 3
5x

9x y 15(xy) =

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

46

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

3 4

34

(x ) = x
12
=x
3
12 4

12 3
4

(y

) =y
9
=y

3x 5x = (3 5)x

3
2

3+4
2

= 15x

4
3 3

11
2

34
3

(x ) x = x
x
45
=x
1
=x
11

11 5

32 10 12 10 = (32 12) 10
6
= 384 10
8
= 3.84 10

3x + y 2x = 6x + y 4x
10
5 10 5
2x
+
y
=
10

4 7 = 4y 7x
x y
xy

5 + 2 = 5(x 1) + 2(x + 2)
(x + 2)(x 1)
x+2 x1
5x
= 5 + 2x + 4
(x + 2)(x 1)
7x 1
=
(x + 2)(x 1)

3 + 4 = 3(x + 4) + 4(x + 2)
(x + 2)(x + 4)
x+2 x+4
3x
= + 12 + 4x + 8
(x + 2)(x + 4)
7x + 20
=
(x + 2)(x + 4)

6
3(x 2) 6
3
2 =
2
x 2 (x 2)
(x 2)
= 3x 6 6
x2
= 3x 12
x2
3(x
4)
=
x2

4
2

3
a

5x + 4x 5 = 10x(x 2) + 8x(x + 4) 5(x + 4)(x 2)


2(x + 4)(x 2)
x+4 x2 2
2
2
2
= 10x 20x + 8x + 32x 5(x + 2x 8)
2(x + 4)(x 2)
2
2
2
= 10x 20x + 8x + 32x 5x 10x + 40
2(x + 4)(x 2)
2
= 37x + 2x + 40
2(x + 4)(x 2)

x + 5 x + 5x = x + 5 4x 12
2x 6 4x 12 2x 6 x2 + 5x
= x + 5 4(x 3)
2(x 3) x(x + 5)
= 4 =2
2x x
2

3x 12x = 3x x 16
2
x + 4 x2 16 x + 4
12x
(x 4)(x + 4)
= 3x
2
x+4
12x
3x(x 4)
=
2
12x
=x4
4x
2

x 4 3x 9 9 = x 4 3x 9 x + 2
9
x3 x+2 x+2 x3 x+2
(x

2)(x
+
2)
3(x
3) x + 2
=

9
x3
x+2
2
= (x + 2)(x 2) = x 4
3
3

4x + 20 6x 2 = 4(x + 5) 6x 3x 2
9x 6 x + 5 3x 2 3(3x 2) x + 5
2
2
2
= 4 6x = 4x
32

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Let t seconds be the required time.


The number of red blood cells to be
12
12
replaced is 1 5 10 = 2.5 10
2
6
12
2.5 10 t = 2.5 10
12
2.5 10
t=
6
2.5 10
6
= 10
6
Time = 10 seconds
6
= 10 3600 24 days
11.57 or 11 31 days
54
8

2
1.5 10
6 = 0.5 10
3 10
= 50 times further

Let g be the number of games the team


lost. They won 2g games and drew one
third of 54 games, i.e. 18 games.
g + 2g + 18 = 54
3g = 54 18
= 36
g = 12
They have lost 12 games.
Let b be the number of blues CDs sold.
The store sold 1.1b classical and
1.5(b + 1.1b) heavy metal CDs, totalling
420 CDs.
b + 1.1b + 1.5 2.1b = 420
5.25b = 420
b = 420
5.25
= 80
1.1b = 1.1 80 = 88
1.5 2.1b = 1.5 2.1 80 = 252
80 blues, 88 classical and 252 heavy
metal (totalling 420)

9
a

V = r h
2
= 5 12
3
= 300 942 cm
V
2
r
585
=
2
5
= 117 7.4 cm
5

h=

2
r = V
h

r=

V (use positive root)


h

786
6

128 40.7 cm

10
a xy + ax = b
x(y + a) = b

x=

b
a+y

a+b=c
x x
ax + bx = cx
x
x
a + b = cx
x=a+b
c

x=x+2
a b
xab = xab + 2ab
a
b
bx = ax + 2ab
bx ax = 2ab
x(b a) = 2ab
x = 2ab
ba

47

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

a dx + b = ax + d
d
b
bd(a dx) + bd b = bd(ax + d)
d
b
2
b(a dx) + b d = d(ax + d)
2
2
ab bdx + b d = adx + d
2
2
bdx adx = d ab b d
2
2
x(bd + ad) = (ab + b d d )
2
2
x = (ab + b d d )
(bd + ad)
2
2
= ab + b d d
bd + ad

11
a

p + q = p(p q) + q(p + q)
(p + q)(p q)
p+q pq
2
2
p qp + qp + q
= 2
2
p pq + pq q
2
2
p +q
= 2 2
p q

1 2y = (xy y ) 2xy
2
x xy y2
x(xy y )

xy y
2
2
x y xy
= y( x y)
xy(x y)
= xy
x(x y)
= x+y
x(y x)
=

x + x 6 2x + x 1
x+1
x+3
(x

2)(x
+ 3) (x + 1)(2x 1)
=
x+1
x+3
= (x 2)(2x 1)
2

2a 2ab + b = 2a b(2a + b)
2
2
2a + b
2a + b
ba
ba
2ab
= 2
ba
2
=
a

12 Let As age be a, Bs age be b and Cs


age be c.
a = 3b
b + 3 = 3(c + 3)
a + 15 = 3(c + 15)
Substitute for a and simplify:
b + 3 = 3(c + 3)
b + 3 = 3c + 9
c
b = 3c + 6
3b + 15 = 3(c + 15)
3b + 15 = 3c + 45
3b = 3c + 30
d
b = c + 10
c = d:
3c + 6 = c + 10
3c c = 10 6
2c = 4
c= 2
b= 32+6
= 12
a = 3 12
= 36
A, B and C are 36, 12 and 2 years old
respectively.
13
a Simplify the first equation:
a 5 = 1 (b + 3)
7
7(a 5) = b + 3
7a 35 = b + 3
7a b = 38
Simplify the second equation:
b 12 = 1 (4a 2)
5
5(b 12) = 4a 2
5b 60 = 4a 2
4a + 5b = 58
Multiply the first equation by 5, and add
the second equation.
35a 5b = 190
c
4a + 5b = 58
d
c + d:
31a = 248
a=8
Substitute in the first equation:
7 8 b = 38
56 b = 38
b = 56 38 = 18

48

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Multiply the first equation by p.


2
(p q)x + (p + q)y = (p + q )
2
c
p(p q)x + p(p + q)y = p(p + q )
Multiply the second by (p + q).
2
qx py = q pq
2
q(p + q)x p(p + q)y = (p + q)(q pq) d
+ :
2

(p(p q) + q(p + q))x = p(p + q) + (p + q)(q pq)


2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
(p pq + pq + q )x = p(p + 2pq + q ) + pq p q + q pq
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
(p + q )x = p + 2p q + pq p q + q
3
2
2
3
= p + p q + pq + q
2
2
= p (p + q) + q (p + q)
2
2
= (p + q)(p + q )
x=p+q
Substitute into the second equation, factorising the right side.
2
q(p + q) py = q pq
2
2
pq + q py = q pq
2
2
py = q pq pq q
py = 2pq
y = 2pq
p
= 2q
14 Time = distance
speed
Remainder = 50 7 7 = 36 km
7 + 7 + 36 = 4
x 4x 6x + 3
7 + 7 + 12 = 4
x 4x 2x + 1
(4x(2x + 1)) 7 + 7 + 12 = 4 4x(2x + 1)
x 4x 2x + 1
28(2x + 1) + 7(2x + 1) + 48x = 16x(2x + 1)
2
56x + 28 + 14x + 7 + 48x = 32x + 16x
2
56x + 28 + 14x + 7 + 48x 32x 16x = 0
2
32x + 102x + 35 = 0
2
32x 102x 35 = 0
(2x 7)(16x + 5) = 0
2x 7 = 0 or 16x + 5 = 0
x > 0, so 2x 7 = 0
x = 3.5

49

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

15
2

16

2
2
2n 6nk 3n = 2n 6nk
3n
3 2
= 12n k
3n
2 2
= 4n k

1 xy
2 3
2 3
8c x y
8c x y
2
xy
=

2 3 3
2
2 3 3
2
6a b c 15abc 6a b c 30abc
2 3
2
8c
= 2 x3 y3 30abc
xy
6a b c
4 3
240abc x y
=
2 3 3
6a b c xy
2
40cx
=
2
ab
x + 5 x 5 = 1 + 2x
15
10
15
30(x + 5) 30(x 5) = 30 1 + 2x

10
15
15

2(x + 5) 3(x 5) = 30 + 4x
2x + 10 3x + 15 = 30 + 4x
2x 3x 4x = 30 10 15
5x = 5
x = 1

50

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

51

Chapter 3 Number systems and sets


Exercise 3A Solutions
1

A' = {4}

B' = {1, 3, 5}

A B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, or

(A B)' =

A' B' =

A B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}

(A B)' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}

A' B' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}

P' = {10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 25}

Q' = {11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24}

P Q = {10, 12, 15, 16, 20, 24, 25}

(P Q)' = {11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23}

P' Q' = {11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23}

P' = {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16}

Q' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15}

P Q = {2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16}

(P Q)' = {1, 5, 7, 11, 13}

A' = {R}

B' = {G, R}

A B = {L, E, A, N}

A B = {A, N, G, E, L}

(A B)' = {R}

A' B' = {G, R}

P' Q' = {1, 5, 7, 11, 13}

A' = {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11}

B' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

a
a

X' = {p, q, u, v}

Y' = {p, r, w}

X' Y' = {p}

X' Y' = {p, q, r, u, v, w}

X Y = {q, r, s, t, u, v, w}

f (X Y)' = {p}
c and f are equal.
d
7

e
a

X' = {5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}

Y' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}

X' Y' = {1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11}

X' Y' = {5, 7, 9, 11}

X Y = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12}

f (X Y)' = {5, 7, 9, 11}


d and f are equal.

f
9

A' = {E, H, M , S}

B' = {C, H, I, M}

A B = {A, T}

(A B)' = {H, M}

A' B' = {C, E, H, I, M, S}

A' B' = {H, M}

52

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

53

Exercise 3B Solutions
1
a

2
a

3
a

Yes, because the sum can be expressed


as a terminating or recurring decimal.
For instance, 1 + 1 = 3 .
10 20 20
Yes, because the product can be
expressed as a terminating or recurring
decimal. For instance, 1 1 = 1 .
10 20 200
Yes, because the quotient can be
expressed as a terminating or recurring
decimal, so long as the denominator 0.
For instance, 1 1 = 1 20 = 2.
10 20 10
No, because the sum cannot be
expressed as a terminating or recurring
decimal. For instance, 2 + 3 .
No, because the sum cannot be
expressed as a terminating or recurring
decimal. For instance, 2 3 = 6 .
No, because the sum cannot be
expressed as a terminating or recurring
decimal. For instance, 2 .
3

..
. . 0.27 = 0.272727. . .
0.27. . 100 = 27.272727. . .
0.27 99 = 27
..
0.27 = 27 = 3

99 11

f
4
a

0.12 = 12 = 3
100 25
e

.
.
0.285714 = 0.285714285714. . .
.
.
6
0.285714 10 = 285714.285714. . .
.
.
6
0.285714 (10 1) = 285714
.
.
0.285714 = 285714 = 2

999999 7

..
. . 0.36 = 0.363636. . .
0.36. . 100 = 36.3636. . .
0.36 99 = 36
..
0.36 = 36 = 4

99 11
.
0.
2
= 0.22222. . .
.
0.2 . 10 = 2.2222. . .
0.2 9 = 2
.
0.2 = 2

0.45 = 45 = 9
100 20
2 = 7 2.000000. . .
7
= 0.2857142857.
..
.
.
= 0.285714
5 = 11 5.000000. . .
11
= 0.454545.
..
..
= 0.45

7 = 20 7.00
20
= 0.35
4 = 13 4.000000. . .
13
= 0.30769230.
..
.
.
= 0.307692
1 = 17 1.00000000000000000. . .
17
= 0.0588235294117647058.
..
.
.
= 0.0588235294117647

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Assume 3 is a rational number, so

3 is a fraction in its simplest form, a .


b
a
3 =
b
2
3 = a2
b
2
2
3b = a
a is a multiple of 3.
a = 3k, where k is an integer.
2
2
3b = (3k)
2
2
3b = 9k
2
2
b = 3b
b is a multiple of 3.
But this contradicts the assumption that
a is a fraction in its simplest form,
b
as a and b are both multiples of 3.
Therefore the initial assumption must be
incorrect and 3 is not a rational
number.

54

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

55

Exercise 3C Solutions
1
a

8 = 4 2
=2 2

12 = 4 3
=2 3

27 = 9 3
=3 3

50 = 25 2
=5 2

45 = 9 5
=3 5

1210 = 121 10
= 11 10

108 = 36 3
=6 3

25 = 5

75 = 25 3
=5 3

2
a

24 3 6 216 + 294
= 4 6 3 6 36 6 + 49 6
=2 6 3 6 6 6 +7 6
=0

3
a

75 + 108 + 14
= 25 3 + 36 3 + 14
= 5 3 + 6 3 + 14
= 11 3 + 14

847 567 + 63
= 121 7 81 7 + 9 7
= 11 7 9 7 + 3 7
=5 7

c
8 + 18 2 2

720 245 125


= 144 5 49 5 25 5
= 12 5 7 5 5 5
=0

d
= 25 3 + 2 4 3 9 3
=5 3 +4 3 3 3
=6 3

512 + 128 + 32
= 256 2 + 64 2 + 16 2
= 16 2 + 8 2 + 4 2
= 28 2

512 = 256 2
= 16 2

75 + 2 12 27

1000 40 90
= 100 10 4 10 9 10
= 10 10 2 10 3 10
= 5 10

= 42 + 92 2 2
=2 2 +3 2 2 2
=3 2

28 + 175 63
= 4 7 + 25 7 9 7
=2 7 +5 7 3 7
=4 7

98 = 49 2
=7 2

338 288 + 363 300


= 169 2 144 2 + 121 3 100 3
= 13 2 12 2 + 11 3 10 3
= 2 + 3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

12 + 8 + 18 + 27 + 300
= 43 + 42 + 92
+ 9 3 + 100 3
= 2 3 + 2 2 + 3 2 + 3 3 + 10 3
= 5 2 + 15 3

2 18 + 3 5 50 + 20 80
= 2 9 2 + 3 5 25 2
+ 4 5 16 5
=6 2 +3 5 5 2 +2 5 4 5
= 2 + 5

4
a

1 5 = 5
5
5
5

1 7 = 7
7
7
7

2 6 2=2 6 4
64
6 +2
6 2
=2 6 4= 6 2
2
1
5 + 3 = 5 + 3
53
5 3
5 + 3
= 5 + 3
2
1
6 + 5 = 6 + 5
65
6 5
6 + 5
= 6 + 5
1
3+2 2 =3+2 2
98
32 2 3+2 2
=3+2 2

5
a

56

1 2 = 2
2
2
2

2
3+2 2 =6+4 2
98
32 2 3+2 2
=6+4 2
2

( 5 + 2) = ( 5 ) + 4 5 + 4
=5+4 5 +4
=9+4 5

2 3 =2 3
3
3
3

3 6 =3 6
6
6
6

(1 + 2 )(3 2 2 ) = 3 2 2 + 3 2 4
= 1 + 2

1 2 = 2
4
2
2 2

( 3 1) = 3 2 3 + 1
=42 3

1 2 1= 2 1
21
2 +1
2 1
= 2 1= 2 1
1
1 2+ 3 =2+ 3
43
2 3 2+ 3
=2+ 3
1

4 + 10 = 4 + 10
16 10
4 10 4 + 10
= 4 + 10
6

1 1 = 1 27 1 3
3
27
3
27
27
3
3
3

3
=
9
=2 3
9
3 +2 = 3 +2 2 3 +1
2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 +1
=6+ 3 +4 3 +2
12 1
=8+5 3
11

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

5 +1= 5 +1 5 +1
5 1
5 1
5 +1
=5+2 5 +1
51
=6+2 5
4
=3+ 5
2

8 +3 =2 2 +3
18 + 2 3 2 + 2
=2 2 +33 2 2
3 2 +2 3 2 2
= 12 4 2 + 9 2 6
18 4
=6+5 2
14

6
a

7
a

57

(2 a 1) = (2 a 1)(2 a 1)
= 4a 2 a 2 a + 1
= 4a 4 a + 1
2

( x+1 + x+2)
= ( x + 1 + x + 2 )( x + 1 + x + 2 )
= x + 1 + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2) + x + 2
= 2x + 3 + 2 (x + 1)(x + 2)

(5 3 2 ) (6 2 8) = 5 3 2 6 2 + 8
= 13 9 2
= 169 162
>0
5 3 2 is larger.
(2 6 3) (7 2 6 ) = 2 6 3 7 + 2 6
= 4 6 10
= 96 100
<0
7 2 6 is larger.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 3D Solutions
1
a

2
2
2
2
2
7
11
13
17

For each part, first find the prime


decomposition of each number.
2
4361 = 7 89
Neither 7 nor 89 are factors of 9281.
HCF = 1

2 68 640
2 34 320
2 17 160
2 8580
2 4290
3 2145
715
5
11
143
13
13
1
Prime decomposition
5
= 2 3 5 11 13
2
2
2
2
2
3
7
11
13

96 096
48 048
24 024
12 012
6006
3003
1001
143
13
1
Prime decomposition
5
= 2 3 7 11 13

2 32 032
2 16 016
2 8008
2 4004
2 2002
7 1001
11
143
13
13
1
Prime decomposition
5
= 2 7 11 13

544 544
272 272
136 136
68 068
34 034
17 017
2431
221
17
1
Prime decomposition
5
= 2 7 11 13 17

999 = 3 37
4
3
2160 = 2 3 5
3
HCF = 3 = 27

5255 = 5 1051
716 845 is divisible by 5 but not 1051.
HCF = 5

1271 = 31 41
3
3875 = 5 31
HCF = 31

804 = 2 3 67
2
2358 = 2 3 131
HCF = 2 3 = 6

58

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

59

Exercise 3E Solutions
1
a

4
C (25)

H
9

y
6

Since all students do at least one of


these subjects, 9 + 5 + x = 28
x = 14

D (16)

Since 40 25 = 15 dont own a cat,


y + 6 = 15
y=9
Since 16 own a dog, x + 9 = 16
x=7
Seven students own both.

i 5 + 14 = 19
ii 9
iii 9 + 14 = 23 or 28 5 = 23
5

2
a

E (70)
14

3
6

F (50)

9
4

7
C

i n(A' C') = 9 + 14 = 23
ii n(A B') = 3 + 6 + 5 + 2 + 7 + 14
= 37
iii n(A' B C') = 9

3
B (60%)

y
20%

Since 40% dont speak Greek,


y + 20% = 40%
y = 20%
Since 40% speak Greek,
x + 20% = 40%
x = 20%
20% speak both languages.

J (50)

We must assume every delegate spoke


at least one of these languages.
If 70 spoke English, and 25 spoke
English and French, 45 spoke English
but not French.
45 + 50 = 95 spoke either English or
French or both.
105 95 = 10 spoke only Japanese.
If 50 spoke French, and 15 spoke French
and Japanese, 35 spoke French but not
Japanese.
35 + 50 = 85 spoke either French or
Japanese or both.
105 85 = 20 spoke only English.
If 50 spoke Japanese, and 30 spoke
Japanese and English, 20 spoke
Japanese but not English.
20 + 70 = 90 spoke either Japanese or
English or both.
105 90 = 15 spoke only French.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

We can now fill in more of the Venn


diagram.
E (70)

F (50)

60

Insert the given information on a Venn


diagram. Place y as the number taking a
bus only, and z as the number taking a
car only.
B ( 33 )

20

15

a
x

z
2

10

8
x
x

J (50)

c is the number who dont speak English.


105 70 = 10 + c + 15
c + 25 = 35
c = 10
x + c = 15
x=5
5 delegates speak all five languages.
b

We have already found that 10 spoke


only Japanese.

Enter the information into a Venn


diagram.
P

30

50
10

40

T ( 20 )

Using n(T ) = 20, 2x + 10 = 20


x=5

Using n(B) = 33 and x = 5,


12 +5 + y = 33
y = 16

Assume they all used at least one of


these forms of transport.
z + 4 + 8 + 16 + 2 + 5 + 5 = 40
z=0

8
a

70
45

60

Number having no dessert


= 350 50 30 70 10 40 45 60
= 45

i (X Y Z) = intersection of all sets


= 36 (from diagram)
ii n(X Y) = number of elements in both X and Y
= 5 (from diagram)

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

The following information can be placed


on a Venn diagram.
R

61

a
5
2

10
5

5
1

a + b = 12

The additional information gives


5 > x and x > 3.
x = 4
Number of students
= 10 + 2 + 4 + 5 + 3 + 3 + 4
= 31
20 bought red pens, 12 bought green
pens and 15 bought black pens.

10 Enter the given information as below.


B M is shaded.

n(M F B) = n(F')

b = a + 10

Substitute in a + b = 12:
a + (a + 10) = 12
2a = 12
a=6
b = a + 10 = 16

n(M F) = b + 0 = 16

11 Enter the given information as below.


A (23)

S (22)

12
x

q
c

y
5
F

46

5 + 12 + 5 + 5 + x + y + z = 28
27 + x + y + z = 28
x+y+z=1
This means that exactly one of x, y and z
must equal 1, and the other two will
equal zero.
Since n(F B) > n(M F), the Venn
diagram shows that this means x > y.
x = 1, y = z = 0

F (18)

a + x = n(A S) = 10
The shaded area is given by
n(A S ) = n(A) (a + x)
= 23 10
= 13
n(A U S) = 10 + 22
= 32
r + 46 = 80 32 = 48
r=2
Use similar reasoning to show
c + r = 18 (b + x)
= 18 11 = 7
Since r = 2, c = 5
Since x + c = n(S U F) = 6 and c = 5, x = 1
One person plays all three sports.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

12 Enter the information into a Venn diagram.


I

x
5

62

13 Enter the given information into a Venn


diagram.
M

x
4

x+1

Since they are all proficient in at least


one language,
x + 3 + x + 5 + 2 + 4 + x + 1 = 33
3x + 15 = 33
3x = 18
x=6
The number proficient in Italian
=6+3+2+5
= 16

25

1.5x
7

x
20

35

1.5x + 25 + x + 7 + 4 + 20 + 35 = 201
2.5x + 91 = 201
2.5x = 110
x = 110
2.5
= 44
The number studying Mathematics
= 1.5x + 25 + 7 + 4
= 66 + 25 + 7 + 4
= 102

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

63

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

4
4
=
32 2
3+2 2 3+2 2 32 2
= 12 8 2
98
= 12 8 2

86 400
43 200
21 600
10 800
5400
2700
1350
675
225
75
25
5
1
Prime decomposition
7
3
2
=2 3 5

X Y Z = set of numbers that are


multiples of 2, 5 and 7
LCM = 2 5 7
B
= 35

Draw a Venn diagram.

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
5
5

( 6 + 3)( 6 3)
2
=( 6) +3 6 3 6 9
=69
= 3

F ( 50 % ) T ( 40 % )

x
30 %

9
D

Since 50% dont play football,


x + 30% = 50%
x = 20%
Since 40% play tennis, it can be
seen that 20% play both sports.

7 6 = 7 6 7 6
7 + 6
7 + 6
7 6
= 7 2 42 + 6
76
= 13 2 42

10 Draw a Venn diagram.


D
E

B' A = numbers in set A that are


not also in set B
= {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8}
D

( 3, ) ( , 5]
cancels out the middle
= (3, 5]

The next time will be both a multiple


of 6 and a multiple of 14.
LCM = 6 14
3
= 42
D
The next time is in 42 minutes.

15

x
0

15 + 5 + x = 40
x = 20
20 students take only Economics.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

.
0.0
7
= 0.07777. . .
.
0.07 10 = 0.7777. . .
.
0.07 9 = 0.7 = 7
10
.
7
0.07 =
90

..
. . 0.45 = 0.454545. . .
0.45. . 100 = 45.4545. . .
0.45 99 = 45
..
0.45 = 45 = 5
99 11

0.005 = 5 = 1
1000 200

0.405 = 405 = 81
1000 200

.
. 0.26 = 0.26666. . .
0.26 10 = 2.6666. . .
.
0.26 9 = 2.4 = 24
10
. 24 4
0.26 =
=
90 15

.
.
0.1714285 = 0.1714825714. . .
.
.
6
0.1714285 10 = 171 428.5714285. . .
.
.
6
0.1714285 (10 1) = 171 428.4
= 1 714 284
10
.
. 1 714 284
0.1714285 =
9 999 990
= 6
35
2
2
2
3
3
7

504
252
126
63
21
7
1
3
2
504 = 2 3 7

2 3 1=2 3 1 2
2
2
2
=2 6 2
2

5 +2= 5 +2 5 +2
5 2
5 2
5 +2
=5+4 5 +4
54
=4 5 +9
3 + 2 = 3 + 2 3 + 2
3 2
3 2
3 + 2
=3+2 6 +2
32
=2 6 +5

3 + 2 75 = 3 + 2 25 3
3 12
3 43
=3+25 3
32 3
3
+
10 3 3 + 2 3
=

32 3
3+2 3
= 9 + 6 3 + 30 3 + 60
9 12
= 69 + 36 3
3
= 23 12 3

5
a

6 2
6 2
=
3 2 +2 3
3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 +2 3
= 36 + 12 6
18 12
= 36 + 12 6
6
=6+2 6

64

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

a+b ab
a+b + ab
= a+b ab a+b ab
a+b + ab
a+b ab
= a + b 2 ( a + b)( a b) + a b
( a + b) ( a b)
2

= 2a 2 a b
2b
2

=a a b
b

Fill in a Venn diagram.


E

14

2
4

2
2

First enter the information on a Venn


diagram.
G ( 55 )

B E ( 45 )

15
20

65

10

30 2 14 5 4 2 2 = 1 (since all
received at least one prize.)

14 + 5 + 2 + 1 = 22

2 + 14 + 4 + 2 = 22

Enter the given information on a Venn


diagram as below.
X ( 23 )

Y ( 25 )

B l ( 40 )

It is obvious to make up the 40 blonds


that 5 must be blond only, so the number
of boys (not girls) who are blond is
5 +10 = 15.

The rest of the Venn diagram can be


filled in the same way:

Z ( 19 )

G ( 55 )

B E ( 45 )

15

15
20

15
10

B l ( 40 )

Boys not blond or blue-eyed


= 100 15 15 15 20 5 10 5
= 15

The numbers liking X only, Y only and Z


only are 9, 14 and 2 respectively.
The number who like none of them
= 50 9 3 14 9 2 6 2
=5

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

The rectangles can be represented by


circles for clarity. Enter the data:
A ( 20 )

12

B ( 10 )

p
b

C ( 16 )

13

Note: a + x = 3, b + x = 6 and c + x = 4
p + b + a + x = 20
p + b + 3 = 20
p + b = 17
q + (p + b) + n(B) = 35
q + 17 + 10 = 35

q=8
q + (b + x) + c = n(C) = 16
8 + 6 + c = 16
c=2

c+x=4

x=2
There is 2 cm2 in common.

10

112 63 224
28
=

16 7 9 7

= 4 7
= 4 7
= 4 7
= 15

224

47
3 7 224 7
2 7
7
3 7 224 7
14
3 7 16 7
7

11 Cross multiply:
2
( 7 3 )( 7 + 3 ) = x
2
73=x
2
4=x
x=2

66

1+ 2 + 1 2
5 + 3
5 3
= 1+ 2 5 3 + 1 2 5 + 3
5 + 3
5 3
5 3
5 + 3
= 5 5 + 10 6 + 5 + 5 10 6
53
53
5

2
6
2
=
2
= 5 6
27 12 + 2 75

48
25

= 9 3 4 3 + 2 25 3 16 3
25
= 3 3 2 3 + 10 3 4 3
5
= 15 3 10 3 + 50 3 4 3
5
3
51
=
5

14
a A B = 32 + 7 + 15 + 3 = 57
b

C=3

B' A = 32

15 17 + 6 8 = 17 + 2 9 8
= 17 + 2 72
a + b = 17; ab = 72
a = 8, b = 9 (or a = 9, b = 8, giving the
same answer.)
2
( 8 + 9 ) = 17 + 6 8
So the square root of
17 + 6 8 = 8 + 9
=2 2 +3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

67

Chapter 4 Variation
Exercise 4A Solutions
1
a

y = kx
2
8=k2
8 = 4k
k=2
2
x = 6:
y=26
= 72
2
y = 128: 2x = 128
2
x = 64
x = 8 (take the positive root)
8
x 2 4 6
y 8 32 72 128

1 = k 1 5
32
5

1=k1
2
5
2
k=
5
1

1
5
y= 8: 2x =8
5 5
5
1
5

x = 1:

y=k x
6=k 4
6 = 2k
k=3
x = 49: y = 3 49
= 21
y = 90: 3 x = 90
x = 30
x = 900
x 4 9 49 900
y 6 9 21 90

5
y = 2 32
5
=4
5

x = 32:

y = kx
1=k1
2
6
1 = 3k
k=1
3

y=11
3
1
=
3
2
1
y= : x=2
3 3
3
x=2
3
1
1
2
x
2
2
1 1 1
2
y
6 3 2
3

y = kx

1
5

x
y
2

x =4
5
1
5
5
x = 4
x = 1024
1
1 32 1024
32
1
2 4
8
5
5 5
5
3

V = kr
3
125 = k 2.5
125 = 15.625k
k = 125
15.625
=8
3
V = 8 3.2
= 262.144
3

200 = 8r
3
r = 25

r = 3 25
2.924

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

a=b

2
3

W = kL
2
18 = k 20
18 = 400k
k = 18
400
= 9
200
L = 225 = 15
2
W = 9 15
200
= 10.125 kg

V = kr
3
4188.8 = k 10
k = 4.1888

3
3
1 m = 1 000 000 cm
3
1 000 000 = 4.1888r
3
r = 1 000 000
4.1888
238 731.85
r 62.035 cm

T=k L
1.55 = k 60
k = 1.55
60
1.55
T=
90
60
= 1.55 1.5
1.898 seconds

2
3
a=22
3
1.058

2
3
2=2b
3

2
3

b =23=3
2
3
2
3
2
2
3
b = 3
b 5.196
4

A = kh
60 = k 10
k=6
A = 6 12
2
= 72 cm

120 = 6h
h = 20 cm

E = kw
3.2 = k 452
k = 3.2
452
= 8
1130
8
E=
810
1130
= 648 cm
113

8 w
1130
w = 10 1130
8
2825
=
2
= 1412.5 g

2 = k 13
3
k=2
3
a

68

9
a

10 =

d=k h
4.8 = k 1.8
k = 4.8
1.8
Persons height above ground = 4 + 1.8
= 5.8 m
4.8
d=
5.8
1.8
8.616 km
Height difference between person and
yacht = 5.8 + 10 = 15.8 m
d = 4.8 15.8
1.8
14.221 km

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

10 In each case set the initial value of x to 1.


Initial value of y = k (when x = 1).
2
a i y=k2
= 4k (300% increase)
ii y = k 2
1.41k (41% increase)
3
iii y = k 2
= 8k (700% increase)
2

i y = k 0.5
= 0.25k (75% decrease)
ii y = k 0.5
0.71k (29% decrease)
3
iii y = k 0.5
= 0.125k (87.5% decrease)

i y = k 0.8
= 0.64k (36% decrease)
ii y = k 0.8
0.89k (11% decrease)
3
y
iii = k 0.8
= 0.512k (48.8% decrease)

i y = k 1.4
= 1.96k (96% increase)
ii y = k 1.4
1.18k (18% increase)
3
iii y = k 1.4
= 2.744k (174.4% increase)

69

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

70

Exercise 4B Solutions
1
a

y=2
x
k
2=
1
k=2

3 1
2 =
3 3
3
y= 1 : 2= 1
12 x 12
x = 3: y =

y=2=1
6 3
1
2
: = 1
y=
16 x 16
x = 2 16 = 32
x = 6:

x 2

16

y 1

1
2

1
3

1
16

1
32

y= k
x
1= k
2
1
1
k=
2
y= 1
2 x
1
y= : 1 =1
4 2 x 4
2 x =4
x=4

x = 36
x = 6 (take the positive root)

x 1

y 3

3
4

1
3

1
12

y=
1=
3

k
1
3

x
k

1
3

1
k=1
3
1
y= 1
3x

1
y= 1: 1=1
9
9
3
3x

y= 1
2 9
=1
6

x = 9:

k
2
x
3 = k2
1
k=3
y=

1
3

1
4

1
2

1
4

1
6

x =3
3
x = 3 = 27
1
x =125: y =
1
3 125
= 1
15

1
8

27 125

2
3

1
3

1
9

1
15

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

a = k3
b
k
3
( 2)
2
k=4( 2) 2
=8 2
8 2
a= 3
b
8 2
=
3
(2 2 )
= 8 2
8 8
= 1 =1
4 2

V= k
P
22.5 = k
1.9
k = 1.9 22.5

= 42.75
15 = 42.75
P
42.75
P=
15
2
= 2.85 kg/ cm

I=k
R
3= k
80
k = 3 80
= 240
I = 240
100
= 2.4 amperes

4=

8 2
3
b
1 =8 2
3
16
b
3
b = 8 2 16
= 128 2
181.01
b 5.657
a=

k
4
b
5 = k4
2
4
k = 5 2 = 80
80
a= 4
4
= 80 = 0.3125
256

a=

80
4
b
4
b = 80
20
2
=4=2

20 =

1
2 4

b = (2 )
1
2

=2 = 2

80% of 3 = 2.4
2.4 = 240
R
240
R=
2.4
= 100 ohms

k
2
d
100 = k 2
20
k = 100 400
= 40 000
40 000
I=
2
25
= 64 candela
I=

r= k
h
5.64 = k
10
k = 5.64 10
r = 5.64 10
12
= 5.15 cm

71

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

8
a

In each case set the initial value of x to 1.


Initial value of y = k (when x = 1).
i y=k
4
= 0.25k (75% decrease)
ii y = k
2
0.71k (29% decrease)
k
iii y = 3
2
= 0.125k (87.5% decrease)

k
2
0.5
= 4k (300% increase)
ii y = k
0.5
1.41k (41% increase)
k
iii y =
3
0.5
= 8k (700% increase)

i y=

k
2
0.8
= 1.5625k (56.25% increase)
ii y = k
0.8
1.12k (12% increase)
k
iii y =
3
0.8
1.95k (95% increase)
i y=

k
2
1.4
0.51k (49% decrease)
ii y = k
1.4
0.85k (15% decrease)
k
iii y =
3
1.4
0.36k (64% decrease)

i y=

72

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

73

Exercise 4C Solutions
1
a

From the table, y = 2 x,


3
which is a direct relationship.

From the table, y = 4x ,


which is a direct square relationship.

Gradient = 2 = 2
1
y = 2x

Gradient = 9 = 3
3
y = 3x

From the table, y = 1 ,


x/5
which is an inverse relationship.

Gradient = 6 = 6
1
y = 6x

From the table, y = 2 x ,


which is a direct square root relationship.

4
2,
x
which is an inverse square relationship.
From the table, y =

If direct variation exists, then the graph


of y vs xn will be a straight line through
the origin.
Graphs b and e fit this criteria. Graph f
is a straight line but does not pass
through the origin.
If inverse variation exists, then the graph
1
of y vs n will be a straight line that is
x
undefined at the origin.
Graphs a, b and e fit this criteria. Graph a
is a curve when showing y vs x, but will
1
straighten out when showing y vs n .
x

The graph is a straight line through the origin.


Gradient = 21.6 = 2.4
9
2
y = 2.4x
Note: Any point can be used to calculate
the gradient.
6

4
a

Gradient = 3 = 3
1
y = 3x

Gradient = 6 = 3
2
y = 3x

Gradient = 10
3
10
x
y=
3

The graph is a straight line through the origin.


Gradient = 7.5 = 1.5
5
y = 1.5 x
Note: Any point can be used to calculate
the gradient.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

9
a

The graph is a straight line through the


origin.
Gradient = 2 = 2
1
2
y= 2
x
Note: Any point can be used to calculate
the gradient.
8
a

Methods will vary depending on the


calculator used.
y=1 x
4
5
4

y = 2x

y = 3.5x

0.4

2
3

y = 10x

5
2

y = 2x

y = 3.2x

0.4

Use your calculator's power regression


function to determine a and b.
a = 100
b = 0.2
b

C = at
0.2
= 100 10
158.49

10
a Use your calculator's power regression
function to determine a and b.
a = 1500
b = 0.5
b

I = at
0.5
= 1500 10
474.34

74

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

75

Exercise 4D Solutions
1

y = kx
z
2k
1=
10
k=5

When y = 6 and z = 50:


3 50
6 = 2
x
2
150
= 25
x =
6
x=5
When x = 10 and y = 4:
3z
4= 2
10
3z = 400
z = 400
3

When y = 1 and z = 60:


2
1 = 5x
2 60
x=6
When x = 10 and y = 4:
4 = 5 10
z
50
= 12.5
z=
4
6
10
x 2 4
z 10 2 60 12.5
4
y 1 10 0.5
2

y = kxz
10 = k 2 10
k=1
2
When y = 25 and z = 50:
25 = 50x
2
x=1
When x = 10 and y = 15:
15 = 10z
2
z=3
x
z
y

2
10
10

4
8
16

kz
2
x
15 = 10k
2
2
2
k = 15 4
2 10
=3
y=

1
50
25

10
3
15

10

50

15
2

4
3

a = kb
c
2
0.54 = k 1.2
2
0.54 2
k=
2
1.2
= 0.75
2
a = 0.75 2.6
3.5
1.449

k x
3
y
5
k
146 = 3
1.5
3
k = 1.46 1.5
5
4.9275
=
5
4.9275 x
z=
3
y 5
4.9275 4.8
=
3
2.3 5
0.397
z=

10
400
3
4

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

I = krt
130 = k 6.5 2
k = 130 = 10
13
I = 10 5.8 3
= $174

E = kmv
2
281.25 = k 25 15
k = 281
2.5 225
= 0.5
2
E = 0.5 1.8 20
= 360 joules

In both cases, set the initial length and


diameter to 1.
Initial value of y = k (when l = 1, d = 1).
k 1.5
y=
2
0.5
= 6k (500% increase)

k 0.5
y=
2
1.5
0.22k (78% decrease)

y=k2
0.5
= 5.66k (466% increase)

11
a

T = kx
l
For the first spring, T = k 1 = k
3
3
0.9
k

=k
For the second spring, T =
2.7
3
The tensions will both be the same.

W = kd
L
Let the diameter be a and the length b
for a supported weight of C.
2
C = ka
L
Let the new diameter be x.
If the length doubles and the weight
remains the same, then
2
C = kd
2L
2
2
kx = ka
2L
L
2
2
x = ka 2l
k
L
2
= 2a
x = 2a
The diameter has increased by a factor
of 2 1.41 or approximately 41%.

W = k (2a)
3L
2
= 4ka
3L
4C
=
3
The weight has increased by a factor of
4 1.33 or approximately 33%.
3

10 In both cases, set the initial values of p


and q to 1.
Initial value of y = k (when p = 1, q = 1).
2
a y=k2
2
= 2.83k (183% increase)

9
a

76

T = kx
l

For the first spring, T = k 1 = k


3
3
For the second spring,
2
T = k 0.9 = 3k
10
2.7
The ratio of tension = T (second spring)
T (first spring)
0.3k
=
k
3
= 3k 3
10 k
= 9 = 0.9
10
This is a 10% decrease; the tension in
the second spring is 90% that in the first.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

77

Exercise 4E Solutions
1

2
a

C = b + kd
42.4 = b + 22k c
47.8 = b + 25k d
d c:
5.4 = 3k
k = 1.8
42.4 = b + 22 1.8
42.4 = b + 39.6
b = 2.8
C = 2.8 + 1.8 17
= $33.40

32 = 200k1 + k2
200
61 = 400k1 + k2
400

c
d

32 = 200 0.15 + k2
200
k
32 = 30 + 2
200
k2 = 2
200
k2 = 400
C = 0.15 360 + 400
360
$55.11

5
a

p = k1 x + k2 y
14 = 3k1 + 16k2
c
14.5 = 5k1 + 9k2
d
Multiply by 5 and by 3:
70 = 15k1 + 80k2
c
43.5 = 15k1 + 27k2
d
c d:
26.5 = 53k2
k2 = 0.5
14 = 3k1 + 16 0.5
14 = 3k1 + 8
3k1 = 6
k1 = 2
p = 2 4 + 0.5 25
= 20.5

Multiply by 0.5:
16 = 100k1 + k2
400
61 = 400k1 + k2
400
d c:
45 = 300k1
k1 = 45 = 0.15
300

C = b + kd
2625 = b + 50k c
3575 = b + 70k d
d c:
950 = 20k
k = 47.5

2625 = b + 50 47.5
2625 = b + 2375
b = 250
The fixed charge is $250 and the cost
per guest is $47.50

C = b + kd
= 250 + 4.75 100
= $5000

C = k1 n + k2
n

s = k1 t + k2 t
142.5 = 3k1 + 9k2
c
262.5 = 5k1 + 25k2
d
Multiply by 5 and by 3:
712.5 = 15k1 + 45k2
c
787.5 = 15k1 + 75k2
d
d c:
75 = 30k2
k2 = 75 = 2.5
30
142.5 = 3k1 + 9 2.5
3k1 = 120
k1 = 40
s = 40 6 + 2.5 36
= 330 m
The sixth second is the time from t = 5 to t = 6.
Distance travelled = 330 262.5
= 67.5 m

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

t = k1 b + k2
m
45 = 10k1 + k2
1
45 = 10k1 + k2
30 = 8k1 + k2
2
Multiply by 2:
45 = 10k1 + k2
60 = 16k1 + k2
d c:
15 = 6k1
k1 = 15 = 2.5
6
45 = 10 2.5 + k2
k2 = 20
t = 2.5 16 + 20
4
= 45 minutes

c
d

c
d

78

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

79

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

y = kx
3=k9
k=1
3
y=k
x
1=k
4 2
k=2=1
4 2

6
C
7

kx
2
z
1=k2=k
2
3
2
2
k=2
3

y=

a = kb
32 = k 8
k=4
a = 4 64
= 256

Gradient = 4 = 4
1
y=4 x

a = kp
q
k
8= 4
5
40
= 10
k=
4
a = 10 9
6
= 15

Set the initial value of q to 1.


Initial value of p = k
2
p = k 1.1
= 1.21k
21% increase

10 Set the initial value of q to 1.


Initial value of p = k
p= k
0.8
= 1.25k
25% increase

p = k2
q
1=k
3 9
k=9=3
3
3
1= 2
q
2
q =3
q= 3

Gradient = 6 = 3
2
2
y = 3x

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

80

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

x= 1:
2

a = kb
3 = k 22
2
k=3
8

4
2
3 0.5
= 16
3
4
4
4
:
=
y=
27 3x2 27

3x = 27
2
x =9
x=3

2
a = 8: 3 b = 8
8
2
b = 64
3

b= 8
3
b

1
3

y = kx

10 = k 2
10
k= 1

1
3

x = 27:

y=

10
1
3

1
3

27

2
30
1
3

2
1
3

10
y= 1: 1 x =1
8 3
8
2
1
3

1
3

2
a

x =2
80
2
x= 3
80
=

k
2
x
1= k
3 22
k=4
3

4
2
3x

a=34
8
=6

b = 4:

y=

1
256 000

a = kb
c
1=k1
4
4
2
k= =1
4 2
a= b
2 c
4
9
=
2 16
9
1
4
= 3
9 2 4
=1
6

d = kt
2
78.56 = k 4
k = 78.56
16
= 4.91
2
d = 4.91t
2

d = 4.91 10
= 491 m

78.56 = 19.64 t
2
t = 78.56 = 4
19.64
=
t 2 seconds

y=

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3
a

v=k s
7 = k 2.5
7
k =
2.5
v= 7 s
2.5
=7 s
2.5
= 7 10
2.5
= 14 m/s

28 = 7

y1
2 x
x2
y
x is doubled.

C = ktRI
9 = k 2.5 60 16
k = 0.00375
C = 0.00375 1.5 80 9
= 4.05 cents

C = a + kn
20 = a + 100k
30 = a + 500k
d c:
10 = 400k
k = 10 = 1
400 40
20 = a + 100
40
20 = a + 2.5
a = 17.5
C = 17.5 + 700
40
= $35

s
2.5

s =4
2.5
s = 16
2.5
s = 40
t=k
v
4= k
30
k = 4 30 = 120
t = 120
50
= 2.4 hours

y1
x

y 1
2x
y is halved.

2y 1
x
1
x
2y
x is halved.

1
x
2
2y 1
x
y is doubled.
y

81

c
d

v = kI
24 = k 6
k=4
72 = 4I
I = 18 amps

k
2
d
Let the initial distance be d1. The final
distance will be d2.
I1 = k 2
(d1)
k
I2 =
2
(2d1)
= k 2
4(d1)
= 1 I1
4
I=

10 Set the initial values of x and z to 1.


Initial value of y = k
2
y = k 1.1
0.9
1.34 (34% increase)

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 5 Sequences and series


Exercise 5A Solutions
1
a

t1 = 3
t2 = 3 + 4 = 7
t3 = 7 + 4 = 11
t4 = 11 + 4 = 15
t5 = 15 + 4 = 19

tn = n + 1
2
t1 = 1 + 1 = 2
2
t2 = 2 + 1 = 5
2
t3 = 3 + 1 = 10
2
t4 = 4 + 1 = 17

t1 = 5
t2 = 3 5 + 4 = 19
t3 = 3 19 + 4 = 61
t4 = 3 61 + 4 = 187
t5 = 3 187 + 4 = 565

tn = 2n
t1 = 2 1 = 2
t2 = 2 2 = 4
t3 = 2 3 = 6
t4 = 2 4 = 8

t1 = 1
t2 = 5 1 = 5
t3 = 5 5 = 25
t4 = 5 25 = 125
t5 = 5 125 = 625

tn = 2
1
t1 = 2 = 2
2
t2 = 2 = 4
3
t3 = 2 = 8
4
t4 = 2 = 16

t1 = 1
t2 = 1 + 2 = 1
t3 = 1 + 2 = 3
t4 = 3 + 2 = 5
t5 = 5 + 2 = 7

tn = 3n + 2
t1 = 3 1 + 2 = 5
t2 = 3 2 + 2 = 8
t3 = 3 3 + 2 = 11
t4 = 3 4 + 2 = 14

t1 = 1
t2 = 3
t3 = 2 3 + 1 = 7
t4 = 2 7 + 3 = 17
t5 = 2 17 + 7 = 41

tn = (1) n
1
3
t1 = (1) 1 = 1
2
3
t2 = (1) 2 = 8
3
3
t3 = (1) 3 = 27
4
3
t4 = (1) 4 = 64

tn = 2n + 1
t1 = 2 1 + 1 = 3
t2 = 2 2 + 1 = 5
t3 = 2 3 + 1 = 7
t4 = 2 4 + 1 = 9

tn = 2 3
0
t1 = 2 3 = 2
1
t2 = 2 3 = 6
2
t3 = 2 3 = 18
3
t4 = 2 3 = 54

2
a

tn = 1
n
t1 = 1 = 1
1
t2 = 1
2
t3 = 1
3
t4 = 1
4

n1

82

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3
a

t1 = 3 = 3 1
t2 = 6 = 3 2
t3 = 9 = 3 3
t4 = 12 = 3 4
tn = 3n
t2 = t1 + 3
ii
t3 = t2 + 3
tn = tn 1 + 3, t1 = 3

t1 = 4 = 3 1 + 1
t2 = 7 = 3 2 + 1
t3 = 10 = 3 3 + 1
t4 = 13 = 3 4 + 1
tn = 3n + 1
t2 = t1 + 3
ii
t3 = t2 + 3
tn = tn 1 + 3, t1 = 4

t1 = 4 = 5 1 1
t2 = 9 = 5 2 1
t3 = 14 = 5 3 1
t4 = 19 = 5 4 1
tn = 5n 1
t2 = t1 + 5
ii
t3 = t2 + 5
tn = tn 1 + 5, t1 = 4

tn = 3n + 1
tn + 1 = 3(n + 1) + 1
= 3n + 4
t2n = 3(2n) + 1
= 6n + 1

t1 = 1 = 2
1
t2 = 2 = 2
2
t3 = 4 = 2
3
t4 = 8 = 2
n1
tn = 2
t2 = 2t1
ii
t3 = 2t2
tn = 2tn 1, t1 = 1

1
2
1
1
t2 = 1 = 2
4 2
1
t3 = 1 = 2
9 3
1
t4 = 1 = 2
16 4
1
tn = 2
n
ii
t2 = 1 t1
4
t3 = 4 t2
9
t4 = 9 t3
16
2
(n 1)
tn =
tn 1 , t1 = 1
2
n
i

t1 = 1 =

5
a

tn = tn 1 + 3, t1 = 15

t1 = 15
t2 = 15 + 3
t3 = (15 + 3) + 3
= 15 + 2 3
tn = 15 + (n 1) 3
= 3n + 12

t13 = 3 13 + 12
= 51

6
a

4% reduction is equivalent to 96% of the


original.
tn = 0.96tn 1

t1 = 3 = 3 (2)
1
t2 = 6 = 3 (2)
2
t3 = 12 = 3 (2)
3
t4 = 24 = 3 (2)
n1
tn = 3 (2)
t2 = 2 t1
ii
t3 = 2 t2
tn = 2tn 1, t1 = 3

83

t1 = 94.3
t2 = 0.96 94.3
t3 = 0.96 (0.96 94.3)
2
= 0.96 94.3
n1
tn = 94.3 0.96

t9 = 94.3 0.96
68.03 seconds

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

7
a
b

8
a

tn = 1.8tn 1 + 20

t1 = 1.8 100 + 20 = 200


t2 = 1.8 200 + 20 = 380
t3 = 1.8 380 + 20 = 704
t4 = 1.8 704 + 20 = 1287
t5 = 1.8 1287 + 20 = 2336

t1 = 2000 1.06
= $2120
t2 = (2120 + 400) 1.06
= $2671.20
t3 = (2671.2 + 400) 1.06
= $3255.47

tn = (tn 1 + 400) 1.06


= 1.06(tn 1 + 400), t1 = 2120

Method will depend on the calculator or


spreadsheet used.
t10 = $8454.02

9
a

Method will depend on the calculator used.


1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16

3, 1, 1, 3, 5, 7

1 , 1, 2, 4, 8, 16
2

32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1

1.1, 1.21, 1.4641, 2.144, 4.595, 21.114

27, 18, 12, 8, 16 , 32


3 9

1, 3, 11, 27, 59, 123

3, 7, 3, 7, 3, 7

10
n1
a tn = 2
0
t1 = 2 = 1
1
t2 = 2 = 2
2
t3 = 2 = 4

un = 1 (n n)
2
2
u1 = 1 (1 1)
2
2
u2 = 1 (2 2)
2
2
u3 = 1 (3 3)
2
2

84

+1
+1=1
+1=2
+1=4

The sequences are the same for the first


three terms.
t1 = u1
t2 = u2
t3 = u3

t4 = 2 = 8
2
u4 = 1 (4 4) + 1 = 7
2
The sequences diverge after the first
three terms.

11

S1 = a 1 + b 1 = a + b
2
S2 = a 2 + b 2 = 4a + 2b
2
S3 = a 3 + b 3 = 9a + 3b
2
2
Sn + 1 Sn = a(n + 1) + b(n + 1) an bn
2
2
= a(n + 2n + 1) + bn + b an bn
2
2
= an + 2an + a + b an
= 2an + a + b

12 t2 = 1 1 + 2 = 3
2
1 2
3
1

t3 = + 2 = 17
2 2 3/ 2 12
t4 = 1 17 + 2 = 577
2 12 17/ 12 408
Comparing the terms to real numbers
between 1 and 1.5, it can be seen that the
sequence gives an approximation of 2 .
13

t3 = t 2 + t1
=1+1=2
t4 = t 3 + t2
=2+1=3
t5 = t 4 + t3
=3+2=5
tn + 2 = t n + 1 + tn
tn + 1 = t n + t n 1
tn + 2 = (tn + tn 1) + tn
= 2tn + tn 1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 5B Solutions
1
a

tn = a + (n 1)d
t1 = 0 + (1 1) 2 = 0
t2 = 0 + (2 1) 2 = 2
t3 = 0 + (3 1) 2 = 4
t4 = 0 + (4 1) 2 = 6

t1 = 3 + (1 1)
t2 = 3 + (2 1)
t3 = 3 + (3 1)
t4 = 3 + (4 1)

2
a

t1 =
t2 =
t3 =
t4 =

5
5
5
5

5 = 3
5=2
5=7
5 = 12

+ (1 1)
+ (2 1)
+ (3 1)
+ (4 1)

t1 = 11 + (1 1)
t2 = 11 + (2 1)
t3 = 11 + (3 1)
t4 = 11 + (4 1)

3
a

5
5
5
5

=
= 2
= 3
= 4

2 = 11
2 = 9
2 = 7
2 = 5

a + (1 1)d = 3
a=3
3 + (2 1)d = 7
d=73=4
tn = 3 + 4(n 1)
= 4n 1
a + (1 1)d = 3
a=3
3 + (2 1)d = 1
d = 1 3 = 4
tn = 3 + 4(n 1)
= 7 4n
a + (1 1)d = 1
2
a= 1
2
1
3
+ (2 1)d =
2
2
d=3 1=2
2
2
tn = 1 + 2(n 1)
2
= 2n 5
2

5
5
5
5

a + (1 1)d = 5 5
a=5 5
(5 5 ) + (2 1)d = 5
d = 5 (5 5 )
= 5
tn = (5 5 ) + 5 (n 1)
= 5 n+52 5
t13 = a + 12d
= 5 + 12 3 = 31

t10 = a + 9d
= 12 + 9 4 = 24

t9 = a + 8d
= 25 + 8 2.5 = 5

t5 = a + 4d
=2 3 +4 3
=6 3

4
a

a = 4, d = 2
t6 = a + 5d
= 4 + 5 2 = 14

t10 = a + 9d
= 4 + 9 4 = 22

tn = 4 + 2(n 1) = 10
2(n 1) = 6
n1=3
n=4
The fourth day.

5
a

P is the 16th row. a = 25, d = 3


t16 = a + 15d
= 25 + 15 3
= 70 seats
X is the 24th row. a = 25, d = 3
t24 = a + 23d
= 25 + 23 3
= 94 seats

85

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

6
a

tn = 25 + 3(n 1) = 40
3(n 1) = 15
n1=5
n=6
Row F

a + 4d = 24
c
a + 9d = 39
d
d c:
5d = 15
d=3
a + 4 3 = 24
a + 12 = 24
a = 12
t15 = 12 + 14 3

= 54

11

a + 6d = 0.6
c
a + 11d = 0.4
d
d c:
5d = 1.0
d = 0.2
a + 6 0.2 = 0.6
a 1.2 = 0.6
a = 1.8
t20 = 1.8 + 19 0.2

= 2

a = 6, d = 4
t5 = 6 + 4 4 = 22
a = 5, d = 3
t12 = 5 + 11 3 = 28

a = 16, d = 3
tn = 16 3(n 1) = 41
3(n 1) = 57
n 1 = 19
n = 20

a = 7, d = 4
tn = 7 + 4(n 1) = 227
4(n 1) = 220
n 1 = 55
n = 56

10

t30 = 7 + 29d = 108 1


2
1
29d = 101
2
1
d=3
2

t6 = 3 + 5d = 98
5d = 95
d = 19
t7 = t6 + 19
= 117

a + 2d = 18
c
a + 5d = 486
d
d c:
3d = 468
d = 156
a + 2 156 = 18
a + 312 = 18
a = 294
tn = 294 + 156(n 1)

= 156n 450

12 4 + 9d = 30
9d = 26
d = 29
9

t2 = 4 + 1 26 = 62
9
9
26
88
=
t3 = 4 + 2
9
9
26
38
=
t4 = 4 + 3
9
3
t5 = 4 + 4 26 = 140
9
9
26
166
=
t6 = 4 + 5
9
9
26
64
=
t7 = 4 + 6
9
3
26
218
=
t8 = 4 + 7
9
9
26
244
=
t9 = 4 + 8
9
9
13 5 + 5d = 15
5d = 10
d=2
t2 = 5 + 1 2 = 7
t3 = 5 + 2 2 = 9
t4 = 5 + 3 2 = 11
t5 = 5 + 4 2 = 13

86

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

14 a + (m 1)d = 0
(m 1)d = a
a
m1
tn = a a(n 1)
m1
This could be simplified as follows:
tn = a(m 1) a(n 1)
m1

1
+ n + 1)
a(m
=
m1
= a(m n)
m1
d=

c
15 a + 14d = 3 + 9 3
a + 19d = 38 3
d
d c:
5d = 35 10 3
d=72 3
a + 14 (7 2 3 ) = 3 + 9 3
a + 98 28 3 = 3 + 9 3
a = 37 3 95
t6 = 37 3 95 + 5 (7 2 3 )
= 37 3 95 + 35 10 3
= 27 3 60

c=a+b
2
8
+
15 = 11.5
=
2

c=a+b
2
1
= 1
+
2 2 2 1 2
= 2 2 +1+2 2
2(2 2 1)(2 2
4 2
=
2 (8 1)
=2 2
7

17 3x 2 = 5x + 1 + 11
2
6x 4 = 5x + 12
x = 16
18 Use the fact that the difference is
constant.
(8a 13) (4a 4) = (4a 4) a
8a 13 4a + 4 = 4a 4 a
4a 9 = 3a 4
a=5
19 tx = a + (x a)d = y
ty = a + (y a)d = x
Subtract:
(x y)d = y x
= 1(x y)
d = 1(x y)
xy
= 1
Substitute:
a + (x a) 1 = y
a=y+x1
tx + y = a + (x + y 1)d
= y + x 1 + (x + y 1) 1
=y+x1xy+1
=0
20 Use the fact that the difference is
constant.
2
a 2a = 2a a
2
a 3a = 0
a(a 3) = 0
a = 3 (since a 0)

16

2 + 1
1
+ 1)

87

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 5C Solutions
1
a

a = 8, d = 5, n = 12
t12 = 8 + 11 5 = 63
S12 = 12 (8 + 63)
2
= 6 71
= 426
a = 3.5, d = 2, n = 10
t10 = 3.5 + 9 2 = 14.5
S10 = 10 (3.5 + 14.5)
2
= 5 11
= 55

a = 1 , d = 1 , n = 15
2
2
t15 = 1 + 14 1
2
2
15
=
2
S15 = 15 1 + 15
2 2
2
= 60 2

a = 4, d = 5, n = 8
t8 = 4 + 7 5 = 31
S8 = 8 (4 + 31)
2
= 108

a = 7, d = 3, n = 7
S7 = 7 (14 + 6 3)
2
= 112

Sn = n (30 + (n 1) 1)
2
= 110
n(30 n + 1) = 220
2
n + 31n 220 = 0
2
n 31n + 220 = 0
(n 11)(n 20) = 0
n = 11 or n = 20
Reject any value of n > 15, as this would
involve a negative number of logs in a row.
There will be 11 layers.

a = 5, d = 5, n = 16
S16 = 16 (10 + 15 5)
2
= 680

There will be half of 98 = 49 numbers:


a = 2, d = 2, n = 49
S49 = 49 (4 + 48 2)
2
= 2450

6
a

7
a

a=6
t15 = 6 + 14d = 27
14d = 21
d = 1.5
t8 = 6 + 7 1.5
= 16.5 km
S5 = 5 (12 + 4 1.5)
2
= 45 km
Total distance:
S15 = 15 (12 + 14 1.5)
2
= 247.5
Distance missed = 18 + 19.5 + 21
= 58.5 km
(8th day = 16.5 km)
Distance Dora walks = 247.5 58.5
= 189 km
a = 30, d = 5
Sn = n (60 + (n 1) 5)
2
= 500
n(60 + 5n 10) = 1000
2
5n + 50n 1000 = 0
2
n + 10n 200 = 0
(n 10)(n + 20) = 0
n = 10, as n > 0
10 days

88

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

a = 50, n = 5
S5 = 5 (100 + 4d)
2
= 500
100 + 4d = 200
d = 200 100
4
= 25 pages per day

Sn = n (8 + (n 1) 4)
2
= 180
n(8 + 4n 4) = 360
2
4n + 4n 360 = 0
2
n + n 90 = 0
(n 9)(n + 10) = 0
n = 9 as n 10

a = 5, d = 4
Sm = m (10 + (m 1) 4)
2
= 660
m(10 + 4m 4) = 1320
2
4m 14m 1320 = 0
(m 20)(4m + 66) = 0
m = 20 as m > 0

10
a Row J = t10
= 50 + 9 4 = 86
b

S26 = 26 (100 + 25 4)
2
= 2600

50 + 54 + 58 + 62 = 224

2600 224 = 2376

Sn = n (100 + (n 1) 4)
2
= 3410
n(100 + 4n 4) = 6820
2
4n + 96n 6820 = 0
2
n + 24n 1705 = 0
(n 31)(n + 55) = 0
n = 31 as n 55
There are 5 extra rows (from 26 to 31).

11 Total members
S12 = 12 (80 + 11 15)
2
= 1470
Total fees = 1470 $120
= $176 400
12

a + d = 12
6(2a + 11d) = 18
2a + 11d = 3
Substitute a = 12 d:
24 2d + 11d = 3
9d 24 = 3
d=3
a + 3 = 12
a = 15
t6 = 15 + 5 3
=0
S6 = 6 (30 + 5 3)
2
= 45

13

5(2a + 9d) = 120


2a + 9d = 24
c
10(2a + 19d) = 840
2a + 19d = 84
d
d c:
10d = 60
d=6
2a + 9 6 = 24
a = 15
S30 = 30 (30 + 29 6)
2
= 2160

14 a = 54, d = 6, n = 19 (9 + 9 + 1)
S19 = 19 (108 + 18 6)
2
=0
You may also observe that every
positive term will be balanced by a
negative term, so the sum will be zero.

89

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

15

16
a

a + 5d = 16
c
a + 11d = 28
d
d c:
6d = 12
d=2
a + 10 = 16
a=6
S14 = 14 (12 + 13 2)
2
= 266
a + 2d = 6.5
c
4(2a + 7d) = 67
d
a + 3.5d = 67 = 8.375
8
d c:
1.5d = 1.875
d = 1.25
a + 1.25 2 = 6.5
a=4
tn = 4 + 1.25(n 1)
= 2.75 + 1.25n
= 5 n + 11
4
4

a + 3d = 6
5
= 6 5
5
5
=6 5
5

5 (2a + 4d) = 16 5
2
5(a + 2d) = 16 5
d
a + 2d = 16 5
5
c d:
d = 6 5 16 5
5
5
= 10 5
5

a + 2 10 5 = 16 5
5
5
5
16
a=
5
= 36 5
5
tn = 36 5
5
= 46 5
5
= 46 5
5

90

+ 20 5
5

10 5 (n 1)
5
10 5 n
5
2 5n

17
a tn + 1 tn = b(n + 1) bn
=b
b

Sn = n (2b + (n 1)b)
2
n
= (2b + nb b)
2
= n (nb + b)
2
This can be factorised to nb( n + 1) .
2

18 a = 10, d = 5
t5 = 10 + 4 5
= 10
S25 = 25 (20 + 24 5)
2
= 1250
19

S20 = 10(2a + 19d)


= 25a
20a + 190d = 25a
190d = 5a
a = 38d
S30 = 15 (76d + 29d)
= 1575d

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

20
2
a Sn 1 = 17(n 1) 3(n 1)
2
= 17n 17 3(n 2n + 1)
2
= 17n 17 3n + 6n 3
2
= 23n 3n 20
b

t n = Sn S n 1
2
2
= 17n 3n 23n + 3n + 20
= 20 6n

tn + 1 tn = 20 6(n + 1) (20 6n)


= 20 6n 6 20 + 6n
= 6
The sequence has a constant difference
of 6 and so is arithmetic.
a = t1
= 20 6 1 = 14
d = 6

21 Let the terms be a, a + d, a + 2d.


Sum = 3a + 3d = 36
a + d = 12
Product = a(a + d)(a + 2d)
= 1428
Substitute d = 12 a.
a(a + 12 a)(a + 24 2a) = 1428
12a(24 a) = 1428
a(24 a) = 119
2
24a a = 119
2
a 24a + 119 = 0
(a 7)(a 17) = 0
a = 7 or a = 17
d = 12 7 = 5
or d = 12 17 = 5
The three terms are either 7, 12, 17
or 17, 12, 7.
Note: in cases like this, it is sometimes
easier to call the terms a d, a, a + d.
22 The middle terms will be tn and tn + 1.
tn = a + (n 1)d
tn + 1 = a + nd
tn + tn + 1 = 2a + (2n 1)d
n(tn + tn + 1) = n(2a + (2n 1)d)
S2n = 2n (2a + (2n 1)d)
2
= n(2a + (2n 1)d)
= n(tn + tn + 1)

91

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 5D Solutions
1
a

n1

tn = ar
11
=3
t1 = 3 2
21
=6
t2 = 3 2
31
= 12
t3 = 3 2
41
= 24
t4 = 3 2
11

=3
t1 = 3 2
21
=
3
2
= 6

t2
31
= 12
t3 = 3 2
41
= 24
t4 = 3 2

= 10 000
t1 = 10 000 0.1
21
= 1000
t2 = 10 000 0.1
31
= 100
t3 = 10 000 0.1
41
= 10
t4 = 10 000 0.1

2
a

11

3
a

n1
tn = 3 2
3

a=2
r = 4 = 2
2
n1
tn = 2 2

a=2
r=2 5 = 5
2
n1
tn = 2 ( 5 )

a = 25

t5 = 25r = 16
25
4
16
r =
625
r=2
5
4

11

=3
t1 = 3 3
21
=9
t2 = 3 3
31
= 27
t3 = 3 3
41
= 81
t4 = 3 3

a = 15
7
1
r=
3
15
t6 =

1 = 5
3
567

a=1

r= 1
4

6
a

4
t5 = 1 1 = 1
256
4

a= 2
r= 2
9
t10 = 2 ( 2 ) = 32
x

a=a
r=a
x
5
x+5
t6 = a a = a

a=3
r=2
3

1 2n 1 = 64
4
n1
= 64 4
2
8
=2
n=9

a = 2, r = 3
n1
23
= 486
n1
3
= 243
5
=3
n=6

a = 5, r = 2
n1
52
= 1280
n1
2
= 256
8
=2
n=9

92

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

7
a

a = 768, r = 1
2
n1
768 1
=3
2
1
3
n 1 = 768
2
1
= 1 = 8
256 2
n=9

a=8, r=3
9
2
n1
83
= 27
9 2n 1 4
n1
3
27 9
n1 =
4 8
2
5
= 35
2
n=6
a= 4, r= 1
3
2
n1
4 1
= 1
3 2
96
n1
1
= 1 3
2
96
4

1
=
32 4
7
1
= 7 = 1
2
2
n=8

8
a

At the end of 7 days, it will have


increased 7 times.
7
2
10 3 = 2187 m
n

10 3 200 000
n
3 20 000
nlog10 3 log10 20 000
n 9.014. . .
It will cover the lake early in the tenth day.

2 0.75 0.4746 m
47.46 cm

10
7
a 120 0.9 57.4 km
b

120 0.9

n1

= 30.5
0.9
= 30.5
120
= 0.251. . .
( n 1)log10 0.9 = log10 0.251. . .
n 1 = 13.0007. . .
n = 14
The 14th day.
n1

29

11 0.01 2 = $5 369 000


12
a

At the end of 10 years, it will have


increased 10 times.
9
2500 1.08 = $5397.31
2500 1.08 100 000
n
1.08 100 000 = 40
2500
nlog10 1.08 log10 40
n 47.93. . .
It will take 48 years until the value
exceeds $100 000.

93

ar = 768
2
ar = 96
3
r = 768 = 8
96
r=2
2
a 2 = 96
a = 24 fish
9

24 2 = 12 888 fish

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

13

14

14

ar = 54
11
ar = 2
3
r = 54 = 27
2
r=3
11
a3 =2
2
a = 11
3
6
2
t7 = 11 3
3
2
= 5
3

16 a = 3, r = 3
n1
33
> 500
n
3 > 500
5
6
3 = 243 and 3 = 729
The sixth term.
17
a At the end of 10 years:
6
value = 5000 1.06
= $7092.60

15 a = 4, r = 2
n1
42
> 2000
n1
> 500
2
9
2 = 512
The tenth term.

1.06 2
nlog10 1.06 log10 2
n 11.89. . .
In the 12th year.

18

A 1.085 = 8000
A 2.6616. . . = 8000
A = $3005.61

1
ar = 1
2 2
3
ar = 2

2
r = 2 1
2 2
=4
r=2
a2= 1
2 2
a= 1
4 2
7
t8 = 1 2
4 2
= 32
2
Rationalise the denominator:
t8 = 32 2
2
2
= 32 2 = 16 2
2

94

12

19 Let the rate be r.


10
r =3
0.1
r = 3 = 0.11612. . .
Approximately 11.6%.
20 Let the number of weeks be n.
n1
n1
40 960 1
= 40 2
2
40 960 = 2n 1 2n 1
40
2n 2
10
1024 = 2
=2
2n 2 = 10
n=6
21
a

5 720 = 3600 = 60

1 6.25 = 6.25 = 2.5

1 3 = 1 =1
3

2 3

6 11

xy xy

8 14

= xy
4 7
=xy

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

22

r = t7 = t16
t4 t7
a + 6d = a + 15d
a + 3d a + 6d
2
(a + 6d) = (a + 15d)(a + 3d)
2
2
2
2
a + 12ad + 36d = a + 18ad + 45d
2
9d + 6ad = 0
3d(3d + 2a) = 0
3d + 2a = 0
d= 2a
3
+
6d
a
r=
a + 3d
= a 4a
a 2a
= 3a = 3
a
Note: d = 0 gives the trivial case
r = a = 1.
a
(All the terms are the same.)

95

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

96

Exercise 5E Solutions
n

1
a

Sn = a(r 1)
r1
a=5
r = 10 = 2
5
10
S10 = 5(2 1)
21
= 5115

a=1
r = 3 = 3
1
6
S6 = 1(3 1)
3 1
= 182

a= 4
3
2
r= 4= 1
3
2
3
9
4 1 1
3 2

S9 =
1
1
2
57
=
64

a = 6250
r = 1250 = 0.2
6250
n1
tn = 2 = 6250 (0.2)
n1
(0.2)
= 2 = 1
6250 3125
n=6
6
S6 = 6250 ((0.2) 1)
0.2 1
= 7812

3
a

a = 600, r = 1.1
6
t7 = 600 1.1
= 1062.9366
About 1062.9 mL
7

4
a

S7 = 600 (1.1 1)
1.1 1
= 5692.3026
About 5692.3 mL
a = $15 000, r = 1.05
4
t5 = 15 000 1.05
= 18 232.593. . .
$18 232.59
5

2
a

a=2
r = 6 = 3
2
n1
tn = 1458 = 2 3
n1
3
= 729
n=7
7
S7 = 2 (3 1)
3 1
= 1094

5
a

S5 = 15 000 (1.05 1)
1.05 1
= 82 844.4686
$82 884.47
a = 20, r = 25 = 2.5
20
4
t5 = 20 1.25
= 48.828125
49 minutes (to the nearest minute)
5

a = 4
r = 8 = 2
4
n1
tn = 1024 = 4 2
n1
2
= 256
n=9
9
S9 = 4 (2 1)
2 1
= 684

S5 = 20 (1.25 1)
1.25 1
= 164.140625
164 minutes, or 2 hours and 44 minutes

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Sn > 15 60 = 900
20 (1.25 1) > 900
0.25
n
1.25 1 > 900 0.25 = 11.25
20
n
1.25 > 12.25
nlog10 1.25 > log10 12.25
n > 11.228
12 7 = 5, so Friday.
n

a = 15, r = 2
3
10
15 1 2

3
S10 =
2
1
3
10
10
3 2
= 3 15
10
3
10
10
3 2
=5
8
3
= 5 58 025
6561
290
125
=
6561
The bounces will all be doubled (up and
down) except for the first (down only).
Distance = 2 290 125 15
6561
481
835
=
6561
= 73 2882 m
6561
Andrew: Interest = 1000 0.20 10
= $2000
His investment is worth
$1000 + $2000 = $3000.
Bianca's investment is worth
10
1000 1.125 = $3247.32
Biancas investment is worth more.

8
a

ar = 20
5
ar = 160
3
r = 160 = 8
20
r=2
2
a 2 = 20
a=5
5
S5 = 5 (2 1)
21
= 155
2

ar = 2
7
ar = 8
5
r = 8
2
= 64
2
5
= 32 = ( 2 )
r= 2
2
a( 2) = 2
a= 1
2
1 (( 2 ) 8 1)
S8 = 2
2 1
1 15

2
=
2 +1
2 1
2 +1
15 ( 2 + 1)
= 2
21
= 15 + 15 2
2

97

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

9
a

a = 1, r = 2
Sn = 255
n
1 (2 1) = 255
21
n
2 1 = 255
n
2 = 256
n=8

Sn > 1 000 000


1 (2 1) > 1 000 000
21
n
2 1 > 1 000 000
n
2 > 1 000 001
nlog10 2 > log10 1 000 001
n > 19.931. . .
{n: n > 19} or {n: n 20}, since n is a
positive integer.
n

10 a = 1, r = x
Note that there are (m + 1) terms.
2 m+1
1
1(x )
Sm + 1 =
2
x 1
2(m + 1)

1
= x 2
x 1
2m + 2
+1
=x 2
x +1

98

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 5F Solutions
1
a

Area of nth triangle (r = 1 ):


4
2
2
n1
3
p 3 1
=p n
4
4

4

S = a
1r
a=1
r=11=1
5
5
1
S =
11
5
5
=
4

p 3
n
4
S =
11
2
2
=2p 3
4
2
=p 3
2

a=1

r= 21= 2
3
3
1
S =
1 2
3
3
=
5
Each side, and hence each perimeter,
will be half the larger side.
r = 1, a = p
2
n1
Perimeter of nth triangle = p 1
2
p
= n1
2
p
S =
11
2
= 2p
Find original area using
A = s(s a)(s b)( s c)
For first triangle, s = 3p
2
3p 3p p 3p p 3p p
2
2

2 2

3p
p
p
p
=

2 2 2 2
2
=p 3
4

a = 200, r = 0.94
S = 200
1 0.94
= 3333 1 m
3

a = 450, r = 0.65
S = 450
1 0.65
1285.7
Yes, it will kill him.

a = 3, r = 0.5
S = 3 = 6
1 0.5
He can only make the journey if he
walks for an infinite time (which isn't
very likely).

A=

a = 2, r = 3
4
2
=8
S =
1 0.75
The frog will approach a limit of 8 m.

a = 1 ,r = 1
3
3
1
3
S =
11
3
1
= or 50%
2

99

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

r = 70% = 0.7
S = a = 40
1 0.7
a = 0.3 40
= 12 m

Note: all distances will be double (up


and down) except the first (down only).
Use a = 30, r = 2 and subtract 15 m
3
from the answer.
30
= 90
S =
12
3
Distance = 90 15 = 75 m

11 S4 = a(1 r ) = 30
1r
a
= 32
s =
1r
a = 32(1 r)
Substitute for a:
4
32(1 r)(1 r ) = 30
1r
4
32(1 r ) = 30
4
1 r = 30
32

r = 1 30
32
= 2 = 1
32 16
r=1
2
a = 32 1 1
2

= 16
The first two terms are 16 and 8.
4

10
a a = 0.4, r = 0.1
S = 0.4 = 4
1 0.1 9
b

a = 0.03, r = 0.1
S = 0.03
1 0.1
= 3 = 1
90 30

12 S =

a = 0.035, r = 0.01
S = 0.035
1 0.01
= 35 = 7
990 198

a = 0.9, r = 0.1
S = 0.9
1 0.1
9
= =1
9

a = 0.1, r = 0.1
S = 0.1 = 1
1 0.1 9
Decimal = 4 1
9

1+1
4
4a
=
=8
5
a = 10

a = 0.3, r = 0.1
S = 0.3
1 0.1
3
= =1
9 3
Decimal = 10 1
3

100

2
t3 = 10 1
4
5
=
8

13

5 = 15
1r
5 = 15(1 r)
1r=1
3
r=11
3
2
=
3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

101

Exercise 5G Solutions
1
a

i x1 = 3
x2 = 3 + 2 = 2.75
4
x3 = 2.75 + 2 = 2.688
4
2.688
+ 2 = 2.672
x4 =
4
x5 = 2.672 + 2 = 2.668
4
2.668
+ 2 = 2.667
x6 =
4
ii x1 = 1
2
x2 = 1 3 = 2
2
x3 = 2 3 = 1
2
x4 = 1 3 = 2
2
x5 = 2 3 = 1
2
x6 = 1 3 = 2
iii x1 = 2
2
x2 = 3 2 + 1 = 13
2
x3 = 3 13 + 1 = 508
2
x4 = 3 508 + 1 = 774 193
2
12
x5 = 3 774 193 + 1 = 1.8 10
2
12
24
x6 = 3 (1.8 10 ) + 1 = 9.7 10
iv x1 = 3
x2 = 3 + 2 + 1 = 3.236
x3 = 3.236 + 2 + 1 = 3.288
x4 = 3.288 + 2 + 1 = 3.300
x5 = 3.300 + 2 + 1 = 3.302
x6 = 3.302 + 2 + 1 = 3.303
i and iv converge.

2
a

f(x) = x + 4x 3 = 0
3
4x = 3 x
3
x=3x
4
Successive iterations:
1
0.5
0.71875
0.657173157
0.67904558
0.671722529
0.674227825
0.673376846
0.673666611
0.673568026
0.673601576
0.67359016
0.673594045
0.673592723
Solution is 0.6736 (to 4 decimal places).
3

f(x) = x + x 1 = 0
3
x =1x
3
3
2x = 1 x + x
3
3
x =1x+x
2

x=3 1x+x
2
Successive iterations:
0.793701
0.706838
0.686232
0.682893
0.682408
0.682339
0.682329
0.682328
0.682328

Solution is 0.6823 (to 4 decimal places).

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

f(x) = x x 1 = 0
3
2
x=x 1
3
Successive iterations:
1
0.666666667
0.851851852
0.758116141
0.808419972
0.782152383
0.796079217
0.788752627
0.792623098
0.790582875
0.791659573
0.791091707
0.791391304
0.791233268
0.791316638
0.791272659
0.79129586
Solution is 0.7913 (to 4 decimal places).

f(x) = x x 2 = 0
4
x =x+2
x=4x+2
Successive iterations:
1
1.316074013
1.349447689
1.352830232
1.353171652
1.353206099
1.353209574
1.353209925
1.35320996
Solution is 1.3532 (to 4 decimal places).

f(x) = 2 4x = 0
x
4x = 2
x
x=2
4
Successive iterations:
0.5
0.353553391
0.319425942
0.311958482
0.310347942
0.310001681
0.309927286
0.309911305
0.309907872
0.309907134
0.309906976
Solution is 0.3099 (to 4 decimal places).

f(x) = x + log10 x + 2
x = log10 x + 2
Successive iterations:
5
2.698970004
2.431198058
2.38582034
2.377637737
2.376145685
2.375873064
2.375823234
2.375814125
2.37581246
2.375812156
2.3758121

Solution is 2.3758 (to 4 decimal places).

102

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

f(x) = 4x 2 3 = 0
3
4x = x
2
3
x=
x
42
Successive iterations:
1
0.375
0.57832906
0.502304269
0.52948372
0.519601961
0.523173198
0.521879741
0.522347845
0.522178389
0.522239726
0.522217523
0.52222556
0.522222651

Solution is 0.5222 (to 4 decimal places).

f(x) = x 3x + 1 = 0
3
3x = x + 1
3
x=x +1
3
Successive iterations:
0.5
0.375
0.350911
0.347737
0.34735
0.347303
0.347297
0.347296
0.347296
0.347296
Solution is 0.3473 (to 4 decimal places).

103

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

104

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

t1 = 3 1 + 2 = 5
t2 = 3 2 + 2 = 8
t3 = 3 3 + 2 = 11

t2 = 3 + 3 = 6
t3 = 6 + 3 = 9
t4 = 9 + 3 = 12

a = 10
d = 8 10 = 2
t10 = 10 + (9 2)
= 8

a = 10, d = 2
S10 = 10 (10 + 8)
2
= 10

a=8
d = 13 8 = 5
tn = 8 + 5(n 1) = 58
5(n 1) = 50
n 1 = 10
n = 11

10
B

a=8
r=4=1
8 2
8
S =
11
2
= 16

C
6

Value = 2000 1.055


= $2757.69
a
11
3

= 37.5

a = 37.5 2
3
= 25

a = 12
r= 8 =2
12 3
5
t6 = 12 2
3
128
=
81

a=8
r=4=1
8 2
6
8 1 1

2
S6 =
1
1
2
= 15 3
4

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

2
a

3
a

a + 3d = 19
c
a + 6d = 43
d
d c:
3d = 24
d=8
a + 3 8 = 19
a = 5
t20 = 5 + 19 8
= 147

a + 4d = 0.35
c
a + 8d = 0.15
d
d c:
4d = 0.2
d = 0.05
a + 4 0.05 = 0.35
a = 0.35 + 0.2
= 0.55
t14 = 0.55 + 13 0.55
= 0.1

a + 5d = 24 c
a + 13d = 6
d
d c:
8d = 30
d = 3.75
a + 5 3.75 = 24
a = 24 18.75
= 42.75
S10 = 5 (85.5 + 9 3.75)
= 258.75

a = 5, d = 7

t1 = 3
t2 = 3 4 = 1
t3 = 1 4 = 5
t4 = 5 4 = 9
t5 = 9 4 = 13
t6 = 13 4 = 17

t1 = 5
t2 = 2 5 + 2 = 12
t3 = 2 12 + 2 = 26
t4 = 2 26 + 2 = 54
t5 = 2 54 + 2 = 110
t6 = 2 110 + 2 = 222

t1 = 2 1 = 2
t2 = 2 2 = 4
t3 = 2 3 = 6
t4 = 2 4 = 8
t5 = 2 5 = 10
t6 = 2 6 = 12
t1 = 3 1 + 2 = 1
t2 = 3 2 + 2 = 4
t3 = 3 3 + 2 = 7
t4 = 3 4 + 2 = 10
t5 = 3 5 + 2 = 13
t6 = 3 6 + 2 = 16
End of first year:
$5000 1.05 = $5250
Start of second year:
$5250 + $500 = $5750
End of second year:
$5750 1.05 = $6037.50
tn = 1.05(tn 1 + 500)

Sn = n (10 + 7(n 1))


2
= 402
n(10 + 7(n 1)) = 804
2
7n 10n 7n = 804
2
7n 17n 804 = 0
(7n + 67)(n 12) = 0
n = 12 (since n > 0)

105

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

ar = 9
9
ar = 729
4
r = 81
r=3
5
a3 =9
a= 9 = 1
243 27
3
t4 = 1 3 = 1
27
a = 1000
r = 1.035
n
tn = ar
n
= 1000 1.035
2

10 9r = 4
2
r =4
9

r=2
3
t2 = ar = 6
3
t4 = ar = 8
3
8
Terms = 6, or 6, 8
3
3
11

a + ar + ar = 24
3
4
5
ar + ar + ar = 24
3
2
r (a + ar + ar ) = 24
3
r =1
r=1

All terms will be the same: tn = 24 = 8


3
S12 = 12 8 = 96

12 Sn = a(r 1)
r1
8
S8 = 6 (3 1)
3 1
= 9840
13 a = 1, r = 1
3
1
S =
1 1
3
3
=
4
14

x + 4 = 2x + 2
x
x+4
2
(x + 4) = x(2x + 2)
2
2
x + 8x + 16 = 2x + 2x
2
2
2x + 2x x 8x 16 = 0
2
x 6x 16 = 0
(x 8)(x + 2) = 0
x = 8 or x = 2

106

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

107

Chapter 6 Algebra II
Exercise 6A Solutions
2

ax + bx + c = 10x 7
2
= 10x + 0x 7
a = 10, b = 0, c = 7

2a b = 4
a + 2b = 3
4a 2b = 8
d + e:
5a = 5
a=1
a1b=4
b = 2

c
d
e

2a 3b = 7
3a + b = 5
c + 3 d:
11a = 22
a=2
32+b=5
b = 1
c=7

c
d

ax + 2ax + a + bx + c = x
a=1
2a + b = 0
b = 2
a+c=0
c = 1

a(x + b) + c = ax + 2abx + ab + c
a=2
2ab = 4
b=1
2
ab + c = 5
2+c=5
c=3

c(x + 2) + a(x + 2) + 2
2
= cx + 4cx + 4c + ax + 2a + d
c=1
4c + a = 0
a = 4
4c + 2a + d = 0
48+d=0
d=4
2
2
x = (x + 2) 4(x + 2) + 4

(x + 1) + a(x + 1) + b(x + 1) + c
3
2
= x + 3x + 3x + 1 + ax + a + bx + b + c
3+a=0
a = 3
3 + 2a + b = 0
36+b=0
b=3
1+a+b+c=0
c = 1
3
3
2
x = (x + 1) 3(x + 1) + 3(x + 1) 1

8
a

a(x + b) + c = ax + 3abx + 3ab x + ab + c


3
2
= 3x 9x + 8x + 12
a=3
3ab = 9
3 3 b = 9
b = 1
Equating x terms:
2
3ab = 8
2
2
3ab = 3 3 (1) = 9
The equality is impossible.
Clearly this expression can be expressed
in this form, if a = 3, b = 1 and
3
ab + c = 2
3 + c = 2
c=5

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Expanding gives the following:


3
3
2
2
n = an + 6an + 11an + 6a + bn
+ 3bn + 2b + cn + c + d
a=1
6a + b = 0
b = 6
11a + 3b + c = 0
11 18 + c = 0
c=7
6a + 2b + c + d = 0
6 12 + 7 + d = 0
d = 1

10
a Expanding gives the following:
2
2
2
n = an + 3an + 2a + bn + 5bn + 6b
a+b=1
c
3a + 5b = 0
d
2a + 6b = 0
a + 3b = 0
e
e c:
2b = 1
b= 1
2
1
a+ =1
2
a=11
2
These do not satisfy the second
equation, as 3 1 1 + 5 1 = 2.
2
2
b

n = an + 3an + 2a + bn + b + c
a=1
3a + b = 0
b = 3
2a + b + c = 0
23+c=0
c=1
2

n = (n + 1)(n + 2) 3(n + 1) + 1

108

11
2
2
2
2
a a(x + 2bx + b ) + c = ax + 2abx + ab + c
b

ax + bx + c = A(x + B) + C
2
2
= Ax + 2ABx + AB + C
A=a
2AB = b
B= b
2a
2
AB + C = c
2
b + =
a 2 C c
4a
2
C=c b
4a
2
2
2
ax + bx + x = a x + b + 4ac b
4a
2a

12 (x 1) (px + q) = (x 2x + 1)(px + q)
3
2
= px + (q 2p)x + (p 2q)x + q
Equating x 3 and x 2 terms:
p=a
q 2p = b
q 2a = b
q = 2a + b
Equating x and constant terms:
q=d
p 2q = c
p = c + 2d
Equating the two different expressions
for p and q gives:
(q)
d = 2a + b
b = d 2a
(p)
a = c + 2d
c = a + 2d

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

13 c(x a)(x b) = cx acx bcx + abc


=3
c=3
ac bc = 10
3a 3b = 10
abc = 3
3ab = 3
ab = 1
b=1
a
3
3a = 10
a
2
3a + 3 = 10a
2
3a + 10a + 3 = 0
(3a + 1)(a + 3) = 0
a = 1 , b = 3, c = 3
3
or a = 3, b = 1 , c = 3
3
2

14 n = a(n 1) + b(n 2) + c(n 3)


2
2
2
= an 2an + a + bn 4bn + 4b + cn + 9c
a+b+c=1
c
2a 4b 6c = 0
a + 2b + 3c = 0
d
a + 4b + 9c = 0
e
d c:
b + 2c = 1 f
e d:
2b + 6c = 0
b + 3c = 0
g
g f:
c=1
b+31=0
b = 3
a+b+c=1
a3+1=1
a=3
2

n = 3(n 1) 3(n 2) + (n 3)

109

15 (x a) (x b) = (x 2ax + a )(x b)
3
2
2
2
2
= x 2ax bx + a x + 2abx a b
2a b = 3
2
a + 2ab = 9
Substitute b = 2a 3:
2
a + 2a(2a 3) = 9
2
2
a 4a 6a = 9
2
3a 6a + 9 = 0
2
a + 2a 3 = 0
(a + 3)(a 1) = 0
a = 3 or a = 1
b = 2a 3
b = 3 or b = 5
Comparing the constant terms:
2
c= a b
2
c = (3) 3 = 27
2
or c = (1) 5 = 5

So a = 1, b = 5, c = 5
or a = 3, b = 3, c = 27

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 6B Solutions
1
a

x 2x = 1
2
x 2x + 1 = 0
2
(x 1) = 0
x=1

6x + 13x + 1 = 0
x = 13 169 4 6 1
12
= 13 145
12

x 6x + 9 = 0
2
(x 3) = 0
x=3
Divide both sides by 5:
2
x 2x = 1
5
2
x 2x + 1 = 6
5
2
6
(x 1) = = 30
5 25
x 1 = 30
5
x = 1 30
5
Divide both sides by 2:
2
x 2x = 1
2
2
1
x 2x + 1 =
2
2
(x 1) = 1 = 2
2 4
x1= 2
2
x=1 2
2

Divide both sides by 2:


2
x + 2x = 7
2
2
9
x + 2x + 1 =
2
2
(x + 1) = 9 = 9 2
2
4
x+1=3 2
2
x = 1 3 2
2

2
a

2x x 4t = 0
x = 1 1 4 2 4t
4
= 1 32t + 1
4
32t + 1 0
32t 1
t 1
32

4x + 4x t 2 = 0
x = 4 16 4 4 (t + 2)
8
= 4 16 + 32 + 16t
8
= 4 16t + 48
8
4

4
t+3
=
8
= 1 t + 3
2
t+30
t 3

110

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

5x + 4x t + 10 = 0

x = 4 16 4 5 ( t + 10)
10
16
+
20t
200
4

=
10
= 4 20t 184
10
= 4 4(5t 46)
10
= 4 2 5t 46
10
= 2 5t 46
5
5t 46 0
5t 46
t 46
5

= 4t 20t 40t
2t
2

x = p p 4 1(16)
2
2

= 4t 16t + 4t 40t
2t

= 4t 2 5t 10t
2t
= 2t 2t(t 5)
t
2t(t 5) 0
This is a quadratic with a minimum and
solutions t = 0, t = 5.
t < 0, t 5
Note: t = 0 gives denominator zero, so it
must be checked by substituting t = 0 in
the original equation. In this case it
gives 10 = 0, and so is not a solution,
but it should be checked.
2
(e.g. tx + 5x + 4 = t gives a solution
with t on the denominator, but
substituting t = 0 gives 5x + 4 = 0,
which has a solution.)

= p p + 64
2
ii p = 0 gives x = 0 + 64 = 4
2
p = 6 gives x = 6 + 100 = 2
2

x = 3 9 4 1 9
2
45
3

=
2
= 3 3 5
2
= 3(1 5 )
2
2

tx + 4tx t + 10 = 0
x = 4t 16t 4 t ( t + 10)
2t

111

Use Pythagoras Theorem:


2
2
(8 x) + (6 + x) = 100
2
2
64 16x + x + 36 + 12x + x = 100
2
2x 4x = 0
2x(x 4) = 0
x = 2 since x 0

5
a

6(x + 3) 6x = 18
x(x + 3)
x(x + 3)

18 = 1
x(x + 3)
18 x(x + 3) = 0
x(x + 3)
18 x(x + 3) = 0
2
18 x 3x = 0
Re-arrange and divide by 1:
2
x + 3x 18 = 0
(x 3)(x + 6) = 0
x = 3 or x = 6

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Let the numbers be n and n + 2.


1 + 1 = 36
n n + 2 323
1 + 1 36 = 0
n n + 2 323
323(n + 2) + 323n 36n(n + 2) = 0
323n(n + 2)
2
323n + 646 + 323n 36n 72n = 0
Re-arrange and divide by 1:
2
36n 574n 646 = 0
2
18n 287 323 = 0
(n 17)(18n + 19) = 0
n = 17
The numbers are 17 and 19.

112

Let his average speed be x km/h.


His time for the journey is 108 h.
x
108 4 1 = 108
2 x+2
x
1
108 2(x + 2) 4 2x(x + 2) = 108 2x
2
2
216x + 432 9x 18x = 216x
2
9x 18x + 432 = 0
2
x + 2x 48 = 0
(x 6)(x + 8) = 0
x = 6 since x > 0
His average speed is 6 km/h.

10
7
a

Car = 600 km/h


x
600
Plane =
+ 220 km/h
x

600 + 220 = 600


x 5.5
x
600(x 5.5) + 220x(x 5.5) = 600x
2
600x 3300 + 220x 1210x = 600x
2
220x 1210x 3300 = 0
2
2x 11x 30 = 0
(2x 15)(x + 2) = 0
x = 7.5
600
= 80 km/h
Average speed of car =
7.5
Average speed of plane = 80 + 220
= 300 km/h

Usual time = 75 h.
x
75 18 = 75
x 60 x + 12.5
75 3 = 75
x 10 x + 12.5
75(x + 12.5) 0.3x(x + 12.5) = 75x
2
75x + 937.5 0.3x 3.75x = 75x
2
0.3x 3.75x + 937.5 = 0
Divide by 0.15:
2
2x + 25x 6250 = 0
(x 50)(2x + 125) = 0
x = 50

11
Time taken by car = 200 h
x
Time taken by train = 200 h = 200 2 h
x
x+5
200 = 200 2
x
x+5
200 x(x + 5) = 200 x(x + 5) 2 x(x + 5)
x+5
x
200x = 200(x + 5) 2x(x + 5)
2
= 200x + 1000 2x 10x
2
2x + 10x 1000 = 0
2
x + 5x 500 = 0
(x 20)(x + 25) = 0
x = 20 since x > 0

Average speed = x + 12.5 = 62.5


Time = 75 = 1.2 h,
62.5
or 1 hour 12 minutes, or 72 minutes.
Let the speed of the slow train be x km/h.
The slow train takes 3 1 10 = 7 1
2 60 2 6
= 20 = 10 hours longer.
6
3
Compare the times:
250 + 10 = 250
x
x + 20 3
750x + 10x(x + 20) = 750(x + 20)
2
750x + 10x + 200x = 750x + 15 000
2
10x + 200x 15 000 = 0
2
x + 20x 1500 = 0
(x 30)(x + 50) = 0
x = 30
Slow train: 30 km/h
Fast train: 50 km/h

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

12 Let the original speed of the car be x km/h.


Compare the times:
105 = 105 1
4
x
x + 10
420x = 420(x + 10) x(x + 10)
2
420x = 420x + 4200 x 10x
2
x + 10x 4200 = 0
(x 60)(x + 70) = 0
x = 60 km/h
13 Let x min be the time the larger pipe
takes, and C the capacity of the tank.
Form an equation using the rates:
C+ C = C
x x + 5 11 1
9
C + C = 9C
x x + 5 100
1+ 1 = 9
x x + 5 100
100(x + 5) + 100x = 9x(x + 5)
2
100x + 500 + 100x = 9x + 45x
2
200x + 500 = 9x + 45x
2
9x 155x 500 = 0
(x 20)(9x + 25) = 0
x = 20 since x > 0
The larger pipe takes 20 min and the
smaller pipe takes 25 min.
14 Let x min be the original time the first
pipe takes, and y min be the original
time the second pipe takes.
Let C be the capacity of the tank.
The original rates are C and C.
x
y
C
C
The combined rate is + .
x y
Total time taken = capacity rate
C C + C = C Cy + Cx
xy
x y
xy
=C
Cx + Cy
xy
=
= 20
3
x+y

113

C and C .
x1
y+2
C
+ C .
The combined rate is
x1 y+2
C C + C = C C(y + 2) + C(x 1)
(x 1)(y + 2)
x 1 y + 2
(x

1)(y + 2)
=C
Cx + Cy + C
= (x 1)(y + 2) = 7
x+y+1
Solve the simultaneous equations:
xy = 20
x+y 3
(x 1)(y + 2) = 7
x+y+1
Multiply both sides of the first equation
by 3(x + y):
3xy = 20x + 20y
3xy 20y = 20x
y(3x 20) = 20x
y = 20x
3x 20
Substitute into the second equation, after
multiplying both sides by x + y + 1:
(x 1)(y + 2) = 7x + 7y + 7

(x 1) 20x + 2 = 7x + 140x + 7
3x 20
3x 20

20x
+
2(3x

20)
= 7x + 140x + 7
(x 1)
3x 20
3x 20
26x

40
(x 1)
= 7x + 140x + 7
3x 20
3x 20
(x 1)(26x 40) = 7x(3x 20) + 140x + 7(3x 20)
2
2
26x 66x + 40 = 21x 140x + 140x + 21x 140
2
5x 87x + 180 = 0
(5x 12)(x 15) = 0
x = 2.4 or x = 15
20x
< 0 if x = 2.4
y=
3x 20
x = 15
y = 20 15 = 12
3 15 20
The first pipe now takes one minute
less, i.e. 15 1 = 14 minutes.
The second pipe now takes two minutes
more, i.e. 12 + 2 = 14 minutes.
New rates are

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

114

15 Let the average speed for rail and sea be x + 25 km/h and x km/h respectively.
Time for first route = 233 + 126 hours.
x
x + 25
405
+ 39 hours.
Time for second route =
x + 25 x
233 + 126 = 405 + 39 + 5
x
x + 25 x 6
x + 25
233 6x + 126 6(x + 25) = 405 6x + 39 6(x + 25) + 5x(x + 25)
2
1398x + 756x + 18 900 = 2430x + 234x + 5850 + 5x + 125x
2
5x 635x + 13 050 = 0
2
x + 127x 2625 = 0
2

x = 127 + 127 4 1 2625


2
18.09
(Ignore negative square root as x > 0.)
Speed by rail is 18 + 25 = 43 km/h and by sea is 18 km/h.

16 After 15 min, the freighter has travelled


3 km, bringing it to 12 km from where the
cruiser was.
Let x km be the distance the cruiser has
travelled in 15 minutes and y km the
original distance apart of the ships.
The distance the cruiser has travelled
can be calculated using Pythagoras
theorem.

x + (y 3) = 10 = 100
After a further 15 minutes, the distances
will be 2x km and (y 6) km.
2
2
2
(2x) + (y 6) = 13
2
2
4x + (y 6) = 169

Multiply the first equation by 4 and


subtract:
2
2
4(y 3) (y 6) = 400 169
2
2
4y 24y + 36 y + 12y 36 = 231
2
3y 12y 231 = 0
2
y 4y 77 = 0
(y 11)(y + 7) = 0
y = 11
2
2
2
x + 8 = 10
x=6
The speed of the cruiser is 6 0.25 = 24 km/h.
The cruiser will be due east of the freighter
when the freighter has travelled 11 km.
This will take 11 hours. During that
12
time the cruiser will have travelled
24 11 = 22 km.
12
They will be 22 km apart.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

115

17 Let x be the amount of wine first taken out of cask A.

After water is added, the concentration of wine in cask B is x .


20
x
If cask A is filled, it will receive x litres at concentration .
20
2
The amount of wine in cask A will be (20 x) + x x = 20 x + x .
20
20
2

20 x + x
2
20 = 1 x + x .
The concentration of wine in cask A will be
20 400
20
2
The amount of wine in cask B will be (20 x) x = x x .
20
20
Mixture is transferred again.

The amount of wine transferred is 1 x + x 20 = 20 x + x .


3 3 60
20 400 3

Amount of wine in A = 20 x + x 20 x + x .
20 3 3 60

2
2

Amount of wine in B = x x + 20 x + x
20 3 3 60
2

2
2
2
2

20 x + x 20 x + x = x x + 20 x + x
3
3
20
60
20
60
3
3

20 x + x 20 + x x = x x + 20 x + x
20 3 3 60
20 3 3 60
2
4x 4x + 20 = 0
3
60 3
2
x + 4x 20 = 0
15 3 3
2
x + 20x 100 = 0
2
(x 10) = 0
10 litres was first taken out of cask A.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 6C Solutions
1

5x + 1
= A + B
a
(x 1)(x + 2) x 1 x + 2
= A(x + 2) + B(x 1)
(x 1)(x + 2)
+ Bx + 2A B
Ax
=
(x 1)(x + 2)
A+B=5
c
2A B = 1
d
c + d:
3A = 6
A=2
2+B=5
B=3
5x
+
1
= 2 + 3

(x 1)(x + 2) x 1 x + 2
b

1
= A + B
(x + 1)(2x + 1) x + 1 2x + 1
= A(2x + 1) + B(x + 1)
(x + 1)(2x + 1)
2Ax
+ Bx + A + B
=
(x + 1)(2x + 1)
2A + B = 0
c
A + B = 1
d
c d:
A=1
1 + B = 1
B = 2
1
= 1 2

(x + 1)(2x + 1) x + 1 2x + 1

3x 2
= A + B
(x + 2)(x 2) x + 2 x 2
= A(x 2) + B(x + 2)
(x + 2)(x 2)
+ Bx 2A + 2B
Ax
=
(x + 2)(x 2)
A+B=3
2A + 2B = 6
c
2A + 2B = 2
d
c + d:
4B = 4
B=1
A+1=3
A=2
3x

2
= 2 + 1

(x + 2)(x 2) x + 2 x 2

4x + 7
= A + B
(x + 3)(x 2) x + 3 x 2
= A(x 2) + B(x + 3)
(x + 3)(x 2)
+ Bx 2A + 3B
Ax
=
(x + 3)(x 2)
A+B=4
2A + 2B = 8
c
2A + 3B = 7
d
c + d:
5B = 15
B=3
A+3=4
A=1
4x
+
7
= 1 + 3

(x + 3)(x 2) x + 3 x 2

7x
= A + B
(x 4)(x + 1) x 4 x + 1
= A(x + 1) + B(x 4)
(x 4)(x + 1)
+ Bx + A 4B
Ax
=
(x 4)(x + 1)
A + B = 1
c
A 4B = 7
d
c d:
5B = 8
B= 8
5
8
A = 1
5
A=3
5
7

3
8
x
=

(x 4)(x + 1) 5(x 4) 5(x + 1)

2
a

2x + 3
A + B
2 =
x 3 (x 3) 2
(x 3)
A(x 3) + B
=
2
(x 3)
3A + B
= Ax
2
(x 3)
A=2
3A + B = 3
6 + B = 3
B=9
9
2x + 3 = 2 +

2
x 3 (x 3) 2
(x 3)

116

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

9
A + B + C
2 =
1
+
2x 1 x (1 x) 2
(1 + 2x)(1 x)
2
+ B(1 + 2x)(1 x) + C(1 + 2x)

= A(1 x)
2
(1 + 2x)(1 x)
2
2
2Ax + Ax + B + Bx 2Bx + C + 2Cx
=A
2
(1 + 2x)(1 x)
A 2B = 0
c
2A + B + 2C = 0
d
A+B+C=9
e
2A + 2B + 2C = 18
f
f d:
4A + B = 18
c 4: 4A 8B = 0
9B = 18
B=2
4A + 2 = 18
A=4
4+2+C=9
C=3
3
9
4 + 2 +

2 =
1 + 2x 1 x (1 x) 2
(1 + 2x)(1 x)

2x 2
A + B + C
2 =
+ 1 x 2 (x 2) 2
x
(x + 1)(x 2)
2
2) + B(x + 1)(x 2) + C(x + 1)
= A(x
2
(x + 1)(x 2)
2
2
4Ax + 4A + Bx Bx 2B + Cx + C
= Ax
2
(x + 1)(x 2)
A+B=0
c
4A B + C = 2
d
4A 2B + C = 2
e
e d: 8A B = 4
f
9A = 4
f + c:
A= 4
9
A+B=0
B=4
9
4A 2B + C = 2
16 8 + C = 2
9 9
C = 2 + 24 = 2
9 3
2
2x 2
4
4

2 = 9(x + 1) + 9(x 2) +
2
3(x 2)
(x + 1)(x 2)

117

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3
a

3x + 1
Bx + C
= A + 2
2
+
1
x
(x + 1)(x + x + 1)
x +x+1
2
+ + 1) + (Bx + C)(x + 1)
= A(x x
2
(x + 1)(x + x + 1)
2
2
+
+ +
+ Bx + Cx + C
= Ax Ax A Bx
2
(x + 1)(x + x + 1)
A+B=0
c
A+B+C=3
d
A+C=1
e
d c: C = 3
A+3=1
A = 2
A+B+C=3
2 + B + 3 = 3
B=2
2x + 3
3x + 1
= 2 + 2

2
x+1 x +x+1
(x + 1)(x + x + 1)
2

3x + 2x + 5
+
= Ax2 B + C
2
(x + 2)(x + 1) x + 2 x + 1
2
(Ax + B)(x + 1) + C(x + 2)
=
2
(x + 2)(x + 1)
2
2
+
+
+ +
+ 2C
= Ax Ax 2 Bx B Cx
(x + 2)(x + 1)
A+C=3
c
A+B=2
d
B + 2C = 5
e
c d:
CB=1
f
e + f:
3C = 6
C=2
A+2=3
A=1
1+B=2
B=1
2
3x + 2x + 5 = x + 1 + 2
2
2
(x + 2)(x + 1) x + 2 x + 1

118

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Factorise the denominator:


3
2
2
2x + 6x + 2x + 6 = 2x (x + 3) + 2(x + 3)
2
= 2(x + 1)(x + 3)
The 2 factor can be put with either fraction.
2

x + 2x 13
Ax + B
C
= 2
+
2
2(x
+ 3)
2(x + 1)(x + 3) x + 1
2
+ 3) + C(x + 1)
= 2(Ax + B)(x
2
2(x + 1)(x + 3)
2
2
= 2Ax + 6Ax +2 2Bx + 6B + Cx + C
2(x + 1)(x + 3)
2A + C = 1
c
6A + 2B = 2
9A + 3B = 3
d
6B + C = 13
e
c e:
2A 6B = 14
A 3B = 7
f
d + f:
10A = 10
A=1
2+C=1
C = 1
3A + B = 1
A+B=1
B = 2
2
x + 2x 13
1
= x2 2

2
2(x
+ 3)
2(x + 1)(x + 3) x + 1

(x 1)(x 2) = x 3x + 2
First divide:
2

3x 4x 2 = 3(x 3x + 2) + 5x 8
2
3x 4x 2 =
5x 8
(x 1)(x 2) (x 1)(x 2)
5x 8
= A + B
(x 1)(x 2) x 1 x 2
= A(x 2) + B(x 1)
(x 1)(x 2)
Ax
+ Bx 2A B
=
(x 1)(x 2)
A+B=5
c
2A B = 8
d
c + d:
A = 3
A=3
3+B=5
B=2
5x

8
= 3 + 2

(x 1)(x 2) x 1 x 2

Use the previous working:


2
3x 4x 2 = 3 + 3 + 2
(x 1)(x 2)
x1 x2

2x + 10
C
A
2 = + 1 +
2
x
(x + 1)(x 1)
(x 1)
2
1) + C(x + 1)
= A(x
2
(x + 1)(x 1)
2
2Ax + A + Cx + C
= Ax
2
(x + 1)(x 1)
A=0
2A + C = 2
C=2
A + C = 10
0 + 2 10
It is impossible to find A and C to
satisfy this equation.

119

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

6
a

1
= A + B
(x 1)(x + 1) x 1 x + 1
= A(x + 1) + B(x 1)
(x 1)(x + 1)
+ Bx + A B
Ax
=
(x 1)(x + 1)
A+B=0
c
AB=1
d
c + d:
2A = 1
A=1
2
1+B=0
2
B= 1
2
1
1
1
=

(x 1)(x + 1) 2(x 1) 2(x + 1)

x
= A + B
(x 2)(x + 3) x 2 x + 3
= A(x + 3) + B(x 2)
(x 2)(x + 3)
+ Bx + 3A 2B
Ax
=
(x 2)(x + 3)
A+B=1
2A + 2B = 2
c
3A 2B = 0
d
c + d:
5A = 2
A=2
5
2+B=1
5
B=3
5
2
3
x
=
+

(x 2)(x + 3) 5(x 2) 5(x + 3)

120

3x + 1
= A + B
(x 2)(x + 5) x 2 x + 5
= A(x + 5) + B(x 2)
(x 2)(x + 5)
+ Bx + 5A 2B
Ax
=
(x 2)(x + 5)
A+B=3
2A + 2B = 6
c
5A 2B = 1
d
c + d:
7A = 7
A=1
1+B=3
B=2
3x
+
1
= 1 + 2

(x 2)(x + 5) x 2 x + 5

1
= A + B
(2x 1)(x + 2) 2x 1 x + 2
= A(x + 2) + B(2x 1)
(2x 1)(x + 2)
+ 2Bx + 2A B
Ax
=
(2x 1)(x + 2)
A + 2B = 0
2A + 4B = 0
c
2A B = 1
d
c + d:
5B = 1
B= 1
5
A + 2B = 0
A=2
5
1
2
1
=

(2x 1)(x + 2) 5(2x 1) 5(x + 2)

3x + 5
= A + B
(3x 2)(2x + 1) 3x 2 2x + 1
= A(2x + 1) + B(3x 2)
(3x 2)(2x + 1)
= 2Ax + 3Bx + A 2B
(3x 2)(2x + 1)
2A + 3B = 3 c
A 2B = 5
2A 4B = 10 d
c d:
7B = 7
B = 1
A 2 1 = 5
A=3
3x
+
5
= 3 1

(3x 2)(2x + 1) 3x 2 2x + 1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

2
=A+ B
x(x 1) x x 1
= A(x 1) + Bx
x(x 1)
+ Bx A
Ax
=
x(x 1)
A+B=0
A=2
A = 2
2 + B = 0
B=2
2
= 2 2

x(x 1) x 1 x

3x + 1
+
= A + Bx2 C
2
x
x +1
x(x + 1)
2
+ 1) + x(Bx + C)
A(x
=
2
x(x + 1)
2
2
+ +
+
= Ax A 2 Bx Cx
x(x + 1)
A+B=0
C=3
A=1
1+B=0
B = 1
3
3x + 1
=1+ 2 x

2
x(x + 1) x x + 1
2

3x + 8 A Bx + C
= + 2
2
x(x + 4) x x + 4
2
+ 4) + x(Bx + C)
= A(x
2
x(x + 4)
2
2
+ 4A + Bx + Cx
= Ax
2
x(x + 4)
A+B=3
C=0
4A = 8
A=2
2+B=3
B=1
2
3x + 8 2
= + 2x

2
x(x + 4) x x + 4

1
=A+ B
x(x 4) x x 4
= A(x 4) + Bx
x(x 4)
+ Bx 4A
Ax
=
x(x 4)
A+B=0
4A = 1
A= 1
4
1
+B=0
4
B=1
4
1
1
=
1

x(x 4) 4(x 1) 4x
x+3 =A+ B
x(x 4) x x 4
= A(x 4) + Bx
x(x 4)
+ Bx 4A
Ax
=
x(x 4)
A+B=1
4A = 3
A= 3
4
3
+B=1
4
B=7
4
7
+
3
x
=
3

x(x 4) 4(x 4) 4x

121

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

First divide x x 1 by x x.
You might observe a pattern in the question.
3
2
2
x x 1 = x(x x) 1 = 1
x 2
2
2
x x
x x
x x
1
Express 2
in partial fractions.
x x
1
=A+ B
x(x 1) x x 1
= A(x 1) + Bx
x(x 1)
Ax
+ Bx A
=
x(x 1)
A+B=0
A = 1
A=1
1+B=0
B = 1
1
=1 1

x(x 1) x x 1
3
2
x x 1
=x+1 1
2
x x1
x x

122

First divide (x x 6) by ( x + 2x).


x1
2

x + 2x x x 6
3
2
x 2x
2
x 6
2
x 2x
2x 6
3
2
2
(x x 6) ( x + 2x) = x 1 + 2x 6
x(2 x)
2x

6
Separate
into partial fractions.
x(2 x)
2x 6 = A + B
x(2 x) x 2 x
= A(2 x) + Bx
x(2 x)

+ Bx + 2A
Ax
=
x(2 x)
A+B=2
2A = 6
A = 3
3+B=2
B = 1
2x

6
= 3 1

x 2x
x(2 x)
3
2
x x 6= 13 1
x
2
x 2x
2x x

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Bx + C
x x
= A + 2
2
(x + 1)(x + 2) x + 1 x + 2
2
A(x + 2) + (Bx + C)(x + 1)
=
2
(x + 1)(x + 2)
2
2
= Ax + 2A + Bx +2 Bx + Cx + C
(x + 1)(x + 2)
A+B=1
c
B + C = 1
d
2A + C = 0
e
c d: A C = 2
f
e + f: 3A = 2
A=2
3
2+B=1
3
B=1
3
1 + C = 1
3
C= 4
3
2
x x
x4
2
=
+

2
2
3(x
+
1)
3(x + 2)
(x + 1)(x + 2)

x 3x 2 can be factorised into ( x 2)(x + 1) .


2
x +2
C
A
B
2 = x2 + x + 1 +
2
(x 2)(x + 1)
(x + 1)

=
=
A+B
2A B + C
4A 2B + 2C
A 2B 2C
d + e:
5A 4B
f 4 c:
9A

=
=
=
=

A(x + 1) + B(x + 1)(x 2) + C(x 2)


2
(x 2)(x + 1)
2
2
Ax + 2Ax + A + Bx Bx 2B + Cx 2C
2
(x 2)(x + 1)
1
c
0
0
d
2
e

=2

=6
A=2
3
A+B=1
B=1
3
41+C=0
3 3
C = 1
2
x +2
1
2
1

2 = 3(x 2) + 3(x + 1)
2
(x + 1)
(x 2)(x + 1)

123

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

2x + x + 8 A Bx + C
= + 2
2
x x +4
x(x + 4)
2
+ 4) + x(Bx + C)
= A(x
2
x(x + 4)
2
2
+ 4A + Bx + Cx
= Ax
2
x(x + 4)
A+B=2
C=1
4A = 8
A=2
2+B=2
B=0
2
2x + x + 8 = 2 + 1

2
x x2 + 4
x(x + 4)
2

124

2x + 7x + 6 = (2x + 3)(x + 2)
1 2x
= A + B
(2x + 3)(x + 2) 2x + 3 x + 2
= A(x + 2) + B(2x + 3)
(2x + 3)(x + 2)
+ 2Bx + 2A + 3B
Ax
=
(2x + 3)(x + 2)
A + 2B = 2
2A + 4B = 4
c
2A + 3B = 1
d
c d:
B = 5
A + 2 5 = 2
A=8
1

2x
= 8 5

(2x + 3)(x + 2) 2x + 3 x + 2

3x 6x + 2
= A + B + C 2
2
(x 1) (x + 2) x + 2 x 1 (x 1)
2
1) + B(x + 2)(x 1) + C(x + 2)
= A(x
2
(x 1) (x + 2)
2
2
2Ax + A + Bx + Bx 2B + Cx + 2C
= Ax
2
(x 1) (x + 2)
A+B=3
4A + 4B = 12 c
2A + B + C = 6 d
A 2B + 2C = 2
e
e d:
5A 4B = 14 f
c + f:
9A = 26
A = 26
9
26 + B = 3
9
B=1
9
52
1

+ + C = 6
9 9
C= 1
3
2
3x 6x + 2
1
1
= 26 +

2
2
(x 1) (x + 2) 9(x + 2) 9(x 1) 3(x 1)

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4
= A + B + C 2
(x 1) (2x + 1) 2x + 1 x 1 (x 1)
2
1) + B(2x + 1)(x 1) + C(2x + 1)
= A(x
2
(x 1) (2x + 1)
2
2
2Ax + A + 2Bx Bx B + 2Cx + C
= Ax
2
(x 1) (2x + 1)
A + 2B = 0
c
2A B + 2C = 0
d
AB+C=4
2A 2B + 2C = 8
e
e d:
4A B = 8
8A 2B = 16
f
c + f:
9A = 16
A = 16
9
16 + 2B = 0
9
B= 8
9
16 + 8 + C = 4
9 9
C=4
3
4
4
16
8
=

2
2
(x 1) (2x + 1) 9(2x + 1) 9(x 1) 3(x 1)

Divide:

125

x2
2

x 4 x 2x 3x + 9
3
2
x 0x 4x
2
2x + x
2
2x + 8
x+1
3

x 2x 3x + 9 = 2 + x + 1
x
2
2
x 4
x 4
x+1
= A + B
(x + 2)(x 2) x + 2 x 2
= A(x 2) + B(x + 2)
(x + 2)(x 2)
+ Bx 2A + 2B
Ax
=
(x + 2)(x 2)

A+B=1
2A + 2B = 2
c
2A + 2B = 1
d
c + d:
4B = 3
B=3
4
3
A+ =1
4
A=1
4
1
3
+
1
x
=
+

(x + 2)(x 2) 4(x + 2) 4(x 2)


3
2
x 2x 3x + 9 = 2 +
1
3
+
x
2
4(x + 2) 4(x 2)
x 4

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Divide:

x
2

x 1 x +3
3
x x
x+3
3
x +3
x+3
=x+
(x + 1)(x 1)
(x + 1)(x 1)
x+3
= A + B
(x + 1)(x 1) x + 1 x 1
= A(x 1) + B(x + 1)
(x + 1)(x 1)
+ Bx A + B
Ax
=
(x + 1)(x 1)
A+B=1
c
A+B=3
d
c + d:
2B = 4
B=2
A+2=1
A = 1
+
3
x
= 1 + 2

(x + 1)(x 1)
x+1 x1
3
x +3
=x 1 + 2
(x + 1)(x 1)
x+1 x1

126

2x 1
= A + B
(x + 1)(3x + 2) x + 1 3x + 2
= A(3x + 2) + B(x + 1)
(x + 1)(3x + 2)
3Ax
+ Bx + 2A + B
=
(x + 1)(3x + 2)
3A + B = 2
c
2A + B = 1
d
c d: A = 3
9+B=2
B = 7
2x

1
= 3 7

(x + 1)(3x + 2) x + 1 3x + 2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

127

Exercise 6D Solutions
1
a

A simple start is often to subtract the


equations.
2
x x=0
x(x 1) = 0
x = 0 or x = 1
If x = 0, y = 0
If x = 1, y = 1
The points of intersection are (0, 0)
and (1, 1).
Subtract the equations:
2
2x x = 0
x(2x 1) = 0
x = 0 or x = 1
2
If x = 0, y = 0
If x = 1 , y = 1
2
2
The points of intersection are (0, 0)
and ( 1 , 1 ).
2 2

2
a

Substitute y = 15 x into x + y = 125.


2
2
x + (15 x) = 125
2
2
x + 225 30x + x = 125
2
2x 30x + 100 = 0
2
x 15x + 50 = 0
(x 5)(x 10) = 0
x = 5 or x = 10
If x = 5, y = 15 x = 10
If x = 10, y = 15 x = 5
The points of intersection are (5, 10) and (10, 5).

Substitute y = x 3 into x + y = 185.


2
2
x + (x 3) = 185
2
2
x + x 6x + 9 = 185
2
2x 6x 176 = 0
2
x 3x 88 = 0
(x 11)(x + 8) = 0
x = 11 or x = 8
If x = 11, y = x 3 = 8
If x = 8, y = x 3 = 11
The points of intersection are (11, 8) and (8, 11).

Substitute y = 13 x into x + y = 97.


2
2
x + (13 x) = 97
2
2
x + 169 26x + x = 97
2
2x 26x + 72 = 0
2
x 13x + 36 = 0
(x 4)(x 9) = 0
x = 4 or x = 9
If x = 4, y = 13 x = 9
If x = 9, y = 13 x = 4
The points of intersection are (4, 9) and (9, 4).

Subtract the equations:


2
x 3x 1 = 0
x = 3 9 4 1 1
2
= 3 13
2
13 or 3 13
3
+
=
2
2
If x = 3 + 13 , y = 2 3 + 13 + 1
2
2
= 4 + 13
If x = 3 13 , y = 2 3 13 + 1
2
2
= 4 13
The points of intersection are
3 + 13

, 4 + 13 and

3 13

, 4 13 .

Substitute y = 16 x into x + y = 178.


2
2
x + (16 x) = 178
2
2
x + 256 32x + x = 178
2
2x 32x + 78 = 0
2
x 16x + 39 = 0
(x 3)(x 13) = 0
x = 3 or x = 13
If x = 3, y = 16 x = 13
If x = 13, y = 16 x = 3
The points of intersection are (3, 13) and (13, 3).

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3
a

Substitute y = x 4 into x + y = 106.


2
2
x + (x 4) = 106
2
2
x + x 8x + 16 = 106
2
2x 8x 90 = 0
2
x 4x 45 = 0
(x 9)(x + 5) = 0
x = 9 or x = 5
If x = 9, y = x 4 = 5
If x = 5, y = x 4 = 9
The points of intersection are (9, 5)
and (5, 9).

Substitute y = 2x into the circle.


2
2
(x 5) + (2x) = 25
2
2
x 10x + 25 + 4x = 25
2
5x 10x = 0
5x(x 2) = 0
x = 0 or x = 2
If x = 0, y = 2x = 0
If x = 2, y = 2x = 4
The points of intersection are (0, 0) and (2, 4).

Substitute y = x into the circle.


x= 1 +3
x2
x(x 2) = 1 + 3(x 2)
2
x 2x = 1 + 3x 6
2
x 5x + 5 = 0

Substitute y = 28 x into xy = 187.


x(28 x) = 187
2
28x x = 187
2
x 28x + 187 = 0
(x 11)(x 17) = 0
x = 11 or x = 17
If x = 11, y = 28 x = 17
If x = 17, y = 28 x = 11
The points of intersection are (11, 17)
and (17, 11).

Substitute y = 51 x into xy = 518.


x(51 x) = 518
2
51x x = 518
2
x 51x + 518 = 0
(x 14)(x 37) = 0
x = 14 or x = 37
If x = 14, y = 51 x = 37
If x = 37, y = 51 x = 14
The points of intersection are (14, 37)
and (37, 14).
Substitute y = x 5 into xy = 126.
x(x 5) = 126
2
x 5x = 126
2
x 5x 126 = 0
(x 14)(x + 9) = 0
x = 14 or x = 9
If x = 14, y = x 5 = 9
If x = 9, y = x 5 = 14
The points of intersection are (14, 9)
and (9, 14).

128

x = 5 25 4 1 5
2
=5 5
2
= 5 + 5 or 5 5
2
2
Since y = x, the points of intersection are
5 + 5 5 + 5
5 5 5 5
,
,

and
2
2
2
2

Substitute x = 3y into the circle.


2
2
9y + y 30y 5y + 25 = 0
2
10y 35y + 25 = 0
2
2y 7y + 5 = 0
(2y 5)(y 1) = 0
y = 5 or y = 1
2
If y = 5 , x = 3y = 15
2
2
If y = 1, x = 3y = 3
The points of intersection are ( 15 , 5 )
2 2
and (3, 1).

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Make y the subject in y x = 1.


4 5
y=x+1
4 5
y = 4x + 4
5
2

Substitute into x + 4x + y = 12.


2
2
x + 4x + 4x + 4 = 12
5

2
2
16x
32x
+
+ 16 = 12
x + 4x +
5
25
2
2
25x + 100x + 16x + 160x + 400 = 300
2
41x + 260x + 100 = 0

Subtract the second equation from the first.


1 3+x=0
x+2
1 3(x + 2) + x(x + 2) = 0
2
1 3x 6 + x + 2x = 0
2
x x5=0
x = 1 1 4 1 5
2
= 1 21
2
If x = 1 + 21 , y = x = 1 21
2
2
If x = 1 21 , y = x = 1 + 21
2
2
The points of intersection are
1 + 21 1 21
,

and
2
2

1 21 1 + 21
,

2
2

x = 260 67 600 4 41 100


82
51
200
260

=
82
= 260 25 600 2
82
= 260 160 2
82
= 130 80 2
41
If x = 130 + 80 2 ,
41
4
(130
+ 80 2 ) + 4

y=
5 41
4
(26
+ 16 2 ) + 4 41

=
41
41
= 104 + 64 2 + 164
41
= 60 + 64 2
41
Likewise, if x = 130 80 2 ,
41
y = 60 64 2
41
The points of intersection are
130 + 80 2 60 + 64 2
,

and
41
41

130 80 2 60 64 2
,

.
41
41

129

Substitute y = 9x + 4 into the parabola.


4
2
9x + 4 = 9x
4

2
(9x + 4) = 9x
16
2
(9x + 4) = 9x 16
2
81x + 72x + 16 = 144x
2
81x 72x + 16 = 0
2
(9x 4) = 0
x=4
9
9x
+4
y=
4
=4+4=2
4
4 , 2
9

Note: Substitute into the linear equation,


as substituting into the parabola
introduces a second answer that is not
actually a solution.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

10 Substitute y = 2x + 3 5 into the circle.


2
2
x + (2x + 3 5 ) = 9
2
2
x + 4x + 12 5x + 45 = 9
2
5x + 12 5x + 36 = 0
2
x + 12 5 x + 36 = 0
5
5
2
2
x + 2 6 5 x + (6 5 ) = 0
25
5
2

6 5 =0
x +

x= 6 5
5
y = 2x + 3 5
= 12 5 + 15 5
5
5
=3 5
5

6 5 3 5
,

5
5

11 Substitute y = 1 x + 1 into y = 1.
4
x
1x+1= 1
4
x
x+4= 1
4
x
x(x + 4) = 4
2
x + 4x + 4 = 0
2
(x + 2) = 0
x = 2
y= 1
x
1
=
2
2, 1

130

12 Substitute y = x 1 into y = 2 .
x2
2
x1=
x2
(x 1)(x 2) = 2
2
x 3x + 2 = 2
2
x 3x = 0
x(x 3) = 0
x = 0 or x = 3
If x = 0, y = x 1 = 1
If x = 3, y = x 1 = 2
The points of intersection are (0, 1) and (3, 2).

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

131

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


2

x = (x + 1) + b(x + 1) + c
2
= x + 2x + 1 + bx + b + c
b+2=0
b = 2
b+c+1=0
c=1
C

x = a(x + 2) + b(x + 2)
+ c(x + 2) + d
3
2
= ax + 6ax + 12ax + 8a
2
+ bx + 4bx + 4b + cx + 2c + d
a=1
b + 6a = 0
b = 6
12a + 4b + c = 0
c = 12
8a + 4b + 2c + d = 0
d = 8
D

a = 3, b = 6, c = 3
x = 6 36 4 3 3
23
0
6

=
6
=1

(x 4)(x + 6) = 0
2
x + 2x 24 = 0
2
x + 2x = 24
2
2x + 4x = 48

C
8

3 5 = 3(x 2) 5(x + 4)
(x + 4)(x 2)
x+4 x2
3x
= 6 5x 20
(x + 4)(x 2)
= 2x 26
(x + 4)(x 2)
= 2(x + 13)
(x + 4)(x 2)

4
2x = 4(x + 1) + 2x(x + 3)
2 +
2
x+1
(x + 3) (x + 1)
(x + 3)
3
2
4x + 4 + 2x + 12x + 18x
=
2
(x + 3) (x + 1)
3
2x + 12x + 22x + 4
=
2
(x + 3) (x + 1)
3
2
2( + 6x + 11x + 2)
= x
2
( x + 3) ( x + 1)
E

7x + 13
+
= a + 2bx c
2
(x 1)(x + x + 2) x 1 x + x + 2
2
+ + 2) + (bx + c)(x 1)
= a(x x
2
(x 1)(x + x + 2)
2
2
+
+ 2a + bx bx + cx c
= ax ax
2
(x 1)(x + x + 2)
a+b=7
c
ab+c=0
d
2a c = 13
e
d + e:
3a b = 13
f
c + f:
4a = 20
a=5
5+b=7
b=2
ab+c=0
c = 3
C

4x 3
A + B
2 =
3 (x 3) 2
x
(x 3)
3) + B
= A(x
2
(x 3)
3A + B
= Ax
2
(x 3)
A=4
3 4 + B = 3
B=9
4x 3
9
4

2= 3+
2
x
(x 3)
(x 3)

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

2x + 5x + 2 = (2x + 1)(x + 2)
8x + 7
= A + B
(2x + 1)(x + 2) 2x + 1 x + 2
= A(x + 2) + B(2x + 1)
(2x + 1)(x + 2)
+ 2Bx + 2A + B
Ax
=
(2x + 1)(x + 2)
A + 2B = 8
2A + 4B = 16
c
2A + B = 7
d
c d:
3B = 9
B=3
A + 2B = 8
A=2
8x
+
7
= 2 + 3 B

(2x + 1)(x + 2) 2x + 1 x + 2

10

132

3x + 2x 1 Ax + B
= 2
+ C
2
(x + 1)(x + 1) x + 1 x + 1
2
(Ax + B)(x + 1) + C(x + 1)
=
2
(x + 1)(x + 1)
2
2
+
+
+ +
+
= Ax Ax 2 Bx B Cx C
(x + 1)(x + 1)
A + C = 3
c
A+B=2
d
B + C = 1
e
c d:
C B = 5
2C = 6
C = 3
A + 3 = 3
A=0
0+B=2
B=2
3x + 2x + 5
2
= 2
3
2
B
(x + 1)(x + 1) x + 1 x + 1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1

3a + b = 11
6a + 2b = 22
a 2b = 1
c + d:
7a = 21
a=3
3 3 + b = 11
b=2
2 + 2c = 4
c=1
3

c
d

(x + 1) (px + q)
2
= (x + 2x + 1)(px + q)
3
2
= px + (q + 2p)x + (p + 2q)x + q
a=p
b = q + 2p
c = p + 2q
d=q
2a + d = 2p + q = b
a + 2d = p + 2q = c

(x 2) (px + q) = (x 4x + 4)(px + q)
3
2
= px + (q 4p)x
+ (4p 4q)x + 4q
a=p
b = q 4p
c = 4p 4q
d = 4q
4a + 1 d = 4p + q = b
4
4a d = 4p 4q = c

x + x 12 = 0
(x + 4)(x 3) = 0
x = 4 or x = 3
2

x x2=0
(x + 1)(x 2) = 0
x = 1 or 2

x 3x 11 = 1
2
x 3x 10 = 0
(x + 5)(x 2) = 0
x = 5 or x = 2

2x 4x + 1 = 0

x = (x 1) + a(x 1) + b(x 1) + c
3
2
2
= x 3x + 3x 1 + ax
2ax + a + bx b + c
3 + a = 0
a=3
323+b=0
b=3
1 + 3 3 + c = 0
c=1
3
3
1
x = (x 1) + 3(x 1)

+ 3(x 1) + 1

5
a

x = 4 16 4 2 1
4
=4 8
4
=2 2
2
e

3x 2x + 5 t = 0
x = 2 4 4 3 (5 t)
6
= 2 4 60 + 12t
6
12t
56
=2
6
2

4(3t
14)
=
6
= 2 2 3t 14
6
= 1 3t 14
3

tx tx + 4 = 0
2

x=t t 4t4
2t
2

= t t 16t
2t

133

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

2(x + 2) 3(x 1) = 1
(x 1)(x + 2)
2
2(2x + 4 3x + 3) = (x 1)(x + 2)
2
2( x + 7) = x + x 2
2
2x + 14 = x + x 2
2
x + 3x 16 = 0
a = 1, b = 3, c = 16

7x
= A + B
(x 3)(x + 5) x 3 x + 5
= A(x + 5) + B(x 3)
(x 3)(x + 5)
+ Bx + 5A 3B
Ax
=
(x 3)(x + 5)
A + B = 1
3A + 3B = 3
c
5A 3B = 7
d
c + d:
8A = 4
A=1
2
1 + B = 1
2
B= 3
2
7

1
3
x
=

(x 3)(x + 5) 2(x 3) 2(x + 5)

3x 9
= A + B
(x 5)(x + 1) x 5 x + 1
= A(x + 1) + B(x 5)
(x 5)(x + 1)
+ Bx + A 5B
Ax
=
(x 5)(x + 1)
A+B=3
5A + 5B = 15
c
A 5B = 9
d
c + d:
6A = 6
A=1
1+B=3
B=2
3x

9
= 1 + 2

(x 5)(x + 1) x 5 x + 1

x = 3 9 4 1 16
2
= 3 73
2
7
a

3x + 4 = A + B
(x 3)(x + 2) x 3 x + 2
= A(x + 2) + B(x 3)
(x 3)(x + 2)
+ Bx + 2A 3B
Ax
=
(x 3)(x + 2)
A + B = 3
3A + 3B = 9
c
2A 3B = 4
d
c + d:
5A = 5
A = 1
1 + B = 3
B = 2
3x
+
4
= 1 2

(x 3)(x + 2)
x3 x+2
7x + 2
= A + B
(x + 2)(x 2) x + 2 x 2
= A(x 2) + B(x + 2)
(x + 2)(x 2)
+ Bx 2A + 2B
Ax
=
(x + 2)(x 2)
A+B=7
2A + 2B = 14
c
2A + 2B = 2
d
c + d:
4B = 16
B=4
A+4=7
A=3
7x
+
2
= 3 + 4

(x + 2)(x 2) x + 2 x 2

134

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3x 4
C
A + B +
2 =
2
+
3
+
2
x
x
(x + 2)
(x + 3)(x + 2)
2
+ 2) + B(x + 3)(x + 2) + C(x + 3)
= A(x
2
(x + 3)(x + 2)
2
2
+ 4Ax + 4A + Bx + 5Bx + 6B + Cx + 3C
= Ax
2
(x + 3)(x + 2)
A+B=0
8A + 8B = 0
c
4A + 5B + C = 3
12A + 15B + 3C = 9
d
4A + 6B + 3C = 4 e
d e:
8A + 9B = 13 f
f c:
B = 13
A + 13 = 0
A = 13
4 13 + 5 13 + C = 3
C = 10
3x 4
13 + 13 10

2 =
x + 3 x + 2 (x + 2) 2
(x + 3)(x + 2)

6x 5x 16
= A + B + C 2
2
(x 1) (x + 4) x + 4 x 1 (x 1)
2
1) + B(x + 4)(x 1) + C(x + 4)
= A(x
2
(x 1) (x + 4)
2
2
2Ax + A + Bx + 3Bx 4B + Cx + 4C
= Ax
2
(x 1) (x + 4)
A+B=6
16A + 16B = 96
c
2A + 3B + C = 5
8A + 12B + 4C = 20
d
A 4B + 4C = 16
e
e d:
9A 16B = 4
f
c + f:
25A = 100
A=4
4+B=6
B=2
2 4 + 3 2 + C = 5
C = 3
2
3
6x 5x 16
= 4 + 2

2
2
(x 1) (x + 4) x + 4 x 1 (x 1)

135

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

x 6x 4 = Ax + B + C
2
2
(x + 2)(x + 1) x + 2 x + 1
2
(Ax + B)(x + 1) + C(x + 2)
=
2
(x + 2)(x + 1)
2
2
+
+
+ +
+ 2C
= Ax Ax 2 Bx B Cx
(x + 2)(x + 1)
A+C=1 c
A + B = 6 d
B + 2C = 4 e
c d: C B = 7 f
3C = 3
e + f:
C=1
A+1=1
A=0
0 + B = 6
B = 6
2
x 6x 4 = 1 6

2
2
(x + 2)(x + 1) x + 1 x + 2
x+4
Bx + C
= A + 2
2

1
x
(x 1)(x + x + 1)
x +x+1
2
+ + 1) + (Bx + C)(x 1)
= A(x x
2
(x 1)(x + x + 1)
2
2
+
+ +
Bx + Cx C
= Ax Ax A Bx
2
(x 1)(x + x + 1)
A+B=0
c
A B + C = 1
d
AC=4
e
d + e: 2A B = 3
f
3A = 3
c + f:
A=1
B = 1
1C=4
C = 3
+3
x+4
= 1 2x

1
x
(x 1)(x + x + 1)
x +x+1

136

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4x + 5 = A + B
(x + 4)(x 3) x + 4 x 3
= A(x 3) + B(x + 4)
(x + 4)(x 3)
+ Bx 3A + 4B
Ax
=
(x + 4)(x 3)
A + B = 4
3A + 3B = 12 c
3A + 4B = 5
d
c + d: 7B = 7
B = 1
A 1 = 4
A = 3
4x
+
5
= 3 1

(x + 4)(x 3)
x+4 x3
1
=
3
3x x+4

2x + 8 = A + B
(x + 4)(x 3) x + 4 x 3
= A(x 3) + B(x + 4)
(x + 4)(x 3)
+ Bx 3A + 4B
Ax
=
(x + 4)(x 3)
A + B = 2
3A + 3B = 6
c
3A + 4B = 8
d
c + d: 7B = 2
B=2
7
2
A + = 2
7
A = 16
7
2x
+
8
2
=
16

(x + 4)(x 3) 7(x 3) 7(x + 4)

8
a

14x 28
+
= A + 2Bx C
2
(x 3)(x + x + 2) x 3 x + x + 2
2
+ + 2) + (Bx + C)(x 3)
= A(x x
2
(x 3)(x + x + 2)
2
2
+
+ 2A + Bx 3Bx + Cx 3C
= Ax Ax
2
(x 3)(x + x + 2)
A+B=0
9A + 9B = 0
c
A 3B + C = 14
3A 9B + 3C = 42
d
2A 3C = 28
e
d + e: 5A 9B = 14
f
14A = 14
c + f:
A=1
1+B=0
B = 1
1 3 3 + C = 14
C = 10
+ 10
14x 28
= 1 + 2 x

3
x
(x 3)(x + x + 2)
x +x+2
10
1
=
x
x 3 x2 + x + 2

137

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Bx + C
1
= A + 2
2
(x + 1)(x x + 2) x + 1 x x + 2
2
A(x x + 2) + (Bx + C)(x + 1)
=
2
(x + 1)(x x + 2)
2
2
Ax Ax + 2A + Bx + Bx + Cx + C
=
2
(x + 1)(x x + 2)
A+B=0
c
A+B+C=0
d
2A + C = 1
e
e d: 3A B = 1
f
4A = 1
c + f:
A=1
4
1+B=0
4
B= 1
4
1
1
+C=0
4 4
C=1
2
x+2
1
1
=
+

2
2
(x + 1)(x x + 2) 4(x + 1) 4(x x + 2)
x2
1
=

4(x + 1) 4(x 2 x + 2)

First divide 3x by x 5x + 4.
3x + 15

x 5x + 4 3x
3
2
3x 15x + 12x
2
15x 12x
2
15x 75x + 60
63x 60
3

3x
= 3x + 15 + 63x 60 (factorising the denominator)
2
( x 4)( x 1)
x 5x + 4
63x 60 = A + B
(x 4)(x 1) x 4 x 1
= A(x 1) + B(x 4)
(x 4)(x 1)
Ax
+ Bx A 4B
=
(x 4)(x 1)
A + B = 63 c
A 4B = 60 d
c + d: 3B = 3
B = 1
A 1 = 63
A = 64
63x

60
= 64 1

(x 4)(x 1) x 4 x 1
3
3x
= 3x + 15 + 64 1
2
x4 x1
x 5x + 4

138

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

9
a

x = x
x +x=0
x(x + 1) = 0
x = 0 or x = 1
If x = 0, y = 0
If x = 1, y = 1
The points of intersections are (0, 0)
and (1, 1).
2

Substitute y = 4 x into x + y = 16.


2
2
x + (4 x) = 16
2
2
x + 16 8x + x = 16
2
2x 8x = 0
2
x 4x = 0
x(x 4) = 0
x = 0 or x = 4
If x = 0, y = 4
If x = 4, y = 0
The points of intersections are (0, 4)
and (4, 0).

Substitute y = 5 x into xy = 4.
x(5 x) = 4
2
5x x 4 = 0
2
x 5x + 4 = 0
(x 4)(x 1) = 0
x = 4 or x = 1
If x = 4, y = 1
If x = 1, y = 4
The points of intersections are (4, 1)
and (1, 4).

139

10 Substitute x = 3y 1 into the circle.


2
2
(3y 1) + 2(3y 1) + y = 9
2
2
9y 6y + 1 + 6y 2 + y = 9
2
10y 10 = 0
2
y 1=0
(y + 1)(y 1) = 0
y = 1 or y = 1
If y = 1, x = 4
If y = 1, x = 2
The points of intersections are (2, 1) and (4, 1).

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

140

Chapter 7 Revision of chapters 16


Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions
1

PP = 4I
1 PP = I
4
( 1 P)P = I
4

the inverse of P is 1 P
4

A
8

RS = [5 0 + 3 1 + 2 1]
= [0 3 + 2]
= [1]

det(A) = 9 5 8 11
= 133

A is a m n matrix = 3 1 matrix.
B is a n r matrix = 1 3 matrix.
AB is therefore a m r matrix
= 1 1 matrix
A
AX = C B = 3 5
2 2
det(A) = 5 1 2 2 = 1
1
A = 1 1 2 = 1 2
1 2 5 2 5
1
X = A AX
= 1 2 3 5
2 5 2 2
= 1 1
4 0

PQR = 2 1 4 2 2 1
3 2 6 5 3 2
= 2 1 2 1
24 16 3 2
= 8 0
0 56
There are two zero elements.
C
Note that since the associative law
applies for matrix multiplication, it does
not matter which two matrices are
multiplied first, as long as the order does
not change.

det = ad bc
=4462
=4
det(X) = 5 2 7 2 = 4
1
X = 1 2 7
4 2 5
= 1 2 7
4 2 5

10 5 is seven less than 3 times (x + 1)


5 = 3 (x + 1) 7
5 = 3x + 3 7
5 = 3x 4
E
11

det(S) = 3 2 5 1 = 1
1
S = 1 2 5
1 1 3
= 2 5
1 3

3 2 = 3(x + 3) 2(x 3)
(x 3)(x + 3)
x3 x+3
3x + 9 2x + 6
=
2
x 9
+ 15
= x2
x 9

kx
2
y
Set both x and y = 1 so that p = k.
When x and y are decreased,
k 0.7 = 1.09375k
p=
2
0.8
This has increased by approximately
9.4%.
C

12 p =

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

13 This is an arithmetic progression with


a = 1 and d = 2.
Sn = n (2 + 2(n 1)) = 100
2
n(2 + 2n 2) = 200
2
n = 100
n = 10 terms
tn = 1 + 2 (10 1)
D
= 19

=2

15 m = kn
9 = 4k
k= 9
4

20 x = ky
x
Set both x and y = 1 so that p = k.
When y and z are changed,
2
p = k 1.25 = 1.953125k
0.8
This has increased by approximately
95%.
D
21

14 a = S1 = 2 2 = 2
3
S2 = 2 2 = 6
t2 = S2 S1 = 4
r = t2 = 2
t1
n1
tn = ar
n1
=22
B

23

18 x = k y
8 = 2k
k=4
x = 4 7 = 28
19

..
0.
7
2 = 0.727272. . .
..
0.72. . 100 = 72.7272. . .
0.72 99 = 72
..
0.72 = 72
99

1
1+b

1 1=b
a1

b=
24

a1=

1 =1+b
a1

4 3 + x = 4 + 3 + x
x1 1x x1 x1 x1 x1
=x1
x1
=1
A

22 x + 2 5 = 2x + 4 5
3
6
6
6
= 2x 1
6

16 A (B U C) = A {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
= {2, 3, 4}
C
17 In the case of the tank, P = krh.
When r = 5 and h = 4, P = 60.
60 = 5 4 k
k = 60 = 3
20
When r = 4 and h = 6,
P=346
= $72

141

1 1
a1

..
. . 0.36 = 0.363636. . .
0.36. . 100 = 36.3636. . .
0.36 99 = 36
..
0.36 = 36 = 4
99 11
Numerator + denominator = 4 + 11
= 15
A

25 Multiply both sides by 4(2x + y).


4(2x y) = 3(2x + y)
8x 4y = 6x + 3y
8x 6x = 3y + 4y
2x = 7y
2x = 7y
2y 2y
x=7
y 2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

26 a = 1 , r = 1
2
2
a
S =
1r
1
2
=
1 1
2
1
=2
3
2
=1
3

ky
2
z
When y = 4 and z = 14, x = 10.
4k
10 = 2
14
2
k = 10 14 = 490
4
When y = 16 and z = 7,
490 16
= 160
x=
2
7

31

27 x =

28 Multiply both sides by (3 + y).


3 = 4(3 + y)
3 = 12 + 4y
9 = 4y
y= 9
4

2 46 200
2 23 100
2 11 550
3 5575
5 1925
385
5
77
7
11
11
1
3
2
= 2 3 5 7 11

142

32 The difference between terms is constant.


(y 1) y = (2y 1) (y 1)
y 1 y = 2y 1 y + 1
1 = y
y = 1
A
33 Order is n 6, n 5, n 1, n + 1, n + 4.
Middle number is n 1.
B
34

35
B

29 Multiply the first equation by 5,


then subtract.
15x + 5y = 35 c
2x + 5y = 4
d
c d:
13x = 39
x = 3
3 3 + y = 7
y=2
(3, 2)

30 Multiply both sides by 4.


(m + 2) (2 m) = 2
m+22+m=2
2m = 2
m=1

36

x1
y
y = 5y
x 1
5y
x
x=
5

t4 = a + 3d
= 3 + 3d = 9
3d = 6
d=2
t11 = a + (n 1)d
= 3 + 10 2
= 23

4 + 3 = 4(n 1) + 3(n + 1)
(n + 1)(n 1)
n+1 n1
4n 4 + 3n + 3
=
2
n 1
7n 1
= 2
n 1
7n 1 1
= 2

n 1 1
1 7n
=
B
2
1n

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

37 Let the first number be x,


so the numbers are x, 2x and x .
2
x
2x + x + = 28
2
4x + 2x + x = 56
7x = 56
x=8
(8, 16, 4)

38 ( 7 + 3)( 7 3) = 7 9
= 2

41

39 2x 9x + 4 = (x 4)(2x 1)
13x 10 = P + Q
(x 4)(2x 1) x 4 2x 1
= P(2x 1) + Q(x 4)
(x 4)(2x 1)
2Px
+ Qx P 4Q
=
(x 4)(2x 1)
2P + Q = 13
c
P 4Q = 10
2P 8Q = 20
d
c + d:
7Q = 7
Q=1
2P + 1 = 13
2P = 12
P=6
C
40

a = 4a
1r
Multiply both sides by 1 r.
a
1 = 4(1 r)
1 = 4 4r
4r = 4 1
r=3
4

143

5x
= P + Q
(x + 2)(x 3) x + 2 x 3
= P(x 3) + Q(x + 2)
(x + 2)(x 3)
+ Qx 3P + 2Q
Px
=
(x + 2)(x 3)
P+Q=5
3P + 3Q = 15
c
3P + 2Q = 0
d
c + d:
5Q = 15
Q=3
P+3=5
P=2
A
2

42 Assuming n is an integer, and n = m ,


then the next largest perfect square
2
is ( m + 1) .
2
2
(m + 1) = m + 2m + 1
2
Since n = m , m = n
2
(m + 1) = n + 2 n + 1
The next largest perfect square is
n + 2 n + 1.
E
43 A = kb and A = 14 when b = 2.4
14 = 2.4k
k = 14
2.4
= 140 = 35
24
6
35b
A=
6
When A = 18,
18 = 35b
6
18
6
b=
35
3.086

44 0.4 and 4.125 are terminating decimals.


3 = 0.125
8
16 = 4
Only 5 cannot be expressed as a
C
rational number.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

45 x = b and y = 1
ab
a
1
b
x+y= +
a ab
b) + a
b(a
=
a(a b)
2
= ba b + a
a(a b)

46 The perfect square could be


2
2
(3x 2) or (3x + 2) .
The middle term of the expansion would
be 12x or 12x respectively.
This means m would be 3 or 3,
i.e. 3.
E
47 x = (n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3), n > 0
When n = 1, x = (1 + 1) (1 + 2) (1 + 3)
= 2 3 4 = 12
When n = 2, x = (2 + 1) (2 + 2) (2 + 3)
= 3 4 5 = 60
1, 2, 3 and 6 are factors in both
D
equations, but not 5.

48 There are 8 terms, a = 4 and t8 = 10.


a + 7d = 10
4 + 7d = 10
7d = 14
d=2
The required sum is S7 a.
S7 a = 7 (8 + 6 2) 4
2
= 14 + 4
= 18
C
49 An odd number plus an odd number is
always an even number, so n + p. A
(The other options all produce odd
numbers for all n and p.)

144

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

145

Chapter 8 Transformations
Exercise 8A Solutions
1
a

3
a

Image = ((3 + 4), (1 + 2))


= (7, 3)

Image = ((4 + 2), (5 + 4))


= (6, 9)

Image = ((2 + 4), (4 + 3))


= (2, 7)

Image = ((3 + 2), (2 + 3))


= (1, 5)

e
2
a

(a, b) (a + 1, b + 4) = (3, 6)
a+1=3 b+4=6
a=2
b=2
A = (2, 2)

(a, b) (a + 2, b + 3) = (0, 6)
a+2=0 b+3=6
a = 2
b=3
A = (2, 3)

Compare a single point in the first


triangle to the corresponding point in the
second triangle to find the vector.
A = (2, 3); P = (2, 2)
(2 + a, 3 + b) = (2, 2)
2+a=2
3 + b = 2
a=0
b = 5
Vector = 0
5

Image = ((4 + 3), (5 + 2))


= (1, 7)

(1 + a, 2 + b) = (5, 3)
1+a=5
a=4
Vector = 4
1
(3 + a, 8 + b) = (2, 9)
3+a=2
a = 1
Vector = 1
1
(1 + a, 2 + b) = (5, 4)
1+a=5
a=4
Vector = 4
2

2+b=3
b=1

8+b=9
b=1
b

A = (2, 3); L = (4, 2)


(2 + a, 3 + b) = (4, 2)
2 + a = 4
3+b=2
a = 6
b = 1
Vector = 6
1

X = (3, 3); A = (2, 3)


(3 + a, 3 + b) = (2, 3)
3 + a = 2
3+b=3
a=5
b=6
Vector = 5
6

A = (2, 3); A = (2, 3)


(2 + a, 3 + b) = (2, 3)
2+a=2
a=0
Vector = 0
0

2+b=4
b=2

(3 + a, 0 + b) = (4, 6)
3 + a = 4
0+b=6
a=7
b=6
Vector = 7
6
(4 + a, 3 + b) = (0, 0)
4 + a = 0
3+b=0
a=4
b=3
Vector = 4
3

(a, b) (a + 2, b + 3) = (7, 9)
a+2=7 b+3=9
a=5
b=6
A = (5, 6)

3+b=3
b=0

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

6
a

(2 + 3 + 1, 3 + 4 + 5) = (4, 12)

(5 + 3 + 1, 6 + 4 + 5) = (3, 15)

Add the two vectors:


3 + 1 = 2

4 5 9

7
a

A = (2, 2); P = (1, 2)


(2 + a, 2 + b) = (1, 2)
2+a=1
2 + b = 2
a = 1
b = 4
Vector = 1
4
P = (1, 2); A = (2, 2)
(1 + a, 2 + b) = (2, 2)
1+a=2
2+b=2
a=1
b=4
Vector = 1
4

P = (1, 2); X = (3, 1)


(1 + a, 2 + b) = (3, 1)
1 + a = 3
2+b=1
a = 4
b=3
Vector = 4
3

A = (2, 2); A = (2, 2)


(2 + a, 2 + b) = (2, 2)
2+a=2
a=0
Vector = 0
0

Image = ((1 + 5), (3 + 3))


= (4, 6)

(a, b) (a 5, b + 3) = (6, 7)
a5=6 b+3=7
a = 11
b=4
(11, 4)

8
a

(x, y)
(0, 0)
(1, 1)
(2, 4)
(3, 9)

(x + 1, y)
(1, 0)
(2, 1)
(3, 4)
(4, 9)

2+b=2
b=0

146

Original graph: y = x
2
Image: y = (x 1)

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 8B Solutions
1

A(1, 2) A'(1, 2)
B(3, 2) B'(3, 2)
C(3, 5) C'(3, 5)

P(1, 1) P'(1, 1)
Q(5, 1) Q'(5, 1)
R(4, 0) R'(4, 0)

5
a

W(3,
X(3,
Y(5,
Z(5,

1)
2)
2)
1)

W'(1, 3)
X'(2, 3)
Y'(2, 5)
Z'(1, 5)

A(2, 1)
B(5, 1)
C(7, 3)
D(4, 3)

A'(1, 2)
B'(1, 5)
C'(3, 7)
D'(3, 4)

A(6, 2) A1(6, 2)
B(3, 4) B1(3, 4)
C(2, 1) C1(2, 1)

A(6, 2) A2(2, 6)
B(3, 4) B2(4, 3)
C(2, 1) C2(1, 2)

A(6, 2) A3(6, 2)
B(3, 4) B3(3, 4)
C(2, 1) C3(2, 1)

147

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

6
a

(x, y) (y, x)
(6, 2) (2, 6)

(x, y) ( x, y)
(6, 2) (6, 2)

(x, y) (x, y)
(6, 2) (6, 2)

7
a

(x, y) (y, x)
(0, 1) (1, 0)

(x, y) ( x, y)
(0, 1) (0, 1)

(x, y) (x, y)
(0, 1) (0, 1)

(x, y) ( y, x)
(0, 1) (1, 0)

148

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 8C Solutions
1
a

(x, y) (x, 3y)


(1, 3) (1, 3 3) = (1, 9)

(x, y) (2x, y)
(1, 3) (2 1, 3) = (2, 3)

(x, y) (4x, y)
(1, 3) (4 1, 3) = (4, 3)

The factor is 8 = 4.
2
(x, y) (x, 4y)

The factor is 9 = 3.
3
(x, y) (3x, y)

4
a

5
a

(x, y)
A(0, 0)
B(0, 1)
C(1, 1)
D(1, 0)

(x, 3y)
A(0, 0)
B'(0, 3)
C'(1, 3)
D(1, 0)

(x, y)
A(0, 0)
B(0, 1)
C(1, 1)
D(1, 0)

(3x, y)
A(0, 0)
B(0, 1)
C''(3, 1)
D''(3, 0)

i A(0, 0)
B(3, 0)
C(3, 4)
ii A(0, 0)

A(0, 0)
B(3, 0)
C'(3, 2)
A(0, 0)
B(3, 0) B'' 3, 0
2
C(3, 4) C'' 3, 4
2

149

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

150

Exercise 8D Solutions
1
a

i (x, y) (x + 5, y + 6)
ii No invariant points.
i (x, y) (x, 4y)
ii The x-coordinate is invariant:
{(x, 0): x R}
i (x, y) 1 x, y
3

ii The y-coordinate is invariant:


{(0, y): y R}

i (x, y) (x 2, y + 3)
ii No invariant points.

i ( x, y) (y, x)
ii The coordinates will be invariant
when x = y:
{(x, x): x R}

2
a
b

4
a

(x, y) (3 x, 2y + 1) = (6, 12)


3 x = 6 2y + 1 = 12
x=9
y = 11
2
9, 11
2

(x, y) (3 x, 2y + 1) = (x, y)
3x=x
2y + 1 = y
3
x=
y = 1
2
3, 1
2

(4, 1) (3 2 4, 2 1 + 1) = (5, 3)

(x, y) (3 2x, 2y + 1) = (7, 12)


3 2x = 7
2y + 1 = 12
x = 2
y = 11
2
2, 11

(x, y) (3 2x, 2y + 1) = (x, y)


3 2x = x
2y + 1 = y
x=1
y=1
3
1, 1
3

i (x, y) ( x, y)
ii The y-coordinate is invariant:
{(0, y): y R}

(2, 3) (3 2, 2 3 + 1) = (1, 7)

(x, y) (3 y, 4 x) = (x, y)
3y=x
4x=y
These can be arranged as two
simultaneous equations:
x y = 3
x y = 4
No solution satisfies both equations, so
an invariant point does not exist.

5
a

(1, 3) ( (1), 2 3) = (1, 6)

(x, y) ( x, 2y) = (0, 0)


x=0
2y = 0
x=0
y=0
(0, 0)

(x, y) ( x, 2y) = (x, y)


x=x
2y = y
x=0
y=0
(0, 0)

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 8E Solutions
1
a

f
i ( x, y)

ii ( x, y)

(x + 2, y + 3)
(x 1, y + 1)
(x 3, y 2)
(x 1, y + 1)

i ( x, y)

ii ( x, y)

(x, 2y)
(2x, 2y)
(2x, y)
(2x, 2y)

i ( x, y)

ii ( x, y)

(x + 4, y + 5)
(x + 4, 3(y + 5))
(x, 3y)
(x + 4, 3y + 5)

i ( x, y)

ii ( x, y)

(x 1, y + 2)
( (x 1), y + 2)
( x, y)
( x 1, y + 2)

i ( x, y)

ii ( x, y)

(y, x)
( x, y)
( y, x)
( x, y)

i Find the rule for reflection in x = 2.

x' = x 2(x 2)
=4x
y' = y
( x, y) (4 x, y)
(4 x, y)
ii ( x, y) (x, y)
(4 x, y)

i (x, y) 1 x, y
2

x 1, y + 2
2

ii (x, y) (x 1, y + 2)
1(x 1), y + 2
2

i (x, y)

ii ( x, y)

(2x, y)
(2x + 2, y 3)
(x + 2, y 3)
(2(x + 2), y 3)

151

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

152

Exercise 8F Solutions
1
a

(x, y) (x + 1, y + 4)
x' = x + 1
y' = y + 4
x = x' 1
y = y' 4
y = x becomes y' 4 = x' 1
y' = x' + 3
The equation of the image is y = x + 3.

1
1
2 becomes y' 4 =
2
x
(x' 1)
1
y' =
2+ 4
(x' 1)
The equation of the image is
1
y=
2 + 4.
(x 1)
y=

y = x becomes y' 4 = (x' 1)


2
y' = (x' 1) + 4
The equation of the image is
2
y = (x 1) + 4.

x + y = 1 becomes
2
2
(x' 1) + (y' 4) = 1
The equation of the image is
2
2
(x 1) + (y 4) = 1.

(x, y) (x, 2y)


x' = x

y = 1 becomes y' 4 = 1
x
x' 1
y' = 1 + 4
x' 1
The equation of the image is
y = 1 + 4.
x1

x = x'
a

y' = 2y
y = y'
2

y = x becomes y' = x'


2
y' = 2x'
Image: y = 2x

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

2
2
y = x becomes y' = (x')
2
2
y' = 2(x')
2
Image: y = 2x

y = 1 becomes y' = 1
2 x'
x
y' = 2
x'
2
Image: y =
x

x + y = 1 becomes
2
2
(x') + y' = 1
2
2
2
(x') + (y') = 1
4
2
2
Image: x + y = 1
4

(x, y) ( x, y)
( x + 3, y + 2)
x' = x + 3
y' = y + 2
x = 3 x'
y = y' 2
y = x becomes y' 2 = 3 x'
y' = 5 x'
Image: y = 5 x

b
1
1
y'
2 becomes 2 =
2
(x')
x
2
y' =
2
(x')
2
Image: y = 2
x

153

y=

y = x becomes y' 2 = (3 x')


2
= (x' 3)
2
y' = (x' 3) + 2
2

Image: y = (x 3) + 2
c

y = 1 becomes y' 2 = 1
3 x'
x
y' = 1 + 2
3 x'
Image: y = 1 + 2
3x
1
1
2 becomes y' 2 =
2
x
(3 x')
1
=
2
(x' 3)
1
y' =
2 + 2
(x' 3)
1
Image: y =
2+2
(x 3)
y=

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

x + y = 1 becomes
2
2
(3 x') + (y' 2) = 1
2
2
(x' 3) + (y' 2) = 1
2

Image: (x 3) + (y 2) = 1
4

(x, y) (2x, y)
(2x 3, y + 2)
x' = 2x 3
y' = y + 1
+
3
x'
y = y' 1
x=
2
y = x becomes y' 1 = x' + 3
2
x'
= +3
2 2
y' = x' + 5
2 2
5
1
Image: y = x +
2
2

6
a

(x, y) (y, xy)


(y 4, x + 6)
x' = y 4
y' = x + 6
y = x' + 4
x = y' 6
y = 2x + 3 becomes x' + 4 = 2(y' 6)
x' + 4 = 2y' 12 + 3
2y' = x + 4 + 12 3
= x' + 13
y' = 1 (x' + 13)
2
1
y = (x + 13)
2

(x, y) (x + 2, y + 4)
x' = x + 2
y' = y + 4
x = x' 2
y = y' 4
y = x + 2 becomes y' 4 = (x' 2) + 2
y' = x' + 4
{(x, y): y = x + 4}

2
y = x becomes y' 1 = x' + 3
2
2
= (x' + 3)
4
2
y' = (x' + 3) + 1
4
2
1
Image: y = (x + 3) + 1
4

y = 1 becomes y' 1 = 2
x' + 3
x
y' = 2 + 1
x' + 3
2
+1
Image: y =
x+3
1
4
2 becomes y' 1 =
2
(x' + 3)
x
4
y' =
2 + 1
(x' + 3)
4
Image: y =
2 +1
(x + 3)
y=

x + y = 1 becomes
2
x' + 3 + (y' 1) 2 = 1
2

2
(x' + 3) + (y' 1) 2 = 1
4
2
2
Image: 1 (x + 3) + (y 1) = 1
4

154

(x, y) (x, y)
x' = x
y' = y
x = x'
y = y'
y = x + 2 becomes y' = x' + 2
y' = (x' + 2)
{(x, y): y = (x + 2)}

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

(x, y) (x, 4y)


x' = x
x = x'

y' = 4y
y = 1 y'
4

y = x + 2 becomes 1 y' = x' + 2


4
y' = 4(x' + 2)
{(x, y): y = 4(x + 2)}

(x, y) (y, x)
x' = y
y' = x
y = x'
x = y'
y = x + 2 becomes x' = y' + 2
y' = x' 2
{(x, y): y = x 2}

8
a

(x, y) ( x, y)
x' = x
y' = y
x = x'
y = y'
y = x + 2 becomes y' = x' + 2
{(x, y): y = x + 2}

155

(x, y) (x + 1, y + 4)
x' = x + 1
y' = y + 4
x = x' 1
y = y' 4
2
2
x + y = 4 becomes
2
2
(x' 1) + (y' 4) = 4
2
2
{(x, y): (x 1) + (y 4) = 4}

(x, y) (x, y)
(x, 2y)
x' = x
y' = 2y
x = x'
y = y'
2
2
2
y'
y = x becomes = (x')
2
2
y' = 2(x')
2
{(x, y): y = 2x }
(x, y) (x + 5, y + 2)
1(x + 5), y + 2
2

1
x' = (x + 5) y' = y + 2
2
y = y' 2
x + 5 = 2x'
x = 2x' 5
2
2
y = x becomes y' 2 = (2x' 5)
2
y' = 2(2x' 5) + 2
2

{(x, y): y = (2x 5) + 2}

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

(x, y) x, 1 y
2
x + 5, 1 y + 2
2

1
x' = x + 5
y' = y + 2
2
2y' = y + 42
x = x' 5'
y = 2y' 4
2
2
y = x becomes 2y' 4 = (x' 5)
2
2y' = (x' 5) + 4
2
y' = 1 (x' 5) + 2
2
2
1
(x, y): y = (x 5) + 2

(x, y) (x + 2, y + 1)
( (x + 2), y + 1)
x' = x 2
y' = y + 1
x = x' 2 y = y' 1
2

156

y = x becomes y' 1 = ( x' 2)


2
= (x' + 2)
2
y' = (x' + 2) + 1
2
{(x, y): y = (x + 2) + 1}
e

(x, y) (y, x)
(y, x + 2)
x' = y
y' = x + 2
y = x'
x = y' 2

y = x becomes
2
x' = (y' 2)
y' 2 = x '
y' = 2 x '
{(x, y): y = 2 x }
9
a

10
a (x, y) (x + 1, y)
x' = x + 1
y' = y
x = x' 1
y = y'
x
x' 1
y = 2 becomes y' = 2
x1

{(x, y): y = 2
b

(x, y) (x, y + 1)
x' = x
y' = y + 1
x = x'
y = y' 1
x
x'
y = 2 becomes y' 1 = 2
x'
y' = 2 + 1
x

{(x, y): y = 2 + 1)}

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

(x, y) (2x, y)
2x, 1 y
3

x' = 2x

y' = 1 y
3

x = 1 x'
2

y = 3y'
x'
2

y = 2 becomes 3y' = 2

y' = 1 2
3

2x'

(x, y): y = 1 2
3

11
a

(x, y) x, 1 y
3
2x, 1 y
3

x' = 2x

y' = 1 y
3

x = 1 x'
2

y = 3y'
x'
2

y = 2 becomes 3y' = 2

x'
2

y' = 1 2
3
x

(x, y): y = 1 22
3

(x, y) (x + 2, y + 4)
( (x + 2), y + 4)
x' = x 2
y' = y + 4
x = x' 2' y = y' 4
x

y = 2 becomes y' = 2
y' =

x' 2

1
x' + 2

2x'

{(x, y): y = (2

x
2

(x, y) (x, y + 2
1 x, y + 2
2

x, (y + 2)
2

1
y' = y 2
x' = x
2
x = 2x'
y = y' 2

y = 2 becomes y' 2 = 2
2x'
y' = 2 + 2

x'
2

157

+4

(x, y): y = 1 + 4
x+2

+ 2)}

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

158

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 8G Solutions
1
a

Rearrange the image equation:


2
y' = 2x'
y' = 2y
(x, y) (x, 2y)
A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis.
Alternatively:
2
y' = 2x'
y' = x'2
2
x' = y'
2

(x, y) x , y
2
1
from the y-axis.
A dilation of factor
2

x' + 2 = 2
x' = x 2
(x, y) (x 2, y).
A translation by 2 .
0

(x, y) ( x, y)
Reflection in the y-axis.

(x, y) (x, y)
Reflection in the x-axis.

2
a

Rearrange the image equation:


y' + 3 = x'2
2
y' + 3 = y
x' = x
2
x' = x
y' = 2y 3
(x, y) (x, 2y)
(x, 2y 3)
A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis,
followed by a translation by 0 .
3

Rearrange the image equation:


y' 1 = (x' 3) 2
2
y' 1 = y
x' 3 = x
2
x' = x + 3
y' = 2y + 1
(x, y) (x, 2y)
(x + 3, 2y + 1)
A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis,
followed by a translation by 3 .
1

( x, y) (y, x)
Reflection in the line y = x.
x' = 2x
x = x'
2
(x, y) 1 x, y
2

A dilation of factor 1 from the y-axis.


2

Rearrange the image equation:


y' = 2x'
3
y' = 3y
(x, y) (x, 3y)
A dilation of factor 3 from the x-axis.

x' 3 = x
x' = x + 3
(x, y) (x + 3, y)
A translation by 3 .
0

Rearrange the image equation:


y' = (x' 3) 2
2
y' = y
x' 3 = x
2
x' = x + 3
y' = 2y
(x, y) (x + 3, y)
(x + 3, 2y) or
(x, y) (x, 2y)
(x + 3, 2y)
A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis,
and a translation by 3 .
0
In this case, they can be in either order.

159

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Rearrange the image equation:


y' = 1
2 x' 3
y' = y
x' 3 = x
2
x' = x + 3
y' = 2y
(x, y) (x + 3, 2y)
(x + 3, 2y) or
(x, y) (x, 2y)
(x + 3, 2y)
A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis,
and a translation by 3 , in any order.
0

Rearrange the image equation:


y' + 3 = 1
2
x'
y' + 3 = y
x' = x
2
x' = x
y' = 2y 3
(x, y) (x, 2y)
(x, 2y 3)
A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis,
followed by a translation by 0 .
3

Rearrange the image equation:


1
y' =
(x' 3)
1
=
x' + 3
x' + 3 = x
y' = y
x' = x + 3
y' = y
(x, y) ( x, y)
( x + 3, y)
Reflection in the y-axis, followed by a
translation by 3 .
0

Rearrange the image equation:


x' 1
3

y' 4 = 2
x' 1 = x
y' 4 = y
3
x' = 3x + 1
y' = y + 4
(x, y) (3x, y)
(3x + 1, y + 4)
A dilation of factor 3 from the y-axis,
and a translation by 1 .
4
Rearrange the image equation:
2y' = 1
3 x' 2
2y' = y
x' 2 = x
3
x' = x + 2
y' = 3 y
2
3y

(x, y) x,
2
x + 2, 3y
2

A dilation of factor 3 from the x-axis


2
followed by a translation by 2 .
0

160

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 8H Solutions
1
a

(x, y) (x 1, y + 3)
x' = x 1
y' = y + 3
x = x' + 1
y = y' 3
y' 3 = |x' + 1|
y' = |x' + 1| + 3
Image: {(x, y): y = |x + 1| + 3}

(x, y) ( y, x)
x' = y
y' = x
y = x'
x = y'
x' = |y'|
Image: {(x, y): x = |y|}

(x, y) (4x, y)
x' = 4x
y' = y
1
y = y'
x = x'
4
y' = x'
4
Image: (x, y): y = x

(x, y) (x, y)
x' = x
y' = y
x = x'
y = y'
y' = |x'|
Image: {(x, y): y = |x|}

(x, y) (x 1, y + 3)
(y + 3, x 1)
x' = y + 3
y' = x 1
y = x' 3
x = y' + 1
x' 3 = |y' + 1|
x' = |y' + 1| + 3
Image: {(x, y): x = |y + 1| + 3}

(x, y) (y, x)
(y 1, x + 3)
x' = y 1
y' = x + 3
y = x' + 1
x = y' 3
x' + 1 = |y' 3|
x' = |y' 3| 1
Image: {(x, y): x = |y 3| 1}

161

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

2
a

(x, y) (x, 2y)


(x, 2y)
x' = x
y' = 2y
x = x' 3
y = 1 y'
2
1
y' = |x'|
2
y' = 2|x'|
Image: {(x, y): y = 2|x|}

3
a

Rearrange the image equation:


y' 3 = |x'|
x' = x y' 3 = y
x' = x
y' = y + 3
(x, y) (x, y + 3)
A translation by 0 .
3

(x, y) (x + 2, y)
x' = x + 2
y' = y
x = x' 2
y = y'
y' = [x' 2]
Image: {(x, y): y = [x 2]}

(x, y) (x, y + 2)
x' = x
y' = y + 2
x = x'
y = y' 2
y' 2 = [x']
Image: {(x, y): y = [x] 2}

Rearrange the image equation:


y' 3 = |x' 3|
y' 3 = y
x' 3 = x
x' = x + 3
y' = y + 3
(x, y) (x + 3, y + 3)
A translation by 3 .
3
2x' = x
y' = y
1
x' = x y' = y
2
(x, y) 1 x, y
2

A dilation of factor 1 from the y-axis


2

Rearrange the image equation:


y = |x|
2
1 y' = y
x' = x
2
x' = x
y' = 2y
(x, y) (x, y)
(x, 2y)
A reflection in the x-axis followed by a
dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis.

(x, y) (2x, y)
x' = 2x
y' = y
1
y = y'
x = x'
2
y' = x'
2
Image: (x, y): y = x

162

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

(x, y) (y, x)
x' = y
y' = x
y = x'
x = y'
x' = [y']
Image: {(x, y): x = [y]}

(x, y) ( y, x)
x' = y
y' = x
y = x'
x = y'
x' = [y']
Image: {(x, y): x = [y]}

(x, y) (x + 4, y)
x' = x + 4
y' = y
x = x' 4
y = y'
y' = [x' 4]
Image: {(x, y): y = [x 4]}

(x, y) (2x, y)
(2x, y)
x' = 2x
y' = y
1
y = y'
x = x'
2
y' = x'
2
Image: (x, y): y = x

(x, y) (x, y)
(x, y + 2)
x' = x
y' = y + 2
x = x'
y = y' + 2
y' + 2 = [x']
Image: {(x, y): x = [x] + 2}

163

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

164

Exercise 8I Solutions
1
a

(x, y) (x + 2, y + 3)
x' = x + 2
y' = y + 3
x = x' 2
y = y' 3
y' 3 = f(x' 2)
Image: y = f(x 2) + 3
(x, y) (y, x)
x' = y
y = x'
x' = f(y')
Image: x = f(y)

(x, y) (x, 2y)


x' = x
1 y' = f(x')
2
Image: y = 2f(x)
x

2
a

f( x) = 2
x=x+3
x
x+3
2 =2

x = 2x
x
2x
2 =x
x
=4

x=x
2
x

2 =x

x
2

x=x3
x
x3
42 =42
2
x3
=2 2
x1
=2

4f x = 4 x
2
2
2
2
= 4 x = x
4
2
2
y = x is mapped to y = x
No transformation is necessary.
f(2x 3) + 4 =

1 +4

2x 3

y = 1 is mapped to y = 1 + 4
2x 3
x
1
y' 4 =
2x' 3
1= 1
x 2x' 3
x = 2x' 3
x' = 1 x + 3
2
2
y = y' 4
y' = y + 4
The translation is a dilation of factor 1 from
2
3
the y-axis, followed by a translation of 2 .

4

(x, y) 1 x, y
2

1
y' = xy
x' = x
2
x = 2x'
y = y'
y' = f(2x')
Image: y = f(2x)

x = x'

y' = x
x = y'

y' = 2y
y = 1 y'
2

3f(2 x) = 3(2 x)
2
2
y = x is mapped to y = 3(2 x)
2
y' = (2 x')
3
x = (2 x')
x' = 2 x
y = y'
3
y' = 3y
The translation is a reflection in the
x-axis, followed by a dilation of factor 3
from the x-axis, followed by a
translation of 2 .

A reflection in the y-axis also occurs,


but is irrelevant since the graph of f(x) is
symmetrical about the y-axis.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

165

Exercise 8J Solutions
1
a

2 3 1 = 2 1 + 3 2

5 4 2 5 1 + 4 2
= 8
3

2 1 1 = 2 1 + 1 0

4 3 0 4 1 + 3 0
= 2
4

2 1 1 = 2 1 + 1 0

1 1 0 1 1 + 1 0
= 2
1

(1, 0) (2, 1)
2 1 1 = 2 1 + 1 2

1 1 2 1 1 + 1 2
= 4
1
(1, 2) (4, 1)

2 0 1 = 2 1 + 0 0

0 1 0 0 1 + 1 0
= 2
0

(1, 0) (2, 0)
2 0 1 = 2 1 + 0 2

0 1 2 0 1 + 1 2
= 2
2
(1, 2) (2, 2)

3 1 a = 3a + 1b

1 3 b 1a + 3b
= 3a b
a + 3b

(1, 0) (2, 4)
2 1 0 = 2 0 + 1 1

4 3 1 4 0 + 3 1
= 1
3
(0, 1) (1, 3)
2 1 3 = 2 3 + 1 2

4 3 2 4 3 + 3 2
= 4
6
(3, 2) (4, 6)

2 3 1 = 2 1 + 3 0

3 1 0 3 1 + 1 0
= 2
3

(1, 0) (2, 3)
2 3 1 = 2 1 + 3 2

3 1 2 3 1 + 1 2
= 4
5
(1, 2) (4, 5)
4
a

Let the matrix be a b .


c d
1
a
b
a

= 2b

c d 2 c 2d
= 4
5
a 2b = 4; c 2d = 5
2a 4b = 8; 2c 4d = 10
a b 3 = 3a + 4b

c d 4 3c + 4d
= 18
5
3a + 4b = 18; 3c + 4d = 5
c + d:
5a = 10
5c = 15
a=2
c=3
2 2b = 4; 3 2d = 5
b = 3;
d = 1
The matrix is 2 3 .
3 1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Let the matrix be a b , the points


c d
(x1, y1) and (x2, y2), and the images
(m, n) and (p, q).
a b x1 = x1 a + y1 b

c d y1 x1 c + y1 d
= m
n
c
x1 a + y1 b = m; x1 c + y1 d = n
+
a
y
b
a
b
x
x

2 = 2

c d y2 x2 c + y2 d
= p
q
d
x2 a + y2 b = p; x2 c + y2 d = q
These two simultaneous equations will
give a unique solution for a, b, c and d,
provided the discriminant is not zero.
= 0 if x1 y2 y1 x2 = 0
x1 y2 = y1 x2
y2 = y1
x2 x1
This means the gradient of the line from
the origin to (x1, y1) will be the same as
the gradient of the line from the origin
to (x2, y2). This means the two points
and the origin will all lie on the same
straight line.

The matrix is 1 2 .
1 2
1 2 x = x + 2y

1 2 y x + 2y
= x'
y'
Clearly, all points will be mapped
somewhere on the line y = x.
The range of the transformation is y = x.
5

(1, 0) (0, 1) and (0, 1) (1, 0)


0 1

1 0

(1, 0) (0, 1) and (0, 1) (1, 0)


0 1

1 0

(1, 0) (1, 0) and (0, 1) (0, 2)


1 0

0 2

(1, 0) (3, 0) and (0, 1) (0, 3)


3 0

0 3

(1, 0) (3, 0) and (0, 1) (0, 1)


3 0

0 1

The information will be sufficient,


provided the two points are not collinear
with the origin.
c

Let the matrix be a b .


c d
a b 1 = a


c d 0 c
= 1
1
a = 1, c = 1
a b 0 = b


c d 1 d
= 2
2
b = 2, d = 2

Use the fact that the image of (1, 0) gives


the values of a11 and a21 (a and c in the
matrix above), and the image of (0, 1)
gives the values of a12 and a22 (b and d.)
(1, 0) (1, 0) and (0, 1) (0, 1)
1 0

0 1

166

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

167

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

y = f(x) points: (0, 3) and (3, 0)


y = g(x) points: (0, 3) and (3, 0)
(x, y) ( x, y)
This is reflection in the y-axis.

(x, y) (x, y)
x' = x
y' = y
x = x'
y = y'
y' = f(x')
Image: g(x) = f(x)
f(x) = g(x)
Rewrite the equation as
2
y + 2 = (x 5)
y' + 2 = y
x' 5 = x
x = x' + 5
y = y' 2
(x, y) (x + 5, y 2)
5

2

7
B

Find the translation that maps g(x)


onto f(x).
Rewrite the equation as
2
g(x) 8 = (x + 2)
x' + 2 = x
y' 8 = y
x = x' 2
y = y' + 8
(x, y) (x 2, y + 8)
2

8
The translation that maps f(x) onto
C
g(x) is 2 .
8
y = 3f(x)
3
= 2
x
This will be a similar curve to y = f(x)
but with a larger y-value at every point.
Only D fits this criteria.
D

(x, y) ( x, y)
( x + 2, y + 3)
x' = x + 2 y' = y + 3
x = x' + 2 y = y' 3
y' 3 = x' + 2
Image: y = x + 2 + 3

(x, y) (x, y)
(x, 2y)
x' = x
y' = 2y
x = x'
y = y'
2
1
y' = 2
2 x
2
Image: y = 2
x
(x, y) 1 x, y
3

x 5, y + 2
3

1
y' = y + 2
x' = x 5
3
x = 3x' + 15 y = y' 2
y' 2 = |3x' + 15|
Image: y = |3x + 15| + 2
= 3|x + 5| + 2

[4.6] + [7.2] + [8.7] = 5 + 7 + 8


= 10
B

10

(x, y) (x, y)
(x + 5, y 4)
x' = x + 5 y' = y 4
x = x' 5 y = y' 4
y' 4 = [x' 5]
Image: y = [x 5] 4

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

168

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

(x, y) (3x, y)
(3, 1) (9, 1)

(x, y) (x, 2y)


(3, 1) (3, 2)

(x, y) (x 3, y + 2)
(3, 1) (0, 1)

(x, y) ( x, y)
(3, 1) (3, 1)

(x, y) (x, y)
(3, 1) (3, 1)

(x, y) (y, x)
(3, 1) (1, 3)

2
a

3
a

(x, y) (x 2, y + 3)
x' = x 2
y' = y + 3
x = x' + 2
y = y' 3
2
y' 3 = (x' + 2)
2
Image: y = ( x + 2) + 3
(x, y) (y, x)
x' = y
y' = x
y = x'
x = y'
2
x' = (y')
2
Image: x = y or y = x
(x, y) (x, y)
x' = x
y' = y
x = x'
y = y'
2
y' = (x')
2
Image: y = x
(x, y) (y, x)
(y 2, x + 3)
(x, y) (x, 5y)
(x, 5y)

(x, y) (4x, y)
(4x 2, y + 3)

(x, y) (x 2, y + 3)
(x 2, 4(y + 3))

4
a

(x, y) (3x, y)
x' = 3x
y' = y
1
y = y'
x = x'
3
y = 2 x' 1
3
Image: y = 2 x 1
3
(x, y) (x, 2y)
x' = x
x = x'

y' = 2y
y = 1 y'
2

1 y' = 2x' 1
2
Image: y = 4x 2
c

(x, y) (x 3, y + 2)
x' = x 3
y' = y + 2
x = x' + 3
y = y' 2
y' 2 = 2(x' + 3) 1
= 2x' + 6 1
Image: y = 2x + 7

(x, y) ( x, y)
x' = x
y' = y
x = x'
y = y'
y' = 2 x' 1
Image: y = 2x 1 or
2x + y + 1 = 0

( x, y) (x, y)
x' = x
y' = y
x = x'
y = y'
y' = 2x' 1
Image: y = 2x + 1 or
2x + y = 1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

5
a

(x, y) (y, x)
x' = y
y' = x
y = x'
x = y'
x' = 2y' 1
Image: y = 1 (x + 1)
2

y' = x + 3
x' = y 2
y = x' + 2
x = y' 3
2
x' + 2 = 2 (y' 3)

Image:

6
a

y = |x|

y = |2x| + 3

y = 4 |2x|

x = (y 3)
y3= x
y=3 x

(x, y) (x, 5y)


x' = x
y' = 5y
x = x'
y = 1 y'
5
2
1.5 y' = 2 (x')
2
Image: y = 5x 10
2
= 5(x 2)

(x, y) (4x 2, y + 3)
x' = 4x 2
y' = y + 3
+
2
x'
y = y' 3
x=
4
2
y' 3 = 2 x' + 2
4
2
Image: y = 5 1 (x + 2)
16
(x, y) (x 2, 4(y + 3))
x' = x 2
y' = 4(y + 3)
x = x' + 2
y = y' 3
4
y' 3 = 2 (x' + 2) 2
4
y' = 5 (x' + 2) 2
4
2
Image: y = 20 4( x + 2)

7
a

Rearrange the image equation:


y' 4 = 1
2
x' 3
y' 4 = y
x' 3 = x
2
x' = x + 3
y' = 2y + 4
(x, y) (x + 3, 2y + 4)

Rearrange the image equation:


y' 3 = (x' 4) 2
2
y' 3 = y
x' 4 = x
2
x' = x + 4
y' = 2y + 3
(x, y) (x + 4, 2y + 3)

Rearrange the image equation:


y' + 4 = |3x'|
3x' = x y' + 4 = 4
y' = y 4
x' = x
3
(x, y) x , y 4
3

169

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

8
a

Rearrange the image equation:


y=x+1=x1+2
x1
x1
2
=1+
x1
2
y1=
x1
y1= 1
2
x1
y' 1 = y
x' 1 = x
2
x' = x + 1
y' = 2y + 1
(x, y) (x + 1, 2y + 1)
Rearrange the image equation:
2
y + 3 = (x 2)
y' + 3 = y
x' 2 = x
x' = x + 3
y' = y + 3
(x, y) (x + 3, y + 3)
(x + 3, 3 y)

x' = x
y' 1 = y
x' = x
y' = y + 1
(x, y) (x, y + 1)
2

Translate the graph of y = x one unit up.

y' + 2 = y
x' 1 = x
x' = x + 1
y' = y 2
(x, y) (x + 1, y 2)
2

Translate the graph of y = x one unit


right and two units down.

x' 2 = x
x' = x + 2

170

3(y' + 2) = y
y' = y 2
3

(x, y) x, y
3
x + 2, y 2
3

2
Dilate the graph of y = x a factor 1
3
from the x-axis then translate it two
units right and two units down.

4x' = x
x' = x
4

y' = y
y' = y

(x, y) x, y
4
Dilate the graph of y = [x] a factor 1
4
from the y-axis.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Rearrange the image equation:


y' = 6 x' 1
2

y' = x' = 1

6
2

y' = y
x' 1 = x
6
2
1
x' = x +
y' = 6y
2
(x, y) (x, 6y)
(x, 6y)
x + 1, 2y
2

Dilate y = |x| by a factor 6 from the


x-axis, reflect in the x-axis and translate
the result 1 a unit right.
2

Rearrange the image equation:


y' 2 = |x' 2|
3
y' 2 = y
x' = x 2
3
x' = x + 2
y' = 3y + 2
(x, y) (x, 3y)
(x, 3y)
(x + 2, 3y + 2)
Dilate y = |x| by a factor 3 from the
x-axis, reflect in the x-axis and translate
two units right and two units up.

171

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 9 Ratios and similarity


Exercise 9A Solutions
1

One part = 9000 9 = 1000


Two parts = 1000 2 = 2000
Seven parts = 1000 7 = 7000

One part = 15 000 5 = 3000


Two parts = 3000 2 = 6000

10 One part = 45 mm
125 000 parts = 45 mm 125 000
= 5 625 000 mm
= 5.625 km

x= 9
6 15
x = 9 6 = 3.6
15

144 = 6
11
p
p = 11
144 6
p = 11 144 = 264
6
x = 15
3 2
x = 15 3 = 22.5
2

6 : 5 : 7 = 180
One part = 180 18 = 10
Six parts = 10 6 = 60
Five parts = 10 5 = 50
Seven parts = 10 7 = 70
Suppose they receive $x, $y and $z
respectively.
x+2=3
2
x
2(x + 2) = 3x
2x + 4 = 3x
x=4
X receives $4 and Y receives $6.
Two parts = $4
One part = $2
Seven parts = $14
Z receives $14.
One part = 10 g
Three parts = 10 g 3 = 30 g (zinc)
Four parts = 10 g 4 = 40 g (tin)

Seven parts = 56
One part = 56 7 = 8 green beads
Two parts = 8 2 = 16 white beads

11 One part = $5200 13 = $400


Eight parts = $400 8 = $3200 (mother)
Five parts = $400 5 = $2000 (daughter)
Difference = $1200
12 If BC is one part, AB and CD are each
two parts. AD is 5 parts and BD is
3 parts, so BD = 3 AD.
5
13 The ratio will be : 1, as for any circle.
14 One part = 30 5 = 6
Two parts = 6 2 = 12 (boys)
Three parts = 6 3 = 18 (girls)
After six boys join the class, there are 18
boys and 18 girls, so the ratio is 1 : 1.
15

4 and b + c = 5
3
2
a
5
2
5
2
5
2
54
2 3
= 15 8 = 7
6
6
a : c = 6 : 7
b=
a
b+c=
a
b+c=
a a
4+c=
3 a
c=
a

16 One part = 3.5 cm


250 000 parts = 3.5 cm 250 000
= 875 000 cm
= 8.75 km

172

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 9B Solutions
1
a

AAA
Note that E corresponds with B,
so x corresponds with 14 cm.
x = 10
14 12
x = 10 14 = 11 2 cm
3
12

AAA
x=6
2 4
x = 6 2 = 3 cm
4

AAA
Note that Q corresponds with B and R
corresponds with C, so x corresponds
with 6 cm.
x = 10
6 8
x = 10 6 = 7.5 cm
8

2
a

AAA
x+8=8=4
2
x
x + 8 = 4x
3x = 8
x = 2 2 cm
3

AAA
x + 1.5 = 12 = 6
10 5
x
5x + 7.5 = 6x
x = 7.5 cm

AAA
x=9
5 4
x = 9 5 = 11.25 cm
4

AAA
x + 12 = 24 = 3
16 2
12
2x + 24 = 36
2x = 12
x = 6 cm
AAA
x+2=5
3
2
3x + 6 = 10
3x = 4
x = 1 1 cm
3

AC = 15 = 5
14 12 4
AC = 5 14 = 17.5 cm
4
AE + 4 = 5
4
AE
4AE + 16 = 5AE
AE = 16 cm
AB = AE + EB
= 20 cm

tree = 30 = 15
33 224 112
Tree height = 15 33 = 4.42 m
112
Note: It is valid to leave the
measurements of the stick and its
shadow in cm, as you are comparing the
ratio of measurements with the same
units.
h = 20 = 1
15 40 2
h = 15 = 7.5 m high
2
h = 1
300 20
h = 300 = 15 m high
20
CY = 15 = 1
45 30 2
CY = 45 = 22.5 m
2

173

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

h = 2
32 6.2
h = 64 = 10 10 m high
31
6.2

x = 20 x
8
4
2x = 20 x
8
8
2x = 20 x
3x = 20
x = 20 = 6 2 cm high
3
3

10 Let x be the height of A above the 80 cm


leg of the table.
x = 12
30 100
h = 12 30 = 3.6
100
Height = 80 cm + 3.6 cm
= 83.6 cm
11

13

x = 1.5 = 15
1.3 x 0.8 8
8x = 19.5x 15x
23x = 19.5
x = 19.5 = 39 m
46
23

12

h= 9
8 10
h = 72 = 7.2 m high
10

14 Taking the heights above the spotlight,


h 0.6 = 0.5 = 1
3
6
8
8
4
6
= =
h
10 6 3
h=4+3
3 5
= 20 + 9
15
14
= 1 m high
15
15
a Vertically opposite angles at C are equal:
B = D = 90
The third angles in the triangle must be
equal: A = E
ABC ~ EDC
b

x = 1.3
100 3.5
x = 1.3 100
3.5
1300
=
3.5
260
=
37.1
7
Height 37.1 m + 1.7 m
= 38.6 m

x=5
4 2
x = 20 = 10
2
2

y =2 +4
= 4 + 16 = 20
y = 20
= 45 =2 5
2
2
z = 10 + 5
= 100 + 25 = 125
z = 125
2

= 25 5 = 5 5

174

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

16

y: z=2 5 : 5 5
=2: 5
ED : AB = 2 : 5

y : z = ED : AB
a + 12 = 10
7
12
120
a + 12 =
7
120
12
a=
7
= 36 = 5 1
7
7

17 h = 1.8
3 0.76
h = 1.8 3 7.11 m
0.76
18 In TRN, TRN = 90 T
In RST,
S = 90 T
TRN = S
SRN = T
TRN ~ TSR
NT = RT
RT ST
= 4 =2
10 5
NT = 2
4 5
NT = 2 4 = 1.6 m
5

19

In APQ and ACB,


AQ = 3
AB 14
AP = 1.5 = 3
7
14
AC
AQ
AP
=

AB AC
A is common to both triangles.
APQ ~ ACB
PQ = AQ
BC AB
PQ = 3
10 14
PQ = 30 = 2 1 m
7
14
20 Note that the three triangles are all
similar, as shown in Q.18.
x+4=6=3
4 2
6
x+4=36=9
2

x=5
y=4
x y
2
y = 4x = 4 5

y=2 5
a=6=3
y 4 2

a = 3y = 3 5
2

175

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

176

Exercise 9C Solutions
6

1
a

2:4:6:8=1:2:3:4

2 : 8 : 18 : 32 = 1 : 4 : 9 : 16

Area ratio = 16 : 25
Side ratio =

16
25
2

4
2 = 4:5
5

The second ratio is the square of the


first.
7

30 9 = 22.5 cm
12

1 : 4 : 9 : 16

8
a

1:2:3

The second ratio is the square of the


first.

1:2:3

1 : 8 : 27

A'B' = 5
AB 3

The third ratio is the cube of the first.

2
a

2:4:6:8=1:2:3:4

2
Area A'B'C'D' = 7 5
3
= 7 25
9
2
= 19 4 cm
9

5
a

9
a

20 2.1 = 20 4.41
2
= 88.2 cm

F is the midpoint of AC, so AF = 1 cm.


2
2
2
BF = BA AF
2
2
=2 1 =3
BF = 3 cm
A'C' = B'F'
AC BF
a= 2
2
3
a= 4 =4 3
3
3
Area A'B'C' = B'F ' 2
Area ABC BF
2
= 2 = 4
3 3

i 8 : 12 = 2 : 3
ii 4 : 6 = 2 : 3
iii 3 : 4 1 = 2 : 3
2

8 4 3 : 12 6 4 1 = 96 : 324
2
= 8 : 27
The ratio in b is the cube of the ratios in a.

10
a 3:2:5
b

Sphere 1: V = 4 3 = 36
3
3
Sphere 2: V = 4 2 = 32
3
3
3
Sphere 3: V = 4 5 = 500
3
3
32
500
36 : :
= 108 : 32 : 500
3
3
= 27 : 8 : 125
The second ratio is the cube of the first.
3

11 (2 : 1) = 2 : 1
=8:1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

19
a Length ratio = 1 : 2500
= 1 : 50

12 (3 : 4) = 3 : 4
= 27 : 64
13

8 : 27 = 3 8 :
=2:3

27
b

14 Volume ratio = 64 : 27
a

Height ratio = 3 64 : 27
=4:3
Radius ratio = 3 64 : 27
=4:3

15 Height ratio = 2 : 1
2
a Area ratio = (2 : 1)
=4:1
b

177

Capacity ratio = (2 : 1)
=8:1

16
2
a (1 : 10) = 1 : 100
3

(1 : 10) = 1 : 1000

(1 : 10) = 1 : 10

Both models will have the same number


of wheels, so 1 : 1.

3
3
17 1 12 = 1 3
2 8
2 2
= 27 litres
16
3
1 16 = 1 23
2 8
2
= 4 litres
3
3
18 343 7.5 = 343 5
10.5
7
= 125 mL
3
3
343 9 = 343 6
10.5
7
= 216 mL

Capacity ratio = (area ratio)


3
= (1 : 50)
= 1 : 125 000

Width = 150 1
50
= 3 cm
1
2500
2
= 3 2500 = 7500 cm

Area = 3

20
a Height ratio = 144 : 169
= 12 : 13
b

Capacity ratio = (12 : 13)


= 1728 : 2197

21
a Ratio of sides = 1 : 2
2
2
Ratio of areas = 1 : 2 = 1 : 4
Four times
b

Area AKM = 15 = 3.75


4

22 BDE ~ CAF
and AB = AC = 2AD
2
2
2
BD = BA AD
2
2
= (2AD) AD
2
= 3AD
2
Ratio of areas = BD2
AC
2
3AD
=
2
(2AD)
2
3AD 3
=
2 =
4AD 4
Note: It is easier to express lengths in
terms of AD as fractions are avoided.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

178

Exercise 9D Solutions
1

Construct a line OB of length 4 units,


and draw a circle of radius 2 units from
the centre of OB (2 units from either
end). Mark point A 3 units from O.
Construct a line through A perpendicular
to OB which cuts the circle at D. The
line AD will be 3 units long.

Construct a line OB of length 6 units,


and draw a circle of radius 3 units from
the centre of OB (3 units from either
end). Mark point A 5 units from O.
Construct a line through A perpendicular
to OB which cuts the circle at D. The
line AD will be 5 units long.

Draw a line AB 10 cm long. Draw any


line AX. Mark any point C on AX and
replicate the line segment AC four times
as shown below. Join DB and draw lines
through C, C', C'' parallel to DB. These
will divide AB into four equal line
segments.

Draw a line AB 20 cm long. Draw any


line AX. Mark any point C on AX and
replicate the line segment AC nine
times. Join DB and draw lines through
C, C', C'' parallel to DB. These will
divide AB into nine equal line segments.
The diagram will be the same as in Q.3,
except that there will be eight circles
instead of three.

Take 1 cm to be a unit.
Draw OB 14 cm long and OA 4 cm long.
Join AB. Mark OD 1 cm along OB from O
and draw a line through D parallel to BA.
OC will be 4 = 2 units (cm) long.
14 7

Take 1 cm to be a unit.
Draw OB 13 cm long and OA 9 cm long.
Join AB. Mark OD 1 cm along OB from
O and draw a line through D parallel to
BA. OC will be 9 units (cm) long.
13
The diagram will be like the one for
Q.5, except that OA will be longer and
OB will be slightly shorter.

Draw OB 3 units long and OA 10 units


long. Join AB. Mark OD 1 unit along
OB and draw a line through D parallel to
BA. OC will be 10 units long.
3
The diagram will be like the one for
Q.5, except that OA will be just over
three times as long as OB.

Make three copies of the 4 unit length


(below) or four copies of the 3 unit
length. AB will be 3 4 units long.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

179

Exercise 9E Solutions
1
a

2
a

1=1+ 5 1
2
5 2
1
+
=
2
= 5 1
2
1
=1

= (1 + 5 ) (1 + 5 )
8
(1
+
2
5
+ 5)(1 + 5 )
=
8
5
)(1
+ 5)
(6
+
2
=
8
= 6 + 8 5 + 10
8
= 16 + 8 5 = 2 + 5
8
2 + 1 = 1 + 5 + 1
=2+ 5
3

= 2 + 1
3

As shown above, 1 = 1.

2
1
( 1) = 2

2=21+ 5
2
=41 5
2
=3 5
2
2

( 1) = 1 + 5 2
2

2
(
5

1)
=
4
=52 5 +1
4
=3 5 =2
2
2
1
2 = ( 1) = 2

In ACX, ACX = 90 BCX


In CBX,
B = 90 BCX
ACX = B
A = BCX
ACX ~ CBX
AX = CX
CX BX

Multiply both sides of the above


equation by CXBX
2
i CX = AXBX
= 2 8 = 16
CX = 4
2

ii CX = AXBX
= 1 10 = 10
CX = 10
3

Join AB and BC. This will produce a rightangled triangle with an altitude.
In Q.2 we proved that the altitude was the
geometric mean of the two segments that
divided the base. Therefore, as in Q.2:
AD = BD
BD CD
DE
EC =
DE DE + EC
Since BD = DE,
AD = EC and CD = DE + EC
DE = DE + EC
DE
EC
= 1 + EC
DE
DE
x=
EC
=1+1
x
2
x x1=0
Using the quadratic formula:
x = 1 + 1 4 1 1
2
= 1 + 5 =
2
(Rejecting the negative root as x > 0)

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

EC = 1 = 1
DE
AD = EC = 1
BD DE
AD = BD
BD CD
=1
4
a

i AOB = 360 = 36
10
180
36
ii OAB =
2
= 72

XAB = 72 = 36
2
ABO = OAB = 72
AXB = 180 36 72
= 72
ABO = AXB
AX = AB
ii XAO = 72
2
= 36 = AOX

AX = OX
iii Corresponding angles are equal, so
the triangles must be similar.

XB = 1
AB
=1
= 1 + 5
2
(Refer to Q.1 part a.)
XB = AB
AB OB
= AB
= 1 since OB = 1
AB = 1 + 5 0.62
2
d

AOB ~ XAB
OB = AB
AB XB
OX + XB = AB
XB
AB
OX = XA = AB
AB + XB = AB
AB
XB
XB
1+
= AB
AB XB
x = XB
AB
=1+1
x
2
x x1=0
Using the quadratic formula:
x = 1 + 1 4 1 1
2
= 1 + 5 =
2
(Rejecting the negative root as x > 0)

180

i Draw a circle of radius 1 unit.


Use the construction in section 9.5 of the
textbook to find , then cut off a length of
1 unit to obtain a length of 1.
Mark off this length around the
circumference of the circle to divide
the circumference into ten equal
parts. Join these points to produce a
regular decagon.
ii Repeat i but join every second point.
0

=1
==1+ 5
2
1
1=

=1+1

2
= 1 + 1

3
=1+= + 5
2
3
= (1 + )
2
= +
= (1 + ) +
= 1 + 2
=4+2 5 =2+ 5
2
4
= (1 + 2)
2
= + 2
= + 2(1 + )
= 2 + 3
= 4 + 3(1 + 5 ) = 7 + 3 5
2
2
1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

=1

=1
= 1 + 5 2 = 1 + 5
2
2
2
1
= ( 1)

= 1 ( 1)
=2
= 4 (1 + 5 ) = 3 5
2
2
3
1
= (2 )

= 2 1 1

= 2( 1) 1
= 2 3
=2+2 5 6= 5 2
2
4
1
= (2 3)

=23

= 2 3( 1)
= 5 3
= 10 3 3 5 = 7 3 5
2
2
Alternatively, the surd expressions can
be multiplied and simplified, for the
same answers:
1=1

=1+1

n+1
n
=

b
= 1 + 1

n
n1
= +
1

tn > tn 1
tn + 1 = 1 + tn 1
tn
tn
Since the Fibonacci sequence is
increasing, 1 < tn + 1 < 2.
tn
This means the sequence is not
diverging to infinity, and has a limit
between 1 and 2.
If there is a limit, then when n is large,
tn + 1 tn 1
tn
tn
= 1 + tn 1
tn
1
=1+
tn 1
tn
t
n+1
x=
tn
t
n1

tn
=1+1
x
2

x x1=0
Using the quadratic formula:
x = 1 + 1 4 1 1
2
= 1 + 5 =
2
(Rejecting the negative root as x > 0.)
Thus the sequence will approach
as n .

181

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

182

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

x=3
7 5
x=37
5
21
=
5

100 parts = 400 kg


One part = 4 kg
85 parts = 85 4
= 340 kg (copper)
3

Cost of one article is Q.


P
Q
Cost of R articles = R
P
QR
=
P
100 parts = 3.2 m
1 part = 3.2
100
= 0.032 m = 3.2 cm
75 parts = 9 seconds
1 part = 9 = 3 seconds
75 25
100 parts = 3 100
25
= 12 seconds

8
B
9

10 parts = 50
One part = 5
Largest part is 6 parts = 30

Ratio of lengths = 10 : 30 = 1 : 3
3
3
Ratio of volumes = 1 : 3
= 1 : 27

Ratio of lengths = 4 : 5
3
3
Ratio of volumes = 4 : 5
= 64 : 125

XY = 12 = 6
3 10 5
XY = 6 3
5
= 3.6 cm

10 XY ' = 2 XY
3
Area of triangle XY 'Z '
= 4 area of triangle XYZ
9
2
4
= 60 = 80 cm
9
3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

Both triangles share a common angle X.


XPQ = XYZ
XQP = XYZ
(alternate angles on parallel lines)
XPQ ~ XYZ (AAA)
b

i XQ = ZP
XZ XY
XQ = 24 = 2
30 36 3
XQ = 20 cm
ii QZ = XZ XQ
QZ = 30 20
= 10 cm

XP : PY = 24 : 12 = 2 : 1
PQ : YZ = 2 : 3

2
a

AC : DF = 5 : 3

EF : BC = 3 : 5

If the two sloping lines were extended to


form a triangle, then the left side of the
top triangle would be given by:
x = 7.2
x + 8.8 26.4
= 72 = 3
264 11
11x = 3x + 26.4
8x = 26.4
x = 3.3
Now compare the top two triangles:
y = 5.5 = 5
7.2 3.3 3
y = 5 7.2
3
= 12

Ratio of areas ABC : DEF = 12.5 : 4.5


= 25 : 9
AB : DE = 5 : 3
DE = 3 cm

7
a

h = 1
21 2.3
h = 21 = 210 m
2.3 23

BC = 5 (3-4-5 triangle)
So YB = 2.5
BAC ~ BYX
XY = CA
YB AB
XY = 3
2.5 4
XY = 3 2.5 = 15
8
4

The triangles are similar (AAA).


x7=3
4
7
4x 28 = 21
4x = 49
x = 12.25

Volume of block = 64 cm3


8 parts = 64 cm3
1 part = 8 cm3
5 parts = 40 cm3
3 parts = 24 cm3
Mass of X = 40 8 = 64 g
5
4
Mass of Y = 24 = 32 g
3
Total mass = 96 g
X : Y = 64 : 32 = 2 : 1 (by mass)

183

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

d
8
a

9
a

Volume (cm3) : mass (g) = 64 : 96


=2:3
= 1000 : 1500
Volume of 1500 g block is 1000 cm3.
3

1000 = 10 cm

Consider BMA and PAD.


B = P = 90
BAM = PDA
= 90 PAD
BMA = PAD
= 90 BAM
BMA ~ PAD (AAA)

BM = 30 cm
AM = 50 cm (3-4-5 triangle)
Comparing corresponding sides AM
and AD:
AM : AD = 50 : 60 = 5 : 6
2
2
Ratio of areas = 5 : 6
= 25 : 36
PD = AD
BA MA
PD = 60 = 6
40 50 5
PD = 6 40 = 48 cm
5

10
a Ratio of radii = 101 : 100 = 1.01 : 1
2
Ratio of areas = 1.01 : 1
= 1.0201 : 1
= 102.01 : 100
Percentage increase = 2.01% 2%
b

XY = AX
BC AB
=3=1
9 3

AY = AX
AC AB
=3=1
9 3

c
d

CY = 2
AC 3
YZ = CY
AD AC
=2
3
2

The same units (cm) must be used to


compare these quantities.
200 : 30 = 20 : 3

A = 20 = 400
360 32
9
400
A=
360
9
2
2
= 16 000 cm = 1.6 m
3

Ratio of volumes = 1.01 : 1


= 1.030301 : 1
= 103.0301 : 100
Percentage increase 3%

11

184

V = 20 = 8000
27
1000 33
V = 8000 1000
27
3
8
= 000 000 cm
27
3
= 8 m
27

area AXY = 1
area ABC 32
=1
9
2

area CYZ = 2
area ACD 32
=4
9

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

12

185

13
a

Consider AOB and COD


AOB = COD
(vertically opposite angles)
ABO = CDO
(alternate angles on parallel lines)
OAB = OCD
(alternate angles on parallel lines)
AOB ~ COD (AAA)
CO = CD
AO AB
=3=3
1
CO = 3AO
CO + AO = 4AO
AC = $AO
AO = 1 AC
4

PQ = YQ
AB XB
(corresponding sides of similar triangles)
B = Q
(corresponding angles of similar triangles)
ABX ~ PQY (PAP)
b

AX = AB
PY PQ
(similar triangles proven above)
AB = BC
PQ QR
(ABC and PQR are similar)
AX = BC
PY QR

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 10 Circular functions I


Exercise 10A Solutions
1
a

60 = 60
180
=
3
144 = 144
180
= 4
5
240 = 240
180
= 4
3
330 = 330
180
11
=
6
420 = 420
180
7
=
3
480 = 480
180
8
=
3

2
a

2 = 2 180
3
3
= 120
5 = 5 180
6
6
= 150
7 = 7 180
6
6
= 210

0.9 = 9 180
10
= 162
5 = 5 180
9
9
= 100
9 = 9 180
5
5
= 324
11 = 11 180
9
9
= 220
1.8 = 18 180
10
= 324

Methods will vary depending on the


calculator used.
0.6 = 34.38

1.89 = 108.29

2.9 = 166.16

4.31 = 246.94

3.72 = 213.14

5.18 = 296.79

4.73 = 271.01

6.00 = 343.77

186

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Methods will vary depending on the


calculator used.
38 = 0.66

73 = 1.27

107 = 1.87

161 = 2.81

8410' = 1.47

228 = 3.98

13640' = 2.39

329 = 5.74

= 1 180
3
3
= 60

6
a

5
a

4 = 4 180

= 720
3 = 3 180

= 540
= 1 180

= 180
5 = 5 180
3
3
= 300
11 = 11 180
6
6
= 330
23 = 23 180
6
6
= 690
23 = 23 180
6
6
= 690

360 = 360
180
= 2
540 = 540
180
= 3
240 = 240
180
4
=
3
720 = 720
180
= 4
330 = 330
180
11
=
6
210 = 210
180
7
=
6

187

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 10B Solutions


1
a

sin 0 = y-coordinate of (1, 0) = 0


cos 0 = x-coordinate of (1, 0) = 1

sin 4 = sin 0 = 1
cos 4 = cos 0 = 1

sin 3 = 1
2
cos 3 = 0
2

2
a

Methods will vary depending on the


calculator used.
sin 1.9 = 0.95

sin 2.3 = 0.75

sin 4.1 = 0.82

cos 0.3 = 0.96

cos 2.1 = 0.50

cos (1.6) = 0.03

sin (2.1) = 0.86

sin (3.8) = 0.61

sin 3 = 1
2
cos 3 = 0
2
2 +

= sin = 1
2
cos 5 = cos 2 +
2
2

= cos = 0
2

sin 5 = sin
2

sin 3 = sin (2 )
= sin = 0
cos 3 = cos (2 )
= cos = 1

3
a

sin 9 = sin 4 +
2
2

= sin = 1
2
cos 9 = cos 4 +
2
2

= cos = 0
2

2 + 3

= sin 3 = 1
2
cos 7 = cos 2 + 3
2
2

= cos 3 = 0
2

sin 7 = sin
2

sin 27 = sin (26 + )


= sin = 0
cos 27 = cos (26 + )
= cos = 1

sin 5 = sin 2
2
2

= sin = 1
2
cos 5 = cos 2
2
2

= cos = 0
2
sin 27 = sin 12 + 3
2
2

= sin 3 = 1
2
cos 27 = cos 12 + 3
2
2

= cos
=0
2

188

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

= sin = 1
2
cos 9 = cos 4
2
2

= cos = 0
2

sin 9 = sin
2

4 + 3

= sin 3 = 1
2
cos 22 = cos 4 + 3
2
2

= cos 3 = 0
2

sin 11 = sin
2

sin 57 = sin (56 + )


= sin = 0
cos 57 = cos (56 + )
= cos = 1

sin 211 = sin (210 + )


= sin = 0
cos 211 = cos (210 + )
= cos = 1

sin 53 = sin (52 )


= sin = 0
cos 53 = cos (52 )
= cos = 1

189

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 10C Solutions

Methods will vary depending on the


calculator used.
tan 1.6 = 34.23

tan (1.2) = 2.57

tan 136 = 0.97

tan (54) = 1.38

tan 3.9 = 0.95

tan (2.5) = 0.75

tan 239 = 1.66

2
a

tan = sin
cos
= 0 =0
1
tan = sin
cos
= 0 =0
1
sin 7
2
tan 7 =
2 cos 7
2
sin 3
2
=
cos 3
2
1
= = undefined
0

tan (2) = sin (2)


cos (2)
= 0 =0
1

sin 5
2
tan 5 =
2
cos 5
2
sin
2
=
cos
2
1
= = undefined
0

sin
2
tan =
2 cos

2
= 1 = undefined
0

3
a

tan 180 = sin 180


cos 180
= 0 =0
1
tan 360 = sin 360
cos 360
=0=0
1
tan 0 = sin 0
cos 0
=0=0
1
tan 180 = sin 180
cos 180
= 0 =0
1
tan 540 = sin 540
cos 540
= 0 =0
1
tan 720 = sin 720
cos 720
=0=0
1

190

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 10D Solutions


1
a

cos = 3 = 0.375
8
= 6759'

x = cos 25
5
x = 5 0.9063. . .
4.5315

x = sin 25
6
x = 6 0.4226. . .
2.5357

x = cos 50
10
x = 10 0.642787. . .
6.4279

tan = 6 = 1.2
5
= 5012'
x = sin 20
10
x = 10 0.342020. . .
3.4202
5 = tan 65
x
x= 5
tan 65
5
=
2.1445. . .
2.3315

2
a

x = sin 70
7
x = 7 0.9396. . .
6.5778
5 = cos 40
x
5
x=
cos 40
5
=
0.7660. . .
6.5270

a = cos 40 = 0.7660
b = sin 40 = 0.6428

c = a = 0.7660
d = b = 0.6428

i cos 140 = 0.7660


sin 140 = 0.6428
cos 40 = 0.7660
ii
cos 140 = cos 40

191

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

192

Exercise 10E Solutions


1
a
b

sin ( + ) = sin
= 0.42
cos ( x) = cos x
= 0.7

sin (2 ) = sin
= 0.42

tan ( ) = tan
= 0.38

sin ( ) = sin
= 0.42

tan (2 ) = tan
= 0.38

cos ( + x) = cos x
= 0.7

cos (2 x) = cos x
= 0.7

2
a

3
a

b = sin ( ) = sin
= 3
2

c = cos ( ) = cos
=1
2

d = sin ( ) = sin
= 3
2

tan ( ) = tan
=

f
sin (180 + x) = sin x
= 0.7

cos (180 + ) = cos


= 0.6

tan (360 ) = tan


= 0.4

cos (180 ) = cos


= 0.6

sin (360 x) = sin x


= 0.7

sin ( x) = sin x
= 0.7

tan (360 + ) = tan


= 0.4

cos ( ) = cos
= 0.6

a = cos ( ) = cos
= 1
2

4
a

3
2
1
2

tan ( ) = tan
= 3
d = sin ( + ) = sin
= 3
2

c = cos ( + ) = cos
=1
2

tan ( + ) = tan
3
2
=
= 3
1
2

sin (2 ) = sin
= 3
2

cos (2 ) = cos
= 1
2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 10F Solutions


1
a

Use symmetry to evaluate each value.


sin 2 = sin
3
3
3
=
2

2
a

cos 3 = cos
4
4
1
=
2
tan 5 = tan
6
6
1
=
3

sin 7 = sin
6
6
1
=
2
c

cos 5 = cos
4
4
1
=
2
tan 4 = tan
3
3
= 3

d
g

sin 5 = sin
3
3
= 3
2
cos 7 = cos
4
4
1
=
2
tan 11 = tan
6
6
1
=
3

120 = 2
3
sin 2 = sin = 3
3
2
3
cos 2 = cos = 1
3
2
3
tan 2 = tan = 3
3
3
135 = 3
4
sin 3 = sin = 1
4
4
2
cos 3 = cos = 1
4
4
2
3

tan
= tan = 1
4
4

210 = 7
6
sin 7 = sin = 1
6
6
2
cos 7 = cos = 3
6
6
2
1
tan 7 = tan =
6
6
3
240 = 4
3
sin 4 = sin = 3
3
3
2
cos 4 = cos = 1
3
3
2
4

tan
= tan = 3
3
3
135 = 7
4
sin 7 = sin = 1
4
4
2
cos 7 = cos = 1
4
4
2
7

tan
= tan = 1
4
4

193

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3
f

390 = 13 = 2 +
6
6
sin 13 = sin = 1
6
6 2
cos 13 = cos = 3
2
6
6
tan 13 = tan = 1
6
6
3
420 = 7 = 2 +
3
3
sin 7 = sin = 3
2
3
3
cos 7 = cos = 1
3
3 2
7

tan
= tan = 3
3
3
135 = 7
4
sin 7 = sin = 1
4
4
2
cos 7 = cos = 1
4
4
2
7

tan
= tan = 1
4
4

300 = 5
3
sin 5 = sin = 3
3
3
2
cos 5 = cos = 1
3
3 2
tan 5 = tan = 3
3
3

h
j

60 =
3
sin = sin = 3
3
3
2
cos = cos = 1
3
3 2
tan = tan = 3
3
3

sin 2 = sin
3
3
= 3
2
cos 11 = cos
4
4
1
=
2
tan 13 = tan
6
6
1
=
3
tan 15 = tan 3
6
6

= tan = undefined
2
cos 14 = cos 2
4
4
= cos = 0
2
cos 3 = cos
4
4
1
=
2
sin 11 = sin
4
4
1
=
2
cos 21 = cos 7
3
= cos = 1

194

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 10G Solutions


1
a

i Period = 2 = 2 = 2
1
n
ii Amplitude = a = 2

Period = 2
3
Amplitude = 2

Period = 2 = 2 =
2
n
ii Amplitude = a = 3

i Period = 2 = 2
3
n
ii Amplitude = a = 1
2

2
= 4
1
2
Amplitude = 4
Period =

2
Period = 2 =
= 4
1
n
2
ii Amplitude = a = 3

i Period = 2 = 2
3
n
ii Amplitude = a = 4
i Period = 2 = 2 =
4 2
n
ii Amplitude = a = 1
2

Period = 2
3
Amplitude = 1
2

2
Period = 2 =
= 4
1
n
2
ii Amplitude = a = 2

2
a

Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 3

Period = 2
3
Amplitude = 4

195

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 5

2
= 4
1
2
Amplitude = 3

3
a

Period =

Period = 2 =
4 2
Amplitude = 2

2
= 6
1
3
Amplitude = 2

Period =

Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 1

2
= 6
1
3
Amplitude = 2
Period =

Period = 2
3
Amplitude = 2

Period = 2
3
Amplitude = 2

196

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

2
2
3
6
=
= 3
2
Amplitude = 5
2
5
f(0) = cos 0
2
=5
2
5
f(2) = cos 4
3
2
5
=
4
Period =

5
a

Period (f) = 2 = 2
1
Amplitude (f) = 1
Period (g) = 2 = 2
1
Amplitude (g) = 1

The lines intersect at and 5 .


4
4

197

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 10H Solutions


1
a

Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 4
Greatest/least y = 4

Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 2
Greatest/least y = 2

Period = 2
3
Amplitude = 2
Greatest/least y = 2

2
a

Start with y = 3 sin


Period = 2 = 2
1
Amplitude = 3
Greatest/least y = 3
Translate graph units to the right.
2

Start with y = sin 2


Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 1
Greatest/least y = 1
Translate graph units to the left.

Start with y = 2 sin 3


Period = 2
3
Amplitude = 2
Greatest/least y = 2
Translate graph units to the left.
4

198

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Start with y = 3 sin 2


Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 3
Greatest/least y = 3
Translate graph units to the right.
2

Start with y = 2 cos 2


Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 2
Greatest/least y = 2
Translate graph units to the right.
2

Start with y = 3 sin 2x


Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 3
Greatest/least y = 3
No translation.

Start with y = 3 sin 2x


Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 3
Greatest/least y = 3
Reflect graph in the x-axis.

Start with y = 2 cos 3


Period = 2
3
Amplitude = 2
Greatest/least y = 2
Translate graph units to the left.
4

Start with y = 3 cos 2


Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 3
Greatest/least y = 1
Reflect graph in the x-axis and translate
units to the left.
2

199

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3
a

f(0) = cos
3
= cos = 1
3 2
f(2) = cos 2
3

= cos = 1
3 2

Start with y = cos x


Period = 2 = 2
1
Amplitude = 1
Greatest/least y = 1
Translate graph units to the right.
3

4
a

f(0) = sin 2
3
= sin 2 = 3
3
2

f(2) = sin 2 2
3

= sin 2 = 3
2
3
Start with y = sin 2x
Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 1
Greatest/least y = 1
Translate graph units to the right.
3

f( ) = sin 3 +
4

3
= sin
= 1
4
2

f() = sin 3 +
4

= sin 5 = 1
4
2
Start with y = sin 3x
Period = 2
3
Amplitude = 1
Greatest/least y = 1
Translate graph units to the left.
4

200

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 10I Solutions


1
a

sin x = 1
2

When x = , sin x = 1
4
2
x = + and 2
4
4
5
7

=
and
4
4
cos x = 1
2

x = and 2
4
4
= and 7
4
4

When = 30, cos = 3


2
= 180 30 and 180 + 30
= 150 and 210
b

cos x = 1
2

When x = , cos x = 1
4
2
x = and +
4
4
3
3

=
and
4
4
sin x = 3
2

x = and
3
3
= and 2
3
3

cos x = 1
2
When x = , cos x = 1
3
2

x = and +
3
3
2
2

=
and
3
3

sin = 1
2
= 30 and 180 30
= 30 and 150

cos = 1
2
When = 60, cos = 1
2
= 180 60 and 180 + 60
= 120 and 240

2
a

cos = 3
2

2 cos = 1
cos = 1
2
When = 60, cos = 1
2
= 180 60 and 180 + 60
= 120 and 240

2 sin = 3
sin = 3
2
= 60 and 180 60
= 60 and 120

2 sin = 1
sin = 1
2
= 45 and 180 45
= 45 and 135

201

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4
a

Make sure your calculator is set to


radians for these questions.
sin x = 0.8
x 0.927 and 0.927
0.93 and 2.21
cos x = 0.4
When x = 0.4, cos x = 1.159. . .
x 1.159 and + 1.159
4.30 and 1.98

sin x = 0.35
When x = 0.35, sin x 0.357
x + 0.357 and 2 0.357
3.50 and 5.93

sin x = 0.4
x 0.411 and 0.411
0.41 and 2.73

cos x = 0.7
When x = 0.7, cos x 0.795
x 0.795 and + 0.795
2.35 and 3.95

cos x = 0.2
When x = 0.2, cos x 1.369
x 1.369 and + 1.369
1.77 and 4.51

5
a

sin x = 0.6
x 0.643, 0.643,
2 + 0.643 and 4 0.643
0.64, 2.498, 6.73 and 8.871

sin x = 1
2

When x = , sin x = 1
4
2
x = + , 2 , 3 + and 4
4
4
4
4
5
7
13
15
=
,
,
and
4 4 4
4

6
a

sin x = 3
2

x = , , 2 + and 3
3
3
3
3
= , 2 , 7 and 8
3 3 3
3

2 [0, 4]
sin 2 = 1
2

When sin 2 = 1 , 2 =
6
2
2 = + , 2 , 3 + and 4
6
6
6
6
7
11
19
23
=
,
,
and
6 6
6
6
= 7 , 11 , 19 and 23
12 12 12
12
b

2 [0, 4]
cos 2 = 3
2
2 = , 2 , 2 + and 4
6
6
6
6
11
13
23

= ,
,
and
6 6
6
6
11
13
23

,
,
and
=
12
12 12 12

2 [0, 4]
sin 2 = 1
2
2 = , , 2 + and 3
6
6
6
6
= , 5 , 13 and 17
6
6 6 6
5
13
17

, ,
and
=
12
12 12 12

202

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3 [0, 4]

When sin 3 = 1 , 3 =
4
2
3 = + , 2 , 3 + , 4 ,
4
4
4
4

5 + and 6
4
4
= 5 , 7 , 13 , 15 , 21 and 23
4 4 4
4
4
4
7
13
15
21
23
5
, ,
,
,
and
=
12
12 12 12 12 12
e

When cos 2 = 3 , 2 =
2
6

2 = , + , 3 and 3 +
6
6
6
6
5
7
17
19
=
, ,
and
6 6 6
6
= 5 , 7 , 17 and 19
12 12 12
12

2 [0, 4]
cos 2 = 0.4
2 1.159, 2 1.159,
2 + 1.159 and 4 1.159
1.159, 5.124, 7.443 and 11.408
0.580, 2.562, 3.721 and 5.704

3 [0, 3]
cos 3 = 0.6
3 0.927, 2 0.927, 2 + 0.927,
4 0.927, 4 + 0.927 and 6 0.927
.927, 5.354, 7.210, 11.641, 13.494 and 17.922
0.309, 1.785, 2.403, 3.880, 4.498 and 5.974

8
a

2 [0, 4]

Period = 2 = 2
1
Amplitude = 1

sin 2 = 1
2

When sin 2 = 1 , 2 =
4
2
2 = + , 2 , 3 + and 4
4
4
4
4
= 5 , 7 , 13 and 15
4 4 4
4
5
7
13
15
, ,
and
=
8 8 8
8
7
a

2 [0, 4]
sin 2 = 0.6

When sin 2 = 0.6, 2 0.643


2 + 0.643, 2 0.643,
3 + 0.643 and 4 0.643
3.783, 5.639, 10.068 and 11.922
1.892, 2.820, 5.034 and 5.961

2 [0, 4]
cos 2 = 3
2

sin 3 = 1
2

203

2 [0, 4]
sin 2 = 0.8
When sin 2 = 0.8, 2 0.927
2 + 0.927, 2 0.927,
3 + 0.927 and 4 0.927
4.067, 5.353, 10.347 and 11.633
2.034, 2.678, 5.176 and 5.820

Solve cos x = 1 for x [2, 2].


2
1
cos x =
2
x = , 2 , and 2 +
3
3 3
3
5
5

= , , and
3
3 3
3
Mark the points
5, 1 , , 1 , , 1 and 5, 1 .

3 2 3 2 3 2
3 2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Solve cos x = 1 for x [2, 2].


2

x = , + , + and
3
3
3
3
= 4, 2, 2 and 4
3
3 3
3
Mark the points
4, 1 , 2, 1 , 2, 1

2 3
2 3
2
3
and 4, 1 .
2
3

204

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

205

Exercise 10J Solutions


1
a

x-axis intercepts occur when y = 0


The graph is y = 2 sin x raised by 1 unit.
sin x = 1
2
When sin x = 1 , x =
2
6

x = + , 2
6
6
7
11
=
and
6
6

The graph is y = 2 sin 2x (amplitude 2,


period ) lowered by 3 units.
2x [0, 4]
sin 2x = 3
2

2x = , , 2 + and 3
3
3
3
3
= , 2, 7 and 8
3 3 3
3
7
4

and
x= , ,
6 3 6
3

The graph is y = 2 cos x raised by 1 unit.


cos x = 1
2
When cos x = 1 , x =
4
2
x = , +
4
4
= 3 and 5
4
4

The graph is y = 2 sin 2x (amplitude 2,


period ) moved down 2 units.
2x [0, 4]
2 sin 2x = 2
sin 2x = 1
2x = and 2 +
2
2
x = and 5
4
4

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

The graph is y = 2 sin x raised by


1 unit and moved units right.
4
sin x = = 1 for x , 7
4

4 4
2

When sin x = 1 , x =
4
4

2
x = , + , 2
4
4
4
4
3
and 2
x = 0,
2

2
a

The graph of y = 2 sin 3x (period 2 , amplitude 2) translated 2 units down.


3

The graph of y = 2 cos 3x (period 2 , amplitude 2) translated units to the left.


3
3

206

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

The graph of y = 2 sin 2x (period , amplitude 2) translated 3 units down.

The graph of y = 2 cos 2x (period , amplitude 2) translated 1 unit up.

The graph of y = 2 cos 2x (period , amplitude 2) translated units to the right and 1 unit
3
down.

The graph of y = 2 sin 2x (period , amplitude 2) translated units to the left and 1 unit up.
6

207

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3
a

The graph of y = 2 sin 2x (period ,


amplitude 2) translated units to the
3
left and 1 unit up.

The graph of y = 2 sin 2x (period ,


amplitude 2) reflected in the x-axis and
then translated units to the left and
6
1 unit up.

The graph of y = 2 cos 2x (period ,


amplitude 2) translated units to the
4
left and 3 units up.

208

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

209

Exercise 10K Solutions


1
a

cos sin
6
6
A=

sin cos
6
6
3 1
2
= 2

1 3
2 2
3 1
3
2 2 1 = 2


1 3 0 1
2
2 2

3 1
,
2
2

3 1
,
2 2

cos sin
4
4
A=

sin cos
4
4

A=

1
2
1
2

cos
2

sin
2

1
2
1
2

sin
2

cos
2

= 0 1
1 0
0
1

1 = 0


1 0 0 1
(0, 1)

cos 2 sin 2
3
3
A=

sin 2 cos 2
3
3

1 3
= 2 2

3 1
2 2
1 3
3
2 2 0= 2


3 1 1 1
2
2 2

cos 5 sin 5
4
4
A=

sin 5 cos 5
4
4
1 1
2
= 2

1
2
2
1 1 1
2 2 2 =
1

1 1

2 2
2
(0, 1)

1 + 1
2 2

1 1
2 2

= 0
1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

A=

cos

sin

5
6

sin 5
6

5
6

cos 5
6

1
2
1

3
= 2

1
2

3
2

1
2

3
2

1
2

1
2

3
2

3
2
1
2

1
3
,

2
2

3
4

3+1
4 4
3
4

3
2

1
2

3
2
1
2

cos sin
4
4
=

sin cos
4
4
1 1
2
= 2
1 1

2 2
1
2
1
2

1, 3

2 2

1 cos sin
2 =
6
6

sin
cos
2 6
6

i R34

anticlockwise.
6
b

Both the cosine and sine of the angle are


negative, so the angle is in the third
quadrant.
cos = 1
2
= + = 4
3 3

1
2

3
2

1
2
3
2

cos 4
3

sin 4
3

sin 4
3
cos 4
3

4 anticlockwise.
3
c

The angle is in the first quadrant and


cos = 4.
5
1 4
anticlockwise.
cos
5

210

ii R
2

2
2 = 2

1 2 +
2
1
= 2
3

2

cos 3 sin 3
4
4
=

sin 3 cos 3
4
4
1 1
2
= 2

1
2
2
cos sin
2
2
=

sin cos
2
2
= 0 1
1 0

1
2
1
2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

iii R

5
6

iv R
4

cos 5 sin 5
6
6
=

sin 5 cos 5
6
6
3 1
2
2
=
1

3
2
2
cos sin
4
4
=

sin cos
4
4

1 1
2
= 2
1 1

2 2

Use Pythagoras theorem for the unit


circle triangle with hypotenuse 1 and
sides cos and sin .
2
2
2
sin + 4 = 1
5
2
sin = 1 16
25
9
=
25
sin = 3
5
(since is in the first quadrant)
R = cos sin
sin cos
4 3
5
= 5
3 4

5 5

211

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 10L Solutions


c

1
a

i d = 12 + 12 cos 1 (5.7 + 0.3)


6
= 12 + 12 cos
=0
ii d = 12 + 12 cos 1 (2.7 + 0.3)
6
= 12 + 12 cos
2
=6

5 = 12 + 12 cos 1 t + 1
6
3
cos 1 t + 1 = 7
6
12
3
1 t + 1 = 2.1936 or 4.0896
6
3
t + 1 = 4.1895 or 7.8106
3
t = 3.856 or 7.477
3.856 30 = 116 days, 26th April
7.477 30 = 224 days, 14th August

3
a

The period is the time from high tide to


low tide to high tide = 6 + 6 = 12 hours.
360 = 12
r
r = 360 = 30
12
Amplitude = 7 3 = 2
2
q=2
At high tide, D = p + q 1
7=p+2
p=5

The graph is of D = 5 + 2 cos(30t). It


has amplitude 2, period 12, and is the
cosine curve raised 5 units.

t = 0 is a maximum, therefore a high


tide. The low tide occurs when t = 6.
Solve for D = 4, then find the first
solution where t > 6.
4 = 5 + 2 cos 30t
cos 30t = 1
2
30t = 150 or 210
t = 5 or 7
Since low tide occurs at t = 6, the ship
can enter one hour after low tide.

2
a

This would occur half an hour each side


of the maximum.
The maximum occurs when t = 3.
w = 10 + 3 sin 2.5
6
= 12.9

Sketch the graph of y = 3 sin t


6
(period 12, amplitude 3) translated 10
units up.

Solve 10 + 3 sin t = 8.5 for


6
0 t 24 t = 0 t 4t
6
6
6
sin t = 8.5 10 = 1
6
3
2
t = + , 2 , 3 + , 4
6
6
6
6
6
t = 7, 11, 19, 23
From the graph:
{t: 0 t 7}{t: 11 t 19}
{t: 23 t 24}

212

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4
a

This occurs when sin 3t = 1


x=3+2=5m

This occurs when sin 3t = 1


x=32=1m

sin 3t = 1 for 0 3t 15
3t = , 5, 9
2 2 2

t = , 5, 9
6 6 6
= 0.524, 2.618, 4.712 s

sin 3t = 0 for 0 3t 9
3t = 0, , 2
t = 0, , 2
3 3
= 0, 1.047, 2.094 s

5
a

7
a

t=4
AC = 21 3 cos
3

= 19.5 C

D=AB
= 1 + 2 cos t
12

The graph is of y = 1 + 2 cos t .


12
It has amplitude 2, period 24, and is the
cosine curve moved 1 unit down.

8
a

213

1 + 2 cos t < 0
12
cos t < 1
12 2
< t < 5
3 12 3
4 < t < 20
From 4 am to 8 pm.

t=0
3
6
t=
3
6
t = 2 am
6 + 4 cos t = 2
3
6
cos = 1
6 3
t = , 3
6
3
t 2 = 6, 18
t = 8 or t = 20
8 am and 8 pm

i Amplitude = 5 2 = 1.5 m
2
ii Period = 12 hours
iii From graph, the shape is a cosine
curve reflected in the x-axis.
Graph will be of the form
d(t) = 1.5 cos kt + 3.5
Period = 2 = 12
k
2
=
k=
12 6
d(t) = 1.5 cos t + 3.5
6
iv 1.5 m

3.5 is the middle of the hour hands path.


From the graph, this will occur from 3 am
to 9 am and from 3 pm to 9 pm.
Use the information given, starting at
noon.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

In this case, it is easiest to make t = 0 at


noon, which is the reference point.
D = 4 + cos kt
Period = 2 = 16
k
2
=
k=
16 8
D = 4 + cos t
8
D = 4 cos t = 0
8
t = or
8 2
2
t = 4 or 4
It can enter after 8 am and must leave
by 4 pm.

9
a

ii

2
= 2 26

26
= 52 weeks (1 year)
ii 3000
iii 4000 3000 = [1000, 7000]

i N(0) = 3000 sin 10 + 4000


26
= 1194.95
(1195 ants, more or less)
N(100) = 3000 sin 90 + 4000
26
= 1021.87
(1022 ants, more or less)

i 3000 sin ( t 10) + 4000 = 7000


26
sin ( t 10) = 1
26
( t 10) =
26
2
t = 13 + 10 = 23
t = 23 and t = 75, since the period is
52 weeks.
ii 3000 sin ( t 10) + 4000 = 1000
26
sin ( t 10) = 1
26
( t 10) = 3
26
2
t = 39 + 10 = 49
This is the only value since the period is
52 weeks.

D = 4 + cos t
8
d = 3.5 cos t = 0.5
8
t = 2 or 2
8
3
3
16
16
or
t=
3
3
1
= 5 or 5 1
3
3
It can enter after 6:40 am and must leave
by 5:20 pm.

214

3000 sin (t 10) + 4000 > 5500


26
sin (t 10) > 1
26
2
< (t 10) < 5 and
6
6
26
13 < (t 10) < 17
26
6
6
13 < t 10 < 65 and
3
3
169 < t 10 < 221
3
3
1
2
1
2
14 , 31 66 , 83

3
3 3
3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

The given population varies between


10 000 and 40 000, a = 15 000 and
d = 25 000.
Maximum to minimum is half a period,
so the period = 20.
2 = 20
b
2 = 20
b
20
b = = 10
2
Maximum at t = 10 means
(10 c) =
2
10
10 c = 5
c=5

215

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

216

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


2

Pythagoras rule gives AC = a + b


cos x = AB
AC
2
b
=
B
2
2
a +b

y = 2 sin (3x )
= 2 sin 3(x
3
Period = 2
3

y = 5 cos 5x + 3
Amplitude = |5| = 5

5 sin (2x ) + 2 = 0
Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 5
Maximum and minimum y values are
y = 7 and y = 3.
Since y = 0 is within the range of the
function, the function will pass through
the line twice each cycle. The function
covers two cycles over the given
domain, and so will pass through
y = 0 four times.
There are four solutions.
D

3 = 3 180
11
11
540
=
11
= 49.09

x 5, 23
12 12
3x 5 , 23
4 4
sin 3x = 2 = 1
2
2
3x = + , 2 , 3 + ,
4
4
4

4 , 5 + , 6
4
4
4
Omit the first and last as they are not in
the interval.
3x = 7, 13, 15, 21
4 4
4
4
x = 7, 13, 5, 7
D
12 12 4 4

cos 13 = cos
6

= cos
6
2

= sin
3

tan (180 ) = sin (180 )


cos (180 )
= sin
cos
= cos (90 + )
sin (90 + )
cos
(90 + )
=
sin (90 + )
2
4 3
= 2

=2

Period =

10 Both cos and sin are positive,


so the angle is in the first quadrant.
cos = 1
2
= 60
An anticlockwise rotation of 60
B
about the origin.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

330 = 330 = 11
180
6

11 = 11 180 = 495
4
4

810 = 810 = 9
180
2

23 = 23 180 = 1035
4
4

1080 = 1080 = 6
180

1035 = 1035 = 23
180
4

135 = 135 = 3
180
4

405 = 405 = 9
180
4

390 = 390 = 13
180
6

420 = 420 = 7
180
3

80 = 80 = 4
180
9

sin 11 = sin
4

cos 7 = cos
4

sin 11 = sin
6

2
a

5 = 5 180 = 150
6
6

7 = 7 180 = 315
4
4

11 = 11 180 = 495
4
4

3 = 3 180 = 45
12
12

15 = 15 180 = 1350
2
2

3 = 3 180 = 135
4
4

= 180 = 45
4
4

2 + 3

= sin 3 = 1
4
2

2 +

= cos = 1
4
2

= sin = 1
6
2

cos 7 = cos 2 + 5
6
6

= cos 5 = 3
6
2
2 +

= cos = 3
6
2

cos 13 = cos
6

sin 23 = sin 4
6
6

= sin = 1
2
6
cos 23 = cos 6 +
3
3

= cos =
3 2

217

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

= cos = 1
4
2

sin 17 = cos
4

The graph of y = 3 cos x has period


3
2
= 6 and amplitude 3. It is
1
3
y = 3 cos x reflected in the x-axis.
3

The graph of y = 2 sin 3x


(period 2 , amplitude 2), reflected in
3
the x-axis.

The graph of y = 2 cos x has period


3
2
= 6 and amplitude 3.
1
3

The graph of y = sin x, translated


units to the right.
4

4
a

2
= 4
1
2
Amplitude = 2
Period =

Period = 2 =
4 2
Amplitude = 3
Period = 2
3
Amplitude = 1
2

5
a

Period = 2 =
2
Amplitude = 3
2
= 6
1
3
Amplitude = 4
Period =

2
= 3
2
3
Amplitude = 2
3
Period =

The graph of y = 2 sin 4x has period


2 = and amplitude 2.
4 2

218

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

The graph of y = sin x, translated


2 units to the left.
3

The graph of y = 2 cos x, translated


5 units to the right.
6

The graph of y = 3 cos x, reflected in the


x-axis and translated units to the right.
6

6
a

sin = 3
2
3
sin =
=
2
3
= and +
3
3
2

= and
3
3

2 [2, 2]
sin 2 = 3 2 =
2
3

2 = , + , + and 2
3
3
3
3
= , 2 , 4 and 5
3 3
3
3
2
5

= , , and
3 3
6
6

, 5
3 3 3
sin = 1 =
3 2
3 6

= and +
3
6
6
7

= and
6
6
3

= and
6
2

+ , 7
3 3 3
sin + = 1
3

+ = 3
3 2
= 3 = 7
2 3 6
=0 =
3
3
= 2 = 5
3
5 ,
3
3 3
sin = 1 =
3
6
3
2
= and +
3
6
6
5

= and
6
6
= and 7
2
6
7

= and
2
6

219

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

7
a

The graph of y = 2 sin 4x (period ,


amplitude 2) translated 1 unit up.

The graph of y = 2 cos x reflected in the


x-axis and translated 1 unit up.

The graph of y = 3 cos x translated


units to the left.
3

The graph of y = cos x reflected in the


x-axis and translated units to the left
3
and 2 units up.

The graph of y = 2 sin 4x (period 2 ,


3
amplitude 2) reflected in the x-axis and
translated 1 unit up.

220

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 11 Circular functions II


Exercise 11A Solutions
1
a

cos ( ) = cos
= 0.6

cos + x = sin x
2

= 0.3
sin = cos
2

= 0.6

sin + = cos
2

= 0.6

tan ( ) = tan
= 0.7

cos x = sin x
2

= 0.3

sin ( x) = sin x
= 0.3

tan =
2

sin
2

cos
2

cos

=
sin
= 1 = 7
tan 10

sin 3 + = sin +
2

= cos = 0.6
cos 3 x = cos x
2

= sin x = 0.3

221

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 11B Solutions


1
a

y1 = 2 sin
y2 = cos
y = y1 + y2
=0 y=0+1=1
= y=1+1=2
2
= y = 0 + 1 = 1
= 3 y = 2 + 0 = 2
2
= 2 y = 0 + 1 = 1

d
b

y1 = 3 cos 2
y2 = 2 sin 2
y = y1 + y 2
=0 y=3+0=3
= y=0+2=2
4

= y = 3 + 0 = 3
2
3
y = 0 + 2 = 2
=
4
= y=3+0=3

y1 = 1 sin 2
2
y2 = cos
y = y1 + y2
= 0 y = 0 + 1 = 1
= y=0+0=0
2
= y=0+1=1
= 3 y = 0 + 0 = 0
2
= 2 y = 0 + 1 = 1

y1 = 3 sin
y2 = cos 2
y = y1 + y 2
=0 y=0+1=1
= y = 3 + 1 = 2
2
= y=0+1=1
= 3 y = 3 + 1 = 4
2
= 2 y = 0 + 1 = 1

222

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

y1 = 4 sin
y2 = 2 cos
y = y1 y2
= 0 y = 0 2 = 2
= y=40=4
2
= y = 0 2 = 2
= 3 y = 4 0 = 4
2
= 2 y = 0 2 = 2

223

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 11C Solutions


1
a

The graph will be three times as steep


and translated 1 unit up.

The graph will be twice as steep, and


translated units left and 1 unit up.
2

The graph will repeat itself every


units. It will be twice as steep and
2
translated units left and 2 units down.
4

The graph will repeat itself every


units (period = ).
2
2

The graph will repeat itself every


units (period = ). It will be twice as
3
3
steep.

The graph of y = tan x, translated


units left.
4

224

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

225

Exercise 11D Solutions


1
a

sin x = 0.5
1
x = 2n + sin (0.5) or
1
(2n + 1) sin (0.5)
= 2n + or (2n + 1)
6
6
= 12n + or 6(2n + 1)
6
6
6
6
(12n
+
1)
(12n
+
5)
=
or
6
6

tan x = 3 = 3
3
x = n
3

3n

=
3
= (3n 1)
3

2
a

x = 2n +
6
12n
+

=
6
= (12n + 1)
6
or x = (2n + 1)
6
12n
+
6
+

=
6
= (12n + 7)
6

x = ,
6
6
5

= ,
6 6

cos 3x = 3
2
3x = 2n
6
2n

x=
3
18
= 12n
18
(12n
1)
=
18
= , 2
6
6
11

= ,
6 6

cos 3x = 3
2
3x = 2n
6
2n

x=
3
18
12n

=
18
= (12n 1)
18

tan x = 3 = 3
3
x = n
3
= 3n
3
(3n
1)
=
3
= , 2
3
3
2
5
=
,
3 3
cos 2x + = 2 = 1
2
4

2x + = 2n
4
4
2x = 2n
4 4
(8n

1
1)
=
4
x = (8n 1 1)
8
6
14
= 0, ,
, 2, 8, 10
8 8
8
8
8
5
3
7

= , , , 0, , ,
4
4
4
4

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Note: If the values of x = (8n 1 1)


5
8
are taken separately, then the solution becomes
x = (8n 1 + 1)
8
= n
or x = (8n 2)
8
(4n

1)
=
4
4

tan 3x = 1
6

3
3x = n +
6
6
2x = n
x = n
3

This is equivalent to x = n where x Z.


3
2

x = , , , 0
3
3

226

sin 4x = 3
2
4 = 2n
3
x
6n

=
3
= (6n 1)
3
or 4x = (2n + 1)
3
= 6n + 3 +
4
(6n
+
4)
=
3
x = 6n 1 or 3n + 2
6
12
2
7
= , , 1, 1 , 1, 5 , 5, 11
3 12 6 12 3 12 6 12

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 11E Solutions


1
a

cos 3
4
cot 3 =
4 sin 3
4
1
=
1
2
2
= 1
cos 5
4
5
cot
=
4 sin 5
4
1
=
1
2
2
=1
1
sec 5 =
6 cos 5
6
1
=
3
2
= 2 = 2 3
3
3

2
a

1
cosec 13 =
6
sin 13
6
1
=
sin
6
1
= =2
1
2

1
sec 5 =
3 cos 5
3
1
= =2
1
2
cot 135 = cos 135
sin 135
= 1 1
2
2
= 1

1
cos 150
1
=
3
2
= 2 = 2 3
3
3

sec 150 =

cosec 90 =

1
cosec =
2 sin
2
1
= =1
1

1
sec 4 =
3 cos 4
3
1
=
= 2
1
2

cos 7
3
cot 7 =
3 sin 7
3
=1 3
2 2
= 1 = 3
3
3

1
sin 90
=1=1
1

d cot 240 = cos 240


sin 240
= 1 3
2
2
1
=
= 3
3
3

227

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

1
cos 225
1
=
1
2
= 2

sec 225 =

sec 330 =

3
a

1
cos 330
1
=
3
2
= 2 =2 3
3
3

cot 315 = cos 315


sin 315
= 1 1
2
2
= 1
1
sin 300
1
=
3
2
= 2 = 2 3
3
3

sec x = 2
cos x = 1
2
3
x = , 5
4 4

cosec x = sec x
sin x = cos x
tan x = 1
x = , 5
4 4

cosec x = 2
sin x = 1
2
x = , 5
6 6

cot x = 3
tan x = 1
3

x = , 7
6 6

1
sec
= 8
17

cos =

cos + sin = 1
64 + sin2 = 1
289
2
sin = 225
289
15
sin =
17

cosec 300 =

cot 420 = cos 420


sin 420
cos
60
=
sin 60
=1 3
2 2
= 1 = 3
3
3

228

tan = sin
cos
= 15 8
17
17
15
=
8
2

1 + tan = sec
2
sec = 1 + 49 = 625
576 576
25
sec =
(since cos > 0)
24
cos = 24
25
sin = tan = 7
24
cos
24
7
sin =

24 25
= 7
25

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

1 + tan = sec
2
sec = 1 + 0.16 = 1.16
sec = 116
100
= 29
25
= 29
5
cot = 3
4
2
2
1 + tan = sec
2
sec = 1 + 16 = 25
9
9
5
sec = (cos < 0)
3
cos = 3
5
sin = tan = 4
3
cos
3
4
sin =
5
3
4
=
5
4 6
5
sin 2 cos = 5
3
4
cot sin

4
5
31
2
=
5 20
= 2 20 = 8
5 31 31

229

cos + sin = 1
4 + sin2 = 1
9
2
sin = 5
9
sin = 5 3 < < 2
3 2

tan = 5 2 = 5
3 3
2
2
cot =
5
5 5
2
2 4
3
5
5
+ 12
2
= 5
2
3 5
= 5 3 5
2 2 5 + 12
15
=
6 5
4( 5 + 6) 6 5
= 15(6 5 )
4 (36 5)
= 15(6 5 )
124

tan 3 sin =
cos 2 cot

9
a

(1 cos )(1 + cot ) = sin cot t h


2
2
cos
= sin
2
sin
2
= cos , provided sin 0
If sin = 0, cot would be undefined.
2

cos tan + sin cot 2


2
2
2
2
sin
cos
+
sin
= cos

2
2
cos
sin
2
2
= sin + cos
= 1, provided sin 0 and cos 0

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

In cases like this, it is a good strategy to


start with the more complicated
expression.
sin + cos
cos
sin
tan + cot =
cot + tan cos + sin
sin cos
sin sin + cos cos
cos sin
=
cos cos + sin cos
cos sin
sin
sin

+ cos cos
=
cos sin
cos sin

cos cos + sin cos


tan + cot = cos sin
cot + tan cos sin
= sin cos
cos sin
= sin sin
cos cos
= tan
tan
This is provided tan + tan 0
and the tangent and cotangent are
defined.

(sin + cos ) + (sin cos )


2
2
= sin + 2 sin cos + cos
2
2
+ sin 2 sin cos + cos
2
2
= 2 sin + 2 cos
=2
There are no restrictions on .

230

1 + cot = cosec
cot cosec cot cosec
= cosec
cot
= 1 sin
sin cos
= 1
cos
= sec
Conditions: sin 0, cos 0

1 + sin
cos cos
= 1 + sin 1 sin
1 sin
cos
= (1 + sin )(1 sin )
cos (1 sin )
2
1 sin
=
cos (1 sin )
2
cos
=
cos (1 sin )
= cos
1 sin
Conditions: cos 0 (includes sin 1)
sec + tan =

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 11F Solutions


1
a

Different angles may be used.


cos 15 = cos(45 30)
= cos 45 cos 30 + sin 45 sin 30
= 1 3 + 1 1
2
2
2 2
= 3 +1
2 2
= 6 + 2
4

cos 105 = cos (45 + 60)


= cos 45 cos 60 sin 45 sin 60
= 1 1 1 3
2
2 2
2

3
a

=1 3
2 2
= 2 6
4
2
a

Different angles may be used.


sin 165 = sin (180 15)
= sin 15
sin 15 = sin (45 30)
= sin 45 cos 30 cos 45 sin 30
= 1 3 1 1
2
2
2 2
= 3 1
2 2
= 6 2
4
tan 75 = tan (45 + 30)
= tan 45 + tan 30
1 tan 45 tan 30
1+ 1
3
3
=

1
3
1
3
= 3 +1 3 +1
3 1
3 +1
=3+2 3 +1=2+ 3
31

Different angles may be used.


cos 5 = cos +
12
4 6
= cos cos sin sin
4
6
4
6
1
1
3
1
=

2
2
2 2
= 3 1
2 2
= 6 2
4
sin 11 = sin
12
12

= sin
12
sin = sin
12
3 4
= sin cos cos sin
3
4
3
4
= 3 1 1 1
2
2 2
2
3

1
=
2 2
= 6 2
4
tan = tan
12
4 3
tan tan
3
4
=
1 + tan tan
4
3
= 1 3 1 3
1+ 3 1 3
= 1 2 3 + 3 = 2 + 3
13

231

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

cos u = 1 sin u
= 1 144 = 25
169 169
5
cos u =
13
2
2
cos v = 1 sin v
= 1 9 = 16
25 25
4
cos v =
5
sin (u + v) = sin u cos v + cos u sin v
= 3 5 4 12
5 13 5 13
15
48
=
65
There are four possible answers:
63, 33, 33, 63
65 65 65 65

6
a

sin (v + (u v)) = sin v

cos ((u + v) v) = cos u

cos = 1 sin
= 1 9 = 16
25 25
4
cos =
5
2
2
sin = 1 cos
= 1 25 = 144
169 169
12
sin =
13
2
2
cos 2 = cos sin
= 25 144
169 169
= 119
169

5
a

sin + = sin cos + cos sin


6
6
6

= 3 sin + 1 cos
2
2

cos = cos cos + sin sin


4
4
4

1
1
=
cos +
sin
2
2
= 1 (cos + sin )
2

tan + tan
3
tan + =
6 1 tan tan

3
= tan + 3
1 3 tan
sin = sin cos cos sin
4
4
4

1
1
=
sin
cos
2
2
= 1 (sin cos )
2

232

sin 2 = 2 sin cos


=2 3 4
5
5
24
=
25

tan = sin
cos
= 3 = 3
4 4
2 tan
tan 2 =
2
1 tan
3
2
=
1 9
16
3
= 16
2 7
= 24
7
1
cos 2
= 169
119

sec 2 =

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

sin ( + ) = sin cos + cos sin


= 3 5 + 4 12
5
13
5 13
14

48
=
65
= 33
65

cos ( ) = cos cos + sin sin


= 4 5 + 3 12
5
13
5 13
20

36
=
65
= 16
65

cosec ( + ) =

8
a

tan (u + v) = tan u + tan v


1 tan u tan v
= 4 + 5 1 4 5
3 12
3 12
4
21
=

12 9
= 21 9
12 4
= 63
16
2 tan u
2
1 tan u
8
3
=
1 16
9
8
= 9
3 7
= 24
7

sec u = 1 + tan u
= 1 + 16 = 25
9
9
2
9
cos u =
25
cos u = 3 (since u is acute )
5
2
2
sec v = 1 + tan v
= 1 + 25 = 169
144 144
2
144
cos v =
169
cos v = 12 (since v is acute )
13
cos ( u v) = cos u cos v + sin u sin v
= 3 12 + 4 5
5 13 5 13
= 56
65

sin 2u = 2 sin u cos u


=243
5 5
24
=
25

cos = 1 sin
= 1 9 = 16
25 25
4
cos =
5
2
2
cos = 1 sin
= 1 576 = 29
625 625
7
cos =
25
2
2
cos 2 = cos sin
= 16 9
25 25
= 7
25

1
sin ( + )
= 65
33

cot 2 = 1
tan 2
= 7
24

233

tan 2u =

sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin


= 3 7 4 24
5
5 25
25
75
3
=
=
125 5

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

tan = sin
cos
= 3
4
sin

tan =
cos
= 24
7
tan
+ tan
tan ( + ) =
1 tan tan
3 + 24
4
7
=
3
24
1
4 7
117
=
7
28
11
117
=
44

12

sin 2 = 2 sin cos


= 2 7 24
25
25
336
=
625

10
a sin 2 = 2 sin cos
=2 3 1
2 2
= 3
2
b

cos 2 = cos sin


=13
4 4
= 1
2

11
2
2
2
a (sin cos ) = sin 2 sin cos + cos
= 1 sin 2
b

sin cos = (sin cos )(sin + cos )


= cos 2 1
= cos 2

234

2 sin = 2 sin cos cos sin


4
4
4

= 2 1 sin 1 cos
2
2

= sin cos
cos = cos cos + sin sin
3
3
3

= 1 cos + 3 sin
2
2
cos + = 1 cos = 3 sin
2
3 2

Add the last two equations:


cos + cos + = cos
3
3

tan + tan
4
4

tan tan
tan + tan
4
4
=

1 tan tan 1 + tan tan


4
4
tan
+
1
tan

1 tan 1 + tan
= 1
cos + = cos cos sin sin
6
6
6

= 3 cos 1 sin
2
2
cos + = sin cos + cos sin
3
3
3

1
= 3 cos + sin
2
2
Add the two equations:
cos + + sin + = 3 cos
6
3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

tan + tan
4
tan + =
4 1 tan tan

4
tan
+
1

=
1 tan
1
= + tan
1 tan
sin (u + v) = sin u cos v + cos u sin v
cos u cos v
cos u cos v
sin
cos
u
v + cos u sin v
=
cos u cos v cos u cos v
= tan u + tan v

sin ( u + v) = sin u cos v + cos u sin v


sin ( u v) sin u cos v cos u sin v
Divide numerator and denominator by
cos u cos v.
sin ( u + v) = tan u + tan v
sin ( u v) tan u tan v

235

cos 2 + 2 sin = cos sin + 2 sin


2
2
= cos + sin
=1

sin 4 = sin 2 2
= 2 sin 2 cos 2
2
2
= 2 2 sin cos (cos sin )
3
3
= 4 sin cos 4 cos sin

1 sin 2 = 1 sin 2 sin cos


sin cos sin cos sin cos
(1 sin 2)(sin cos )
= 2
2
sin 2 sin cos + cos
= (1 sin 2)(sin cos )
1 2 sin cos
(1

sin
2)(sin cos )
=
1 sin 2
= sin cos

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 11G Solutions


1
2

r= 3+1 =2
cos = 3 ; sin = 1
2
2
=
6
2 sin x + = 1
6

sin x + = 1
6 2

x + = , 5, 7
6 6 5 6
x = 0, 2, 2
3

r= 3+1 =2
cos = 1; sin = 3
2
2

=
3
2 sin x = 1
3

sin c = 1
3
2

x = , 7
3
6 6

x = , 3
6 2

r = 9 + 3 = 12 = 2 3
cos = 3 = 3
2
2 3
sin = 3 = 1
2 3 2
=
6
2 3 cos x + = 3
6

cos x + = 3 = 3
2
6 2 3

x + = , 11, 13
6
6 6 6
5
, 2
x = 0,
3

Maximum = 4 + 3 = 5
Minimum = 5

Maximum = 3 + 1 = 2
Minimum = 2

Maximum = 1 + 1 = 2
Minimum = 2

Maximum = 1 + 1 = 2
Minimum = 2

Maximum = 9 + 3 = 12 = 2 3
Minimum = 2 3

Maximum = 1 + 3 = 2
Minimum = 2

Maximum = 1 + 3 + 2 = 4
Minimum = 1 + 3 + 2 = 0

Maximum = 5 + 3 + 2 = 5 + 13

Minimum = 5 3 + 2 = 5 13
2
a

r= 1+1 = 2
cos = 1 ; sin = 1
2
2

=
4
2 sin x = 1
4

sin x = 1
4

x = , 3
4 4 4
x = ,
2

236

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

r = 4 + 3 = 25 = 5
cos = 4; sin = 3
5
5
36.87
5 sin ( + 36.87) 5
sin ( + 36.87) 1
+ 36.87 90
53.13

5
a

r = 8 + 4 = 12 = 2 3
cos = 2 2 = 2
3
2 3
2
sin =
= 1
2 3
3
35.26

r= 1+1 = 2
cos = 1 ; sin = 1
2
2

=
4
f(x) = 2 sin x
4

The graph will have amplitude 2 , period


2, and be translated units right.
4

2 3 sin ( 35.26) 3
sin ( 35.26) 3 = 3
2
2 3
35.26 60, 120
95.26, 155.26
3

r= 3+1 =2
cos = 3 ; sin = 1
2
2

=
6
2 cos 2x +
6

r= 1+1 = 2
cos = 1 ; sin = 1
2
2

=
4
2 sin 3x
4

237

r= 3+1 =2
cos = 3 ' sin = 1
2
2
=
6
f(x) = 2 sin x +
6

The graph will have amplitude 2, period


2, and be translated units left.
6

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

r= 1+1 = 2
cos = 1 ; sin = 1
2
2
=
4
f(x) = 2 sin x +
4

The graph will have amplitude 2 ,


period 2, and be translated units left.
4

r= 1+3 =2
cos = 1; sin = 3
2
2
=
3
f(x) = 2 sin x
3

The graph will have amplitude 2, period


2, and be translated units right.
3

238

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

239

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

cosec x sin x = 1 sin x


sin x
2
= 1 sin x
sin x
2
= cos x
sin x
= cos x cos x
sin x
= cos x cot x

cos x = 1
3
2
2
cos x + sin x = 1
2
1 + sin2 x = 1
3

sin x = 1 1 = 8
9 9
2

8
9
= 2 2, 2 2
3
3

sin x =

sin A = 1 cos A
2
=1t
2

sin A = 1 t
2
2
cos B = 1 sin B
2
=1t

sec = b
a
2
2
tan + 1 = sec
2
2
tan = b2 = 1
a
2
2

= b 2a
a
2

ABC = u; XBC = v
tan u = x + 4; tan v = x
2
2
tan = tan (u v)
= tan u tan v
1 + tan u tan v
x+4x
2
2
=
+
4
x
1+
x
2
2
4
+
+
4)
4
x(x
=
4
2
4
=2 2
x + 4x + 4
8
=
2
(x + 2)

cos B = 1 t
sin (B + A) = sin B cos A + cos B sin A

= t t + 1 t
2
2
= t (1 t )
2
= 2t 1
2

tan = b a
a

1t

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A


cos 2A 1 cos2A sin2A 1
2 sin A cos A
=
2
2
sin A (1 cos A)
2 sin A cos A
=
2
2
sin A sin A
2 sin A cos A
=
2
2 sin A
= cos A
sin A
= cot A
E

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Check the symmetry properties:


sin x = sin + x
2

= sin 3 + x
2

= cos x
= cos ( x)
cos ( x) = cos (2 x)
sin x sin x
2

C
10

(1 + cot x) + (1 cot x)
2
= 1 + 2 cot x + cot x + 1
2
2 cot x + cot x
2
= 2 + 2 cot x
2
= 2(1 + cot x)
2

= 2 cosec x

sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A


m = 2 sin A n
sin A = m
2n
tan A = sin A
cos A
= m 1
2n n
= m2
2n
r= 1+1 = 2
cos = 1 ; sin = 1
2
2
A positive angle must be chosen,
= 7
4
2 sin x + 7
4

240

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

241

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

sec + cosec cot = 1 + 1 cos


cos sin sin
= 1 1 + cos cos
cos
sin sin
2
1
=
(1 + cot )
cos
2
= sec cosec
2

Maximum = 5, minimum = 1

Maximum = 4, minimum = 2

Maximum = 4, minimum = 4

Maximum = 2, minimum = 0

Maximum = 1 (when cos = 1),


minimum = 1
3

sin 2 = 1
2
2 = , 5, 13, 17
6 6 6
6
5
13
17

,
= , ,
12 12 12 12

cos 3 = 3
2
3 = , 11, 13, 23, 25, 35
6
6
6
6
6 6
11
13
23
25
35

,
,
,
,
= ,
18 18 18 18 18 18
2

sin 2 = 1
sin 2 = 1
2 = , 3,
2 2
= , 3,
4 4

5,
2
5,
4

7
2
7
4

tan = 1
3
2

tan = 1
3
5

= , , 7, 11
6 6 6 6

sin = 1
4
sin = 1
2

= , 5, 7, 11
6 6 6 6

tan + cos = tan + 1 sin


sec + sin
sec + sin
2
2
= sec sin
sec + sin
(sec
sin )(sec + sin )
=
sec + sin
= sec sin

2
a

tan 2 = 1
2 = 3,
4
= 3,
8

7,
4
7,
8

11,
4
11,
8

15
4
15
8

sin 3 = 1
3 = 3, 7, 11
2 2 2

= , 7, 11
2 6 6
cos 2 = 1
2
2 = , 7,
4 4

= , 7,
8 8

9,
4
9,
8

15
4
15
8

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

tan = 2 sin
sin = 2 sin
cos

sin 2 sin = 0
cos
sin 1 2 = 0
cos

sin = 0 or cos = 1
2
= 60, 300, 0, 180, 360
5

6
a

7
a

cos A = 1 sin A
= 1 25 = 144
169 169
12
cos A =
13
2
2
cos B = 1 sin B
= 1 64 = 225
289 289
15
cos B =
17
cos ( A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B
= 12 15 5 8
13 17 13 17
= 140
221
sin ( A + B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B
= 5 15 12 8
13 17 13 17
= 21
221

tan A = sin A = 5
cos A 12
tan B = sin B = 8
cos B 15
tan ( A + B) = tan a + tan B
1 tan A tan B
= 5 + 8 1 5 8
12 15
12 15
7
57
=

60 9
= 19 9
20 7
= 171
140

242

Expression = cos (80 20)


= cos 60 = 1
2
Expression = tan (15 + 30)
= tan 45 = 1
Expression = sin (A + B)
= sin = 1
2
Expression = cos (A + B)
= cos = 0
2

8
a

Maximum = 5, minimum = 1

Maximum = 9, minimum = 1

9
a

sin A cos B cos A sin B


2
2
2
2
= sin A(1 sin B) (1 sin A)sin B
2
2
2
2
2
2
= sin A sin A sin B sin B + sin A sin B
2
2
= sin A sin B
2

Left side = sin + (1 + cos )


sin (1 + cos )
2
2
= sin + 1 + 2 cos + cos
sin (1 + cos )
2
+
2 cos
=
sin (1 + cos )
= 2(1 + cos )
sin (1 + cos )
= 2
sin

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

sin (1 2sin )
2
cos (2 cos 1)
2
2
sin (1 sin sin )
=
2
2
cos (cos + cos 1)
2
2
sin (cos sin )
=
2
2
cos (cos (1 cos ))
2
2
sin (cos sin )
=
2
2
cos (cos sin )
= sin
cos
= tan

Left side =

11
2

sin 4A = 2 sin 2A cos 2A


=2 4 5 1
9
9
=8 5
81

sin
2
cos

1+

sin
2
cos

sin
2
cos

Left side =

cos
2
cos

sin
2
cos
2
2
cos sin
=
2
2
cos + sin
= cos 2 = cos 2
1
1+

cos 2A = cos A sin A


=45
9 9
= 1
9

10 cos A = 1 sin A
=15=4
9 9
2
cos A =
3
a sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A
=2 5 2
3
3
= 4 5
9

243

Left side = sin A + (1 + cos A)


sin A (1 + cos A)
2
2
= sin A + 1 + 2 cos A + cos A
sin A (1 + cos A)
2
+
2 cos A
=
sin A (1 + cos A)
= 2 (1 + cos A)
sin A (1 + cos A)
= 2
sin A

12
a tan 15 = tan (60 45)
= tan 60 tan 45
1 + tan 60 tan 45
= 3 1
1+ 3
= 3 1 3 1
1+ 3
3 1
=32 3 +1
31
=2 3
b

sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y


sin (x y) = sin x cos y cos x sin y
Add the two equations:
sin (x + y) + sin (x y) = 2 sin x cos y

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

13
a x=0
y=2 3 0=2 3
(0, 2 3 )
b

Solve 2 3 cos x 2 sin x = 0.


Express in the form r cos (x + )
r = 12 + 4 = 4
cos = 2 3 = 3
4
2
2
1
sin = =
4 2
=
6
4 cos x + = 0
6

x + = , 3
6 2 2
x = , 4
3 3
x-intercepts: , 0 and 4, 0
3
3

Maximum = 4
11, 4

244

14
a Express in the form r sin (x + ) = 1.
r= 1+1 = 2
cos = 1 ; sin = 1
2
2
=
4
2 sin x + = 1
4

sin x + = 1
4

2
x + = , 3, 9
4 4 4 4
x = 0, , 2
2
b

Minimum = 4
5, 4

The graph will be y = 4 cos x, translated


units left.
6

2 sin x cos x = 1
2
2
2
sin 2 x = 1
2
2

1
sin x =
2
7
x = , 11
6 6

2 tan x
2 = 2 tan x
1 tan x
3

2 tan x
2 1 = 0
1

tan
x

2 tan x

3 (1 tan2 x) = 0

2
1 tan x

tan x = 0 (since 2 + tan x 0)


x = 0, , 2
d

sin x cos x = 1
cos 2x = 1
2x = , 3
x = , 3
2 2

sin (3x x) = 3
2
sin 2x = 3
2

2x = , 2, 7, 8
3 3 3 3

x = , , 7, 4
6 3 6 3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

cos 2x = 3
3
2

2x = , 7,
3 6 6
2x = 7, 9,
6 6
7
x = , 3,
12 4

16

17,
6
19,
6
19,
12

19
6
21
6
7
4

15
2
a y = 2 cos x
2
2
= cos x + (1 sin x)
2
2
= cos x sin x + 1
2
= cos x + 1
The graph of y = cos 2x (amplitude 1,
period ) raised 1 unit.

17
a

The graph is y = 1 2 sin x .


2
x
It is y = sin (period 4) reflected in
2
the x-axis and raised 1 unit.

The normal tangent graph, but with


period .
2

tan ( + A) = 4
tan + tan A = 4
1 tan tan A
tan + 2 = 4
1 2 tan
tan + 2 = 4(1 2 tan )
= 4 8 tan
9 tan = 2
tan = 2
9

r = 4 + 81 = 85
cos = 2 ; sin = 9
85
85
85 cos ( + ), where
1
2
= cos

85

i 85
ii cos ( + ) = 1
+=0
=
cos = cos ( )
= cos
= 2
85
iii Solve 85 cos ( + ) = 1.
The first positive solution will be
when + = 2.
= + 2
1
= 2 cos 2
85

245

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and


applications
Exercise 12A Solutions
2

1
a

x = cos 35
5
x = 5 0.8191
= 4.10 cm

x = sin 45
10
x = 10 0.0871
= 0.87 cm

x = tan 20.16
8
x = 8 0.3671
= 2.94 cm

x = tan 3015'
7
x = 7 0.9661
= 4.08 cm

tan x = 10
15
= 0.666
x = 33.69

10 = tan 40
x
10 = x 0.8390
x = 10
0.8390
= 11.92 cm

20 = sin 60
x
20 = x 3
2
40
= 40 3 cm
x=
3
3
3

cos x = 6 = 0.4
15
x = 66.42
The third angle = 180 2 66.42
= 47.16
4

h = tan 49
20
x = 20 1.1503
23 m

5
a

tan x = 1
6
= 0.8333. . .
x = 9.59
Keep this number in your calculator for
the next question.

246

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

BC = 6 1 = 35
BC = 35 m
= 5.92 m

247

12 Find the vertical height, h cm.

6
a

cos = 10 = 0.5
20
= 60

PQ = sin 60
20
x = 20 0.866
= 17.32 m

3 = sin 26
L
3 = L 0.4383
L= 3
0.4383
= 6.84 m

sin = 13 = 0.21666. . .
60
= 12.51

h = sin 66
200
x = 200 0.9135
= 182.7 m

10 400 = sin 16
d
400 = d 0.2756
d = 400
0.2756
= 1451 m
11 BC = BA = AD = CD
2
2
2
2
a AC = BC + BA = 2BC
2
100 = 2BC
2
BC = 50
BC = 50 = 5 2 cm
b

cos CBD = 10 = 1
10 2
2
CBD = 45

ABC = 2 45 = 90

h = cos 15
90
h = 90 0.9659
h = 86.93 cm
x = 90 86.93 = 3.07 cm

13

15
= sin 52.5
L
2
15 = L 0.7933
2
L = 30
0.7933
= 37.8 cm

14 w = tan 32
50
w = 50 0.6248
= 31.24 cm
2

15 h + 1.7 = 4.7
2
2
2
h = 4.7 1.7
= 19.2
h = 4.38 m
16 50 = sin 60
d
50 = d 0.866
d = 50
0.866
= 57.74 m

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 12B Solutions


1
a

x = 10
sin 50 sin 70

x = 10 sin 50

sin 70
= 8.15 cm

y = 6
sin 37 sin 65

x = 6 sin 37
sin 65
= 3.98 cm

2
a

x
= 5.6
sin 100 sin 28

x = 5.6 sin 100


sin 28
= 11.75 cm

3
a

X = 180 38 90
= 52
x = 12
sin 52 sin 90

x = 12 sin 52
sin 90
= 9.46 cm
sin = sin 72
8
7
7
sin 72

sin =
8
= 0.8321
= 56.32
In this case cannot be obtuse.
sin = sin 42
9.4
8.3

sin = 8.3 sin 42


9.4
= 0.5908
= 36.22
In this case cannot be obtuse.

sin = sin 108


10
8

sin = 8 sin 108


10
= 0.7608
= 49.54
In this case cannot be obtuse.

sin B = sin 38
9
8

sin B = 9 sin 38
8
= 0.6929
B = 43.84 or 180 43.84 = 131.16
= 180 43.84 38 = 98.16
or 180 136.16 38 = 5.84
A = 180 59 73
= 48
b = 12
sin 59 sin 48

b = 12 sin 59

sin 48
= 13.84 cm
c = 12
sin 73 sin 48

c = 12 sin 73

sin 48
= 15.44 cm
C = 180 75.3 48.25
= 56.45
5.6
a
=

sin 75.3
sin 48.25

a = 5.6 sin 75.3


sin 48.25
= 7.26 cm
5.6
c
=

sin 56.45
sin 48.25

c = 5.6 sin 56.45


sin 48.25
= 6.26 cm

248

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

B = 180 123.2 37
= 19.8
b
= 11.5
sin 19.8 sin 123.2

b = 11.5 sin 19.8


sin 123.2
= 4.66 cm
c = 11.5
sin 37 sin 123.2

c = 11.5 sin 37
sin 123.2
= 8.27 cm
C = 180 23 40
= 117
b = 15
sin 40 sin 23

b = 15 sin 40

sin 23
= 24.68 cm
c
= 15

sin 117
sin 23

c = 15 sin 117

sin 23
= 34.21 cm
C = 180 10 140
= 30
a = 20
sin 10 sin 140

a = 20 sin 10
sin 140
= 5.40 cm
c = 20
sin 30 sin 140

c = 20 sin 30
sin 140
= 15.56 cm

249

4
a

sin B = sin 48.25


15.3
17.6
17.6
sin 48.25
sin B =
15.3
= 0.8582
B = 59.12 or 180 59.12 = 120.88
A = 180 48.25 59.12 = 72.63
or 180 48.25 120.88 = 10.87
15.3 =
a
a
or

sin 48.25
sin 72.63
sin 10.87

a = 15.3 sin 72.63 or 15.3 sin 10.87


sin 48.25
sin 48.25
= 19.57 cm or 3.87 cm

sin C = sin 129


7.89
4.56

sin C = 4.56 sin 129


7.89
= 0.4991
C = 26.69
A = 180 129 26.69
= 24.31
a
= 7.89
sin 24.31 sin 129

a = 7.89 sin 24.31


sin 129
= 4.18 cm
sin B = sin 28.35
8.5
14.8
14.8
sin 28.35
sin B =
8.5
= 0.8268
B = 55.77 or 180 55.77 = 124.23
C = 180 55.77 28.35 = 95.88
or 180 124.23 28.35 = 27.42
8.5
c
c
=
or

sin 28.35
sin 95.88
sin 27.42

c = 8.5 sin 95.88 or 8.5 sin 27.42


sin 28.35
sin 28.35
= 178.1 cm or 8.24 cm

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

C = 180 69 74
= 37
b = 1070
sin 69 sin 37

b = 1070 sin 69

sin 37
= 1659.86 m

A = 180 68 70
= 42
b = 400
sin 68 sin 42

b = 400 sin 68
sin 42
= 554.26 m
6

APB = 46.2 27.6


= 18.6 (exterior angle property)
34
a
=
sin 27.6 sin 18.6

PB = a = 34 sin 27.6

sin 18.6
= 49.385 m
h = sin 46.2
PB
h = 49.385 0.7217
= 35.64 m

8
a

X = 180 120 20
= 40
AX = 50
sin 20 sin 40

= 50 sin 20
sin 40
= 26.60 m
Y = 180 109 32
= 39
AY = 50
sin 109 sin 39

AY = 50 sin 109
sin 39
= 75.12 m

250

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 12C Solutions


1

3
a

BC = a
2
2
= b + c 2bc cos A
2
2
= 15 + 10 2 15 10 cos 15
= 325 300 cos 15
= 35.222
BC = 5.93 cm

ABC = B
2
2
2
cos B = a + c b
2ac
2
2
2
= 5 + 8 10
258
= 0.1375
ABC 97.90
ACB = C
2
2
2
cos C = a + b c
2ac
2
2
2
= 5 + 10 8
2 5 10
= 0.61
ACB 52.41
2

c = a + b 2ab cos C
2
2
= 31 + 42 2 31 42 cos 140
= 2642 2604 cos 140
= 4719.77
c 68.70

BCA = C
2
2
2
cos C = a + b c
2ab
2
2
2
= 10 + 12 9
2 10 12
= 0.6791
BCA 47.22

c = a + b 2ab cos C
2
2
= 11 + 9 2 11 9 cos 43.2
= 202 198 cos 43.2
= 57.6642
c 7.59

CBA = B
2
2
2
cos B = a + c b
2ac
2
2
2
= 8 + 15 10
2 8 15
= 0.7875
ABC 38.05

c = a + b 2ab cos C
2
2
= 4 + 6 2 4 6 cos 20
= 52 48 cos 20
= 6.8947
c 2.626 km

b = a + c 2ac cos B
2
2
= 14 + 12 2 14 12 cos 53
= 340 336 cos 53
= 137.7901
a 11.74

ABC = B
2
2
2
cos B = a + c b
2ac
2
2
2
= 27 + 46 35
2 27 46
= 0.6521
ABC 49.29

b = a + c 2ac cos B
2
2
= 17 + 63 2 17 63 cos 120
= 4258 2142 cos 120
= 5329
b = 73

a = b + c 2bc cos a
2
2
= 16 + 30 2 16 30 cos 60
= 1156 960 cos 60
= 676
a = 26

251

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

6
a

8
a

B = 180 88 43.0045
= 48.9954
b
= 7.3263
sin 48.9954 sin 88

AB = a + b 2ab cos O
2
2
= 4 + 6 2 4 6 cos 30
= 52 48 cos 30
= 10.4307
AB 3.23 km

B = 180 48 = 132
2
2
2
AC = a + c 2ac cos B
2
2
= 5 + 4 2 5 4 cos 132
= 41 40 cos 132
= 67.7652
AC 8.23 cm
2

BD = b + d 2bd cos A
2
2
= 5 + 4 2 5 4 cos 48
= 41 40 cos 48
= 14.2347
BD 3.77 cm

Label the points suitably: A and B are the


hooks, and C is the 70 angle.
2
2
2
c = a + b 2ab cos C
2
2
2
BD = 42 + 54 2 42 54 cos 70
= 4680 4536 cos 70
= 3128.5966
BD 55.93 cm
Use ABD.
2
2
2
BD = b + d 2bd cos A
2
2
= 6 + 4 2 6 4 cos 92
= 52 48 cos 92
= 53.6751
BD 7.326 cm
D = BDC
sin D = sin 88
5
7.3263

sin D = 5 sin 88
7.3263
= 0.6820
D = 43.0045

252

b = 7.3263 sin 48.9956


sin 88
5.53 cm
9

cos AO'B = 6 + 6 8
266
= 0.111
AO'B 83.62

cos AOB = 7.5 + 7.5 8


2 7.5 7.5
= 0.43111
AOB 64.46

10
a Treat AB as c.
2
2
2
c = a + b 2ab cos O
2
2
2
AB = 70 + 90 2 70 90 cos 65
= 13 000 12 600 cos 65
= 7675.0099
AB 87.61 m
b

cos B = a + c b
2ac
2
2
2
= 70 + 87.6071 90
2 70 87.6071
= 0.3648
AOB 68.6010
Now use OCB.
Let CB = a, OB = b, OC = c.
CB = AB = 43.80
2
2
2
2
c = a + b 2ab cos O
2
2
2
OC = 43.8035 + 70 2 43.8035 70 0.3648
= 4581.24
OC 67.7 m

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 12D Solutions


1
a

Area = 1 ab sin C
2
1
= 6 4 sin 70
2
2
= 11.28 cm

Area = 1 yz sin X
2
1
= 5.1 6.2 sin 72.8
2
2
= 15.10 cm

Area = 1 nl sin M
2
1
= 3.5 8.2 sin 130
2
2
= 10.99 cm

2
a

Use the sine rule to find C.


sin C = sin 100
9
7

sin C = 7 sin 100


9
= 0.7659
C = 49.992
A = 180 100 49.992
= 30.007
Area = 1 bc sin A
2
= 1 9 7 sin 30.007
2
2
15.754 cm

E = 180 65 66
= 60
e = 6.3
sin 60 sin 55

e = 6.3 sin 60
sin 55
= 6.6604 cm
Area = 1 ef sin D
2
1
= 6.6604 6.3 sin 65
2
2
19.015 cm

Use the cosine rule to find D.


2
2
2
cos D = e + f d
2ef
2
2
2
= 5.1 + 5.7 5.9
2 5.1 5.7
= 0.4074
D = 65.95
Area = 1 ef sin D
2
= 1 5.1 5.7 sin 65.95
2
2
13.274 cm

C = 180 25 25 = 130
Area = 1 ab sin C
2
1
= 5 5 sin 130
2
2
= 9.58 cm
Use the cosine rule to find B.
(Any angle will do.)
2
2
2
cos B = a + c b
2ac
2
2
2
+ 4.1 5.9
3.2
=
2 3.1 4.1
= 0.2957
B = 107.201
Area = 1 ac sin B
2
= 1 3.2 4.1 sin 107.201
2
2
6.267 cm

253

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

sin I = sin 24
5
12
12
sin 24
sin I =
5
= 0.9671
I = 77.466 or 180 74.466 = 102.533
I is obtuse, so must be 102.533
G = 180 24 108.533
= 53.466
Area = 1 hi sin G
2
= 1 5 12 sin 53.466
2
2
24.105 cm
I = 180 10 19
= 151
i
= 4
sin 151 sin 19

i = 4 sin 151
sin 19
= 5.9564
Area = 1 ih sin G
2
1
= 5.9564 4 sin 10
2
2
2.069 cm

254

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

255

Exercise 12E Solutions


1

2
a

l = 105 2r
360
= 105 2 25
360
45.81 cm

= 50 = 5 radians
30 3
= 5 180 degrees
3

= 95.4929
= 9530'

cos = 2 = 1
2 4 2
=
2 3
= 2
3

sin = 25 = 0.8333
2 30
= 56.4426
2
= 112.885
= 11253'
3
a

Set your calculator to radian mode.


sin = 3 = 0.4285
2 7
= 0.4429
2
= 0.8858
l = r
= 7 0.8858
= 6.20 cm
This represents the minor segment area.
2
A = 1 r ( sin )
2
2
= 1 7 (0.8858 sin 0.8858)
2
2
= 2.73 cm

A represents the interior of a circle of


radius 4, centre the origin.

A B is a segment where r = 4, = 2
3
2
1
A = r ( sin )
2
2

= 1 4 2 sin 2
2
3
3

2
= 9.83 cm
5

cos = cos 2
2
2
2
= cos sin
2
2
2
2
cos = 1 sin
2
2
2
2
cos = 1 sin sin
2
2
2
= 1 2sin
2
2

2r (1 cos ) =
=

2
2

2r 1 1 2 sin
2

2
2
2r 1 1 + 2sin
2

2
2
2r 2sin
2

2
2
=
4r sin
2
= 2r sin
2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Proportion visible = 2.6362


2
= 0.41956
41.96%

8
a

Altitude CD = 5 tan 60
= 5 3 cm
OD = 5 tan 30
= 5 = 5 3 cm
3
3

Radius = 5 3 5 3
3
= 15 3 5 3
3
10
3
=
cm
3
AOD = 60
AOB = 120

Area = 3 segment area


2
= 3 r ( sin )
2

= 3 300 2 sin 2
2
9
3
3

= 50 2 sin 2
3
3
2
= 61.42 cm
7
a

256

C = 2r
= 2 20
= 40 125.66 cm

20 = 0.25
20 + 60
= 1.3181
2 = 2.6362

cos =

Use fractions of an hour (minutes).


l = 25 2r
60
25
=
24
60
= 10 10.47 m
3
Angle = 25 2 = 5
60
6
2
Area = 1 r
2
2
1
= 4 5
2
6
2
20

=
20.94 m
3

The required area is the sum of two segments.


Let the left area be A1 and the right area A2.
tan = 4
3
= 0.9272
2 = 1.8545
2
A1 = 1 3 (1.8545 sin 1.8545)
2
= 4.0256
tan = 3
4
= 0.6435
2 = 1.2870
2
A2 = 1 4 (1.2870 sin 1.2870)
2
= 2.6160
Total area = 4.0256 + 2.6160
2
= 6.64 cm

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

10

A = 1 r = 63
2
2
r = 126
126
= 2
r
P = r + r + r = 32
126
2r + r 2 = 32
r
126
2r +
= 32
r
2
2r + 126 = 32r
2
2r 32r + 126 = 0
2
r 16r + 63 = 0
(r 7)(r 9) = 0
r = 7 or 9 cm
126
= 2
r
c
126
When r = 7, = 2 = 18
7
7
c
126
When r = 9, = 2 = 14
9
9
2

11 The following diagram can be deduced


from the data:

x = 60 10 = 3500
x = 10 35
cos = 10 = 1
60 6
= 1.4033
2 = 2.8066
2 2 = 3.4764
Length of belt on left wheel:
l = r
= 15 2.8066 = 42.1004
Length of belt on right wheel:
l = r
= 25 3.4764 = 86.9122
Total = 12 10 25 + 42.1004 + 86.9112
247.33 cm

257

12
a

The balls can be enclosed as in the


diagram above.
2 = 360 90 60 90
= 120
= 60
x = tan 60 = 3
5
x=5 3
Perimeter = 6 5 3 + 3 10
81.96 cm
b

Height of large triangle = (2x + 10) sin 60


= (10 3 + 10) 3
2
= 15 + 5 3 cm
Area of large triangle = 1 (10 3 + 10)(15 + 5 3 )
2
2
173.2050 cm
Area of three discs = 10 cm triangle half a circle
Height of 10 cm triangle = 10 sin 60
= 5 3 cm
2
1
1
Area = 10 5 3 5
2
2
= 50 3 12.5
2
4.03 cm

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 12F Solutions


1

130 = tan 18
d
d = 130
tan 18
= 400.10 m

50 = tan 20
AB
AB = 50
tan 20
= 137.373 m
50 = tan 18
AC
AC = 50
tan 18
= 153.884 m
d = AC AB
= 153.884 137.373
16.51 m

h = tan 41
40
h = 40 0.869
= 34.77 m

500 = tan 41
d
d = 500
tan 41
= 575.18 m

tan = 15 = 1.5
10
56
The bearing is 056.
7
a

40 = tan 20
d
d = 40
tan 20
= 109.90 m

tan = 22 = 1.466
15
= 55.713
The bearing is 90 034.
b

180 + 34 = 214

258

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

First, use the cosine rule to find LK.


2
2
LK = m
2
2
= k + l 2kl cos M
2
2
= 12 + 9 2 12 9 cos 128
= 357.9829
LK = 18.920
It is easier to use the sine rule to find MLK.
sin L = sin 128
18.920
9

sin L = sin 128 9


18.920
= 0.3748
MLK = L
22.01

Use the cosine rule, where


C = 180 40 35 = 105
2
2
AB = c
2
2
= a + b 2ab cos C
2
2
= 2500 + 2000
2 2500 2000 cos 105
= 12 838 190.4510
AB = 3583.04 m
9

207 180 = 027

259

12
a BAN = 360 346 = 14
BAC = 14 + 35 = 49
b

10

Use the cosine rule:


2
2
BC = a
2
2
= b + c = 2bc cos A
2
2
= 340 + 160 2 340 160 cos 49
= 69 820.7776
BC = 264.24 km

13

SAB = 90 55 = 35
SBA = 302 270 = 32
ASB = 180 35 32 = 113
11

LMK = 360 90 142


= 128

Use the cosine rule:


PSQ = 115
2
2
PQ = s
2
2
= p + q 2pq cos A
2
2
= 5 + 7.5 2 5 7.5 cos 115
= 112.9464
PQ = 10.63 km

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 12G Solutions


1
a

FH = 12 + 5
= 169
FH = 13 cm

BH = 13 + 8
= 233
BH = 233 15.26 cm

tan BHF = 8
13
= 0.615
BHF = 31.61

BGH = 90 and BH = 233


cos BGH = 12
233
= 0.786
BGH = 38.17

2
a

AB = 2EF
EF = 4 cm

VAD = VAE
tan VAE = VE
EA
= 4 10
4
= 10 3.162
VAE = 72.45
Area of a triangular face = 1 AD VE
2
1
= 8 4 10
2
2
= 16 10 cm
2
Area of base = 8 8 = 64 cm
Surface area = 4 16 10 + 64
2
266.39 cm
First, sketch the square base, and find
the height h of the tree. Mark M as the
mid-point of TC and O as the centre of
the square.

tan VEF = VE
EF
= 12 = 3
4
VEF = 71.57
2

VE = 4 + 12
= 160
VE = 160
= 4 10 12.67 cm

All sloping sides are equal in length.


Choose VA.
2
2
2
VA = VE + EA
2
= 160 + 4 = 176
VA = 176
= 4 11 13.27 cm

OM = TM = 50 m
2
2
2
OT = 50 + 50 = 5000
OT = 5000 m
h = tan 20
5000
h = 5000 tan 20
= 25.7365
At A and C,
tan = 25.7365 = 0.2573
100
= 14.43
At B, TB = 2 OT = 2 5000 m
tan = 25.7365 = 0.1819
5000
= 10.31

260

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4
a

261

For the second buoy:


160 = tan 5
d
d = 160
tan 5
= 1828.808 m
From the cliff:

ABC = 180 90 45
= 45
ABC is isosceles, and CB = AC = 85 m.

XB = sin 32
BC
XB = sin 32
85
XB = 85 sin 32
= 45.04 m

5
C = 337 308 = 29
Use the cosine rule.
2
2
2
c = 3052.981 + 1828.808
2 3052.981 1828.808 cos 29
= 2 898 675.1436
c = 1702.55 m

50 = tan 26
x
x = 50
tan 26
= 102.515 m
2
2
2
y = x + 120
= 24 909.364
y = 24 909.364
= 157.827 m
tan = 50 = 0.316
y
= 17.58
6

7
a

Triangle HDF is identical (congruent) to


triangle AEC.
HFD = ACE
HDF = 90 24.28
= 65.22

CH = 12 + 6 = 180
CH = 180
tan ECH = EH
CH
= 5 = 0.3726
180
ECH = 20.44

From the top of the cliff:

For the first buoy:


160 = tan 3
d
d = 160
tan 3
= 3052.981 m

AC = 12 + 5 = 169
AC = 13 cm
tan ACE = 6
13
= 0.4615
ACE = 24.78

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

262

The distance of B from the balloon may


be calculated in the same way:
750 = tan 20
d
d = 750
tan 20
= 2060.608 m
Draw the view from above and use the
cosine rule.

Looking from above, the following


diagram applies.

Because the angle of elevation is 45,


AT will equal the height of the tower,
h m. Use the cosine rule.
2
2
2
BT = h + 100 2 h 100 cos 60
2
2
= h + 100 200h 1
2
2
2
= h 100h + 100
From point B:

x = 893.815 + 2060.608
2 893.815 2060.608 cos 70
= 3 785 143.5836
x = 1945.54 m
10
a Find the length of an altitude:

h = tan 26
d
d= h
tan 26
= 2.050h
2 2
2
2
2.050 h = h 100h + 100

2
2
4.2037h = h 100h + 10 000
2
3.2037h + 100h = 10 000
Using the quadratic formula:
h 42.40 m

Find the horizontal distance of A from


the balloon.
b

750 = tan 40
d
d = 750
tan 40
= 893.815 m

a = 2.5 + 6 = 42.45
a 6.5 cm
The sloping edges are also the
hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle.
2
2
2
s = 2.5 + 6.5 = 48.5
s 6.96 cm
Area = 1 5 6.5
2
2
= 16.25 cm

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

11
a

Distance = 300 1 = 5 km
60

Looking from above:

AE = 5000 sin 45
= 5000 3535.433
2
CE = 5000 sin 45
= 5000 3535.433
2
CD = CE DE
= 3535.533 1000
= 2535.533
tan COD = 2535.533
3535.533
= 0.7171
COD = 35.65
Bearing = 180 + 35.65
= 215.65

Let the angle of elevation be .


2
2
2
OC = 3535.533 + 2535.533
= 18 928 932
OC = 4350.739
tan = 500
4350.739
= 0.1149
= 6.56 = 633'

263

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

264

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

Use the sine rule.


sin Y = sin X
x
y
sin Y = sin 62
18
21

sin Y = 18 sin 62
21
= 0.7568

Y = 49.2
2

c = a + b 2ab cos C
2

7
C

C
8

Area = 1 bc sin A
2
= 1 5 3 sin 30
2
2

= 3.75 cm

Use the cosine rule.


cos C = a + b c
2ab
2
2
2
= 5.2 + 6.8 7.3
2 5.2 6.8
= 0.2826
C 74

1.8 cm

= 30 + 21 2 30 21 51
53
= 128.547
c 11

cos C = 6 + 6 5
266
= 0.6527
c
C = 49.248 = 0.8595
2
Segment area = 1 r ( sin )
2
2
1
= 6 (0.8595 sin 0.8595)
2

Use the cosine rule.


2

First find the angle at the centre


using the cosine rule.

500 = tan 20
d
d = 500
tan 20
1374 m

tan = 80
1300
= 0.0615
= 3.521 4

The other angles in the (isosceles)


triangle are both
180 130 = 25.
2

Use the sine rule.


10 = r
sin 130 sin 25

r = 10 sin 25

sin 130
5.52 cm

tan = 7 = 1.4
5
= 54

Bearing = 270 + 54 = 324


10 215 180 = 035

C
A

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

265

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

a = b + c 2bc cos A
2
2
2
6 = x + 10 2x 10 3
2
2
x 10 3 x + 64 = 0

x = 10 3 300 4 1 64
2
= 10 3 44
2
= 10 3 2 11
2
= 5 3 11
b

sin y = sin 30
6
10

sin y = 10 sin 30
6
10
5
=
=
12 6
1
y = sin 5
6

Triangle is isosceles, so B = 30
and C = 150.
Area = 1 40 40 sin 150
2
2
= 400 cm
= 1 bh
2
20h = 400
h = 20 cm
CM = sin 30
40
CM = 40 sin 30
= 20 cm

= 16 19 = 4 19 km

Use the cosine rule.


2
2
2
AC = 5 + 5 2 5 5 cos 120
= 25 + 25 + 25
= 75
AC = 75 = 5 3 cm

Area = 1 5 5 sin 120


2
2
= 25 3 cm
4

In isosceles triangle ABC,


ACB = BAC
= 1 (180 120) = 30
2
ACD = 90 30 = 60
Area of ADC = 1 7 AC sin 60
2
=175 3 3
2
2
2
105
=
cm
4

1
or sin 5
6
Since both answers to a are positive, this
must be an ambiguous case.

2
a

QR = 12 + 20 2 12 20 cos 60
= 144 + 400 240
= 304
QR = 304

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Total area = 25 3 + 105


4
4
3
+
105
25
=
4
3
+ 21) cm2
5(5
=
4

9
a

x = 180 37 = 143

cos S = 10 + 7 8
2 10 7
85
=
= 17
140 28

AT = 300
sin 135 sin 15
= 1 1200
2
6 2
1200
=
12 2
= 1200 = 600
2 3 2
3 1
3
+1
600
=

3 1
3 +1
= 600( 3 + 1)
31
= 300( 3 + 1) m

4
6 2

10

sin B = sin A
b
a
sin B = sin 60
6
5
sin ABC = sin B

= 6 sin 60
5
= 6 3
52
=3 3
5
A=1r
2
2
1
33 = 6
2
= 18
= 33 = 11 (radians)
18 6

i TAB = 90 60 = 30
ii ATB = 180 30 (90 + 45)
= 15

AT = sin 135 300

266

Use the cosine rule.


2
2
AC = b
2
2
= a + c 2ac cos B
2
2
= 11 + 15 2 11 15 cos 60
= 121 + 225 165
= 181
AC = 181 km

11

Draw a line AD in an easterly direction


from A (parallel to BC.)

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

13

DAC = 30
ACB = DAC = 30
ABC = 180 30 30
= 120
BC = 2.4 km
Use the cosine rule to find AC.
2
2
AC = b
2
2
= a + c 2ac cos B
2
2
= 2.4 + 2.4 2 2.4 2.4 cos 120
= 5.76 + 5.76 + 5.76 = 17.28
AC = 17.28

= 5.76 3
= 2.4 3 or 12 3 km
5
12
a Draw a perpendicular from O to bisect AB.
sin AOD = 12
13
1
AOD = sin 12
13
1 12
AOB = 2 sin
13
arc AB = r
1
= 13 2 sin 12
13
1 12
= 26 sin
13
b

ReflexAOB = 2 2 sin 12
13
2
1 12

1
area = 13 2 2 sin

2
13

1
2
= 169 sin 12 cm
13

Note: the perpendicular distance from


O to AB can be calculated to be
5 cm using Pythagoras theorem, and so
1
1
1
sin 12 = cos 5 = tan 12.
13
13
5
Either of these three angles may be used
interchangeably.
1

267

l = r
30 = 12
c
= 30 = 5
12 2
2
A = 1 12 5
2
2
2
= 180 cm

14 The reflex angle = 2 2


2 3.14 2
4.28 radians
Arc length 5 4.28
= 21.4 cm
15 First calculate the distance of each boat
from the cliff.
The first boat will form a right-angled
isosceles triangle and is 11 m from the
cliff.

For the second boat,


11 = tan 30 = 1
d
3

d = 11 3 m

Use the cosine rule.


2
2
2
x = 11 + (11 3 ) 2 11 11 3 cos 30
= 121 + 363 363
= 121
x = 11 m

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

268

Chapter 13 Revision of chapters 812


Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions
1

cos = 2.1
2.6
= 0.8076
36

Maximum = 2
Minimum = 4
Amplitude = 2 4
2
=2

c = a
sin C sin A
c = 58
sin 38 sin 130

c = 58 sin 38

sin 130

Convert both to mm.


The scale is 45 : 17 100
Divide both parts of the ratio by 45.
Scale = 1 : 380
C

( x, y) (y, x)
(5, 2) (2, 5)

cos A = 1 sin A
= 1 25
169
=

D
2

144 = 12
169 13

cos B = 1 sin B
= 1 64
289

225 = 15
289 17
sin (A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B
= 5 15 12 8
13 17 13 17
75
96
=
221
= 21
B
221
=

The sine and cosine rules allow us to


find the unknown quantities:
Area = 1 bc sin A
2
2
2
2
a = b + c 2bc cos A
sin B = sin A b
a
D
All three statements are correct.
AG = 15 = 3
DG 5
AG = 3DG = 18

AE = 18 9 = 9
BG = AG
FG EG
FG + 6 = 18 = 2
9
FG
FG + 6 = 2FG
FG = 6

x =6=2
FG 9 3
x = 2 FG
3
2
= 6=4
3

(x, y) ( y, x)
(2, 6) (6, 2)

10 The graph is y = cos (a) raised 1 unit,


i.e. y = cos (a) + 1
E
2

11 cos A = 1 sin A
= 1 25
169

144 = 12
169 13
2

cos B = 1 sin B
= 1 64
289
=

225 = 15
289 17

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

tan A = sin A
cos A
= 5 12
13 13
= 5 13 = 5
13 12 12
tan B = sin B
cos B
= 8 15
17 17
= 8 17 = 8
17 15 15
tan (A + B) = tan A + tan B
1 tan A tan B
5 + 8
12 15
=
1 5 8
12 15
Multiply numerator and denominator
by 12 15.
tan (A + B) = 5 15 + 8 12
12 15 5 8
= 75 + 96
180 40
171
=
E
140
12 The image after translation is
(5 + 2, 4 + 3) = (7, 7)
The y-ordinate, 7, is 8 units below
y = 1.
After reflection, it will be 8 units above
y = 1, i.e. 9.
The x-ordinate will be unchanged.
B
The final image will be (7, 9).
13 Write both in cm.
The ratio is 8 : 320 = 1 : 40
14 sin x = 3
2
6

x = or
3
6 3
x = + or 2 +
3 6
3 6
5

= or
6
2
15 Area = 1 bc sin A
2
1
= 6 7 sin 48
2

269

16 sin = 1 c
cot = cos
sin
c
=
2
1c

17 When a = 0, y = 1.
This must mean that the equation is a
sine function (since sin 0 = 0), where the
result is then reduced by 1 (0 1 = 1).

Only C fits that description.

18 Start with the point in the first quadrant,


left of x = m.
The y-ordinate will be unchanged.
The x-ordinate initially will be (m a)
left of x = m.
After reflection, it will be (m a) to the
right of x = m, i.e. m + (m a).
A
The point will be (2m a, b).
19 = l
r
3
= radians
4
This is 3 180 = 135
4

4258

20 y = a sin b
Amplitude = a
= 1 for both graphs
Period = 2
b
2
=
= 2 for first equation
1
2
=
= 4 for second equation
1
2
y = sin 1 has the same amplitude
2
A
but double the period.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

21 Refer to Q.18 regarding reflection in the


line x = 4.
(x, y) 1 x, y
2

8 x, y
2

y' = y y = y'
x' = 8 1 x x = 16 2x'
2
x + y = 4 (16 2x') + y' = 4
y' = 4 (16 2x')
= 2x' 12
Image: {(x, y): y = 2x 12}
E
22 cos A cos B sin A sin B = cos (A + B)
= cos
2
=0
D
2

23 cos A = 1 sin A
=15=4
9 9
2
cos A =
3
sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A
=2 5 2
3
3
= 4 5
9

25 y = 0 when x = and 2
12
3
Since sin 0 = 0, this is a sine function
where y = sin a x .
12

The graph is positive between 0 and ,


so the function will be positive.
Only y = sin 2 x fits these
12

A
criteria.
26

28
E

29

30

DE = 10 = 2.5
AB 4
DE = 2.5 AB
2
Area = 2.5 24
2
= 150 cm

27 Period = 180 = 60
3
The tangent graph does not have an
amplitude.
The graph is y = 2 tan (3x) reflected in
the x-axis.
A
Only i and iv are correct.

24

Use similar triangles.


x = 1.6
2 5.6
= 16 = 2
56 7
4
x=
7
0.57 m

270

(x, y) (x + 3, y + 2)
(x + 3, y 2)
x' = x + 3 x = x' 3
y' = y 2 y = y' 2
2
y=x
2
y' 2 = (x' + 3)
2
y' + 2 = (x' + 3)
2
Image: {( x, y): (x + 3) = y + 2} B

60 r2 = 1 52
360
6
2
13.09 cm
KO : KN = 1 : 3
area KOP = 1
area MLK 9
area KOP
=11= 1
area (MLK + MNK) 9 2 18
area KOP = 1
area KLMN 18

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

31

32

OE = 40 mm
tan = VO
OE
= 100 = 2.5
40
68

sin = 1 c
sin 2 = 2 sin cos
= 2c 1 c

33 (x, y) 1 x, y
3

x, 2y
3

1
x' = x x = 3x'
3
y' = 2y y = 1 y'
2
x
=
2
y
1 y' = 23x'
2
3x'
y' = 2 2
3x
Image: y = 2 2

34 Write in the form R cos ( x + ).


2

R= 4 +3 =5
cos = 4
5
= 36.869
5 cos (x + 36.869) = 1
cos (x + 36.869) = 1 = 0.2
5
x + 36.869 = 78.463
or 360 78.463
= 281.536
x 41.59
C
or 244.67
3

35

271

A + B = 5 = 125
3
27
A
3
A + 49 = 125
27
A
27A + 49 27 = 125A
98A = 49 27
A = 49 27
98
3
= 27 = 13.5 cm
2

36 110 = 110
180
c
c
= 11 1.9198
18
2
1
A = r ( sin )
2
2
1
= 45 (1.9198 sin 1.9198)
2
2
992 cm
B
3

37 8 sin cos 8 sin cos


2
2
= 8 sin cos (cos sin )
= 4 sin 2 cos
= 2 sin 4
C
38 The graph has asymptotes at
2
and 3, so the graph is not shifted left
2
or right (no addition or subtraction after
the tan function).
(0, 3) is an x-intercept, so the equation
must produce y = 3 when x = 0.
Only C fills these criteria.
C
3
2 2
39 2 R : 1 r = 27 : 4
3
3
3
3
2R : r = 27 : 4
3
3
R : r = 27 : 4
2
= 27 : 8

R : r = 3 27 : 3 8
R:r=3:2

40 TS means S followed by T.
If the x-ordinate is on the right of x = 2,
its distance from x = 2 after reflection
will be x 2 units to the left of x = 2.
The new x-ordinate will be
2 (x 2) = 4 x.
The y-ordinate will be unchanged.
(x, y) (4 x, y)
(4 x + 2, y + 3)
TS(x, y) (6 x, y + 3)
D

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

41 The net transformation is


0 1 1 0 = 0 1

2 1 0 1 2 1
0 1 0 = 0


2 1 0 0
0 1 1 = 1

2 1 1 3
0 1 0 = 1

2 1 1 1
0 1 1 = 0


2 1 0 2
These points correspond to E.

272

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 14 Circle theorems


Exercise 14A Solutions
2

1
a

50 = 1 x
2
x = 100
y=1x
2
= 50

y = 360 108 = 252


x = 1 290 = 1451
2
x = 1 108 = 54
2

Acute O = 2 35 = 70
z = 360 70 = 290
y = 1 290 = 145
2

O = 180
x = 360 180 = 180
y = 90 (Theorem 3)

3x + x = 180
4x = 180
x = 45
z = 2 3x
= 2 3 45 = 270
y = 360 270
= 90

x + y + 25 + 125 = 360
x + y = 210
A line from x to the 125 angle will
create two isosceles triangles one with
angles 25, 25 and x1, and angles 100,
y and x2.
The base angles in an isosceles triangle
are complementary, so y = 100.
x = 210 100 = 110

The opposite angles of a cyclic


quadrilateral are supplementary.
x + 112 = 180
x = 68
y + 59 = 180
y = 121

x + 68 = 180
x = 112
y + 93 = 180
y = 87

x + 130 = 180
x = 50
y + 70 = 180
y = 110

Let the equal angles be x.


2x + 40 = 180
2x = 140
x = 70
The angles in the minor segments will
be the opposite angles of cyclic
quadrilaterals.
180 70 = 110
180 70 = 110
180 40 = 140

273

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

274

4
A

28
E

70

B
A

20

C
E

In cyclic quadrilateral ABDE, DEA = 110


On arc DC, DBC = 28
ABC = 70 + 28 = 98
Join EB. Equal chords will subtend
equal angles at the circumference.
ABE = EBD = 35
EAD = 35 (also on equal arcs )
On arc BC, BAC = BDC = 20
EAB = 35 + 28 + 20 = 83
In cyclic quadrilateral ABDE,
EDB = 180 83 = 97
EDC = 97 + 20 = 117
In cyclic quadrilateral ABCD,
BCD = 180 (28 + 20) = 132

ADE + ADC = 180


ABC = ADC (opposite angles in a
parallelogram)
ADE + ABC = 180
AED + ABC = 180 (opposite
angles in a cyclic quadrilateral)
ADE = AED
AE = AD

7
C

B
120

D
A

BAC = BDC (subtended by the same


arc)
DAC = BDA (subtended by equal arcs)
BAC + DAC = BDC + BDA
BAD = ADC
ADC + ABC = 180 (opposite angles in
a cyclic quadrilateral)
BAD + ABC = 180
BC and AD are thus parallel, as co-interior
angles are supplementary

ADC = 120 = 60
2
If B and D are on opposite sides of
AOC, then ADC = 240 = 120.
2
(Reflex angle ADC = 360 120 will
be used.)
8

The opposite angles in a parallelogram


are equal.
In a cyclic parallelogram, the opposite
angles will add to 180.
the opposite angles equal 90 .
all angles are 90 , i.e. the
parallelogram is a rectangle (subtended
by the same arc).

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

9
C

B

Q
R
P

In triangle BCS,
BSC = 180 SBC BCS
= 180 1ABC 1BCD
2
2
Likewise,
AQD = 180 1BAC 1CDA
2
2
BSC + ACD = 180 1ABC 1BCD + 180 1BAD 1CDA
2
2
2
2
1

= 360 (ABC + BCD + BAD + CDA)


2
ABC + BCD + BAD + CDA = 360 (angle sum of quadrilateral)
BSC + AQD = 360 180
= 180
both pairs of opposite angles in PQRS will add to 180.
PQRS is a cyclic quadrilateral.

275

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

276

Exercise 14B Solutions


1
a

x = 73 (alternate segments)
y = 81 (alternate segments)

T = 90
x = 90 33 = 57
q = 57 (alternate segment theorem)

116 A
E

y = 74 (alternate segments)
z = 180 74
2
= 53
x = 53 (alternate segments)

x = 180 80 40 = 60
Use the alternate segment theorem to
find the other angles.
y = 180 60 60 = 60
w = 180 40 40 = 100
z = 180 80 80 = 20

w = z = x = 54 (alternate segment, alternate


angles and isosceles triangle PTS)
y = 180 54 54 = 72

Triangle ABC is isosceles;


ABC = ACB
= 180 116 = 32
2
Using the alternate angle theorem,
BDC = ACB = 32.
BEC + BDC = 180
(opposite angles in cyclic quadrilateral
BCED)
BEC = 180 32 = 148
5
E

2
a

BCX = 40

CBD = 40

ABC = 2 40 = 80

In CAT,
ACB = 180 30 110 = 40
The alternate segment theorem shows
BAT = 40.
CAB = 110 40 = 70
In CAB,
ABC = 180 40 70 = 70

There are multiple ways of proving this result.


ADB = DCB (alternate segment theorem)
DCB = DCE (subtended by equal arcs)
ADB = DCE
DBA + DBC = 180
DEC + DBC = 180

DBA = DEC
triangles ABD and CDE are similar,
since two pairs of opposite angles are
equal.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

277

6
C

T
A

P
A

TCB = CBA (alternate angles)


TCB = CAB (alternate segment)
CBA = CAB
ABC is an isosceles triangle with
CA = CB.
7
A
B
T
P
Q

TAP = AQP (alternate segment)


AQP = BAQ (alternate angles)
TAP = BAQ
APT + APQ = 180 (adjacent angles)
AQB + APQ = 180 (opposite angles)

APT = ABQ
Triangles PAT and BAQ are similar, since
two pairs of opposite angles are equal.

Let T be the point where the perpendicular


from P meets the tangent at A
Let O be the centre of the circle.
Join PA and PB.
Consider triangles OAN and OBN:
ANO = BNO = 90
OA = OB (radii)
ON is common to both triangles.
AON BON (RHS)
AN = BN
Now consider triangles PAN and PBN:
AN = BN
PNA = PNB = 90
PN is common to both triangles.
PAN PBN (SAS)
PAN = PBN
Now consider triangles PAT and PAN:
PBN = PAT (alternate segment theorem)
PAT = PAN
PTA = PNA = 90
PA is common to both triangles.
PAT PAN (AAS)
PT = PN

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

278

Exercise 14C Solutions


1

3
A

D
C

7 cm

P
D

APPB = CPPD
5 4 = 2PD
PD = 10 cm

PD = 7 cm 5 cm = 2 cm
Let PB = x cm
PA = 4x cm
APPB = CPPD
4x x = 12 2
2
x =6
x= 6
AB = 4 6 + 5
= 5 6 cm

APPB = CPPD
4PB = 3 8
PB = 6 cm

2
B

O
5c
m

8 cm

5 cm

3 cm

O
Q
B
R

Let the centre of the circle be O and the


length of the radius r cm.
Extend OP to meet the circumference of the
circle at C and D.
CP = r 3 and PD = r + 3
CPPD = APPB
(r 3)(r + 3) = 8 5
2
r 9 = 40
2
r = 49
r = 7 cm

Use theorem 9:
2
PQ = PAPB
2
PR = PAPB
2
2
PQ = PR
PQ = PR

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

279

6
A

C
Q

P
O
B
A

Let the centre of the circles be O.


Let the radii of the larger and smaller
circles be R and r respectively.
Let QP produced meet the larger
circle at S.
By symmetry, SP = RQ.
Extend OQ to meet the larger circle at A
and C, and the smaller circle at B.
Since SP = RQ,
SP + PQ = RQ + PQ
SQ = PR

Using the large circle,


SQRQ = AQCQ
PRRQ = (R + r)(R r), which is constant

Let P be a point on BC such that AP is


perpendicular to BC.
Because ABC is isosceles, AP will bisect AB.
Let AP = x and PC = PB = y.
DP = y BD
CD = 2y BD
Using Pythagoras theorem twice, we
2
2
2
get AB = x + y in triangle ABP and in
triangle ADP.
2
2
2
AD = x + (y BD)
2
2
2
= x + y 2y BD + BD
2
= AB BD(2y BD)
2
= AB BDCD
BDCD = DEAD
2
2
AD = AB DEAD
2
2
AB = AD + DEAD
= AD(AD + DE)
= ADAE

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

280

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

In isosceles triangle ABD,


ABD = ADB
= 180 70 = 55
2
ACD is subtended by the same arc, so
B
ACD = 55.

In quadrilateral OAPB,
OAP = OBP = 90
APB = 360 150 90 90
= 30
The angle subtended at the
circumference on minor arc AB is
150 = 75.
2
This angle is opposite Q in a cyclic
quadrilateral.
A
AQB = 180 75 = 105

BAD = 50 (alternate segment theorem)


ABD = 50 (alternate segment theorem)
In triangle ABD,
ADB = 180 50 50
= 80
A

7
A
P

There are multiple ways to solve this


problem.
OAB = 68
BAT = 90 68 = 22
ABT = 180 20 68 = 92
E
ATB = 180 22 92 = 66
BAC = 60
Reflex BOC = 360 120
= 240
In quadrilateral ABOC,
ABO = 360 240 42 60
= 18

APPB = CPPD
12 6 = 2PD
PD = 36 cm
8

DAB = 180 65 = 115


Corresponding angles on parallel lines
C
CBE = 115

NB = 13 5 = 8 cm
NQ = PN
ANNB = PNNQ
2
= PN
2
18 8 = PN
PN = 144 = 12cm
2
2
2
PB = 12 + 8 = 208
PB = 208
= 16 13
= 4 13 cm

In triangle BAX,
BAX = 180 40 105
= 35
Angles are subtended by the same arc
A
XSC = BAX = 35

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

10 CDA = 90 (angle subtended by a


diameter)
In triangle ACD,
CAD = 180 90 25
= 65
CBD = ACD = 65
BCD = 180 75 = 105
In triangle BCD,
BDC = 180 105 65
= 10
A

281

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

282

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


2

1
a

Theorem 1: y = 140 = 70
2
Theorem 4: x + y = 180
x = 180 70 = 110

Name the quadrilateral ABCD, in which


y is at A and x is at B.
Let P be the point of intersection of AC
and BD.
In triangle XCD,
CDX = 180 50 75
= 55
BCD = 90
(angle subtended by a diameter)
In triangle BCD,
x = BDC
= 180 90 55
= 35
y = x = 35 (angles subtended by the
same arc)

Angles in the same segment are equal:


x = 47
y = 53
z = 360 (180 53 47) (180 53 47)
2
360

160
=
2
= 100

First note that y = x.


Consider the concave quadrilateral
containing the 30 angle.
Its angles are 30, 180 70 = 110, x +
70 and x + 70, using supplementary
angles, vertically opposite angles and
exterior angles of a triangle.
x + 70 + x + 70 + 110 + 30 = 260
2x + 280 = 260
x = 40
y = 40
z = 180 (x + 70)
= 70

Using angles on arc AP,


POA = 2CBA
Using alternate angles, POA = CAB
CAB = 2CBA

Using angles on arc AP,


POA = 2CBA
Using alternate angles, OPC = CBA
Using the exterior angle of triangle
OCP,
PCA = POC + OPC
= POA + OPC
PCA = 2CBA + CBA
= 3CBA

OBC = OAB + AOB


(exterior angle of triangle AOB)
OBC = OAB + AOB
(exterior angle of triangle AEB)
BAE = 1OAB
2
BEA = 1AOB (angles on arc AB)
2
1
EBC = (OAB + AOB)
2
= 1OBC
2
i.e. EB bisects OBC.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

283

Make a construction as shown below.

A
48

Marked angle = 180 48


2

= 66
x = 66(alternate segment)
y = 180 66
= 114 (cyclic quadrilateral)

PBD = BAP (alternate segment)


BAP = BDQ (angles on arc BQ)
PBD = BDQ
These are alternate angles on BP and QD.
BP is parallel to QD.
5
a

6
Q

The base angle of the isosceles triangle


is 57 (alternate segment theorem)
x = 180 57 57
= 66

Make a construction as shown below.


x

64
P

Consider triangles MNQ and NPM.


MQN = NMP (alternate segment)
MNQ = NPM (alternate segment)
the triangles are similar and
MN = QM .
NP MN
2
Cross multiplying gives MN = NPQM

y = 64 (alternate segment theorem)


x = 180 64
= 116 (cyclic quadrilateral)

AEEB = CEED
15 5 = 25ED
ED = DE
= 3 cm

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 15 Vectors
Exercise 15A Solutions
4

1
a

1 is the vector "1 across to the right



5
and 5 up."

0 is the vector "2 down."



2

1 is the vector "1 across to the left



2

OA = 1 0 = 1
2 0 2

AB = 3 1 = 2
0 2 2

BC = 2 3 = 1
3 0 3

CO = OC = 2
3

CB = BC = 1
3

5
a

and 2 down."

b
d

4 is the vector "1 across to the left



3
and 3 up."

c
2

u = 6 1 = 5
6 5 1
a = 5, b = 1
v = 2 1 = 3
10 5 15
a = 3, b = 15

284

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

285

f
e

7
6
a

From the graphs above it can be seen


that a and c are parallel.

8
a&b

d
d

AB = 1 1
40
DC = 4 2
3 1
AB = DC
ii BC = 4 1
34
AD = 2 1
1 0
BC = AD
i

= 2
4
= 2
4
= 3
1
= 3
1

ABCD is a parallelogram.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

9
a

i a + b = 1 + 1
2 3
= 1 + 1 = 2
2 + 3 1
ii 2c a = 2 2 1
1 2
4

= 1 = 5
22 0
iii a + b c = 2 2
1 1
= 2 2 = 4
1 1 2

a + b = 2 = c
1
a + b is parallel to c.

10 m 3 + n 2 = 3m + 2n
3
4 3m 4n
= 3m + 2n = 19
3m + 4n 61
3m + 2n = 19
6m + 4n = 38
c
3m + 4n = 61
d
c d:
9m = 99
m = 11
33 + 2n = 19
2n = 19 + 33
= 14
n=7
11
a i MD = MA + AD
= 1 BA + b
2
= 1 AB + b
2
=b1a
2
ii MN = MA + AD + DN
= 1 BA + b + 1 DN
2
2
1
= AB + b + 1 DC
2
2
1
1
= a+b+ a
2
2
=b

286

MN = AB
(both are equal to b)

12
a CB = CA + AB
= a+b
MN = MA + AN
= 1b+1a
2
2
1
= ( a + b)
2
b

MN is half the length of CB , is parallel to


CB and in the opposite direction to CB.

13
a

CD = AF = a

ED = AB = b

The regular hexagon can be divided into


equilateral triangles, showing that

BE = 2AF = 2a.
d

Likewise, FC = 2AB = 2b

FA = AF = a

FB = FA + AB
= a+b=ba

FE = FA + AB + BE
= a + b + 2a
=a+b

14

DC = AB = a

DA = BC = b

AC = AB + BC = a + b

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

CA = AC = a b
b

BD = BA + AD
= a+b=ba

QS = QR + RS = v + w
PS = PQ + QR + RS
=u+v+w

15
17

BA = BO + OA = a b

AB = BA = b a
PB = 1 AB = 1 (b a)
3
3

AP = 2 AB = 2 (b a)
3
3
OP = OA + AP
= a + 2 (b a)
3
1
= a+2b
3
3
1
= (a + 2b)
3

PQ = 1 OP
3
= 1 1 (a + 2b)
3 3
1
= (a + 2b)
9

OB = OA + AB = u + v
AM = MB
= 1 AB = 1 v
2
2
OM = OA + AM
=u+1v
2

CM = CB + BM
= u + 1 BA
2
1
=u v
2

CP = 2 CM
3
= 2 u 1 v
2
3
2
1
= u v
3
3

OP = OC + CP
= v + 2 u 1 v
3
3
2
2
= u+ v
3
3
2
= (u + v) = 2 AB
3
3
Since OP is parallel to OB and they
share a common point O, OP must be on
the line OP. Hence P is on OB.

Using the result from part d,


OP : PB = 2 : 3.

BP = PB = 1 (a b)
3
BQ = BP + OA
= 1 (a b) + a
3
= 1 (4a b)
3

16

PR = PQ + QR = u + v

287

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 15B Solutions


1

AB = (3i 5j) (i + 2j)


= 3i 5i i 2j
= 2i 7j

OP = OA + AP
= 5i + 6j

AB = AO + OB
= 5i + 6j

BA = AB
= 5i 6j

AB = AO + OB
= OA + OB
= 10i + (4i + 5j)
= 6i + 6j
AM = 1 AB
2
= 3i + 5 j
2
OM = OA + AM
= 10i + 3i + 5 j
2

5
= 7i + j
2

3
2

5i = 5 = 5

2j = (2) = 2

3i + 4j = 3 + 4
= 9 + 16 = 5

5i + 12j = (5) + 12
= 25 + 144 = 13

xu + yv = x(7i + 8j) + y(2i 4j)


= 7xi + 8xj + 2yi 4yj
= 44j
7x + 2y = 0
14x + 4y = 0
c
8x 4y = 44
d
c + d:
22x = 44
x=2
7 2 + 2y = 0
2y = 14
y = 7

6
4
a

u v = (7i + 8j) (2i 4j)


= 7i + 8j 2i + 4j
= 5i + 12j
|u v| = |5i + 12j|
= 25 + 144
= 13

i OM = 1 OP
5
2
= i
5
ii MQ = MO + OQ
= OM + OQ
= 2i+j
5

288

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

iii MN = 1 MQ
6
= 1 2 i + j
6 5

1
1
=
i+ j
15
6
iv ON = OM + MN
= 2 i + 1 + 1 j
5
15i 6
1
1
= i+ j
3
6

OA = 1 = i + 3j
3
OB = 5 = 5i j
1
AB = OA + OB
= i 3j + 5i j
= 4i 4j

8
a

AB = 4 + (4)
= 16 + 16
= 32 = 4 2 units

2i + 3j = 2li + 2kj
2j = 2
l=1
2k = 3
k=2
3

x1=5
x=6
y=x4
=2

c
d

x+y=6
xy=0
c + d:
2x = 6
x=3
3+y=6
y=3

k = 3 + 2l
k = 2 l
3 + 2l = 2 l
3l = 5
l= 5
3

v OA = OP + PA
= 2i + j
i ON = 1 i + 1 j
3
6
1
= (2i + j)
6
1
= OA
6
Since ON is parallel to OA and they
share a common point O, ON must be
on the line OA. Hence N is on OA.
ii 1 : 5

289

k = 2 5
3
5
= 2 +
3
1
=
3
9
a

AB = 5 2
1 3
= 3
2
= 3i 2j

AB = 3 + (2)
= 9+4
= 13

10
a

AB = i + 4j 3i
= 2i + 4j

AC = 3i + j 3i
= 6i + j

BC = AC AB
= 6i + j (2i + 4j)
= 4i 3j

BC = (4) + (3)
= 16 + 9
=5

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

11
a Let D = (a, b).
AB = 5i + 3j
CD = ( a + 1)i + bj
a + 1 = 5
a = 6
b=3
D is (6, 3).
b

Let F = (c, d).


BC = i 4j
AF = (c 5)i + (d 1)j
c 5 = 1
c=4
d 1 = 4
d = 3
F is (4, 3).
Let G = (e, f).
AB = 5i + 3j
2GC = 2(1 e)i + 2( f)j
2(1 e) = 5
e=3
2
2f = 3
f= 3
2
3
3

G is , .
2 2

13

i 2i j
ii 5i + 4j
iii i + 7j
iv 6i + 3j
v AD = BC
= 6i + 3j

AD = OD OA
OD = AD + OA
= 6i + 3j + 2i j
= 8i + 2j
D is (8, 2).

14
a OP = 12i + 5j
PQ = OQ OP
= 18i + 13j 12i 5j
= 6i + 8j
b

RQ = OP
2

= 12 + 5
= 13

OR = PQ
2

12 OA = AO
= i 4j
A is (1, 4).

B is (2, 2).

290

= 6 +8
= 10
15
a

BC = OC OB
OC = BC + OB
= 2i + 8j + (2i + 2j)
= 10j
C is (0, 10)

AB = |2i 5j|
2

= 2 + 5 = 29

ii

BC = |10i + 4j|
2

= 10 + 4
= 116 = 2 29

iii CA = |12i j|
2

= 12 + 1 = 145

AB + BC = 29 + 116
2
= 145 = AC
ABC is a right-angled triangle.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

16
a

17
i AB = i 3j

ii BC = 4i + 2j

ii OB = 7j

iii CA = 3i + j

iii BA = 3i 5j
iv BM = 1 BA
2
1
= (3i 5j)
2

ii

AB = 1 + 3
= 10

BC = 4 + 2
= 20 = 2 5

iii CA = 3 + 1
= 10
c

i OA = 3i + 2j

AB = CA
= 10
2
2
AB + CA = 10 + 10
2
= 20 = BC
ABC is an isosceles right-angled
triangle.

OM = OB + BM
OD = 7j + 3 i 5 j
2
2
9
3
= i+ j
2
2
3

M = , 5
2 2

291

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

292

Exercise 15C Solutions


1
a

a b = (i + j + 2k) (2i j + 3k)


= i + 2j k

3b 2a + c = 3(2i j + 3k)
2(i + j + 2k) + ( i + k)
= 6i 3j + 9k 2i 2j
4k i + k
= 3i 5j + 6k

|b| = 2 + (1) + 3
= 4+1+9
= 14

3(a b) + 2c = 3((i + j + 2k) (2i j + 3k))


+ 2( i + k)
= 3( i + 2j k) 2i + 2k
= 3i + 6j 3k 2i + 2k
= 5i + 6j k

PQ = i 3j

i |a| = 3 + 1 + 1
= 11
^
a = 1 (3i + j k)
11
= 3 i+ 1 j 1 k
11
11
11
6
2
a=
i
j+ 2 k
ii 2^
11
11
11

5^
a = 15 i + 5 j 5 k
11
11
11

PQ = 1 + 3 + 0
= 10

OM = OP + PM
= OP + 1 PQ
2
= i + 2j k + 1 i 3 j
2
2
1
3
= i+ jk
2
2

2
a

= 1 + (1) + 4
= 18 = 3 2

|a| = 1 + 1 + 5
= 27 = 3 3

|b| = 2 + 1 + 3
= 14
c = |a| a
|b|
= 14 (i j + 5k)
3 3
= 42 (i j + 5k)
9

|b + c| = |(2i j + 3k) + ( i + k)|


= |i j + 4k|
2

5
a

OB = OA + OC
= 2j + 2k

OE = OA + OD
= i + 2j

OG = OC + OD
= i + 2k

OF = OA + OC + OD
= i + 2j + 2k

ED = OA
= 2j

EG = OA + OC
= 2j + 2k

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

CE = OC + OA + OD
= i + 2j 2k

BD = OC OA + OD
= i 2j 2k

6
a

OE = OA + AE
= i + 3j
OM = 1 OE
3
1
= i+j
3
BF = OD
=i
BN = 1 BF
2
1
= i
2
ON = OC + CB + BN
= 1 i + 3j + 2k
2
MN = ON OM
= 1 i + 3j + 2k 1 i + j
2
3

1
= i + 2j + 2k
6

MN =

1 + 22 + 22
6

1 + 144 + 144
36

289
36

293

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 15D Solutions


b

1
a

i OR = 4 OP
5
4
= p
5
1
ii RP = OP
5
1
= p
5
iii PQ = q p
iv PS = 1 PQ
5
1
= ( q p)
5
v RS = RP + PS
= 1 p + 1 (q p)
5
5
1
= q
5

They are parallel (and OQ = 5RS).

A trapezium (one pair of parallel lines).

The area of triangle POQ is 25 times the


area of PRS = 125 cm2.
area of ORSQ = 125 5
= 120 cm2

2
a

AP = 2 AB and CQ = 6 CB.
3
7

OP = OA + AP
= OA + 2 AB
3
2
= a + (b a)
3
1
= a+2b
3
3
OQ = OC + CQ
= OC + 6 CB
7
6
= ka + (b ka)
7
k
= a+6b
7
7

OPQ is a straight line if OP = nOQ.


1 a + 2 b = n k a + 6 b
7
3
3
7

= nk a + 6n b
7
7
2 = 6n
3 7
n = 14 = 7
18 9
1 a + 2 b = 7 k a + 6 b
3
9 7
7
3
=ka+2b
9
3
k=1
9 3
k=3

3
a

i OD = 1 OB
3
1
= (6i 1.5j)
3
= 2i 0.5j
AB = 3i 6j
AE = 1 (3i 5j)
4
= 0.75i 1.25j
OE = OA + AE
= 3i + 3.5j + 0.75i 1.25j
= 3.75i + 2.25j
= 15 i + 9 j
4
4
ii
ED = 2i 0.5j 15 i + 9 j
4
4
6
11
= i
j
4
4
2
2

7 + 11
ED =

4
4


= 49 + 121
16
= 170
16
170
=
4

294

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4
a

i OX = 15p i + 9p j
4
4
ii AD = 2i 0.5j (3i + 3.5j)
= i 4j
XD = qi 4qj
OD = OX + OD
OX = OD XD
= 2i = 0.5j ( qi 4qj)
= (q + 2)i + (4q 0.5)j
(q + 2)i + (4q 0.5)j = 15p i +
4
15p
q+2=
4
4q + 8 = 15p
4q 0.5 = 9p
4
51p
8.5 =
c d:
4
8.5
4
p=
51
=2
3
q + 2 = 15p
4
10
=
=5
4 2
q=1
2

PQ = q p
= PM + MQ
MQ = PM

PQ = PM + PM

=
PM

PM = PQ
+
OM = OP + PM
= p + (q p)
+ ba
+

p + (q p)
=
+
+ ba
=+p+ q
+
+
+
p
q
=
+

It can be seen from the parallelogram


formed by adding a and b that a +
will lie on the bisector of angle POQ.
Hence any multiple, (a + b), will
also lie on this bisector.
ii If p = ka and q = lb, then
OM = p + q
+
= ka + lb
an +
If M is the bisector of POQ ,
OM = a + b
l = k
Divide both sides by l:
=k
l

9p j
4
c
d

s = OS
= OR + RS
= OR + OT
=r+t

ST = OT OS
=ts
v = OV
= OS + SV
= OS + 1 ST
2
1
= s (t s)
2
1
= (s + t)
2

295

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Similarly:
u = OU
= OS + SU
= OS + 1 SR
2
1
= s (r s)
2
1
= (s + r)
2
u + v = 1 (s + r) + 1 (s + t)
2
2
1
= (2s + r + t)
2
2u + 2v = 2s + r + t
We may also express u as
u = OR + RU
= OR + 1 RS
2
= OR + 1 OT
2
=r+1t
2
u + v = 1 + 1 t + 1 (s + t)
2
2
1
= (s + 2r + 2t)
2
2u + 2v = s + 2r + 2t
Add the two expressions for 2u + 2v:
4u + 4v = 3s + 3r + 3t
= 3(s + r + t)

296

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

297

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

v = 3 1 = 2
5 1 4
a = 2, b = 4
CB = CA + AB
= AC + AB
=uv

a + b = 1 + 2
2 + 3
= 3
1

6
C
7
C
8
E

AB = OA + OB
= (i 2j) (2i + 3j)
= i 5j

| a| = 2 + 3
= 13
^
a = 1 (2i + 3j)
13

10 |a| = 3 + 1 + 3
= 19
^
a = 1 (3i + j + 3k)
19

SQ = SR + RQ
= PQ + QR
=pq

AB = | i 5j|
2

3
1
3 3
2

= (1) + (5)
= 1 + 25
= 26

2a 3b = 2

= 6 3
4 9
= 9
13

|3i 5j| = 3 + (5)


= 9 + 25
= 34

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

298

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

a is parallel to b if a = kb,
where k is a constant.
7i + 6j = k(2i + xj)
2k = 7
k=7
2
kx = 6
7x = 6
2
x = 12
7
2

|a| = 7 + 6
= 85

|b| = 2 + x
= |a| = 85
2
x + 4 = 85
2
x = 81
x=9

4
a

PQ = (3i 7j + 12k) (2i 2j + 4k)


= i 5j + 8k

2
b

A = (2, 1)

OB = OA + AB
= 5i + 3j
B = (5, 3)
AC = AB + BC
= AB + AD
= i + 9j
OC = OA + AC
= 2i j + i + 9j
= 3i + 8j
C = (3, 8)
OD = OA + AD
= 4j
D = (0, 4)

a + pb + qc = (2 + 2p q)i + (3 4p 4q)j
+ (1 + 5p + 2q)k
To be parallel to the x-axis,
a + pb + qc = ki
1 + 5p + 2q = 0
2 + 10p + 4q = 0
c
3 4p 4q = 0
d
c + d:
1 + 6p = 0
p=1
6
5
1 + + 2q = 0
6
2q = 11
6
11
q=
12

PQ = 1 + 5 + 8
= 90 = 3 10

1 ( i 5j + 8k)
3 10
AB = 4i + 8j + 16k
AC = xi + 12j + 24k
For A, B and C to be collinear, we need

AC = kAB .
xi + 12j + 24k = k(4i + 8j + 16k)
8k = 12
k = 1.5
x = 4k
=6
6
a

OA = 4 + 3
=5

Unit vector = 1 (4i + 3j)


5

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

OC = 16 OA
5
16
=
1 (4i + 3j)
5 5
= 16 (4i + 3j)
25

299

7
a

i SQ = b + a = a + b
ii TQ = 1 SQ
3
1
= (a + b)
3

Use the cosine rule.


2
2
2
|p + q| = 7 + 12 2 7 12 cos 60
= 109
|p + q| = 109

iii RQ = 2a + b + a = b a
iv PT = PQ + QT
= PQ TQ
= a 1 (a + b)
3
1
= (2a b)
3
v TR = TQ + QR
= TQ RQ
= 1 (a + b) (b a)
3
= 1 (4a 2b)
3
2
= (2a b)
3
b

8
a

2PT = TR
P, T and R are collinear.
a=b
i sj = 2j
s = 2
ii 5i = ti
t=5
iii 2k = uk
u=2
2
2
2
^
a= 5 +2 +2
= 25 + 4 + 4
= 33

10
a a + 2b = (5i + 2j + k) + 2 (3i 2j + k)
= 11i 2j + 3k
b

c
d

| a| = 5 + 2 + 1
= 30

^
a = 1 (5i + 2j + k)
30
a b = (5i + 2j + k) (3i 2j + k)
= 2i + 4j

11
a

OC = OA OB
= (3i + 4j) (4i 6j)
= i + 10j
C = (1, 10)

i + 24j = h(3i + 4j) + k(4i 6j)


3h + 4k = 1
4h 6k = 24
Multiply the first equation by 3 and the
second equation by 2.
9h + 12k = 3
c
8h 12k = 48
d
c + d:
17h = 51
h=3
9 + 4k = 1
k = 2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

12 mp + nq = 3mi + 7mj + 2ni 5nj


= 8i + 9j
3m + 2n = 8
7m 5n = 9
Multiply the first equation by 5 and the
second equation by 2.
15m + 10n = 40
c
14m 10n = 18
d
c + d:
29m = 58
m=2
6 + 2n = 8
n=1

13
a

b = OB
= OA + AB
= OA + OC
=a+c
b

AB = b a
BC = c b
AB : BC = 3 : 2
AB = 3
BC 2
2AB = 3BC
2(b a) = 3(c b)
2b 2a = 3c 3b
5b = 2a + 3c
b=2a+3c
5
5

300

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 16 Polar coordinates and complex


numbers
Exercise 16A Solutions
1
a

2
a

e
d

301

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3
a

e
The point is in the first quadrant.
2

f
2

r = (2 3 ) + (2)
= 12 + 4 = 4
cos = 2 3 = 3
4
2

= = 30
6
(2 3 , 2) = 4,
6

= [4, 30]

r = (5) + 12
= 169 = 13
cos = 5
12
113
1

(5, 12) = 13, cos 5

13
[13, 113]

The point is in the second quadrant.


2

r = 5 + 12
= 169 = 13
cos = 5
13

The point is in the first quadrant.

The point is in the third quadrant.


2

The point is in the fourth quadrant.

r= ( 3) +1
= 3+1 =4
cos = 3
2
= = 30
6
( 3 , 1) = 2,
6
= [2, 30]

The point is in the fourth quadrant.


2

(6, 5) = 61 , sin 5
61

[ 61 , 40 ]

r= 1 +( 3)
= 4 =2
cos = 1
2
= = 60
3

(1, 3 ) = 2,
3
= [2, 60]
c

The point is in the fourth quadrant.


r = 6 + (5)
= 36 + 25 = 61
sin = 5
61
40

r= 4 +4
= 32 = 4 2
cos = 4 = 1
2
4 2
= = 45
4
(4, 4) = 4 2 ,
4

= [4 2 , 45]

302

= + cos

5
13

113
1
(5, 12) = 2, + cos 5
13

[2, 113]
h

The point is in the first quadrant.


2

r= 4 +3
= 25 = 5
cos = 4
5
37
1
(4, 3) = 5, cos 4
5

[5, 37]

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4
a

x = 2 cos 30
= 2 3 = 3
2
y = 2 sin 30
= 2 1 = 1
2

[2, 30 ] = ( 3 , 1)

x = 4 cos
2
= 4 0 = 0
y = 4 sin
2
= 4 1 = 4
4, = (0, 4)
2

x = 1 cos 5
4
= 1 1 =
2
y = 1 sin 5
4
1
= 1
=
2
1, 5 = 1 , 1
4 2

=5 3 = 5 3
2
2

[5, 240] = 5, 5 3
2
2

x = 4 cos 2
=41=4
y = 4 sin 2
=40=0
[4, 2] = (4, 0)
x = 2 cos 7
6
3
=2
= 3
2
y = 2 sin 7
6
1
=2 =1
2
2, 7 = ( 3 , 1)
6

x = 2 cos 180
= 2 1 = 2
y = 2 sin 180
=20=0

[2, 180 ] = (2, 0)


x = 1 cos 120
=1 1= 1
2
2
y = 1 sin 120
=1 3 = 3
2
2

[1, 120] = 1, 3
2
2

1
2
1
2

x = 5 cos 240
=5 1= 5
2
2
y = 5 sin 240

5
a

Use your calculator to plot these graphs.

303

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

304

j
e

f
l

g
6
a

b
h

r =x +y
= 16
r=4

x+y=6
r cos + r sin = 6
r (cos + sin ) = 6
r=

x =y
2
2
r cos = r sin
2
r cos = sin
sin
r=
2
cos

6
cos + sin

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

x + y2 = 1
4

d
2

r cos + r2sin2 = 1
4
2
2
2
2
r cos + 4r sin = 4
2
2
2
2
r (cos + sin + 3sin ) = 4
2
2
r (1 + 3 sin ) = 4
2

r =

x +y =2
2
2
x +y =4

r = a cos
2
r = ar cos
2
2
x + y = ax
r = 2a(1 + sin 2)
= 2a(1 + 2 sin cos )
3
2
r = 2a(r + 2(r sin )(r cos ))
2

3
2 2

x + y ax = a x + y

a
1 + sin
r + r sin = a
r=

x + y = a x + y + ax
2

x +y +y=a

r = a(1 + cos )
2
r = a(r + r cos )

x +y =ax
2
2
2
2
x + y = a 2ax + x
2
2
y = a 2ax
= a(a 2x)

4
2
1 + 3 sin

r=2
2

x +y +x=a

7
a

a
1 + cos
r + r cos = a
r=

(x + y ) = 2a(x + y + 2xy)
2
= 2a(x + y)

x +y =ay
2
2
2
2
x + y = a 2ay + y
2
2
x = a 2ay
2
2
2ay = a x
2
2
y = 1 (a x )
2a

305

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

306

Exercise 16B Solutions


1
a

Re(z) = a = 2
Im(z) = b = 3

Re(z) = a = 4
Im(z) = b = 5

Re(z) = a = 1
2

2
a

3a = 2
a=2
3
ab=1
2b=1
3
b=21= 1
3
3

Im(z) = b = 3
2

3
a

Re(z) = a = 4
Im(z) = b = 0

(4 + i) + (2 2i) = 4 + 2 + i 2i
=6i

Re(z) = a = 0
Im(z) = b = 3

(3 i) (3 + i) = 3 3 i i
= 6 2i

Re(z) = a = 2
Im(z) = b = 2 2

(2 2 i ) + (5 8 i ) = 2 + 5 2 i 8 i
=7 2i 2 2i
=73 2i

(1 i) (2i + 3) = 1 3 i 2i
= 2 3i

(2 + i) (2 i) = 2 + 2 + i + i
= 4 + 2i

4(2 3i) (2 8i) = 8 2 12i + 8i


= 6 4i

(5 4i) + (1 + 2i) = 5 + 1 + 4i + 2i
= 4 + 6i

5(i + 4) + 3(2i 7) = 20 21 + 5i + 6i
= 1 + 11i

2a 3bi = 4 + 6i
2a = 4
a=2
3bi = 6i
b = 2

a+b=5
b=5a
2ab = 12
ab = 6
a(5 a) = 6
2
5a a = 6
2
a + 5a + 6 = 0
(a 2)(a 3) = 0
When a = 2
b=52=3
When a = 3
b=53=2
2a + bi = 10
= 10 + 0i
2a = 10
a=5
b=0

(2 3i) + (4 5i) = 2 + 4 3i 5i
= 6 8i

1 (4 3i) 3 (2 i) = 2 3 3 i + 3 i
2
2
2
2
= 1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

5
a

307

16 = 16 1
= 4i

2 9 = 2 9 1
= 6i

2 = 2 1
= 2i

2 i (i 2 ) = 2 i 2i
= 2 2i

3 ( 3 + 2 ) = 3 ( 3 i + 2 )
= 3i 6
= 6 3i

i (3 4i) = 1(3 4i)


= 3 + 4i
2

i =i i
= i

i =i
= 1

i =i
=1

2i i = 2i
= 2

4i 3i = 4 3 i i
6
= 12i
= 12

i(2 i) = 2i i
= 2i 1
= 1 + 2i

14

43+2

20

45

8 i 2 = 8 i i 2 i
= 16 1 1
= 4

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 16C Solutions


2

i = 1
2
2
(4 + i) = 16 + 8i + i
= 15 + 8i

(2 2i) = 4 8i + 4i
= 8i

(3 + 2i)(2 + 4i) = 6 + 12i + 4i + 8i


= 2 + 16i

z 1 z 2 = (2 + i)(3 2i)
2
= 6 4i 3i 2i
= 4 7i

z1 + z2 = (2 i) + (3 + 2i)
= 1 + i

z1 + z2 = 1 i

z 1 + z 2 = (2 + i) + (3 2i)
= 1 i

4
a

z = 2 4i
z = 2 + 4i

zz = (2 4i)(2 + 4i)
2
= 4 16i
= 20

z + z = (2 4i) + (2 + 4i)
=4

(1 i) = 1 + 2i + i
= 2i

( 2 3 i )( 2 + 3 i ) = 2 3i
=2+3=5

(5 2i)(2 + 3i) = 10 + 15i + 4i 6i


= 4 + 19i

2
a

z = a bi
z = 2 5i
z = 2 + 5i

z(z + z) = 4z
= 8 16i

z = 1 + 3i
z = 1 3i

z z = (2 4i) (2 + 4i)
= 8i

z = 5 2i
z = 5 + 2i

i(z z) = i 8i
2
= 8i = 16

z = 0 5i
z = 0 + 5i = 5i

z =

z=zi
i i i
= i(2 4i)
1
2
= 1 (2i 4i )
= 4 2i

3
a

z1 = 2 + i

z 2 = 3 2i

z1 z2 = (2 i)(3 + 2i)
2
= 6 + 4i + 3i 2i
= 4 + 7i

z1 z2 = 4 7i

1
2 4i
= 1 2 + 4i
2 4i 2 + 4i
2 + 4i
=
2
4 16i
= 2 + 4i
20
1
=
(1 + 2i)
10

308

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

(a + bi)(2 + 5i) = 2a + 5ai + 2bi 5b


=3i
2a 5b = 3
5a + 2b = 1
Multiply the first equation by 2 and the
second equation by 5.
4a 10b = 6
c
25a + 10b = 5
d
c + d:
29a = 1
a= 1
29
2 5b = 3
29
5b = 2 3
29
= 85
29
b = 17
29

6
a

2i = 2i 4i
4+1 4+1 4i
2
= 8 2i 4i2 + i
16 i
7

6i
=
17
7
=
6 i
17 17

3 + 2i = 3 + 2i 2 + 3i
2 3i 2 3i 2 + 3i
2
6 + 9i + 4i + 6i
=
2
4 9i
= 13i = i
13
4 + 3i = 4 + 3i 1 i
1+i
1+i 1i
2
= 4 4i + 3i2 3i
1i
7

i
=
2
7
= 1i
2 2

2 2i = 2 2i i
4i
4i
i
2
= 2i 2i
4
2
+
2i
=
4
= 1 i
2
= 11i
2 2

1 = 1 2 + 3i
2 3i 2 3i 2 + 3i
2 + 3i
=
2
4 9i
= 2 + 3i
13
2
=
+ 3 i
13 13
i = i 2 6i
2 + 6i 2 + 6i 2 6i
2i + 6
=
2
4 36i
= 2i + 6
40
3
=
+ 1 i
20 20

(3 i)(a + bi) = 3a + 3bi ai + b


= 6 7i
3a + b = 6
c
a + 3b = 7
3a + 9b = 21
d
c + d:
10b = 15
b= 3
2
3
3a = 6
2
3a = 6 + 3 = 15
2 2
5
a=
2

309

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

8
a

z = 4 + 2i
2i
4
= + 2i 2 + i
2i 2+i
2
8 + 4i + 4i + 2i
=
2
4i
6
+
8i
=
5
2
= (3 + 4i)
5
z = 2 i
1 + 3i
= 2 i 1 3i
1 + 3i 1 3i
2
2 + 6i i + 3i
=
2
1 9i
= 5 + 5i
10
= 1 (1 i)
2
z= 1+i
5 + 3i
= 1 + i 5 3i
5 + 3i 5 3i
2
5 3i + 5i 3i
=
2
25 9i
= 8 + 2i
34
1
=
(4 + i)
17

z = 5 + 2i
2(4 7i)
= 5 + 2i 4 + 7i
2(4 7i) 4 + 7i
2
20 + 35i + 8i + 14i
=
2
2(16 49i )
= 6 + 43i
130
1
=
(6 + 43i)
130
z= 4
1+i
= 4 1i
1+i 1i
4 4i
=
2
1i
= 4 4i
2
= 2 2i

310

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 16D Solutions


1

A: 3 + i
B: 2i
C: 3 4i
D: 2 2i
E: 3i
F: 1 i

d
e

3
a

z1 + z2 = (6 5i) + (3 + 4i)
=3i

5
a

z = (1 + 3i)
= 1 3i
1= 1
z 1 + 3i
= 1 1 3i
1 + 3i 1 3i
1 3i
=
2
1 + 9i
= 1 3 i
10 10

z1 z2 = (6 5i) (3 + 4i)
= 9 9i

4
a

z = 1 + 3i

z = 1 3i

z = 1 + 6i + 9i
= 8 + 6i

z = 2 5i

zi = i(2 5i)
2
= 2i 5i
= 5 + 2i

zi = z = 2 + 5i

zi = iz
= (5 + 2i)
= 5 2i

zi = z = 2 5i

311

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 16E Solutions


1
a

Use the quadratic formula.


z = 5 25 32
4
5

7
=
4
1
= (5 7 i )
4

Use the quadratic formula.


2
3z z + 2 = 0
z = 1 1 24
6
1

23
=
6
1
= (1 23 i )
6

Complete the square.


2
z 2z + 5 = 0
2
z 2z + 1 + 4 = 0
2
2
(z 1) 4i = 0
(z 1 2i)(z 1 + 2i) = 0
z = 1 2i

Use the quadratic formula.


2
2z 6z + 10 = 0
2
z 3z + 5 = 0
z = 3 9 20
2
= 3 11
2
1
= (3 11 i )
2

Complete the square.


2
z 6z + 14 = 0
2
z 6z + 9 + 5 = 0
2
2
(z 3) 5i = 0
(z 3 5 i )(z 3 + 5 i ) = 0
z=3 5i

z +4=0
2
z 4i = 0
(z 2i)(z + 2i) = 0
z = 2i
2

2x + 18 = 0
2
z +9=0
2
2
z 9i = 0
(z 3i)(z + 3i) = 0
z = 3i
2

3z + 15 = 0
2
z +5=0
2
2
z 5i = 0
(z 5 i )(z + 5 i ) = 0
z= 5i
2

(z 2) = 16
z 2 = 4i
z = 2 4i

(z + 1) = 49
z + 1 = 7i
z = 1 7i

Complete the square.


2
z 2z + 1 + 2 = 0
2
2
(z 1) 2i = 0
(z 1 2 i )(z 1 + 2 i ) = 0
z=1 2i

Use the quadratic formula.


z = 3 9 12
2
= 3 3
2
1
= (3 3 i )
2

312

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

313

Exercise 16F Solutions


1
a

e
2

r= 1 +( 3)
= 1+3 =2
cos = 1
2

=
3
1 + 3 i = 2 cis
3

= 4 144 = 24
cos = 12
24
= 1
2
=
3
12 12 3 i = 24 cis
3

The point is in the fourth quadrant.


2

1 = 1
2
2
1
1
cos =
2
2
= 1 2 = 1
2
2
= = 3
4 4
1
1
1
cis 3
+ i=
4
2 2
2

The point is in the second quadrant.


2

r = (2 3 ) + 2
= 16 = 4
cos = 2 3 = 3
4
2
5

= =
6 6
2 3 + 2i = 4 cis 5
6

The point is in the third quadrant.


2

The point is in the second quadrant.


2
2
r = 1 + 1
2
2

1 i = 2 cis
4

r = 12 + 12 3

r= 1 +1
= 2
cos = 1
2
=
4

The point is in the fourth quadrant.

The point is in the first quadrant.

r= 4 +4
= 32 = 4 2
cos = 4 = 1
2
4 2
= + = 3
4
4
4 4i = 4 2 cis 3
4

2
a

3 cis = 3 cos + 3i sin


2
2
2
= 3i

2 cis = 2 cos + 2 i sin


3
3
3
= 2 + 6 i
2
2
= 2 (1 + 3 i )
2
2 cis = 2 cos + 2i sin
6
6
6
= 3 +i

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3
a

5 cis 3 = 5 cos 3 + 5i sin 3


4
4
4
5
5
=
+
i
2
2
= 5 (1 i)
2
12 cis 5 = 12 cos 5 + 12i sin 5
6
6
6
= 6 3 + 6i
= 6( 3 i)

3 2 cis = 3 2 cos + 3 2 i sin


4
4
4
= 3 3i
= 3(1 i)
5 cis 4 = 5 cos 4 + 5i sin 4
3
3
3
= 55 3 i
2
2
5
= (1 + 3 i )
2

5 cis 2 = 5 cos 2 + 5i sin 2


3
3
3
= 55 3 i
2
2
5
= (1 + 3 i )
2

z1 z2 = r 1 r2 cis(1 + 2)

2 cis 3 cis = 6 cis +


6
12

6 12
= 6 cis
4
= 6 cos + 6i sin
4
4
6
6
=
+
i
2
2
= 3 2 (1 + i)

314

4 cis 3 cis = 12 cis +


12
4

12 4
= 12 cis
3
= 12 cos + 12i sin
3
3
=6+6 3i
= 6(1 + 3 i )

5
5
cis 5 cis = 5 cis +
4
12

4 12
= 5 cis 2
3
= 5 cos 2 + 5i sin 2
3
3
5
5
3
= +
i
2
2
= 5 (1 3 i )
2
12 cis 3 cis 2 = 36 cis + 2

3
3

3 3
= 36 cis
3
= 36 cos + 36i sin
3
3
= 18 + 18 3 i
= 18(1 + 3 i )

5
5

12 cis 3 cis = 36 cis +


6
2

6 2
= 36 cis 4
3
= 36 cos 4 + 36i sin 4
3
3
= 18 18 3 i
= 18(1 + 3 i )
( 2 cis ) 3 cis 3 = 6 cis 3
4
4

= 6 cis
4
= 6 cos + 6 i sin
4
4
= 3 + 3i
= 3 (1 + i)

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

10 cis
4 10
=
cis
5

4 12
5 cis
12
= 2 cis
6
= 2 cos + 2i sin
6
6
= 3 +i
12 cis
3 12
=
cis 2
3
2
3 3
3 cis
3
= 4 cis
= 4 cos + 4i sin
= 4 + 0 = 4
12 8 cis 3
4 12 8
=
cis 3

4 12
3 2
3 2 cis
12
= 8 cis 2
3
= 8 cos 2 + 8i sin 2
3
3
= 4 + 4 3 i
= 4(1 3 i )
20 cis
6 20
=
cis 5
8
5
6 6
8 cis
6
= 5 cis
2
5
= cos + 5 i sin
2
2
5
= +0= 5
2
2

315

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

316

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

30 180 = 150
[3, 30] = [3, 150]

180 40 = 140
Coordinates are [2, 140].

The point is in the third quadrant.


2

r = (1) + ( 3 )
= 1+3 =2
cos = 1
2
= + = 2
3
3
2, 2

This is equivalent to 2, .
3

x = 3 cos
6
3
3
=
2
y = 3 sin
6
3
=
2
3 3 3
,

2 2

B
8

9
D

10

3, = (0, 3)

2
The Cartesian equation is
2
2
x + (y 3) = 9
2
2
x + y 6y + 9 = 9
2
2
x + y = 6y
2
r = 6r sin
r = 6 sin

Since x = r cos ,
it is the graph of x = 2.

x + y = 16
2
r = 16
r=4
1 = 1
2u 1i
= 1 1+i
1i 1+i
=1+i
2
1
= +1i
2 2
i = cis , so the point will be
2
rotated by .
2

|z| = 5
1 = 1
z |z|

=1
5

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

317

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

x = 3 cos 11
6
= 3 3
2
y = 3 sin 11
6
3
=
2
3, 11 = 3 3 , 3


2 2
6

3
a

{[r, ] : r = 3}

[r, ] : =

{[r, ] : r = 4}

[r, ] : = 5

4
a

The point is in the first quadrant.

2
a

x = 3 cos
= 3
y = 3 sin
=0
[3, ] = (3, 0)
x = 2 cos
3
=1
y = 2 sin
3
= 3
2, = (1, 3 )

3
x = 2 cos 210
= 3
y = 2 sin 210
=1

[2, 210 ] = ( 3 , 1)

r= 3 +3
= 18 = 3 2
cos = 3 = 1
3 2
2

=
4
(3, 3) = 3 2 ,
4

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

5
a

The point is in the fourth quadrant.


r= 3+1
4 4
= 1 =1
cos = 3
2
=
6

3 , 1 = 1,
2
6
2
The point is in the third quadrant.
r = 25 + 75
4
4
= 25 = 5
cos = 5 = 1
2
25
= +
3
2

=
3

5, 5 3 = 5, 2
2
2
3


The point is in the fourth quadrant.
r = 32 + 32
= 64 = 8
cos = 4 2 = 2
8
2
=
4

(4 2 , 4 2 ) = 8,
4

r =x +y
= 16
r=4
2

r =x +y
=9
r=3

318

y = 8x
2
(r sin ) = 8r cos
2
2
r sin = 8r cos
2
r sin = 8 cos
8 cos
r=
2
sin
= 8 cot cosec

x = 4y
2
(r cos ) = 4r sin
2
2
r cos = 4r sin
2
r cos = 4 sin
4 sin
r=
2
cos
= 4 tan sec

x + 4y = 64
2
2
(r cos ) + 4(r sin ) = 64
2
2
2
2
2
2
r cos + r sin + 3r sin = 64
2
2
2
r + 3r sin = 64
2
2
r (1 + 3 sin ) = 64

r =
r=

64
2
1 + 3sin
8
2

1 + 3 sin
f

2x y + 2 = 0
2r cos r sin + 2 = 0
r(2 cos sin ) = 2
r=

6
a

r=5
2

x +y =5
2
2
x + y = 25

2
2 cos sin

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

r = 3 sin
2
r = 3r sin
2
2
x + y = 3y
This is correct, but it is possible to go on
and complete the square.
2
2
x + y 3y = 0
2
2
2
x + y 3y + 3 = 9
4
2
2
2
x + y 3 = 9
4
2

r(1 sin ) = 1
r r sin = 1
2

x +y y=1
2

x +y =y+1
2
2
2
x + y = (y + 1)
2
= y + 2y + 1
2
x = 2y + 1
2
2y = x 1
2
y = 1 (x 1)
2

r cos 2 = 9
2
r (cos sin ) = 9
2
2
2
2
r cos r sin = 0
2
2
x y =9
2

7
a

r(1 2 cos ) = 8
r 2r cos = 8
2

z 2 = p qi

z1 z 2 = (m + ni)(p qi)
2
= mp + npi mqi nqi
= mp + nq + (np mq)i

x + y = 2x + 8
2
2
2
x + y = (2x + 8)
2
= 4x + 32x + 64
2
2
3x + 32x y + 64 = 0
2
2
2
3 x + 32 x + 16 y = 64 + 3 256
5
9

3
2
2
3 x + 16 y = 64 + 256
3
3

2
2
x x + 16 y = 64
3
3

r(2 cos ) = 7
2r r cos = 7
2

z1 = m + ni
z2 p + qi
= m + ni p qi
p + qi p qi
2
+
=
nqi
= mp npi2 mqi
2
p +q
+
+ (np mq)i
= mp nq 2
2
p +q

z1 + z 1 = (m + ni) + (m ni)
= 2m

(z1 + z2)(z1 z2) = (m + p + (n + q)i))m p + (n q)i)


= (m + p)(m p) + (m + p)(n q)i
2
+ (n + q)(m p)i + (n + q)(n q)i
2
2
= m p + (mn mq + pn pq)i
2
2
+ (mn pn + mq pq)i (n q )
2
2
2
2
= m n p + q + (2mn 2pq)i

2 x +y x=7
2

2 x +y =x+7
2
2
2
4x + 4y = (x + 7)
2
= x + 14x + 49
2
2
3x 14x + 4y = 49
2
2
2
3 x 14 x + 7 + 4y = 49 + 3 49
3
9

3
2
2
3 x 7 + 4y = 196
3
3

2z1 + 3z2 = 2m + 2ni + 3p + 3qi


= 2m + 3p + (2n + 3q)i

x + y 2x = 8

319

1= 1
z1 m + ni
= 1 m ni
m + ni m ni

= m2 ni2
m +n

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

8
a

z2 = p + qi
z1 m + ni
= p + qi m ni
m + ni m ni
+
+ (mq np)i
= mp nq 2
2
m +n
3z1 = 3(m + ni)
z2
p + qi
3(m
+ ni) p qi
=
p + qi
p qi
2
3(mp + npi mqi nqi )
=
2
2
p +q
3(mp + nq + nq mq)i
=
2
2
p +q

9
a

z = (1 3 i )
2
= 1 2 3 i + 3i
= 2 2 3 i

z =z z
= (2 2 3 i )(1 3 i )
2
= 2 + 2 3 i 2 3 i + 6i
= 8

The point is in the fourth quadrant.


r= 1+3
=2
cos = 1
2
=
3
1 3 i = 2 cis
3

The point is in the first quadrant.


r = 12 + 1
= 13
tan = 1 3
3
2 3
= 3
6

1+ 3i
1 3i 1+ 3i
=1+ 3i
4
=

1
1=
z 1 3i

The point is in the first quadrant.


r= 1 +1
= 2
cos = 1
2
=
4
1 + i = 2 cis
4

z=1 3i

320

z=1+ 3i

2 3 + i = 13 cis tan

1
1=
z 1+ 3i

1 3i
1+ 3i 1 3i
=1 3i
4
=

The point is in the first quadrant.


r = 18 + 18
= 36 = 6
cos = 3 2 = 1
6
2
=
4
3 2 + 3 2 i = 6 cis
4

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

The point is in the third quadrant.


r = 18 + 18
= 36 = 6
cos = 3 2 = 1
6
2
3

= + =
4
4
3 2 3 2 i = 6 cis 3
4

The point is in the fourth quadrant.


r= 3+1
=2
cos = 3
2
=
6
3 i = 2 cis
6

10
a

x = 2 cos
3
= 1
y = 2 sin
3
= 3
z = 1 3 i

x = 3 cos
4
=3 2
2
y = 3 sin
4
3
2
=
2
3
z= 2 +3 2 i
2
2

x = 3 cos 3
4
2
3
=
2
y = 3 sin 3
4
=3 2
2
z= 3 2 +3 2 i
2
2
x = 3 cos 3
4
3
2
=
2
y = 3 sin 3
4
=3 2
2
3
z= 2 +3 2 i
2
2

x = 3 cos 5
6
= 3 3
2
y = 3 sin 5
6
3
=
2
3
z= 3 3i
2
2
x = 2 cos
4
=1
y = 2 sin
4
= 1
z=1i

321

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

322

Chapter 17 Loci
Exercise 17A Solutions
1
a

d
The line is equidistant from A and B.
y=0
x=3+6=9
2
2

For an area of 12 square units, a triangle


with a base of 4 units must have a height
of 6 units. This can be above or below
the axis, so its equation will be y = 6.

PA = PO

2
b

The line is equidistant from A and B.


x=0
y = 8 + 12 = 10
2

The line must be a circle of radius 3


with the centre as the origin.
r=3
2
r =9
2
2
x +y =9

PA = PB

(x + 2) + (y 5) = (x 0) + (y 0)
2
2
2
2
x + 4x + 4 + y 10y + 25 = x + y
4x + 4 10y + 25 = 0
4x 10y + 29 = 0
10y = 4x + 29

(x 0) + (y 6) = (x + 2) + (y 4)
2
2
2
x + y 12y + 36 = x + 4x + 4 + y 8y + 16
12y + 36 = 4x + 4 8y + 16
4x + 4y 16 = 0
x+y4=0
x+y=4
4

Distance of P from (2, 0) is


2

(x + 2) + y
Distance of P from (2, 0) is
(x 2) + y
2
2
2
2
(x + 2) + y + (x 2) + y = 26
2
2
2
2
x + 4x + 4 + y + x 4x + 4 + y = 26
2
2
2x + 2y = 18
2
2
x +y =9

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Distance of P from (2, 5) is


2

Distance of P from (0, 20) is

(x 2) + (y 5)
Distance of P (x, y) from x = 1 is |x 1|
2

(x + 4) + (y 5)
2

2
2

(x 1) + (y 2) = (x + 2) + (y + 1)
2
2
2
2
x 2x + 1 + y 4y + 4 = x + 4x + 4 + y + 2y + 1
6x + 6y = 0
y= x

(x 4) + (y + 2) = 2 x + y
2
2
2
2
x 8x + 16 + y + 4y + 4 = 4x + 4y
2
2
3x + 8x + 3y 4y = 20
2
2
2
2
2
x + 8 x + 4 + y + y 4 y + 2 = 20 + 16 + 4
3
3
3
9 9
3
3
2
2
x + 4 + y 2 = 80

3
3
9

Distance of P from (4, 0) is

(x 4) + y
2

x + (y 20) = 2 (x + 4) + (y 5)
2
2
2
2
x + (y 20) = 4((x + 4) + (y 5) )
2
2
2
x + y 40y + 400 = 4x + 32x + 64
2
+ 4y 40y + 100
2
2
3x + 32x + 3y = 236
2
2
x + 32 x + y = 236
3
3
2
2 32
2
x + x + 16 + y = 236 + 256
3
3
9
3
2
2
964
16
x + + y =

9
3

x + (y 20)
Distance of P from (4, 5) is

(x 2) + (y 5) = 2|x 1|
Square both sides:
2
2
2
(x 2) + (y 5) = 4(x 1)
2
2
2
x 4x + 4 + (y 5) = 4x 8x + 4
2
2
3x 4x (y 5) = 0
2
2
2
2
3 x 4x + 2 (y 5) = 3 2
3 3

3
2
2
2 x 2 (y 5) = 4
3
3

Multiply both sides by 3:


2
2
9 x 2 3(y 5) = 4
3

2
2
(3x 2) 3(y 5) = 4
2
2
(3x 2) 3(y 5) = 1
4
4
2

323

2
2

Distance of P from (4, 0) is (x + 4) + y


2
2
2
2
(x 4) + y ((x + 4) y ) = 16
or
2
2
2
2
x 8x + 16 + y x 8x 16 y = 16
16x = 16
x = 1

(x + 4) + y ((x 4) y ) = 16
2
2
2
2
x + 8x + 16 + y x + 8x 16 y = 16
16x = 16
x=1

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

10

324

x +y =x+y
2
2
1
x x+ +y y+1=1+1
4
4 4 4
2
2
x 1 + y 1 = 1

2
2
2

PA = 2PB

11
2

x + y = 2 (x 4) + y
2
2
2
2
x + y = 4((x 4) + y )
2
2
= 4x 32x + 64 + 4y
2
2
3x 32x + 3y = 64
2
2
2
x 32 x + 16 + y = 64 + 256
3
3
3
9

2
x 16 + y2 = 64

3
9

12

(x 1) + (y 2) = (x + 1) + y
2
2
2
2
x 2x + 1 + y 4y + 4 = x + 2x + 1 + y
4x 4y + 4 = 0
xy+1=0
x+y=1

13 Slope of AB = 5 1 = 2
20
y
Slope of BP = 5 = 2
x2
y 5 = 2(x 2)
= 2x 4
y = 2x + 1
14

y = 1 or y = 5

15 PM is the distance of P from the line x = 4.


2
2
2
(x 2) + y = (x 4)
2
2
2
x 4x + 4 + y = x + 8x + 16
2
y = 12x + 12
= 12(x + 1)
16 PM is the distance of P from the line y = 2.
2
2
2
x + (y + 4) = (y 2)
2
2
2
x + y + 8y + 16 = y 4y + 4
2
x = 12y 12
= 12(y + 1)
2
y+1= 1 x
12
2
y= 1 x 1
12

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

17 The graph will have a vertex at the


origin, and will consist of the set of
points equidistant from the point (a, 0)
and the line x = k.

(x a) + y = (x + k)
2
2
2
2
2
x 2ax + a + y = x + 2kx + k
2
2
2
y = 2ax + 2kx + k a
2
Since y = 3x,
2a + 2k = 3
a+k=3
2
2
2
k a =0
2
2
k =a
k=a
(If k = a, k = a and the line goes
through the point, so k a.)
a+k=3
2
2a = 3
2
a=k=3
4
2
y = 3x is therefore the graph of all
points that are equidistant from the point
3, 0 and the line x = 3.
4
4

325

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 17B Solutions


1

x + y =1
9 64
This will be an ellipse, origin at the centre,
and axes of length 3 2 and 8 2 along
the x- and y-axes respectively.

x + y =1
25 100
This will be an ellipse, origin at the centre,
and axes of length 5 2 and 10 2 along
the x- and y-axes respectively.

y + x =1
9 64
This will be an ellipse, origin at the centre,
and axes of length 8 2 and 3 2 along
the x- and y-axes respectively.

2
a

Centre (3, 4).


x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
2
(x 3) + (4) = 1
9
64
2
(x 3) = 1 16 = 3
64 4
9
2
3
9

(x 3) =
4
x3=3 3
2
x=33 3
2
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
2
(3) + (y 4) = 1
9
64
2
(y 4) = 1 9 = 0
64
9
2
(y 4) = 0
y=4

25x + 9x = 225
2
2
25x + 9y = 1
225 225
2
2
x + y =1
9 25
This will be an ellipse, origin at the centre,
and axes of length 3 2 and 5 2 along
the x- and y-axes respectively.

Centre (3, 4).


x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
2
(x + 3) + 4 = 1
9
25
2
(x + 3) = 1 16 = 9
9
25 25
2
9
9

(x + 3) =
25
x+3=9
5
x = 3 + 9 = 6 or
5
5
24
9
x = 3 =
5
5

326

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
2
3 + (y + 4) = 1
9
25
2
(y + 4) = 1 9 = 0
9
25
2
(y + 4) = 0
y = 4

Centre (3, 2).


x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
2
(3) + (x 2) = 1
16
4
2
(x 2) = 1 9 = 7
16 16
4
2
(x 2) = 7 4 = 7
16
4
x2= 7
2
x=2 7
2
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
2
(y 3) + (2) = 1
16
4
2
(y 3) = 1 4 = 0
4
16
2
(y 3) = 0
y=3

Divide both sides by 225:


2
2
25(x 5) + 9y = 1
225
225
2
2
(x 5) + y = 1
9
25

25( x 5) 2 9 y 2
+
=1
225
225
( x 5) 2 y 2
+
=1
9
25
Centre (5, 0).
x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
(x 5) = 9
x5=3
x = 8 or 2
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
2
25 (5) + 9y = 225
2
625 + 9y = 225
2
9y = 400
There are no y-intercepts.

The graph will be an ellipse with axes


3 2 and 5 2.
2
2
x
y
Its equation will be 2 + 2 = 1
3 5
2
2
x + y =1
9 25

327

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

328

(x 4) + y + (x + 4) + y = 10
2

(x 4) + y = 10 (x + 4) + y
2

x 8x + 16 + y = 100 20 x + 8x + 16 + y + x + 8x + 16 + y
2

20 x + 8x + 16 + y = 100 + 16x
5 x + 8x + 16 + y = 25 + 4x
2
2
2
25(x + 8x + 16 + y ) = 625 + 200x + 16x
2
2
2
25x + 200x + 400 + 25y = 625 + 200x + 16x
2
2
9x + 25y = 225
2
2
9x + 25y = 1
225 225
2
2
x +y =1
25 9
5

The graph will be an ellipse with axes


4 2 and 8 2.
2
2
x
y
Its equation will be 2 + 2 = 1
4 8
2
2
x + y =1
16 64

(x 2) + y = 1 |x 4|
2
2
2
2
(x 2) + y = 1 (x + 4)
4
2
2
2
4(x 4x + 4 + y ) = x + 8x + 16
2
2
2
4x 16x + 16 + 4y = x + 8x + 16
2
2
3x 24x + 4y = 0
2
2
2
3(x 8x + 4 ) + 4y = 3 16
Divide both sides by 48:
2
2
(x 4) + y = 1
16
12
2

x + (y 8) = 1 |y 4|
2
2
2
2
x + (y 8) = 1 (y 4)
4
2
2
2
4(x + y 16y + 64) = y 8y + 16
2
2
2
4x + 4y 64y + 256 = y 8y + 16
2
2
4x + 3y 56y = 240
2
2
2
4x + 3 y 56 y + 28 = 240 + 3 784
3
9

3
2
2
28
64

4x + 3 y =
3
3

3
Multiply both sides by :
64
2
3x + 9 y 28 2 = 1
3
16 64
2
2
3x + (3y 28) = 1
16
64
2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 17C Solutions


1

x y =1
9 64
2
2
y =x 1
64 9
2
2
9
y = 64x 1 2
9
x
8
y x
3
Axis intercepts are (3, 0) and (3, 0).

x y =1
25 100
2
2
y = x 1
100 25
2
2
25
y = 100x 1 2
25
x
y 2x
Axis intercepts are (5, 0) and (5, 0).

25x 9y = 225
2
2
25x 9y = 1
225 225
2
2
x y =1
9 25
2
2
y =x 1
25 9
2
2
9
y = 25x 1 2
9
x
5
y x
3
Axis intercepts are (3, 0) and (3, 0).

y x =1
9 64
2
2
x =y 1
64 9
2
2
9
x = 64y 1 2
9
y
8
x y
3
Axis intercepts are (3, 3) and (0, 3).

2
a

Centre (3, 4).


x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
2
(x 3) (4) = 1
9
64
2
(x 3) = 1 + 16 = 5
64 4
9
2
(x 3) = 5 9
4
3
x3= 5
2
x=33 5
2
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
2
(3) (y 4) = 1
9
64
2
(y 4) = 1 9 = 0
9
64
2
(y 4) = 0
y=4

329

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Asymptotes:
y k = b (x h)
a
8
y 4 = (x 3)
3
y = 4 8 (x 3)
3
8x
= 4 and 8x + 12
3
3
c

Centre (3, 4).


x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
2
(x + 3) 4 = 1
9
25
2
(x + 3) = 1 + 16 = 41
9
25 25
2
41
9

(x + 3) =
25
x + 3 = 3 41
5
x = 3 3 41
5
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
2
3 (y + 4) = 1
9
25
2
(y + 4) = 1 9 = 0
9
25
2
(y + 4) = 0
y = 4
Asymptotes:
y k = b (x h)
a
y + 4 = 5 (x + 3)
3
y = 4 5 (x + 3)
3
5x
=
+ 1 and 5x 9
3
3

Centre (3, 2).


x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
2
(3) (x 2) = 1
16
4
2
(x

2) = 1 9 = 7

16 16
4
2
7
(x 2) =
4
There are no x intercepts.
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
2
(y 3) (2) = 1
16
4
2
(y 3) = 1 + 4 = 2
4
16
2
(y 3) = 2 16
y=34 2
Asymptotes:
y k = b (x h)
a
y 3 = 4 (x 2)
2
y = 3 2(x 2)
= 2x 1 and 2x + 7

330

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Divide both sides by 225.


2
2
25(x 5) 9y = 1
225
225
2
2
(x 5) y = 1
9
25
Centre (5, 0).
x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
25(x 5) = 225
2
(x 5) = 9
x 5 = 3
x = 8 or 2
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
2
25 (5) 9y = 225
2
625 9y = 225
2
9y = 400
y = 20
3
Asymptotes:
y k = b (x h)
a
5
y = (x 5)
3
5x
= 25 and 5x + 25
3
3
3 3

Divide both sides by 4.


2
2
x y =1
4 4
Centre (0, 0).
x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
x =1
4
2
x =4
x=4
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
y =1
4
2
y = 4
No y-intercepts.

Asymptotes:
y=bx
a
=2x
2
=x

Divide both sides by 4.


2
2
x y =1
2 4
Centre (0, 0).
x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
x =1
2
2
x =2
x= 2
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
y =1
4
2
y = 4
No y-intercepts.
Asymptotes:
y=bx
a
= 2 x
2
= 2x

331

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Complete the square.


2
2
x 4x 4y 8y = 16
2
2
x 4x + 4 4(y + 2y + 1) = 16 + 4 4
2
2
(x 2) 4(y + 1) = 16
2
2
(x 2) (y + 1) = 1
16
4
Centre (2, 1).
x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
2
(x 2) 1 = 1
16
4
2
(x 2) = 1 + 1 = 5
16
4 4
x2= 5
2
4
x2=2 5
x=22 5
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
2
(2) (y + 1) = 1
16
4
2
(y
+
1) = 1 4 = 3

4
16 4
2
(y + 1) = 3
There are no y-intercepts.
Asymptotes:
y k = b (x h)
a
y + 1 = 2 (x 2)
4
y = 1 1 (x 2)
2
x
= 2 and x
2
2

332

Complete the square.


2
2
9x 90x 25y + 150y = 225
2
2
9(x 10x + 25) 25(y 6y + 9) = 225 + 225 225
2
2
9(x 5) 25(y 3) = 225
2
2
(x 5) (y 3) = 1
25
9
Centre (5, 3).
x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
2
(x 5) (3) = 1
25
9
2
(x 5) = 1 + 9 = 2
25
9
2
(x 5) = 2 25
x5=5 2
x=55 2
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
2
(5) (y 3) = 1
25
9
2
(y 3) = 1 = 25 = 0
9
25
2
(y 3) = 0
y=3
Asymptotes:
y k = b (x h)
a
y 3 = 3 (x 5)
5
y = 3 3 (x 5)
5
3x
= and 3x + 6
5
5

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

333

(x 4) + y (x + 4) + y = 6
2

(x 4) + y = 6 + (x + 4) + y
2

2
2

x 8x + 16 + y = 36 + 12 x + 8x + 16 + y + x + 8x + 16 + y
2

12 x + 8x + 16 + y = 36 + 16x
3 x + 8x + 16 + y = 9 + 4x
2
2
2
9(x + 8x + 16 + y ) = 81 + 72x + 16x
2
2
2
9x + 72x + 144 + 9y = 81 + 72x + 16x
2
2
7x + 9y = 63
2
2
x y =1
9 7
2

(x 2) + y = 2|x 4|
2
2
2
(x 2) + y = 4(x + 4)
2
2
2
x 4x + 4 + y 4(x + 8x + 16)
2
= 4x + 32x + 64
2
2
3x + 36x y = 60
2
2
3(x + 12x + 36) y = 60 + 3 36
2
2
3(x + 6) y = 48
2
2
(x + 6) y = 1
16
48

x + (y 8) = 4|y 4|
2
2
2
x + (y 8) = 16(y 4)
2
2
2
x + y 16y + 64 = 16(y 8y + 16)
2
= 16y 128y + 256
2
2
x 15y + 112y = 192
2
2
2
x 15 y 112 y + 56 = 192 15 3136
15
225

15
2
2
56
256
x 15 y =
15
15

15
Multiply both sides by
:
256
2
2
15x + 225 y 56 = 1
15
256 256
2
2
(15y 56) 15x = 1
256
256

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

334

(x + 3) + y (x 3) + y = 4
2

(x + 3) + y = 4 + (x 3) + y
2

x + 6x + 9 + y = 16 + 8 x 6x + 9 + y + x 6x + 9 + y
2

8 x 6x + 9 + y = 16 12x
2 x 6x + 9 + y = 4 3x
2
2
2
4(x 6x + 9 + y ) = 16 24x + 9x
2
2
2
4x 24x + 36 + 4y = 16 24x + 9x
2
2
5x + 4y = 20
2
2
x y =1
4 5

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

The vertical axes of the ellipse look


about 5 units long (just over 2).
2
2
x +y =1
25 5
2
2
x + 5y = 25
C
2

If its centre is on the y-axis, then a = 0.


It passes through (4, 4), so
2
2
x + (y b) = 16
2
2
4 + (4 b) = 16
2
(4 b) = 0
4b=0
A
b=4

The first two transformations will give


2
2
x +y =1
16 9
The next two transformations will give
2
2
(x 4) + (y 3) = 1
B
16
9

The centre is (2, 0) and the length of


half the axis is 9, so the graph is
2
2
(x 2) y = 1
2
81
b
One asymptote has gradient 4 = 2
2
b=2
a
b
Since a = 9, = 2
9
b = 18
The equation of the graph is
2
2
(x 2) y = 1
D
81
324

x + y = 1
9
4


2

y
x
2 + 2 = 1
9 4
This will be an ellipse, origin at the
centre, and axes of length 9 2 and
9 2 along the x and y axes
respectively.
B
The y-intercept(s) occur when x = 0:
2
(y + 2) = 1
4
2
(y + 2) = 4
y+2=2
y = 0 or 4

( y + 2) 2
=1
4
( y + 2) 2 = 4
y + 2 = 2
y = 0 or 4
Intercepts are (0, 0) and (0, 4).

y-axis intercept is 2.
2
b2 =8
b=2
The graph goes through 1, 1 10 .
2

2
2
1

a 1 + 2 10 = 8
2

a+5=8
a=3
D

x =x
2
25
a
a=5
x-axis intercepts = (a, 0) and (a, 0)
= (5, 0) and (5, 0) D
2

335

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

PA = PB

9
2

(x 2) + (y + 5) = (x + 4) + (y + 1)
2
2
2
2
x 4x + 4 + y + 10y + 25 = x + 8x + 16 + y
0 = 12x 12y 12
12y = 12x 12
y=x1 A

PA = 2PB

10
2

(x 2) + (y + 5) = 2 (x + 4) + (y 1)
2
2
2
2
x 4x + 4 + y + 10y + 25 = 4(x + 8x + 16 + y 2y + 1)
2
2
= 4x + 32x + 64 + 4y 8y + 4
2
2
3x + 36x + 3y 18y + 39 = 0
2
2
x + 12x + y 6y + 13 = 0
2
2
x + 12x + 36 + y 6y + 9 = 13 + 36 + 9
2
2
(x + 6) + (y 3) = 32
This is a circle.
C

336

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

337

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1

Complete the square.


2
2
x + 4x + 4 + y + 8y + 16 = 0 + 4 + 16
2
2
(x + 2) + (y + 4) = 20
The circle has centre (2, 4) and radius
20 = 2 5 .
Complete the square.
2
2
x + 4x + 4 + 2y = 0 + 4
2
2
(x + 2) + 2y = 4
2
2
(x + 2) + y = 1
4
2
The ellipse has centre (2, 0).
x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
x + 4x = 0
x(x + 4) = 0
x = 0 and 4
x-intercepts are (0, 0) and (4, 0)
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
2y = 0
y=0
y-intercept is (0, 0).
PA = PB

3
2

x + (y 2) = (x 6) + y
2
2
2
2
x + y 4y + 4 = x 12x + 36 + y
4y = 12x + 32
y = 3x 8
4

This is clearly a circle with centre (3, 2)


and radius 6.
2
2
(x 3) + (y 2) = 36

Asymptotes:
y=bx
a
=2x
3
= 2x, 2x
3
3

PA = 2PB

6
2

x + (y 2) = 2 (x 6) + y
2
2
2
2
x + y 4y + 4 = 4(x 12x + 36 + y )
2
2
= 4x 48x + 144+ 4y
2
2
3x 48x + 3y + 4y + 140= 0
2
2
2
3(x 16x + 64) + 3 y + 4 y + 2 = 140+ 3 64 + 3 4
3
9

3
2
2
3(x 8) + 3 y + 2 = 160
3
3

2
2
(x 8) + y + 2 = 160
3
9

Centre (2, 0).


x-intercept(s) when y = 0:
2
(x 2) = 1
9
2
(x 2) = 9
x2=3
x = 1 or 5
y-intercept(s) when x = 0:
2
2
(2) + y = 1
9
4
2
y =14=5
9 9
4
2
y =45
9
20
9
=2 5
3

y=

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Let k be the constant.


2
2
2
2
k = ((x + 4) + y ) ((x 4) + y )
2
2
2
2
= (x + 8x + 16 + y ) (x 8x + 16 + y )
2
2
2
2
= x + 8x + 16 + y x + 8x 16 y
= 16x
x= k
16
If the subtraction is done in reverse
order, we would get x = k .
16
The is necessary, as the locus will be
the two parallel lines x = k and x = k.
x = k , where k is the constant
16
difference.

338

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

339

Chapter 18 Revision of chapters 1417


Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions
1

The angle subtended at the top of the


circle by QT = 150 = 75.
2
By the alternate segment theorem,
B
QTS = 75.

Join LN.
Using the alternate segment theorem,
MLN = 40.
In triangle LMN, ML = MN
MNL = MLN = 40
LMN = 180 40 40
= 100
C

Using the alternate segment theorem,


ZYX = ZXT
ZXT = ZXY
ZYX = ZXY
Triangle ZXY is isosceles, with
YZ = XZ.
B
QOS = 180 70
= 110
Reflex QOS = 360 110
= 250
QRS = 250
2
= 125

Let the diameter be CE.


If AD = DB = 4 cm, then
ADDB = CDDE
4 4 = 2(2r 2)
2r 2 = 8
2r = 10
r = 5 cm

Join AB.
Since TA = TB, TBA = 45.
Since AC is perpendicular to tangent TA,
it must be a diameter.
CBA = 90
TBC = 90 + 45
= 135
TB is parallel to AC, since co-interior
angles BTA and CAT are supplementary.
BCA = 180 135
= 45
C

RTP = 30 (alternate segments)


TRS = 40 + 30
= 70 (exterior angle of RTP)
RTS = 180 70 30
= 80
B

AB = AC
ADC = 60
ACD = 180 60 50
= 70(angle sum of RTS)
ABD = 180 70
= 110
D

|a| = 3 + (4)
= 25 = 5
^
a=3i4j
5
5
= 1 (3i 4j)
5

10 AB = OB OA
= i + 8j

11 a b = (2i + 4j) (3i 2j)


= 2i 3i + 4j + 2j
= i + 6j

12 |a| = 2 + (1) + 4
= 4 + 1 + 16
= 21

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

18 CB = 1 OA
3
=1a
3

13 Since they have the same magnitude


and direction,

AB = OC = c
CD = OB = b
AD = c b + c b
= 2(c b)

QR = OR OQ
= i + 5j
PQ = 2QR
= 2i + 10j
= OQ OP
OP = OQ PQ
= 2i 3j (2i + 10j)
= 4i 13j

16 u and v are parallel only if u = nv,


where n is a constant.
Comparing k components:
5 = 6n
n= 5
6
Comparing i and j components:
1= 5b
6
6
b=
5
a = 5 3
6
5
=
2
17

sa + yb = x
3si + 4sj + 2ti tj = i + 5j
3s + 2t = 1
4s t = 5
8s 2t = 10
c + d:
11s = 11
s=1
4t=5
t = 1

AB = a + c + 1 a
3
2
=c a
3

14 2r s = 2(2i j + k) ( i + j + 3k)
= 4i + i 2j j + 2k 3k
= 5i 3 j k
D
15

340

19

AB = OB OA
=ba
CA = 2AB
= 2b 2a
= OA OC
OC = OA CA
= a (2b 2a)
= 3a 2b

20 Arg z = Arg v + Arg w


= Argv Arg w
= 0.3 0.6
= 0.9

21 x = 2 cos 2
3
= 1
y = 2 sin 2
3
= 3

2 cis 2 = 1 + 3 i
3

c
d

22 The angle is in the third quadrant.


tan = 1 3
2 2
= 1
3
Arg z =
= +
6
5
=
6
(because Arg z )

23 a + bi = 2 3i
b = 3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

24 uv = 3 5 cis + 2
2 3
= 15 cis 7
6
= 15 cis 2 7
6

5
= 15 cis
6
2

25 |(12 5i)| = 12 + 5
= 169
= 13
2

31 The point is in the fourth quadrant.


2

26 z = x + 2ixy y
This still has a non-real (i) component,
so is not necessarily a real number. A

r = (4 2 ) + (4 2 )
= 32 + 32 = 8
cos = 4 2 = 1
8
2

=
4
The point is 8, .
4

27 z = 14 7i
z = 14 + 7i

341

32 2, = (0, 2)
2
The equation of the circle is
2
2
x + (y 2) = 4
2
2
x + y 4y + 4 = 4
2
2
x + y 4y = 0
2
r 4r sin = 0
2
r = 4r sin
r = 4 sin

28 3z + 9 = 3(z + 3)
2
2
= 3(z 3i )
= 3( z + 3 i )( z 3 i )
2

29 (1 + 2i) = 1 + 4i + 4i
= 1 + 4i 4
= 3 + 4i
30 x = r cos
= 2 cos 4 = 1
3
y = r sin
= 2 sin 4 = 3
3
(1, 3 )

33 Since x = r cos , this will be the


graph of x = 4, a vertical line through
C
[4, 0].
2

34 x + y = 9
2
2
2
r =x +y
=9
r=3
35

B
2

r =x +y
2
= 1 (r sin )
2
2
2
x +y =1y
2
2
x + 2y = 1

D
1
1 + cos 0
=1
2
Curve will be a parabola with intercept
E
at 1, 0 .
2

36 When = 0, r =

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 19 Kinematics
Exercise 19A Solutions
1
a

2
When t = 0, x = 12.
12 cm to the right of O

v = dx
dt
= 2t 7
v = 0 when 2t 7 = 0
t = 3.5 s

a = dv
dt
2
= 2 m/s

When t = 0, x = 10.
2
When t = 3.5, x = 3.5 7 3.5 + 10
= 2.25
For the first 3.5 s, the particle has
travelled 12.25 m.
2
When t = 5, x = 5 7 5 + 10
=0
From 3.5 s to 5 s, the particle has
travelled 2.25 m.
Distance travelled = 12.25 + 2.25
= 14.5 m

v = 2t 7 = 2
2t = 5
t = 2.5
2
x = 2.5 7 2.5 + 19
= 1.25
After 2.5 s, when the particle is 1.25 m
left of O.

When t = 5, x = 5 7 5 + 12
=2
2 cm to the right of O

v = dx
dt
= 2t 7
When t = 0, v = 7.
7 cm/s to the left
v = 0 when 2t 7 = 0
t = 3.5
When t = 3.5,
2
x = 3.5 7 3.5 + 12
= 0.25
t = 3.5; the particle is 0.25 cm to the
left of O.
Average velocity = change in position
change in time
2
= 12
5
= 2 cm/s
Average speed = distance travelled
change in time
For the first 3.5 s, the particle has
travelled 12.25 cm.
From 3.5 s to 5 s, the particle has
travelled 2 0.25 = 2.25 cm.
Average speed = 12.25 + 2.25
5
14.5
=
5
= 2.9 cm/s

3
a

When t = 0, x = 3.
v = dx
dt
2
= 3t 22t + 24
When t = 0, v = 24.
3 cm to the left and 24 cm/s to the right.
v = dx
dt
2
= 3t 22t + 24

342

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3
2
x = 11 = 11 11 + 24 11 3
3
3
3
1331
1331
3

=
+ 88 3
9
27
3
16
= 13
27
The acceleration is zero after 11 s, when
3
2
the velocity is 16 cm/s to the left and its
3
16
cm left of O.
position is 13
27

v = 0 when
2
3t 22t + 24 = 0
(3t 4)(t 6) = 0
t = 4 or 6
3
4
After s and after 6 s
3
When t = 4 ,
3
3
2
4
x = 11 4 + 24
3
3
176
64
3

=
+ 32 3
9
27
3
= 464 + 29
27
= 11 22
27
When t = 6,
3
2
x = 6 11 6 6 3
= 39

4 3
3

4
a

39 cm to the left of O and 11 22 cm to


27
the right of O
e

v < 0 when (3t 4)(t 6) = 0


This is a parabola with a minimum
value.
v < 0 when 4 < t < 6
3
4
=6
3
14
=
=42s
3
3

a = dv
dt
2
= 6t 22 m/s

6t 22 = 0
t = 22 = 11
3
6
2
v = 3t 22t + 24
2
= 3 11 22 11 + 24
3
3
242
121

+ 24
=
3
3
= 16 2
3

343

v = 6t 10t + 4
When v = 0:
2
6t 10t + 4 = 0
2
3t 5t + 2 = 0
(3t 2)(t 1) = 0
t = 2 or 1
3
a = 12t 10
t = 2:
3
a = 12 2 10
3
= 2
t = 1:
a = 12 1 10
=2
Velocity is zero after 2 s when the
3
acceleration is 2 cm/s2 to the left, and
after 1 s when the acceleration is 2 cm/s2
to the right.
a = 12t 10
=0
t = 10 = 5
12 6
Find v when a = 5 :
6
2
v = 6t 10t + 4
2
= 6 5 10 5 + 4
5
6
25
50
=

+4= 1
6 6
6

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Acceleration is zero after 5 s, at which


6
1
time the velocity is cm/s to the left.
6
The particle passes through O when x = 0.
3
2
t 13t + 46t 48 = 0
Trial and error will give x = 0 when t = 2.
This means (t 2) is a factor of
3
2
t 13t + 46t 48.
3
2
2
t 13t + 46t 48 = ( t 2)( t 11t + 24)
=0
Factorising the quadratic gives
(t 2)(t 3)(t 8) = 0
t = 2, 3 or 8

6
a

They will be at the same position when


2
t 2t 2 = t + 2
2
t 3t 4 = 0
(t 4)(t + 1) = 0
t = 4 or 1
After 4 s, or 1 s before the start.
Note: In some cases, motion is not
considered before t = 0, and negative
values of t may be discarded.
The velocities are 1 cm/s and 2t 2 m/s.
2t 2 = 1
2t = 3
t=3
2
After 3 s.
2

344

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 19B Solutions


1
a

x = 2t 6t + c
When t = 0, x = 0.
0=00+c
c=0
2
x = 2t 6t

t=3
2
x=23 63
=0
It will be at the origin, O.

Consider when v = 0:
4t 6 = 0
t=3
2
2
x = 2 3 6 3
2
2
1
= 4
2

The particle will travel 4 1 cm to the


2
left of the origin and back, for a total of
9 cm.
d

2
a

Average velocity = change in position


change in time
0
= = 0 cm/s
3
Average speed = distance travelled
change in time
9
= = 3cm/s
3
3

x = t 4t + 5t + c
When t = 0, x = 4.
4=00+0+c
c=4
3
2
x = t 4t + 5t + 4
a = dv
dt
= 6t 8

3t 8t + 5 = 0
(3t 5)( t 1) = 0
t = 5 or 1
3
5
When t = ,
3
3
2
x = 5 4 5 + 5 5 + 4
3
3
3
125
100
25
=

+
+4
27
9
3
= 5 23
27
When t = 1,
3
2
x=1 41 +51+4
=6
When t = 5 ,
3
a=658
3
2
= 2 cm/s
When t = 1,
a=618
2
= 2 cm/s
v = 10t + c
2
x = 5t + ct + d
When t = 2:
2
x = 5 2 + 3c + d = 0
2c + d = 20
c
When t = 3:
2
x = 5 3 + 3c + 2 = 25
3c + d = 20
d
d c: c = 0
d = 20
2
x = 5t 20
When t = 0, x = 20
20 m to the right of O

345

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

5
a

a = 2t 3
2
v = t 3t + c
When t = 0, v = 3.
3=00+c
c=3
2
v = t 3t + 3
3
2
x = t 3t + 3t + d
3 2
When t = 0, x = 2.
2=00+0+d
d=2
3
2
x = t 3t + 3t + 2
3 2
When t = 10,
3
2
x = 10 3 10 + 3 10 + 2
3
2
2000

900
+ 32
=
6
= 215 1
3
2
v = t 3t 3
2
= 10 3 10 + 3
= 73

a = 10
v = 10t + c
When t = 0, v = 25.
25 = 0 + c
c = 25
v = 10t + 25

v = 10t + 25
2
x = 5t + 25t + d
When t = 0, x = 0.
(Define the point of projection as x = 0,
the origin.)
0=0+0+d
d=0
2
x = 5t + 25t

Maximum height occurs when v = 0.


v = 10t + 25 = 0
t = 25 = 5
10 2
2.5 s after projection

346

When t = 2.5,
2
x 5t + 25t
2
= 5 2.5 + 25 2.5
= 31.25 m

x = 5t + 25t = 0
5t(t 5) = 0
t = 5 (t = 0 is the start)

Define t = 0 as the moment the lift


passes the 50th floor.
a=1t5
9
9
2 5
1
t t+c
v=
9
18
8 = 0 0 + c
c = 8
2
v= 1 t 58
9
18
3
2
1
t 5 t 8t + d
x=
18
54
50 6 = 0 0 0 + d
d = 300
v = 0 when
1 t2 5 t 8 = 0
9
18
2
t 10t 8 18 = 0
(t 18)(t + 8) = 0
t = 18
3
2
x = 1 t 5 t 8t + 300
18
54
3
2
= 1 18 5 18 8 18 + 300
54
18
= 174
174 = 29
6
It will stop on the 29th floor.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 19C Solutions


1

3
a

s = 30, u = 0, a = 1.5
2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
1
30 = 1.5 t
2
2
t = 40
t = 40
= 2 10 s

4
a

u = 25, v = 0, t = 3
s = 1 (u + v)t
2
1
= (25 + 0) 3
2
= 37.5 m

5
a

For constant acceleration,


acceleration = change in velocity
change in time
2
27
=
= 3 m/s
9
u = 30, v = 50, a = 3
v = u + at
50 = 30 + 3t
3t = 20
t = 20 = 6 2 s
3
3

s = ut + 1 at
2
2
1
= 3 15
2
= 337.5 m

6
a

45 km/h = 45 3.6
= 12.5 m/s
For constant acceleration,
acceleration = change in velocity
change in time
2
= 12.5 = 2.5 m/s
5
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
1
= 2.5 5
2
= 31.25 m
2

90 km/h = 90 3.6
= 25 m/s
u = 0, v = 25, a = 0.5
v = u + at
25 = 0 + 0.5t
0.5t = 25
t = 25 = 50 s
0.5
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
= 1 0.5 50
2
= 625 m
2

200 km/h = 200 3.6


= 500 m/s
9
500
,a = 3
u = 0, v =
9
v = u + at
500 = 0 + 3t
9
3t = 500
9
500
t=
27
= 18 14 s
27

54 km/h = 54 3.6
= 15 m/s
u = 15, a = 0.25, s = 250
2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
250 = 15t + 1 0.25t
2
Multiply both sides by 8:
2
2000 = 120t t
2
t 120t + 2000 = 0
(t 20)(t 100) = 0
t = 100 represents the train changing
velocity and returning to this point.
t = 20 s

347

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

7
a

v = u + at
= 15 + 0.25 20
= 10 m/s
= 10 3.6 = 36 km/h

10
a v = u + at
= 4.9 9.8t
= 4.9(1 2t)
b

v = u + at
= 20 + 9.8 4
= 19.2 m/s
s = ut + 1 at
2

= 20 4 + 1 9.8 4
2
= 1.6

8
a

= 20 4 + 1 9.8 4
2
= 158.4 m

9
a

s = ut + 1 at
2
2
= 4.9t + 1 9.8 t
2
2
= 4.9t 4.9t
= 4.9t(1 t)
This is his displacement from the initial
3 m height.
h = 4.9t(1 t) + 3
2

11
a Maximum height occurs when v = 0.
u = 19.6, a = 9.8, v = 0
v = u + at
0 = 19.6 9.8t
t = 19.6 = 2 s
9.8

v = u + at
= 20 + 9.8 4
= 59.2 m/s
s = ut + 1 at
2

348

u = 49, s = 0, a = 9.8
2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
0 = 49t + 1 9.8 t
2
2
0 = 49t 4.9t
0 = 4.9t(10 t)
t = 10 s

u = 49, s = 102.9, a = 9.8


2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
102.9 = 49t + 1 9.8 t
2
2
102.9 = 49t 4.9t
2
0 = 4.9t 49t + 102.9
Divide by 4.9:
2
t 10t + 21 = 0
(t 3)(t 7) = 0
At both 3 s (going up) and 7 s (going
down)

s = ut + 1 at
2

= 19.6 2 + 1 9.8 2
2
= 19.6 m

u = 19.6, s = 0, a = 9.8
2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
0 = 19.6t + 1 9.8 t
2
2
19
0=
4.9t
6t
0 = 4.9t(4 t)
t=4s

u = 19.6, s = 24.5, a = 9.8


2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
24.5 = 19.6t + 1 9.8 t
2
2
24.5 = 19.6t 4.9t
2
0 = 4.9t 19.6t 24.5
Divide by 4.9:
2
t 4t 5 = 0
(t 5)(t + 1) = 0
t=5s

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

12 Let the distance between P and Q be x m.


u = 20, v = 40, s = x
2
2
v = u + 2as
1600 = 400 + 2ax
2ax = 1200
a = 1200
2x
600
=
x
At the halfway mark,
u = 20, a = 600, s = x
2
x
2
2
v = u + 2as
= 400 + 2 600 x
2
x
= 1000
v = 1000
= 10 10 m/s

349

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 19D Solutions


1

Draw the velocitytime graph.

Distance travelled = area under graph


= 1 10 13
2
= 65 m
2

Draw the velocitytime graph.

The area can be calculated using the


trapezium formula, or as the sum of two
triangles and a rectangle.
A = 1 (a + b)h
2
1
= (25 + 50) 15
2
= 562.5 m

A = 1 (a + b)h
2
1
= (25 + 35) 15
2
= 450 m

Let the halfway point be at time T as


below.

1 10 15 + 15(T 10) = 562.5


2
2
75 + 15T 150 = 281.25
15T = 356.25
T = 23.75 s

Since the total distance travelled is 1 km


or 1000 m, the combined areas of the two
triangles will equal a distance of 500 m.
1 5 h + 1 10 h = 500
2
2
5h + 10h = 1000
15h = 1000
h = 1000
15
= 66 2
3
2
Maximum speed = 66 m/s
3
4

36 km/h = 36 3.6
= 10 m/s.
72 km/h = 20 m/s.

Distance = A = 18 10 + 1 6 10
2
= 210 m

350

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

60 km/h = 60 3.6
= 50 m/s
3

Distance = A = 1 60 50
3
2
= 500 m

Let the common time be T s and the


distance x m.

For the first car, x = 15t


For the second car,
x = 1 10 25 + 25(t 10)
2
= 125 + 25t 250
= 25t 125
= 15t
10t = 125
t = 12.5 s
x = 15t
= 15 12.5
= 187.5 m

Distance = A = 1 50 + 25 30
2 3
3
= 375 m
Let the required time be T s.

It is easier to work with the triangle on


the right.
This triangle will have area = 500 2
= 250
Its base = (60 T)
The sloping line has gradient= 50 60
3
= 50 = 5
180 18
5
the triangles height =
(60 T)
18
1 (60 T) 5 (60 T) = 250
18
2
5 (60 T) 2 = 250
26
2
(60 T) = 250 36
5
= 1800
60 T = 1800
42.43
T 15.57 s

Convert the speeds to km/min.


60 km/h = 1 km/min
80 km/h = 4 km/min
3
Treat each train separately.
The first train:

The second train:

First train distance = 5 1 + 1 2.5 1


2
= 6.25 km
Second train distance = 1 9 4
3
2
= 6 km
Since the trains have together travelled
less than 14 km, they will not crash.

351

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

8
a

The maximum speed will be the height


of the triangle.

1 100 h = 800
2
50h = 800
h = 16
Maximum speed = 16 m/s
= 16 3.6
= 57.6 km/h

The slope of the deceleration is twice as


steep as the slope of the acceleration.
Since the heights are equal, the
acceleration run will be twice as long as
the deceleration run.
T = 2 100
3
= 66 2 s
3
= 1 min 6 2 seconds
3

Taking the acceleration section,


the gradient = a = 16 66 2
3
48
=
200
2
= 0.24 m/s

352

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

353

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

When t = 0, x = 0
= 0 cm

6
A

When t = 0, x = 0.
3
2
When t = 2, x = 2 + 7 2 12 2
= 4
Average velocity = change in position
change in time
= 4
2
= 2 cm/s
E
2

v = 4t 3t + c
When t = 0, v = 1
1 = 0 0 + c
c = 1
2
v = 4t 3 t 1
2
When t = 1, v = 4 1 3 1 1
= 0 m/s
u = 0, s = 90, a = 1.8
2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
90 = 1 1.8 t
2
2
90 = 0.9t
2
t = 100
t = 10 s
60 km/h = 60 3.6
= 50 m/s
3
50
u = 0, v = , t = 4
3
v = u + at
50 = 4a
3
2
a = 50 = 25 m/s
12 6

Distance = area under graph


= triangle + trapezium + triangle
= 1 4 10 + 1 (10 + 25) 2 + 1 9 25
2
2
2
= 20 + 25 + 112.5
= 167.5 m
D

u = 0, a = 9.8, s = 40
2
2
v = u + 2as
= 0 + 2 9.8 40
= 784
v = 784 = 28 m/s

60 km/h = 60 3.6
= 50 m/s
3
50
u = 0, v = , t = 4
3
1
s = (u + v)t
2
1
= 50 4
2 3
= 100 m
3

u = 20, v = 0, a = 4
v = u + at
0 = 20 4t
t=5
s = 1 (u + v)t
2
= 1 20 5
2
= 50 m

10 v = 6t 5t + c
When t = 0, v = 1.
1=00+c
c=1
2
v = 6t 5t + 1
2

When t = 1, v = 6 1 5 1 + 1
= 2 m/s
D

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

354

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

When t = 0, x = 5.
5 cm to the left of O
2

When t = 3, x = 3 4 3 5
= 8
8 cm to the left of O

v = dx
dt
= 2t 4
When t = 0, v = -4.

v = 0 when 2t 4 = 0
t=2
2
When t = 2, x = 2 4 2 5
= 9
At 2 s, 9 cm to the left of O

3
a

Average velocity = change in position


change in time
9
5 = 2 cm/s
=
2
2 cm/s to the left
Distance travelled = distance from t = 0
to t = 2 (when v = 0), plus distance from
t = 2 to t = 3 = 4 + 1
= 5 cm
Average speed = distance travelled
change in time
5
= = 1 2 cm/s
3
3
Note: Average velocity has a direction
and hence a sign, but average speed
does not.

v = dx
dt
2
= 3t 4t
a = dv = 6t 4
dt
When t = 0, x = 8, v = 0 and a = 4.
8 cm to the right of O, stationary and
accelerating at 4 m/s2 to the left.

Solve 2t + 3t + 12t + 7 = 0
Using factors of 7, t = 1 gives
3
2
2 (1) + 3 (1) + 12 1 + 7 = 0
Dividing by (t + 1),
3
2
2
2t + 3tg + 12t + 7 = (t + 1)(2t 5t 7)
= (t + 1)(t + 1)(2t 7)
=0
t = 3.5, as t = 1 is usually discarded.
v = dx
dt
2
= 6t + 6t + 12
a = dv = 12t + 6
dt
When t = 3.5
2
v = 6 3.5 + 6 3.5 + 12
= 40.5 cm/s
a = dv
dt
= 12 3.5 + 6
2
= 36 cm/s

v=0
2
6t + 6t + 12 = 0
2
t t2=0
(t + 1)(t 2) = 0
t=2
After 2s (discarding t = 1)

Distance travelled in first 2 seconds


3
2
= |(2 2 + 3 2 + 12 2 + 7) (0 + 0 + 0 + 7)|
= 20 m
Distance travelled from t = 2 to t = 3 is
2
|(2 3 + 3 32 + 12 3 + 7)
3
2
(2 2 + 3 2 + 12 2 + 7)|
= |16 27|
= 11 m
Distance travelled in first 3 s = 20 + 11
= 31 m

2
a

v = 0 when 3t 4t = 0
t(3t 4) = 0
t = 0 or 4
3
At the start and after 4 s
3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4
3

i x1 1 = 1 1
2 2
2
1
1
=
8 4
= 1
8
1 cm to the left
8
2
ii a1(t) = d x2
dt
= 6t 2
a1 1 = 6 1 2
2
2
2
= 1 cm/s
iii v2(t) = dx = 2t
dt
v2 = 2 1
2
= 1 cm/s

x1(t) = x2(t)
3
2
2
t t =t
3
2
t 2t = 0
2
t (t 2) = 0
t = 0 and 2
The particles will have the same
position at the start and after 2 s.
ii Let the distance between the particles
3
2
be y = |t 2t |.
3
2
Define y = t 2t :
dy = 3t2 4t
dt
= t(3t 4)
= 0 when t = 0 and 4
3
When t = 0, y = 0.
When t = 4 , y = 64 32
27 9
3
= 1 5
27
When t = 2, y = 8 2 4
=0
The maximum distance the particles
are apart in the first 2 s is
32 = 1 5 cm
27
27

5
a

6
a

a = 6t
2
v = 3t + c
When t = 0, v = 0.
0=0+c
c=0
2
v = 3t
When t = 2, v = 3 4
= 12 m/s
2

v = 3t
3
x=t +d
When t = 0, x = 0.
0=0+d
d=0
3
x=t
Since the particle starts at the origin, its
3
displacement s = x = t .
a = 3 2t
2
2
v = 3t t + c
When t = 0, v = 4.
4=00+c
c=4
2
v = 3t t + 4 = 0
2

(t 3t 4) = 0
(t 4)(t + 1) = 0
t=4
After 4 s
b

v = 3t t + 4
2
3
x = 3t t + 4t + d
2 3
When t = 0, x = 0.
0=00+0+d
d=0
2
3
x = 3t t + 4t
2 3
2
3
When t = 4, x = 3 4 4 + 4 4
2
3
= 18 2
3
2
18 m to the right
3

355

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

c
d

7
a

8
a

When t = 4, a = 3 2 4
= 5 m/s2
a = 3 2t = 0
t = 1.5 s

When t = 1.5,
2
v = 3t t + 4
2
= 3 1.5 1.5 + 4
= 6.25 m/s
3

s = 2t 3t + c
3
4
When t = 0, s = 0.
0=00+c
c=0
3
4
s = 2t 3t
3
4
3
4
When t = 1, x = 2 1 3 1
3
4
=23= 1
3 4 12
1 m to the left.
12

When t = 1, v = 2 3
= 1 m/s
a = dv
dt
2
= 4t 9t
2
When t = 1, a = 4 1 9 1
2
= 5 m/s
2

v = 2t
a = dv
dt

= 4t =

4
3
t

356

v=1t
2
1
s= 1t +c
2
When t = 1, s = 0.
1
0= 11 +c
2
0= 1+c
2
1
c=
2
1
s= 1
2 2t
2

9
a

a = dv
dt
2
= 3t 22t + 24

Solve for v = 0.
3
t 11t + 24t = t(t 3)(t 8)
Since motion is only defined for t 0,
it cannot be said to change direction at t = 0.
t=3
2
a = 3 3 22 3 + 24
2
= 15 m/s

v = t 11t + 24t
4
3
2
x = t 11t + 12t + c
4
3
When t = 0, s = 0
0=00+0+c
c=0
4
3
2
x = t 11t + 12t
4
3
4
3
2
When t = 5, x = 5 11 5 + 12 5
4
3
= 2 1
2

When t = 3, x = 3 11 3 + 12 3
4
3
1
= 29
4
When t = 0, x = 0.
Total distance = 29 1 + 29 1 + 2 1
4 4
12
7
= 60 m
12
2 1 m left of O, 60 7 m
12
12

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

10 u = 20, v = 0, t = 4
s = 1 (u + v)t
2
= 1 20 4
2
= 40 m
11
a

u = 0, v = 30, t = 12
v = u + at
30 = 12a
a = 30
12
2
= 2.5 m/s
u = 30, v = 50, a = 2.5
v = u + at
50 = 30 + 2.5t
2.5t = 20
t=8s

13
a

s = ut + 1 at
2
2
= 0 + 1 2.5 20
2
= 500 m
2

100 km/h = 100 3.6


= 250 m/s
9
250
, a = 2.5
u = 0, v =
9
v = u + at
250 = 2.5t
9
t = 250
9 2.5
= 11 1 s
9

s = 1 (u + v)t
2
1
= 50 125
2 3
3
2
= 347 m
9

u = 35, s = 0, a = 9.8
2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
0 = 3.5t 4.9t
0.7t(50 7t) = 0
t = 50 = 7 1 s
7
7

u = 35, s = 60, a = 9.8


2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
60 = 35t 49t
2
4.9t 35t + 60 = 0
49t 250t + 600 = 0
(7t 20)(7t 30) = 0
t = 2 6 or 4 2
7
7
6
After 2 s (going up) and 4 2 s (going
7
7
down)

14
a Maximum height occurs when v = 0.
u = 19.6, a = 9.8, v = 0
v = u + at
0 = 19.6 9.8t
t = 19.6 = 2 s
9.8
b

12
a 100 km/h = 100 3.6
= 50 m/s
3
u = 0, v = 50, a = 0.4
3
v = u + at
50 = 0.4t
3
t = 50
3 0.4
= 41 2 s
3

357

s = ut + 1 at
2

= 19.6 2 + 1 9.8 2
2
= 19.6 m
With respect to ground level,
height = 19.6 + 20 = 39.6 m
2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

u = 19.6, s = 0, a = 9.8
2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
0 = 19.6t + 1 9.8 t
2
2
0 = 19.6t 4.9t
0 = 4.9t(4 t)
t=4s
u = 19.6, s = 20, a = 9.8
2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
20 = 19.6t + 1 9.8 t
2
2
20 = 19.6t 4.9t
2
4.9t 19. t 20 = 0
2
49t 196t 200 = 0
2
= b 4ac
2
= 196 4 49 200
= 77 616
278.596
Since the discriminant is irrational,
solve using the quadratic formula:
t = 196 278.596
98
4.84 or 0.84
4.84 s (since t > 0)

= 1 (33 + 15) 12
2
= 288 m
Halfway point is 144 m.
The car has travelled 1 8 12 = 48 m
2
in the first 8 s.
It must travel 144 48 = 96 m at 12 m/s.
This will take 96 12 = 8 s.
Total of 16 s.

17

Since the vehicle travels 1 km = 1000 m,


adding the two triangles together should
give an area equal to a distance of 200 m.
The triangles have a combined base of 25.
A = 1 25 V
2
= 200
V = 200 2
25
= 16 m/s
18 After 3 s, the first car has travelled
12 3 = 36 m.

15

Distance = area
= 1 35 25
2
= 437.5 m
16

Distance = trapezium area

358

Let the second cars final velocity be


V m/s. The two areas will be equal.
1 27 V = 12 30
2
= 360
V = 2 360
27
80
=
3
For constant acceleration,
acceleration = change in velocity
change in time
2
= 80 = 80 m/s
3 27 81

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

19
a

v = 10 3 10 + 5
4
= 0 m/s

a = dv
dt
2t
= 3
4
t
= 3
2
When t = 0, a = 3 m/s2.

Minimum velocity occurs when a = 0.


t 3=0
2
t=6
When t = 6,
2
v=6 36+5
4
= 4 m/s

v = t 3t + 5
4
3
2
x = t 3t + 5t + c
12 2
When t = 0, x = 0.
0=00+0+c
c=0
3
2
x = t 3t + 5t
12 2
Check for change of direction of
velocity.
2
v = 0 if t 3t + 5 = 0
4
2
t 12t + 20 = 0
(t 2)(t 10) = 0
t = 2 or 10
There will be no change of direction of
velocity in the first 2 s.
When t = 2,
2
3
x= 2 32 +52
12
2
2
= 6 + 10
3
=42m
3

When t = 3,
3
2
x= 3 33 +53
12
2
27
9
+ 15
=
4 2
=33m
4
Distance travelled in the third second
=4233
3
4
11
=
m (to the left)
12

20
a a = 2 2t
2
v = 2t = t + c
When t = 3, v = 5.
2
5=233 +c
5 = 3 + c
c=8
2
v = 2t t + 8

v = 2t t + 8
3
2
x = t t + 8t + d
3
When t = 0, x = 0.
0=00+0+d
d=0
3
2
x = t t + 8t
3

21
a a = 4 4t
2
v = 4t 2t + c
When t = 0, v = 6.
6=00+c
c=6
2
v = 4t 2t + 6
2
= 6 + 4t 2t
b

Minimum velocity occurs when a = 0.


i 4 4t = 0
t=1
2
v = 6 + 4t 2t
2
=6+4121
= 8 m/s

359

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

23
a a = 3 3t
2
v = 3t = 3t + c
2
When t = 0, v = 2.
2=00+c
c=2
2
v = 3t 3t + 2
2

ii 6 + 4t 2t = 6
2
4t 2t = 0
2t(2 t) = 0
2
iii 6 + 4t 2t = 0
2
2t + 4t + 6 = 0
2
t 2t 3 = 0
(t 3)(t + 1) = 0
t=3
3

x = 2t + 2t + 6t + d
3
x = 0 when t = 0
d=0
3
2
x = 2t + 2t + 6t
3
When t = 3,
3
2
x= 23 +23 +63
3
= 18 m

When t = 4, v = 3 4 3 4 + 2
2
= 10 m
2

22
a When t = 0, a = 27 m/s2.
b

a = 27 4t
3
v = 27t 4t + c
3
When t = 0, v = 5.
5=00+c
c=5
3
v = 27t 4t + 5
3

v = 3t 3t + 2
2
2
3
x = 3t t + 2t + d
2 2
When t = 0, x = 0.
0=00+0+d
d=0
2
3
x = 3t t + 2t
2 2
2
3
When t = 4, x = 3 4 4 + 24
2
2
= 24 32 + 8
= 0 m/s

24
2
a t 10t + 24 = 0
(t 4)(t 6) = 0
t = 4 and 6
3

When t = 3, v = 27 3 4 3 + 5
3
= 50 m/s

v = t 10t + 24
3
2
x = t 5t + 24t + c
5
When t = 0, x = 0.
0=00+0+c
c=0
3
2
x = t 5t + 24t
3
3
2
When t = 3, x = 3 5 3 + 24 3
3
= 36 m

a = 2t 10 < 0
2t < 10
t<5
Since t 0, 0 t 5

360

v = 27t 4t + 5 = 5
3
3
27t 4t = 0
3
3
81t 4t = 0
2
t(81 4t ) = 0
t(9 2t)(9 + 2t) = 0
t = 4.5 s

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

361

Chapter 20 Statics of a particle


Exercise 20A Solutions
1

Rearrange into a triangle of forces.

Using trigonometry,
T1 = T2
= 5 sin 45

= 5 2 kg wt
2
2

Rearrange into a triangle of forces.

ACB = ACD + ADC


These angles can be calculated using the
cosine rule, but the student should notice
that ACD is a 'doubled' 3-4-5 triangle
with CAD = 90.
ACB = ACD + ADC
= 180 90 = 90
3

cos CAB = 15 + 10 12
2 15 10
= 0.6033
CAB = 52.89
ADC = 90 CAB
= 37.11
2
2
2
cos CBA = 15 + 12 10
2 15 12
= 0.7472
CBA = 41.65
ACD = 90 CBA
= 48.35
CAD = 180 37.11 48.35
= 94.54
Use the sine rule to find T1 and T2.
20
T1
=
sin ACD sin CAD

T1 = 20 sin 48.35
sin 94.54
14.99 kg wt
20
T2
=
sin ADC sin CAD

T2 = 20 sin 37.11
sin 94.54
12.10 kg wt
4

Rearrange into a triangle of forces.

Rearrange into a triangle of forces.

Using the cosine rule in the triangle in


the original diagram, it is clear that:

Using the cosine rule,


2
2
2
F = 40 + 30 2 30 40 cos 45
= 802.94
F 28.34 kg wt
Using the cosine rule,
2
2
2
cos x = F + 40 30
2 F 40
= 0.663
x 48.5
W 48.5 S or S 41.5 W

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

The angle between the plane and the


horizontal is given by
tan x = 5
12
= 0.4167
x 22.619
Rearrange into a triangle of forces.

T = 104 sin x
= 40 kg wt
Note: The hypotenuse is 13, so
sin x = 5 and cos x = 12.
13
13
N = 104 cos x
= 96 kg wt

Note that F will be acting at 50 to the


horizontal and 70 to N, which
becomes 110 when the force vectors
are joined head to tail.
Rearrange into a triangle of forces.

Use the sine rule.

F
12
=
sin 30 sin110
12 sin 30
F=
6.39 kg wt
sin110
7

In each case, the particle will be in


equilibrium if the forces add to zero.
Draw the first two forces, and calculate
the third force required for equilibrium.

362

Use the cosine rule to calculate the


magnitude of the third force.
2
2
2
F = 10 + 6 2 10 6 cos 100
= 156.837
F 12.52 kg wt
This is not the force in the diagram, so
these forces will not be in equilibrium.
b

Use the cosine rule to calculate the


magnitude of the third force.
2
2
2
F = 4 + (2 3 ) 2 4 2 3 cos 30
=4
F = 2 kg wt
It has the same magnitude as the third
force in the diagram.

Use the sine rule to find x.


sin x = sin 30
4
2
sin x = 0.5 4 = 1
2
x = 90
This vector is at the same angle with the
2 3 vector as in the original diagram.
the vectors will be in equilibrium.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Draw the triangle of forces and use the


cosine rule to find the three angles.
When the vectors are placed tail to tail,
the angles between them will be the
supplements of the angles in the
triangle.

The angle between T and N is now 80.

Draw the triangle of forces.

cos x = 7 + 4 10
274
= 0.625
x 12841'
Angle between vectors is
180 12841' = 5119'
2
2
2
cos y = 10 + 4 7
2 10 4
= 0.8375
y 337'
Angle between vectors is
180 337' = 14653'
z 180 12841' 337'
= 1812'
Angle between vectors is
180 1812' = 16148'

Use the sine rule.


T = 15
sin 30 sin 100
T = 15 0.5
sin 100
7.62 kg wt
10

9
a

Draw the triangle of forces for point B.

Draw the triangle of forces.

T = 15 sin 30
= 7.5 kg wt

The situation will be the same, except


that the 30 angle will now be 40.
T = 15 sin 40
9.64 kg wt

Use the sine rule to find T1 and T2.


T1
= 12
sin 110 sin 20

T1 = 12 sin 110
sin 20
32.97 kg wt
T2 = 12
sin 50 sin 20

T2 = 12 sin 50

sin 20
26.88 kg wt

363

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Now draw the triangle of forces for


point C.

Use the sine rule to find T3.


T3 = T 2
sin 70 sin 40

T3 = 26.88 sin 70
sin 40
39.29 kg wt
Since the triangle is isosceles,
W = T3 39.29 kg wt
The mass of W is 39.29 kg.

364

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

365

Exercise 20B Solutions


1

F cos 40 = 10 kg wt
F = 10
cos 40
13.05 kg wt

Resolve in the direction of F.


F 10 cos 55 = 0
F = 5.74 kg wt

First resolve vertically to find N.


N cos 25 8 = 0
8
N=
cos 25
8.83 kg wt
Keep the exact value of N in your
calculator.
Resolve horizontally.
F N sin 25 = 0
F = N sin 25
3.73 kg wt

F N sin 25 = 0
F = N sin 25 3.73 kg wt

Resolve parallel to the plane, i.e.


perpendicular to N.
F is at an angle of 34 to the plane.
F cos 34 10 sin 20 = 0

F = 10 sin 20
cos 34
4.13 kg wt

Resolve vertically:
T cos 30 12 = 0
T=

12
cos 30

Resolve horizontally:
F T sin 30 = 0
F = T sin 30

= 12 sin 30
cos 30
6.93 kg wt
6

Resolve parallel to the plane.


20 W sin 40 = 0
W = 20
sin 40
31.11 kg wt
The force W exerts on the plane is the
part of its weight resolved perpendicular
to the plane.
F = W cos 40

= 20 cos 40

sin 40
= 23.84 kg wt

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

First resolve horizontally so only one


unknown is involved.
30 sin x 20 sin 35 = 0

sin x = 20 sin 35
30
= 0.382
x 2229'
Keep the exact value in your calculator
and resolve vertically.
0 = W 20 cos 35 30 cos 22.481
W = 20 cos 35 + 30 cos 22.481
44.10
8

Pressure of body on plane


= 10 cos 50
6.43 kg wt
Resolve parallel to the plane.
T 10 sin 50 = 0
T = 10 sin 50
7.66 kg wt
Resolve parallel to the second plane.
T W sin 40 = 0
W= T
sin 40

= 10 sin 50
sin 40
11.92 kg wt

First find the angle between the string


and the vertical.
sin x = 9
15 + 9
= 0.375
x = 22.024
Resolve vertically.
T cos x 3 = 0
3
T=
cos 22.024
3.24 kg wt

366

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

367

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

50 cos 60 = 50 1
2
= 25 N

Resolve perpendicular to the plane.


N 20 cos 30 = 0
N = 20 cos 30
= 20 3
2
= 10 3 kg wt
E
Resolve parallel to the plane.
F 20 sin 30 = 0
F = 20 sin 30
= 20 1
2
= 10 kg wt

The angle between the forces when they


are head to tail will be 120.
Use the cosine rule.
2
2
2
F = 20 + 20 2 20 20 cos 120
= 400 + 400 800 1
2
= 1200
F = 1200
= 20 3 kg wt
B

The angle between the forces when they


are head to tail will be 120.
Use the cosine rule.
2
2
2
F = 300 + 200 2 300 200 cos 120
= 90 000 + 40 000 120 000 1
2
= 190 000
F = 190 000
= 100 19 kg wt
A

R = 16 + 30
= 1156
= 34 kg wt

For the particle to be in equilibrium,


B must equal the sum of the forces on
A and C.
B = A cos 60 + C cos 30
(since 180 150 = 30).
As this is true, C cannot be true.
C

Use Pythagoras theorem.


Resultant = 5 + 4
= 41 kg wt

a +7 =9
2
a = 81 49
= 32
a = 32 = 4 2

Since the forces are perpendicular,

10 The forces will be at right angles to each


other.
2
2
2
a + 8 = 12
2
a = 144 64
= 80
a = 80 = 4 5
B

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

368

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1

Note that the two strings form a 3-4-5


triangle. Draw the triangle of forces.

The force exerted on the body by the


plane will be perpendicular to the plane.
Resolve parallel to the plane, so the
component of this force will be zero.
The hypotenuse of the marked triangle is
2

Note:

sin x = 6 = 3; cos x = 8 = 4
10 5
10 5
T1 = 15 sin x
= 15 3 = 9 kg wt
5
T2 = 15 cos x
= 15 4 = 12 kg wt
5
2

Draw the triangle of forces.

Use the cosine rule.


2
2
2
F = 10 + 10 2 10 10 cos 120
= 100 + 100 200 1
2
= 300
F = 300
= 10 3 kg wt
Since the triangle is isosceles,
x = 180 120
2
= 30

10 3 kg wt, at 150 to each 10 kg wt


force.

h = 12 + 6
= 180 = 6 5 cm
If x is the angle of the plane to the
horizontal,
sin x = 6 = 1
6 5
5
12
2
cos x =
=
6 5
5
Resolving,
T 70 sin x = 0
T = 70 sin x
= 70 1
5
70
5
=
= 14 5 kg wt
5
Resolving perpendicular to the plane,
N 70 cos x = 0
N = 70 cos x
= 70 2
5
= 140 5 = 28 5 kg wt
5
4

The force exerted on the body by the


plane will be perpendicular to the plane.
Resolve parallel to the plane, so the
component of this force will be zero.
F cos 30 15 sin 30 = 0
F 3 = 15 1
2
2
F = 15
3
= 15 3 = 5 3 kg wt
3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Draw the triangle of forces and use the


cosine rule.

cos x = 12 + 5 8
2 15 5
105
=
=7
120 8
Since the required angle is 180 x,
the cosine is 7.
8

F cos 30 = 20
F 3 = 20
2
20 2
F=
3
= 40 3 kg wt
3
Resolve parallel to the plane.
F 15 sin 45 = 0
F = 15 sin 45
= 15 2 kg wt
2

369

Resolve parallel to the plane.


W sin 30 14 = 0
W = 14
sin 30
= 14 = 28 kg wt
0.5
Resolve perpendicular to the plane.
N 28 cos 30 = 0
N = 28 cos 30
= 28 3
2
= 14 3 kg wt

Calculate F by resolving parallel to the


plane.
F cos 30 12 sin 30 = 0
F 3 = 12 1
2
2
2
F=6
3
3
12
=
3
= 4 3 kg wt

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

370

Chapter 21 Revision of chapters 19 and 20


Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions
1

x = at + bt + c
c = 12

v = dx = 4t 5
dt
When t = 0, v = 5 cm/s

a = dv = 4
dt
When t = 0, a = 4 cm/s2
v=0
4t 5 = 0
t = 5 = 1.25 s
4

x=0
2t 5t 12 = 0
(2t + 3)(t 4) = 0
t=4s

t=3
2
x = 2 3 5 3 12
= 9 cm

10 v = u + at
= 15 10 3
= 15 cm/s

Average velocity = change in position


change in time
= 9 12
3
= 1 cm/s
A
The direction of velocity changes at
t = 1.25.
Position at t = 1.25
2
= 2 1.25 5 1.25 12
= 15.125 cm
Distance travelled from t = 0 to t = 1.25
= 12 15.125
= 3.125 cm
Distance travelled from t = 1.25 to t = 3
= 9 15.125
= 6.125 cm
Distance travelled in the first 3 seconds
= 3.125 + 6.125
= 9.25 cm
D

11 v = u + at
0 = 15 10t
t = 15 = 1.5 s
10

12 Maximum height occurs when v = 0,


i.e. when t = 1.5 s
2
s = ut + 1 at
2
2
= 15 1.5 1 10 1.5
2
= 11.25 m
D
13

Average speed = distance travelled


change in time
9.25
=
3
= 3 1 cm/s
C
12

s = ut + 1 at
2
2
0 = 15t 5t
5t(t 3) = 0
After 3 s, since t = 0 is the initial
projection.
2

14 Distance = area of trapezium


= 1 (14 + 6) 20
2
= 200 m

15 For constant acceleration,


acceleration = change in velocity
change in time
20
=
5
= 4 m/s2

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

16 Resolve perpendicular to F2.


The angle between F1 and F2 extended
back is 100 + 120 180 = 40.
F1 sin 40 8 sin 60 = 0

F1 = 8 sin 60
sin 40
10.78 kg wt A
17 Resolve perpendicular to F1.
The angle between F2 and F1 extended
back is 100 + 120 180 = 40.
The angle between the 8 kg wt force and
F1 extended back is 120 40 = 80.
F2 sin 40 8 sin 80 = 0

F2 = 8 sin 80

sin 40
12.26 kg wt D

371

20 Draw the triangle of forces.


= 180

Use the cosine rule to find .


2
2
2
cos = 12 + 10 14
2 12 10
= 0.2
78
180 78 = 102

21 Draw the triangle of forces.


= 180

18 Resolve perpendicular to the plane.


N 10 cos 25 = 0
N = 10 cos 25
9.06 kg wt
B
19 Resolve parallel to the plane.
F 10 sin 25 = 0
F = 10 sin 25
4.23 kg wt

Use the cosine rule to find .


2
2
2
cos = 12 + 17.5 15
2 12 17.5
= 0.536
57
180 57 = 122

22 60 cos 30 51.96 kg wt

23 60 sin 30 = 30 kg wt

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 22 Describing the distribution of a


single variable
Exercise 22A Solutions
1
a

'Type of toy' is categorical data.

'Number of students' is numerical data.

'Favourite colour' is categorical data.

'Weight' is categorical data

Although derived from numbers, 'light',


'medium' and 'heavy' are not numerical
values, so this is categorical data.

'Level of enthusiasm' is categorical data.

2
a

3
a

IQ is a numerical value, so this is


numerical data.
While it uses number for labelling, the
survey is actually checking attitudes, so
this is categorical data.

Discrete the number of pages can only


be an integer.

Discrete the cost can only be a whole


number of cents.

Continuous the volume could take any


value, including fractional values.

Continuous any amount of time could


pass, including seconds and fractions of
seconds.

Discrete the number of tosses can only


be an integer.

372

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 22B Solutions


1
a

3
a

b
b

Hamburgers are the most popular, with


23 students selecting them.
4
a

2
a

Music is the least popular type of film,


with only 15 rentals.

From the table, 21 + 11 = 32


respondents.

Watching TV was the most common


activity, chosen by 42% of students.

373

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

374

Exercise 22C Solutions


1
Number
Frequency

2
a

0
4

1
4

2
4

3
4

4
3

5
2

6
1

The most common number is the


column with the greatest height.
2 children (height = 10).

Add up the heights of the columns for


family size = 6 and higher.
2 + 1 + 0 + 2 + 0 = 5 students

3
a

Freq.
1
0
1
9
4
5
7
4
0
1

Relative Freq.
0.03
0
0.03
0.28
0.13
0.16
0.22
0.13
0
0.03

Add the heights of all the columns.


4 + 10 + 5 + 4 + 0 + 2 + 1 + 0 + 2 + 0
= 28 students

Read the height of the 10-19 column.


Zero (0) students.

Add all the heights of the columns.


2 + 3 + 3 + 7 + 9 + 10 + 8 + 4 + 2
= 48 students

The modal class is the column with the


greatest height.
6069 students.

Temp. (C)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

'Only child' equates to family size = 1.


Reading from the graph, the answer is
4 students.

4
a, b Divide each frequency by the total
number of cities, 32, to get the relative
frequency

Count these cities using the values in the


table.
1 + 1 + 9 + 4 = 15 out of a total 32 cities.
15 100 47%
32

5
a

Count all the columns to the right of 50.


9 + 10 + 8 + 4 + 2 = 33 students

The modal class is the column with the


greatest height.
$5.00$5.99

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

c
Prices ($)
less than 5
less than 10
less than 15
less than 20
less than 25
less than 30
less than 35
less than 40
less than 45

Cumulative
Freq.
3
9
12
15
19
19
20
20
21

375

The students' estimates ranged from


28.9 cm to 33.3 cm, with most students
(86%) over-estimating the 30 cm
measure.

7
a

b
Marks
less than 10
less than 20
less than 30
less than 40
less than 50
less than 60
less than 70
less than 80
less than 90
less than 100

6
a

Cumulative
Freq.
0
0
1
3
8
16
22
26
27
30

b
Measurement (cm)
less than 28
less than 29
less than 30
less than 31
less than 32
less than 33
less than 34

Cumulative
Freq.
0
1
3
11
20
27
28

8
a

The students' marks ranged from 21 to 99,


with most students (over 70%) scoring more
than 50% on the test.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

b
Length of hole (m)
less than 240
less than 260
less than 280
less than 300
less than 320
less than 340
less than 360
less than 380
less than 400
less than 420

Cumulative
Freq.
0
1
6
8
17
30
33
45
47
50

i From the graph, there are about


8 out of 50 = 4
25
ii From the graph, there are about
17 holes longer than 360 m = 17
50
iii 90% of 50 holes is 45 holes.
From the graph, 90% of holes are
longer than 270 m.

376

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 22D Solutions


1
a

2
a

3
Both distributions have the same spread,
but the one on the left has a lower centre
than the one on the right.
Differ in centre.

While not perfectly symmetric, this


histogram is still approximately
symmetric.

Both distributions have the same spread


and the same centre.
Differ in neither.

While not perfectly symmetric, this


histogram is still approximately
symmetric.

While not perfectly symmetric, this


histogram is still approximately
symmetric.

The distribution on the right has a higher


centre and a wider spread than the one
on the left.
Differ in both.

The histogram has a short tail to the left


and a long tail to the right, so it is
positively skewed.

The histogram has a long tail to the left


and a short tail to the right, so it is
negatively skewed.

While not perfectly symmetric, this


histogram is still approximately
symmetric.

377

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 22E Solutions


4
a

1
a

There are 2 leaves on the '6' stem, so


two months.

2
a

There are 7 leaves on the '3' stem, and 2


leaves on the '4' stem.
7 + 2 = 9 batteries.

3
a

The distribution is approximately


symmetric. There are outliers at the high
end, but these can be ignored.

5
a

There are 2 leaves on the '6' stem and


one leaf on the '7' stem, so 3 students.

As a histogram, this would have a short


tail to the left and a long tail to the right,
so the distribution is positively skewed.

Both distributions are approximately


symmetric and have a similar spread.
Fathers tend to have ages centred in the
late 40s, compared to mothers who tend
to have aged centred in the early 40s.

378

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

6
a

Marks less than 50% are on stems


1 through 4.
Six students from Class A and 2
students from Class B scored less than
50%.

Class B performed better, as more


students scored in the higher 70% to
90% levels.

379

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 22F Solutions


1
a

Mean = 29 + 14 + 11 + 24 + 14 + 14 + 28 + 14 + 18 + 22 + 14
11
202
=
11
18.36
Arrange the data in order:
11 14 14 14 14 14 18 22 24 28 29
The median is the middle number: 14.

Mean = (Sum of numbers) n


= 147 9.19
16
Arrange the data in order:
3 3 5 5 6 6 7 9 11 12 12 12 13 13 15 15
The median is the average of the two middle numbers: 9 + 11 = 10
2

Mean = (Sum of numbers) n


= 74.1 = 7.41
10
Arrange the data in order:
5.6 6.5 7.0 7.1 7.5 7.8 7.9 8.2 8.2 8.3
The median is the average of the two middle numbers: 7.5 + 7.8 = 7.65
2

Mean = (Sum of numbers) n


= 38.9 1.62
24
Arrange the data in order:
0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.1
1.2 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.7 2.0 2.7 3.1 3.2 3.4 4.6 5.8
After putting the data in order, the two middle numbers are 1.1 and 1.2.
Median = 1.1 + 1.2 = 1.15
2

2
a

Mean = (Sum of numbers) n


Sum of numbers
= (1 6) + (2 3) + (3 10)
+ (4 7) + (5 8)
= 110
Total data (n) = 6 + 3 + 10 + 7 + 8
= 34
110
Mean =
3.24
34
The middle two data would be the 17th
and 18th scores, which are both be 3.
Median = 3

Sum of numbers
= (2 5) + (1 8) + (0 11)
+ (1 3) + (2 2)
= 11
Total data (n) = 5 + 8 + 11 + 3 + 2
= 29
11
Mean =
0.38
29
The median is the 15th score, which is 0.

380

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Mean = (Sum of numbers) n


= $2 707 400 $193 386
14
The median is the average of the two
middle numbers.
After putting the data in order, the two
middle numbers are both $140 000.
Median = $140 000
The median is a better measure, as it is
more like a typical price for a house.

To find the mean, add a third row to


calculate the products, or partial sums.
No. of
days
missed
No. of
students
Product

21

14

10

16

18

10

28

30

64

90

60

18

21

Mean = 0 + 2 + 28+ 30+ 64+ 90+ 60+ 28+ 21


4 + 2 + 14+ 10+ 16+ 18+ 10+ 2 + 1
313
=
77
= 4.06
The median is the 39th score, which is 4.
Both measures are reasonable.
5
a

In each case, first put the data in order.


510 560 630 715 718
750 1002 1085 1093 1112
Range = 1112 510
= 602
The median of the first five points is 630.
The median of the second five points
is 1085.
Interquartile range = 1085 630
= 455
1.6 1.2 1.0 0.2
0.7 0.8 3.4 3.7
Range = 3.7 1.6
= 5.3
The median of the first four points is
1.2 + 1.0 = 1.1.
2
The median of the second four points is
0.8 + 3.4 = 2.1.
2
Interquartile range = 2.1 1.1
= 3.2

381

8.39 8.51 8.51 8.54 8.56


8.58 8.62 8.82 8.96
Range = 8.96 8.39
= 0.57
Exclude the median.
The median of the first four points is 8.51.
The median of the last four points is
8.62 + 8.82 = 8.72.
2
Interquartile range = 8.72 8.51
= 0.21

15 16 16 17 18 18
19 19 20 20 21 22
Range = 22 15
=7
The median of the first six points is
16 + 17 = 16.5.
2
The median of the last six points is 20.
Interquartile range = 20 16.5
= 3.5

First put the data in order.


159 161 189 190 192 193 196 199 203 206
209 209 224 225 231 238 244 248 276 304
Range = 304 159
= 145

7
a
b

The median of the first ten points is


192 + 193 = 192.5.
2
The median of the last ten points is
231 + 238 = 234.5.
2
Interquartile range = 234.5 192.5
= 42

Range = 4.5 2.1 = 2.4 kg


There are 20 data points here.
The median of the first ten points is
2.9 + 3.1 = 3.0 kg.
2
The median of the second ten points is
3.9 + 4.1 = 4.0 kg.
2
Interquartile range = 4.0 3.0
= 1.0 kg

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

8
a

Mean = 276 = 23
12
Construct a table.
xi
xi x
30
16
22
23
18
18
14
56
13
26
9
31

7
7
1
0
5
5
9
33
10
3
14
8

(xi x)

(xi x) = 1688
The standard deviation s = 1688
11
12.39
Mean = $73.21 = $4.07
18
Construct a table.
xi
xi x
2.52
4.38
3.60
2.30
3.45
5.40
4.43
2.27
4.50
4.32
5.65
6.89
1.98
4.60
5.12
3.79
4.99
3.02

xi = 73.21

1.55
0.31
0.47
1.77
0.62
1.33
0.36
1.80
0.43
0.25
1.58
2.82
2.09
0.53
1.05
0.28
0.92
1.05

(xi x)

2.4025
0.0961
0.2209
3.1329
0.3844
1.7689
0.1296
3.2400
0.1849
0.0625
2.4964
7.9524
4.3681
0.2809
1.1025
0.0784
0.8464
1.1025

(x1 x) = 29.8503
The standard deviation s = 29.8503
17
$1.33

174
74
576
174
174
74
466
24
174
174

(xi x)

30 276
5476
331 776
30 276
30 276
5476
217 156
576
30 276
30 276

xi = 3740

(xi x) = 711 840


The standard deviation s = 711 840
9
281.24

xi = 276

Mean = 3740 = 374


10
Construct a table.
xi
xi x
200
300
950
200
200
300
840
350
200
200

49
49
1
0
25
25
81
1089
100
9
196
64

382

Mean = 1493 78.58


19
Construct a table.
xi
xi x
86
74
75
77
79
82
81
75
78
79
80
75
78
78
81
80
76
77
82

xi = 1493

7.42
4.58
3.58
1.58
0.42
3.42
2.42
3.58
0.58
0.42
1.42
3.58
0.58
0.58
2.42
1.42
2.58
1.58
3.42

(xi x)

55.0564
20.9764
12.8164
2.4964
0.1764
11.6964
5.8564
12.8164
0.3364
0.1764
2.0164
12.8164
0.3364
0.3364
5.8564
2.0164
6.6564
2.4964
11.6964

(x1 x) = 166.6316
The standard deviation s = 166.6316
18
3.04

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

ii Mean = 4687 195.29


24
Construct a table.
xi
xi x

9
a

i Mean = 634 17.61


36
Construct a table.
xi
xi x
41
16
6
21
1
21
5
31
20
27
17
10
3
32
2
48
8
12
21
44
1
56
5
12
3
1
13
11
15
14
10
12
18
64
3
10

23.39
1.61
11.61
3.39
16.61
3.39
12.61
13.39
2.39
9.39
0.61
7.61
14.61
14.39
15.61
30.39
9.61
5.61
3.39
26.39
16.61
38.39
12.61
5.61
14.61
16.61
4.61
6.61
2.61
3.61
7.61
5.61
0.39
46.39
14.61
7.61

(xi x)

547.0921
2.5921
134.7921
11.4921
275.8921
11.4921
159.0121
179.2921
5.7121
88.1721
0.3721
57.9121
213.4521
207.0721
243.6721
923.5521
92.3521
31.4721
11.4921
696.4321
275.8921
1473.7921
159.0121
31.4721
213.4521
275.8921
21.2521
43.6921
6.8121
13.0321
57.9121
31.4721
0.1521
2152.0321
213.4521
57.9121

(x1 x)
= 8920.5556
The standard deviation
s = 8920.5556
35
15.96

xi = 634

383

141
260
164
235
167
266
150
255
168
245
258
239
152
141
239
145
134
150
237
254
150
265
140
132

54.29
64.71
31.29
39.71
28.29
70.71
45.29
59.71
27.29
49.71
62.71
43.71
43.29
54.29
43.71
50.29
61.29
45.29
41.71
58.71
45.29
69.71
55.29
63.29

xi = 4687

(xi x)

2947.4041
4187.3841
979.0641
1576.8841
800.3241
4999.9041
2051.1841
3565.2841
744.7441
2471.0841
3932.5441
1910.5641
1874.0241
2947.4041
1910.5641
2529.0841
3756.4641
2051.1841
1739.7241
3446.8641
2051.1841
4859.4841
3056.9841
4005.6241

(x1 x)
= 64 394.9584

The standard deviation


s = 64 394.9584
23
52.91
b

i Interval = [17.61 2 15.96 ,


17.61 + 2 15.96]
= [0, 49.53]
34 out of 36 = 34 100 = 94%
36
ii Interval = [195.29 2 52.91 ,
195.29 + 2 52.91]
= [89.47, 301.11]
24 out of 24 = 100%

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

384

ii Using a table or calculator,

10
a
Age

Cmlt. Freq.

17 or less
18 or less
19 or less
20 or less
21 or less
24 or less
25 or less
31 or less
41 or less
44 or less
45 or less

7
23
26
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

6.02875 0.93
7
The median of the first four points is
5.9 + 6.0 = 5.95
2
The median of the last four points is 7.4
Interquartile range = 7.4 5.95
= 1.45
s=

Cmlt.
Rel. Freq.
0.194
0.639
0.722
0.806
0.833
0.861
0.889
0.917
0.944
0.972
1.0

i Mean = 108.3 13.54


8
Sort the data from lowest to highest.
5.8 5.9 6.2 7.3 7.4 7.4 8.3
The median is 7.3 + 7.4 = 7.35
2
ii Using a table or calculator,

60

2472.47875 18.79
7
The median of the first four data is
5.9 + 6.2 = 6.05
2
The median of the last four data is
7.4 + 8.3 = 7.85
2
Interquartile range = 7.85 6.05
= 1.7
s=

Read off the 50%, 25% and 75% mark


from the vertical axis.
From the data, the median is 18.
The middle of the top half is the first
quartile, also 18.
The middle of the bottom row is 20.
Interquartile range = 20 18 = 2
b

s=

Mean = 755 20.97


36
Using a table or calculator,
1901 7.37
35

12 This interval would be two standard


deviations each side of the mean.
Interval = [$50 2 $3, $50 + 2 $3]
= [$44, $56]
95% of the shares lie between $44 and $56.

Interval = [20.97 2 7.37,


20.97 + 2 7.37]
= [6.23, 35.71]
33 out of 36 = 33 100 = 92%
36

13 Note that $150 = $550 2 $200 and


$950 = $550 + 2 $200.
As these values are two standard
deviations each side of the mean, it
would be on 95% of days.

11
a

i Mean = 54.3 6.79


8
Sort the data from lowest to highest.
5.8 5.9 6.0 6.2 7.3 7.4 7.4
The median is 6.2 + 7.3 = 6.75
2

The error has little effect on the median


or interquartile range.
It doubles the mean and increases the
standard deviation by a factor of 20.

8.3

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

385

Exercise 22G Solutions


1
a

Write the heights in order from lowest to


highest.
123 123 132 133 135 140 140
143 143 145 149 150 154 154
154 156 157 157 157 159 160
163 165 167 167 168 176 180
Median m = 154
Q1 = 140 + 143 = 141.5
2
Q = 160 + 163 = 161.5
2
3
Minimum = 123
Maximum = 180

3
a

The distribution is slightly negatively


skewed, centred at 154 cm, with the
middle 50% of heights ranging from
141.5 cm to 161.5 cm.

Write the numbers in order from lowest


to highest.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 5
7 8 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 18
27 28 28 38 52
Median m = 3
Q1 = 0

Q3 = 13
Minimum = 0
Maximum = 52
b

Interquartile range = 13 0 = 13
Outliers can only be greater than
13 + 1.5 13 = 32.5
There are two outliers, 38 and 52.
The new maximum for the boxplot
becomes 28.

The distribution is positively skewed,


centred at 3.
While 75% of people borrowed 13
books or less, one student borrowed 38
books and another borrowed 52 books.

The winnings are already in order.


Median m = $854 533
Q1 = $748 662 + $755 795
2
= $752 228.50
Q3 = $1 639 171 + $1 697 155
2
= $1 668 163
Minimum = $704 105
Maximum = $6 357 547

Interquartile range
= $1 668 163 $752 228.50
= $915 934.50
Outliers could only be greater than
$1 697 155 + 1.5 $915 934.50
= $3 071 057
The new maximum for the boxplot
becomes $2 766 051.
Use this information to draw the
boxplot.

The distribution is extremely positively


skewed, with a median value of $854 533.
The middle 50% of players won from
$75 228.50 to $1 573 674.
There is one clear outlier, Roger Federer,
winning $6 357 547. Lleyton Hewitt is a
marginal outlier, winning $2 766 051.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4
a

Write the amounts in order from lowest


to highest.
$4.75 $6.25 $6.75 $7.90 $8.40
$8.50 $8.50 $8.89 $9.00 $10.00
$10.00 $10.80 $10.90 $11.65 $11.69
$12.00 $12.34 $12.46 $13.00 $17.23
Median m = $10.00
Q1 = $8.40 + $8.50 = $8.45
2
$11.69
+ $12.00 = $11.85
Q3 =
2
Minimum = $4.75
Maximum = $17.23
Interquartile range = $11.85 $8.45
= $3.40
Outliers can be greater than
$11.85 + 1.5 $3.40 = $16.95
or less than $8.45 1.5 $3.40 = $3.35
There is one outlier, $17.23
The new maximum for the boxplot
becomes $13.00.
Use this information to draw the
boxplot.

The distribution is symmetric, centred at


$10.00.
The middle 50% of students earn
$8.15$11.85 per hour.

The circulations are already in order,


just read them from the bottom to the
top.
Median m = 212 770
Q1 = 77 500 + 98 158 = 87 879
2
258
700
+ 273 248 = 265 974
Q3 =
2
Minimum = 17 398
Maximum = 570 000
Interquartile range = 265 974 87 879
= 178 095
Outliers can only be greater than
265 974 + 1.5 178 095 = 533 116.
There is one outlier, 570 000.
The new maximum for the boxplot
becomes 327 654.
Use this information to draw the
boxplot.

The distribution is approximately


symmetric, centred at roughly 210 000,
with an outlier at 570 000.
The middle 50% of papers have
circulations of about 88 000 to 270 000.

386

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

387

Exercise 22H Solutions


1
a

In both cases, put the data in order and


find the five figure summary.
Before:
12 17 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 26
26 26 28 29 29 30 30 31 34 46
Median m = 26
Q1 = 22
Q3 = 29 + 30 = 29.5
2
Minimum = 12
Maximum = 46
Interquartile range = 29.5 22 = 7.5
In this case, outliers can be greater than
29.5 + 1.5 7.5 = 40.75 or
less than 22 1.5 7.5 = 10.75
There is one outlier, 46.
The new maximum for the boxplot
becomes 34.
After:
15 19 21 24 25 25 26 28 29 30
30 32 33 34 34 35 36 43 50 54
Median m = 30
Q1 = 25
Q3 = 34 + 35 = 34.5
2
Minimum = 15
Maximum = 54
Interquartile range = 34.5 25 = 9.5
Outliers can be greater than
34.5 + 1.5 9.5 = 48.75
or less than 25 1.5 9.5 = 10.75
There are two outliers, 50 and 54.
The new maximum for the boxplot
becomes 43.

The distribution is negatively skewed


before the course, centred on 26.
After the course, the distribution is more
symmetric, centred on 30, which
suggests that the course was effective.

In both cases, put the data in order and


find the five figure summary.
Year 8:
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 7 7 7
Median m = 3
Q1 = 1 + 2 = 1.5
2
Q3 = 4
Minimum = 0
Maximum = 7
Interquartile range = 4 1.5 = 2.5
Outliers can only be greater than
4 + 1.5 2.5 = 7.75
There are no outliers.

Year 12:
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5
6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9
Median m = 5 + 6 = 5.5
2
2
+
3
= 2.5
Q1 =
2
Q3 = 7
Minimum = 1
Maximum = 9
Interquartile range = 7 2.5 = 4.5
Outliers can only be greater than
7 + 1.5 4.5 = 13.75
There are no outliers.

From the boxplot, it can be seen that Year


12 students do the most homework.

From the boxplot, it can be seen that the


Year 12 group has a larger variance than
the Year 8 group.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

3
a

1990:
17 18 18 19 19 20 22 23 23
24 24 24 25 26 26 27 28 28
28 28 29 29 29 30 31 32 32
33 34 35 35 38 39 41 43 44
Median m = 28
Q1 = 23 + 24 = 23.5
2
Q3 = 33
Minimum = 17
Maximum = 46
Interquartile range = 33 23.5 = 9.5
Outliers can be greater than
33 + 1.5 9.5 = 47.25, or
less than 23.5 1.5 9.5 = 9.25
There are no outliers.

In both cases, put the data in order and


find the five figure summary.
1970:
16 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21
21 21 21 22 22 22 23 24 24 24
25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 29 30
31 31 32 33 34 36 36 37 37 39
Median m = 24 + 25 = 24.5
2
Q1 = 21
Q3 = 30 + 31 = 30.5
2
Minimum = 16
Maximum = 39
Interquartile range = 30.5 21 = 9.5
Inspecting the data, it is clear there are
no outliers.

388

23
28
33
46

The distributions of ages in both groups


are slightly positively skewed, with the
mothers in 1970 (median = 24.5)
generally younger than the mothers in
1990 (median = 28).
The variability in both groups is the
same (IQR = 10 for both groups).

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

389

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

'Level of Exercise' is not numerical, so


therefore it must be categorical.
D

The vertical scale is 2% for each dotted line.


There is 2% in the 2030 column. B

The median is in the interval that


contains 50%, as you add the
percentages.
4% + 2% + 33% = 39% of the
employees work less than 40 hours per
week.
39% + 39% = 78% % of the employees
work less than 50 hours per week.
the median will be in the interval
D
4050.

There are 19 employees, listed in order.


The median will be the 10th in this list,
which corresponds to 7 meetings. C
Ignore the median, and find the medians
of the first 9 and the last 9 data points.
This will be the 5th and 15th employee,
corresponding to 4 and 14 meetings
respectively.
The interquartile range is
D
14 4 = 10.

Reading from the graph, the number is


closest to 150. (It is a little less than
150.)
C
7

The boxplot has a short tail to the left


and a long tail to the right, so it is
A
positively skewed.

Reading from the boxplot, the


interquartile range is about
17 5 = 12.

The typical wage is shown by the black


bar in each boxplot.
Company 3 has the lowest wage,
C
approximately $30 000 per year.

10 Variation is shown by the length of the


boxplot, not including outliers.
Company 1 has the largest variance. A

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

390

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1
a

2
a

This can be expressed as a number, so it


is numerical data.
Although the scale is numerical, the
actual data is not, so it is categorical.

This is not expressed as a number, so it


is categorical data.
From the graph, the 'self-employed'
group is roughly halfway between 5%
and 10%, or 7.5%.
Given the spread of data, an appropriate
class interval width would be 5. Count
the number in each class interval, and
draw the graph.

4
a

Use the stem and leaf plot from part a.


There are 22 data points, so the mean is
the average of the 11th and 12th times,
which are both 52.
The median is 52 minutes.
The first quartile will be the middle
score of the first 11 scores, and the
second quartile will be the middle score
of the second 11 scores.
These are the 6th and 17th times
respectively, i.e. 47 min and 57 min.

6
a

Mean = 3970 $283.57


14
Sort the data from lowest to highest.
185 190 210 210 215 245 265
270 280 285 300 315 320 680
Median = 265 + 270 = $267.50
2
Interval = [179 2 14, 179 + 2 14]
= [151, 207]
By counting, 26 out of 28 = 26 100 92.9%
28

Since about 95% of data are usually


within two standard deviations of the
mean, this is the kind of percentage you
would expect.

Using the information provided:

First list the numbers from lowest to


highest.
0 0 2 3 3 4 7 7 7
8 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 14
15 15 16 16 16 16 17 18 21
21 21 22 23 23 23 30 31 44
Median m = 14 + 15 = 14.5
2
7
+
8
= 7.5
Q1 =
2
Q3 = 21
Minimum = 0
Maximum = 44
Interquartile range = 21 14.5 = 6.5
In this case, outliers could only be
greater than 21 + 1.5 6.5 = 30.75
There is one outlier, 44. 31 is technically
an outlier, but is so close to the limit it
can be considered normal data.
The new maximum for the boxplot
becomes 31.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 23 Investigating the relationship


between two numerical variables
Exercise 23A Solutions
3
a

1
a

Larger values of y are associated with


smaller values of x, so the association is
negative.

Larger values of y are associated with


larger values of x, so the association is
positive.

The scatterplot does not show any


significant outliers.

The scatterplot shows an outlier at


(122, 378), which suggests an aircraft
much slower than its size would suggest.

2
a

4
a

Larger values of y are associated with


larger values of x, so the association is
positive.
The scatterplot does not show any
significant outliers.

Larger values of y are associated with


smaller values of x, so the association is
negative.

The scatterplot shows an outlier at


(10, 8700), which suggests a caravan
much more expensive than its age would
suggest.

391

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 23B Solutions

Read from the table to determine the


correlation.
q = 0.20 = no correlation

q = 0.30 = weak negative correlation

q = 0.85 = strong negative correlation

q = 0.33 = weak positive correlation

q = 0.95 = strong positive correlation

q = 0.75 = strong negative correlation

q = 0.75 = strong positive correlation

q = 0.24 = no correlation

q = 1 = strong negative correlation

q = 0.25 = weak positive correlation

q = 1 = strong positive correlation

q = 0.50 = moderate negative correlation

2
a

Count the points. There are 9.


Draw a vertical line through the 5th
from the left, and through the 5th from
the bottom.

q = (a + c) (b + d)
a+b+c+d
6
= 1 0.71
7

Count the points. There are 11.


Draw a vertical line through the 6th from
the left, and through the 6th from the
bottom.

q = (a + c) (b + d)
a+b+c+d
8
= 1 0.78
9

Count the points. There are 15.


Draw a vertical line through the 8th
from the left, and through the 8th from
the bottom.

Ignore the extra points on the vertical


dotted line.
q = (a + c) (b + d)
a+b+c+d
11
1 0.82
=
12

392

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Count the points. There are 27.


Draw a vertical line through the 14th
from the left, and through the 14th from
the bottom.

4
a

Ignore the extra point on the horizontal


dotted line.
q = (a + c) (b + d)
a+b+c+d
23
1 0.92
=
24
3
a

q = (a + c) (b + d)
a+b+c+d
10
2 0.67
=
12

b
There are 10 points.
Draw a vertical line midway between
the 5th and 6th from the left, and
midway between the 5th and 6th from
the bottom.

5
a

q = (a + c) (b + d)
a+b+c+d
2
= 8 = 0.6
10

There are 12 points.


Draw a vertical line midway between
the 6th and 7th from the left and
midway between the 6th and 7th from
the bottom.

q = 0.67 = moderate positive


relationship
There are 16 points.
Draw a vertical line midway between
the 8th and 9th from the left and
midway between the 8th and 9th from
the bottom.

q = (a + c) (b + d)
a+b+c+d
16
0=1
=
16

q = 0.6 = moderate negative


relationship

q=
b

(a + c) (b + d ) 16 0
=
=1
a+b+c+d
16

q = 1 = strong positive relationship.

393

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

6
a

There are 14 points.


Draw a vertical line midway between
the 7th and 8th from the left and
midway between the 7th and 8th from
the bottom.

q = (a + c) (b + d)
a+b+c+d
4
= 10 0.43
14

q=
b

(a + c) (b + d ) 4 10
=
= 0.43
a+b+c+d
14

q = 0.43 = weak negative relationship

394

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

395

Exercise 23C Solutions


1
a

Read from the table to determine the


relationship.
r = 0.20 = no linear relationship

r = 0.30 = weak negative linear


relationship

r = 0.85 = strong negative linear


relationship

r = 0.33 = weak positive linear


relationship

r = 0.95 = strong positive linear


relationship

r = 0.75 = strong negative linear


relationship

r = 0.75 = strong positive linear


relationship

r = 0.24 = no linear relationship

r = 0.50 = moderate negative linear


relationship

r = 0.25 = weak positive linear


relationship

r = 1 = perfect positive linear


relationship

r = 1 = perfect negative linear


relationship

2
a

This scatterplot is nearly a mirror-image


of the plot of 'age convicted' against
'testosterone'.
That scatterplot has r = 0.814, so we
can estimate that r = 0.8 for this plot.
This scatterplot is roughly a mirrorimage of the plot of 'age convicted'
against 'testosterone', although not as
close a match as the plot in part a.
That scatterplot has r = 0.814, so we
can estimate that r = 0.8 for this plot.

This scatterplot is reasonably similar to


the scatterplot of 'mortality' against
'smoking ratio', although with fewer
points.
That scatterplot has r = 0.716, so we can
estimate that r = 0.7 for this plot.

This scatterplot is roughly a mirrorimage of the plot of 'age convicted'


against 'testosterone', although not as
close a match as the plot in part a.
That scatterplot has r = 0.814, so we
can estimate that r = 0.8 for this plot.

This scatterplot is roughly a mirror-image


of the scatterplot of 'mortality' against
'smoking ratio', although with more points.
That scatterplot has r = 0.716, so we can
estimate that r = 0.7 for this plot.

This scatterplot is roughly a mirror-image


of the scatterplot of verbal' against
'mathematics'.
That scatterplot has r = 0.275, so we can
estimate that r = 0.2 for this plot.

Use your calculator to determine r in


this question.
r = 0.86

a
b

This is a strong negative linear


relationship.

Use your calculator to determine r in


this question.
r = 0.95

a
b

This is a strong positive linear


relationship.

Use your calculator to determine r in


this question.
r = 0.77

a
b

This is a strong positive linear


relationship.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

6
a
b

Use your calculator to determine r in


this question.
r = 0.77

There are 9 points.


Draw a vertical line through the 5th
from the left, and through the 5th from
the bottom.

This is a strong negative linear


relationship.

7
a

q = (a + c) (b + d)
a+b+c+d
6
= 1 0.71
7
Using a calculator, r = 0.87

There appears to be a strong positive


linear relationship.
b

Yes; the data is numeric and the


relationship is linear. There are no
outliers.

8
a

q = 0.71 = moderate positive linear


relationship
r = 0.87 = strong positive linear
relationship

i The point will move down (shown on


the horizontal axis, although it will be
well below this axis.)
The median of Test 1 will be
unaffected. The median of Test 2 will
move down to the next point below.

There appears to be a strong positive


linear relationship.
b

Yes; the data is numeric and the


relationship is linear.

ii q = (a + c) (b + d)
a+b+c+d
5
= 2 0.43
7
Using a calculator, r = 0.004
The error in the data has a much
greater effect on Pearsons correlation
coefficient.

396

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 23D Solutions


Note: Answers will vary for lines drawn by
eye.
1

4
a

One possible line goes through (40, 88)


and (60, 96).
y y1 = y2 y1
x x1 x2 x1
y 88 = 96 88
x 40 60 40
= 8
20
= 0.4
y 88 = 0.4(x 40)
y = 72 + 0.4x
Other lines are possible and will give
different answers.

The intercept (72 cm) is the predicted


height at age 0. The slope predicts an
increase of 0.4 cm in height each month.

If your equation differs slightly from the


one given here, so will your answers.
i y = 72 + 0.4x
= 72 + 0.4 42
89 cm
ii 18 years = 18 12 = 216 months.
y = 72 0.4x
= 72 + 0.4 216
158 cm

Part i is reasonable as it is a value close


to the data. Part ii is not reliable as the
relationship may no longer be linear at
this age.

3
a

One possible line goes through


(2000, 2012) and (5200, 6040).
y y1 = y2 y1
x x1 x2 x1
y 2000 = 5200 2000
x 2012 6040 2012
= 3200
4028
0.794
y 2012 = 0.794(x 2000)
y = 424 + 0.794x
Other lines are possible and will give
different answers.

The positive slope indicates that districts


with high rates in Year 1 also had high
rates in Year 2.

397

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

5
a

398

The fixed cost is the constant in


y = 1300 + 13x, or $1300.

The cost of production is the constant


multiplier in y = 1300 + 13x, or $13.

7
a

Draw a scatterplot to assist you.


80

One possible line goes through


(100, 2600) and (200, 3900).
y y1 = y2 y1
x x1 x2 x1
y 2600 = 3900 2600
200 100
x 100
1300
=
100
= 13
y 2600 = 13(x 100)
y = 1300 + 13x
Other lines are possible and will give
different answers.

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

Drug dose (mg)

One possible line goes through


(4.0, 14) and (0.5, 63).
y y1 = y2 y1
x x1 x2 x1
y 14 = 63 14
x 4.0 0.4 4.0
= 49
3.5
= 14
y 14 = 14(x 4.0)
y = 70 14x
Other lines are possible and will give
different answers.

y = 18.3 + 0.91x
= 18.3 0.91 170
= 173.0 cm
If your equation differs slightly from the
one given here, so will your answer.

6
a

70

One possible line goes through


(159, 163) and (181, 183).
y y1 = y2 y1
x x1 x2 x1
y 163 = 183 163
x 159 181 159
= 20
22
0.91
y 163 = 0.91(x 159)
= 18.3 0.91x
Other lines are possible and will give
different answers.

Resp o n se tim e (m in )

The intercept is the predicted time taken


to experience pain relief if no drug is
given.
From the slope we predict a reduction of
14 minutes in time taken to experience
pain relief for each mg of drug
administered.

y = 70 14x
= 70 14 6
= 14 min
This isn't realistic, as relief would be
experienced 14 minutes before the drug
was given!

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

8
a

Draw a scatterplot to assist you.


14000

Business ($)

12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

Advertising ($)

One possible line goes through


(160, 2900) and (600, 10 900).
y y1 = y2 y1
x x1 x2 x1
y 2900 = 10 900 2900
600 160
x 160
8000
=
440
18.2
y 2900 = 18.2(x 160)
18.2x
Other lines are possible and will give
different answers.
b

The intercept predicts zero sales if


nothing is spent on advertising. The
slope means that on average, each $1
spent on advertising is associated with
an increase of $18.20 in sales.

i y = 18.2 1000
= $18 200
ii y = 18.2 0
= $0

399

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 23E Solutions


Use your CAS/graphics calculator in this
exercise to determine the least squares line.
Methods will differ depending on the
calculator used.
1
a Using a calculator,
y = 68.2 + 0.46x
b

The y-intercept is the predicted height at


birth. From the slope, we predict an
increase in height of 0.46 cm each
month.
i y = 68.2 + 0.46x
= 68.2 + 0.46 42
88 cm
ii 18 years = 18 12 = 216 months
y = 68.2 + 0.46x
= 68.2 + 0.46 216
168 cm

4
a

Using a calculator,
y = 1330 + 12x

The fixed cost is the constant in


y = 1330 + 12x, or $1330

The cost of production is the constant


multiplier in y = 1330 + 12x, or $12.

5
a

Using a calculator,
response time = 57.0 10.2 drug dose
The intercept of 57.0 minutes is the
predicted time for pain relief when no
drug is given.
From the slope, we predict a 10.2
minute decrease in response time for
each 1 mg of drug given.
c y = 57.0 10.2x
= 57.0 10.2 6
= 4.4 min
This isn't realistic, as relief would be
experienced 4.4 minutes before the drug
was given.

The height at 42 months is reliable,


since this is within the range of data
given (interpolation).
The height at 18 years is less reliable
since this is outside the range of data
given (extrapolation).

Using a calculator,
y = 487.6 + 0.77x

6
a

Using a calculator,
y = 50.2 + 0.72x

Intercept is the volume of business with


no advertising,
From the slope we predict an increase in
business of $18.90 for every dollar spent
on advertising.

i y = 1123.8 + 18.9x
= 1123.8 + 18.9 1000
= $20 044
ii y = 1123.8 + 18.9x
= 1123.8 + 18.9 0
= $1123.80

3
a

An increase of 1 cm in the mothers


height is associated with an increase of
0.72 cm in the daughters height, on
average.
y = 50.2 + 0.72x
= 50.2 + 0.72 170
172 cm

Using a calculator,
business = 1123.8 + 18.9 advertising

400

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

401

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

Both variables must be numeric. This


applies to D only. 'Year 9' and 'Year 11',
while appearing to be numerical, are
really categorical.
D

The data should be linear with no


outliers. In B, there is no relationship
between the variables; C has an outlier,
and A and D are not linear.
E

Refer back to the table; q = 0.32 is a


A
weak positive relationship.

There are 18 points. Draw a vertical line


midway between the 9th and 10th from
the left and midway between the 9th and
10th from the bottom.

Looking at the graph, it's clear that there


is a strong positive correlation, but not a
perfect positive correlation.
0.75 r 1 is the range for a
strong positive correlation, so r = 0.8
is the closest fit.
B

The data suggest a strong positive


correlation, since food expenditure
generally increases with weekly income.
r = 0.8 is the closest fit (this can be
confirmed using a calculator).
E

7 Using a calculator to determine the least


squares regression line, it is closest to
42.864 + 0.482 weekly income. C
8

q = (a + c) (b + d)
a+b+c+d
= 2 16
18
= 14 = 7
9
18

y = 40 + 0.10x
= 40 + 0.10 600
= $100

The amount spent on entertainment is


the constant modifier of the x-value.
This is 0.10, so for every dollar (x),
10 cents are spent on entertainment. A

10 First, note that the slope is negative.


Taking the ends of the data,
slope = rise
run
= 75 225
21 10
= 150
11
13.6
The slope is closest to 10.
D

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


4

1
a

Larger values of y are generally


associated with larger values of x, so the
association is positive.
There are 12 points. Draw a vertical line
midway between the 6th and 7th from
the left and midway between the 6th and
7th from the bottom.

Other lines are possible and will give


different answers.
5
a

6
a

b
q = ( a + c ) ( b + d)
a+b+c+d
=66=0
12

r= 1
n1

i=1

xi x yi y

sx sy

Although r can be calculated by hand, it


is much easier and faster to use a
calculator, which shows that r = 0.927.

One possible line goes through


(160, 120) and (190, 180)
Gradient = rise
run
180
120

190 160
= 60 = 2
30
Run from (160, 120) = 160, so rise is
160 2 = 320
Intercept with vertical axis = 120 320
= 200
Equation is approximately
weight = 200 + 2 height

Using a calculator or computer,


Errors = 14.9 0.533 time
Intercept: there's no sensible
interpretation, since no-one could
complete the task in negative time.
Slope: For each additional second taken
to complete the task, the number of
errors is reduced by about 1 an error.
2
Errors = 14.9 0.533 time
= 14.9 0.53310
9.6
Since the number of errors must be a
whole number, you would predict 10
errors, maybe 9.

402

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Chapter 24 Revision of chapters 22 and 23


Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions
1

Bar charts are used to display frequency


distributions of categorical data. The
only categorical data in this question is
option C.
C

Histograms are used to display


frequency distributions of numerical
data. The only numerical data in this
question is weight measured in kg. A

The histogram has a short tail to the left


and a long tail to the right, so it is
positively skewed. It has an outlier at
x = 14.
E
17 students travel 20 or less 20 km to
school, while 16 travel more than 20
km, so option D is true.
D
Adding up the number of leaves on the
right gives 30 students.
C

There are 7 'leaved' in the 2, 3 and 4


'stems', so 7 students failed.
B

10% of 30 students is 3 students. The


top three marks are 86, 90 and 93, of
which the lowest is 86.
D

If turned on its side, the plot would


be a histogram with a short tail to the
right and a slightly longer tail to the
right, so it is negatively skewed.
C

Most scores on the left are on the 2


'stem', while most scores on the right
are on the 2 and 3 stems. This shows
that, in general, scores improved
after the test.
B

10 The scores on the left are spread more


widely up and down the range, while the
scores on the left are more tightly
centred on the 6 and 7 stems.
This suggests that the pulse rates of
those who exercise are less variable than
those who don't exercise.
D
11 The new mark will go next to the
median, or could replace the median,
which will still be 50.
B
12 Neither the maximum nor the minimum
will change, so the range will still be
70 20 = 50.
B
13 Since the mean is 50, it will not
be changed by adding another score
of 50.
B
14 Old variance = 12.0 12.0
= 144.0
Old sum of squared deviations from
mean = 144.0 (99 1)
= 14 112
Variation of 50 from the mean = 0
new sum of squared deviations
from mean = 14 112 + 0
= 14 112
Standard deviation = 14 112
100 1
= 142.545
11.9
B
15 The width of each boxplot shows its
variation. Since Y is wider than X,
Class Y scores are more variable than
Class X scores.
D

403

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

16 If the median is less than the mean, the


ages in the second half of the data are
likely to be higher than those in the first
half. This suggests the data may be
negatively skewed.
C
17 The boxplot shows that there is
significantly more data above the
mean than below it. This means the
distribution is positively skewed.
B
18 The histogram is positively skewed,
which generally means that the mean
is larger than the median.
E
19 The boxplot shows a negatively skewed
distribution with much more variability
towards the left.
Option B is the closest fit to this
description.
B
20 The third quartile is the median of the
upper half of the distribution.
If the woman is in this quartile, it
means that about 75% of women are
shorter than her.
B
21 Scatterplots are used to display bivariate
numerical data. Both sets must be
numerical, and this is only the case in
B and D. However, D is not bivariate, as
the data cannot realistically be arrayed
as a unique set of points.
B
22 The first scatterplot shows a strong
non-linear relationship. The
q-correlation is only used to test for a
linear relationship, so it would not be
useful here.
A
23 Gradient = rise
run
= 20 0
0 10
= 2
This is closest to 1.

24 Calculate the gradient.


Using (1, 10) and (10, 30),
m 30 10
10 1
2
The y-intercept is around 10.
Therefore a good approximation
could be y = 2x + 10.

404

25 r = 0.7 is a moderate positive linear


relationship, so an increase in the first
variable will usually mean an increase in
the second variable.
Therefore we can say that countries with
high smoking rates also tend to have
high rates of heart disease.
C

26 r = 0.35 is a weak positive linear


relationship.
The scatterplot is a curve rather than a
line, so there probably is a relationship,
but since r is low then it is unlikely to be
linear.
C
27 A negative correlation means that as
values of x increase, values of y tend to
decrease.
C
28 Use typical points such as (98, 100) and
(78, 80).
m 98 78
100 80
= 20 = 1
20
Extending the line back to the
y-axis gives a y-intercept of about 0.
The equation is roughly y = x.
A
29 Since the equation uses positive
numbers and addition, the cost of
production will increase as the number
of units produced increases.
Since N is the number of units, the total
cost of production increases by $35 for
each unit produced.
C
30 The least squares regression line is used
to minimise vertical deviations from the
data (deviations along the y-axis). D

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

405

Chapter 25 Proof and number


Exercise 25A Solutions
1
a

If p + q is odd, p and q cannot both be


odd, so pq will be even.
If pq is even, p and q could both be
even, meaning p + q could be even.
p + q is odd pq is eve

If x = 0, then xy = 0
If xy = 0, x could be non-zero if y = 0.
x = 0 xy = 0

If ab = ac and a = 0, then b may not be


equal to c.
If b = c, then ab = ac, whether or not a = 0.
ab = ac b = c

2
a

A B = is actually true whenever A


and B have no elements in common.
For instance, if A = {2, 4, 6} and
B = {8, 10}, A B = .
The statement is therefore false.

If A' = , then it contains all the elements


under consideration. A' therefore
contains no elements, as all the elements
are in A, so A' = .
The statement is therefore true.

If p is even, it is a multiple of 2, and pq


will also be even.
If pq is even and q is even, then p may
be odd.
p is even pq is even

This is only true if A and B have no


common elements. If there is any
overlap, the union will be smaller.
For instance, if A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} and
B = {6, 8, 10}, n (A B) = 5.
Since it's not always true, the statement
is false.
Consider the element x, which is an
element of A. Since A is a subset of B,
x is also an element of B.
This is true for every x, so the set of
elements that are in both A and B will be
the same as every element in A.
xAxB
xABxA
and x A x A B
The statement is therefore true.

3
a

n (A B) = 8 n (A) = 5 and n (B) = 3


This would mean that if the union of
A and B has 8 elements, A would have
5 elements and B would have 3 elements.
However, there are many other possible
combinations that would fit; for instance,
if A had 8 elements and B = , their union
would also have 8 elements.
The statement is therefore false.

AB=AAB
This would mean that if the intersection
of A and B is equal to A, then A is an
element of B.
Since the intersection contains all the
elements the two sets have in common,
and it is equal to A, then all the elements
of A are elements of B, which means
A is an element of B.
The statement is therefore true.

A = or B = A B =
The empty set contains no elements, so
it therefore has no elements in common
with any other set. This means that the
intersection of an empty set and any
other set will also be an empty set.
The statement is therefore true.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4
a

5
a

A = A' =
If A' = , then it has no elements, which
means A contains all the elements. The
identity set contains all the elements,
so A = .
The statement is true.
Swap the sides to find the converse:
n2 is odd implies n is odd.
Odd numbers can never have even
factors, so the root of an odd number
must always be an odd number.
Therefore the statement is true
(assuming that n is an integer).
Swap the sides to find the converse:
N 2 is divisible by 9 N is divisible by 3.
Since 32 = 9, this is the same as saying
N 2 is divisible by 32 N is divisible by 3.
A number's factors are squared if the
original number is squared.
Therefore the statement is true
(assuming that N is an integer).
Swap the sides to find the converse:
x2 > 4 x < 2
x2 will be greater than 4 if x is less than
2, but it will also be true if x is greater
than 2.
Since the first part does not only lead to
the second part, the statement is false.
Let the three odd numbers be 2n + 1,
2n + 3 and 2n + 5.
Their sum = 2n + 1 + 2n + 3 + 2n + 5
= 6n + 9, which will be
divisible by 3 if n is an integer.
We can therefore say "The sum of three
consecutive odd numbers is divisible by 3."
Let the four odd numbers be 2n + 1,
2n + 3, 2n + 5 and 2n + 7.
Their sum = 2n + 1 + 2n + 3 + 2n
+ 5 + 2n + 7
= 8n + 16, which will be
divisible by 8 if n is an integer.
We can therefore say "The sum of four
consecutive odd numbers is divisible by 8."

406

The sum of the squares is


2
2
2
2
2
(n 2) + (n 1) + n + (n + 1) + (n + 2)
2
2
2
2
2
= n 4n + 4 + n 2n + 1 + n + n + 2n + 1 + n + 4n + n
2
= 5n + 10
2
= 5(n + 2), which is divisible by 5.

There are many possible counterexamples for these statements.


The order of operation changes from
multiplication addition to
multiplication addition, so this is false.
2
2
2
3 +4 =5
2
2
(3 + 4) = 7

Any even number multiplied by 7 will


give an even number divisible by 7, so
this is false.
2 7 = 14.

The order of operation changes from


addition division to division addition,
so this is false.
1+4 = 5
1 + 4 =3

The order of operations is different, so


this will be false if a, b and c have
different values.
1 1 + 2 + 4 = 2
2
2
1 1 + 2 + 4 = 11

2 2
4

All prime numbers (other than 2) are odd,


and the sum of two odd numbers is an
even, non-prime number, so this is false.
3 + 7 = 10
(The result could be a prime number if one
of the original numbers is 2, e.g. 2 + 3 = 5,
but you only need one counter-example to
prove that the rule is false.)

The order of operation changes from


addition division to division addition,
so this is false.
1
= 1
100 + 10 110
1 + 1 = 1 + 10 = 11
100 10 100 100 100

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

8
a

The converse is:


x = y implies x = 0 and y = 0.
x and y could be any numbers, not just
zero, e.g. 10 = 10, so this is false.

The converse is:


x = y implies x + y = 0.
Subtracting any number from itself
always gives a result of zero,
e.g. 10 10 = 0, so this is true.

The converse is:


xy is even implies x is even and y is odd.
If x and y were both even, xy would also
be even, e.g. 8 6 = 48, so this is false.

The converse is:


A perfect square being even implies its
square root is even.
Multiplying two even numbers always
produces an even number, while
multiplying two odd numbers always
produces an odd number.
An even perfect square will thus always
be created by multiplying an even
number by the same even number,
e.g. 64 = 8 8, so this is true.

9
a

Consider the powers of 2. The only


N
2
N1 N
,2 .
factors of 2 are 1, 2, 2 , . . . 2
N
Thus 2 will have exactly N + 1 factors,
N1
will have exactly N factors.
and 2
Thus numbers can be found with any
number of factors, including 1, since
20 = 1 has exactly one factor.
The statement is true for all odd
numbers.

The same argument used in part b


applies to all numbers, not just odd
numbers, so the statement is true.

Since the above argument works for any


prime number, and there is an infinite
number of prime numbers, there will be
an infinite number of numbers with
exactly N divisors, for all natural
number values of N.
The statement is true.

The converse is:


a > b implies a b is positive.
Subtracting a smaller number from a
larger number always gives a positive
result, e.g. 10 3 = 7, so this is true.

For any natural number N, if a is a


divisor, there will be a corresponding
natural number divisor N . This will be
a
distinct from a in every case except
N = a2.
Thus if N is not a perfect square, there will
be an even number of factors. If N is a
perfect square, there will be a set of pairs
of factors as above, and an additional
factor equal to the square root of N.
Thus N will have an odd number of
divisors if and only if it is a perfect
square.
The statement is true.

10
a

(a b) 0
2
2
a 2ab + b 0
Add 2ab to both sides of the inequality:
2
2
a + b 2ab
If u 0 and v 0, then u and v can be
2
2
written as a and b respectively and
a = u ,b = v .
2
2
u+v=a +b
2
2
2
2
a + b 2ab
2
2
ab
u v
uv
+
u
v

uv
2

407

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

11 (a + b) 1 + 1 = (a + b) b + a
ab
a b
2
= (a + b)
ab
2
2
= a + 2ab + b
ab
2
2
= 2ab + a + b
ab
ab
2
2
= 2 + 2(a + b )
2ab
In Q.10a we showed that
2
2
a + b 2ab.
2
2
2 + 2(a + b ) > 2 + 2
2ab

(a + b) 1 + 1 > 4
a b
12
a If a and b are even, then they can be
written as a = 2n and b = 2m.
a + b = 2n + 2m
= 2(m + n), which must be an
even number.
b

If a and b are odd, then they can be


written as a = 2n + 1 and b = 2m + 1.
a + b = 2n + 1 + 2m + 1
= 2n + 2m + 2
= 2(m + n + 1), which must be an
even number.

If a is even and b is odd, then they can


be written as a = 2n and b = 2m + 1.
a + b = 2n + 2m + 1
= 2(m + n) + 1, which must be an
odd number.

If a and b are odd, then they can be


written as a = 2n + 1 and b = 2m + 1.
ab = (2n + 1)(2m + 1)
= 2mn + 2m + 2m + 1
= 2(mn + m + n) + 1, which must be
an odd number.

408

If a + b is even, then a + b = 2n.


b = 2n a
If a b is even, then a b = 2n.
b = a 2n
a + b = b + 2n + b
= 2b + 2n
= 2(b + n), which must be an even number.
This proves the conjecture.

If a + b is even, then a + b = 2n.


If a b is even, then a b = 2n.
n = a + b is an integer and m = a b is also an integer.
2
2

+
a
b
a
b
+
n+m=
2
2
2a
=
=a
a
nm=a+bab
2
2
2b
=
=b
2
ab = (n + m)(n m)

2
2
= n m , the difference of squares.

13 The total number of tiles is mn.


The number of tiles on the perimeter is
n + n + (m 2) + (m 2) = 2n + 2m 4
We are told 2n + 2m 4 = 1 mn
2
4n + 4m 8 = mn
Make n the subject.
mn 4n = 4m 8
n(m 4) = 4m 8
n = 2m 8
m4
4m
16 + 8
=
m4
=4+ 8
m4
n will only be an integer if m 4 is a
factor of 8.
m 4 = 1, 2, 4 or 8
m = 5, 6, 8 or 12
These values give n = 12, 8, 6 and 5
respectively. You should notice that the
last two solutions are equivalent to the
first two solutions. Since m n, there
will be two solutions m = 5, n = 12
and m = 6, n = 8.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

14 This is one proof. There may be others.


Any number (except 1) that consists of
all 1s can be written as 100n + 11,
where n is an integer.
All integers can be written as 10m + a,
where m is any integer and a is any
integer from 0 to 9 inclusive.
2
2
2
(10m + a) = 100m + 20am + a
2
Since this is a multiple of 10 plus a ,
2

the last digit of a must be 1.


The only values of a that satisfy this
requirement are a = 1 and a = 9.
If a = 1,
2
2
(10m + a) = 100m + 20m + 1
2
= 100m + 10 2m + 1
In this case, the second last digit must be
even and cannot equal 1.
If a = 9,
2
2
(10m + a) = 100m + 180m + 81
2
= 100m + 100 + 10 8m + 81
Again, the second last digit must be
even and cannot equal 1.
Therefore, if any number ending in 1 is
a perfect square, its second last digit
must be even, and it therefore cannot
consist of all 1s, unless it is 1.

409

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

410

Exercise 25C Solutions


1
a

If a solution is not readily seen, use trial


and error on the variable with the largest
coefficient, as you will expect fewer
trials until you find a multiple of the
other variable.
Try x = 0: 3y = 1 has no integral
solutions.
Try x = 1: 11 + 3y = 1 has no integral
solutions.
Try x = 2: 22 + 3y = 1 has the solution
y = 7.
The HCF of this solution is 1.
The general solution will be
x = 2 + 3t, y = 7 + 11t, t Z
An obvious solution is x = 1, y = 0.
The HCF of this solution is 1.
The general solution will be
x = 1 + 7t, y = 2t, t Z
Any even value of y will give a solution.
If y = 2, x = 8.
x = 8 + 7 t, y = 2 2 t, t Z
2
2
To get integer solutions, replace t by 2t.
x = 8 + 7t, y = 2 2t, t Z

This equation is equivalent to


8x + 21y = 33.
It is also obvious that y must be odd, and
x must be a multiple of 3.
y = 5 gives the solution x = 9.
x = 9 + 21t, y = 5 8t, t Z

This is the same equation as in part a,


hence the solution will be the same.
x = 2 + 3t, y = 7 + 11t, t Z

Any even value of y will give a solution.


If y = 2, x = 4.
The HCF of this solution is 2.
The general solution will be
x = 4 + 7 t, y = 2 2 t, t Z
2
2
To get integer solutions, replace t by 2t.
x = 4 + 7t, y = 2 2t, t Z

This is the same equation as in part e,


hence the solution will be the same.
x = 4 + 7t, y = 2 2t, t Z

2
a

If x and y are both positive, then the left


side must be at least 11 + 3 > 1.
There are no solutions such that x and y
are both positive.

If x and y are both positive, then the left


side must be at least 24 + 63 = 87.
Any increase in either x or y will make
the left side too large.
There are no solutions such that x and y
are both positive.

Write the equation as


2x = 22 7y
x = 11 7
2y
If y = 2, x = 4.
If y = 4, x = 3, and any larger values of
y will make the left side of the equation
negative.
There is one solution: x = 4, y = 2.

Let h be the highest common factor of a and b.


a, b and c can be written as a = hp,
b = hq, c = hr + k, where 0 < k < h.
The equation becomes hpx + hqy = hr + k.
For all integer values of x and y, the left
side of the equation will be a multiple of
h, while the right side will not.
Therefore the equation can have no
integral solutions.

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4
a

This equation simplifies to 4s + 3b = 27.


4s = 27 3y
= 3(9 b)
s = 3(9 b)
4
Solutions will only exist when 9 b is a
multiple of 4, and b > 0, 9 b > 0.
This occurs when b = 1, s = 6 and when
b = 5, s = 3.
The answer could be written '3 spiders
and 5 beetles, or 6 spiders and 1 beetle.'

Equating the value of the coins,


20x + 50y = 500
2x + 5y = 50
5y = 50 2x
= 2(25 x)
y = 2(25 x)
5

= 2 5 x
5

This gives the results as in the table


below.

For 19x + 98y = 1998, one obvious


solution is x = 100, y = 1.
x = 100 + 98t, y = 1 19t
100 + 98t > 0
98t > 100
t > 100
98
1 19t > 0
19t > 1
t< 1
19
Since t is an integer, 1 t 0.
The second solution occurs when t = 1.
x = 100 98
=2
y = 1 + 19
= 20

Let s be the number of spiders and b the


number of beetles.
Equating the numbers of legs gives
8s + 6b = 54.

All solutions can be given by


x = 100 + 83t, y = 1 19t
100 + 83t > 0
83t > 100
t > 100
83
1 19t > 0
19t > 1
t< 1
19
Since t is an integer, 1 t 0.
The second solution occurs when t = 1.
x = 100 83
= 17
y = 1 + 19
= 20

Equating the value of the notes,


10x + 50y = 500
x + 5y = 50
x = 50 5y
= 5(10 y)
This gives the results as in the table
below.

Total number of pieces of fruit = 63x + 7.


y = 63x + 7
23
7(9
x + 1)
=
23

y=

63 x + 7 7(9 x + 1)
=
23
23

9x + 1 must be a multiple of 23.


9x + 1 = 23n
9x = 23n 1
x = 23n 1
9
If n = 2, x = 5 and y = 14.

411

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

If n = 9t + 2,
x = 23n 1
9
23(9t
+ 2) 1
=
9
= 23t + 23 2 1
9
= 23t + 5
y = 7(9x + 1)
23
7((23n
1) + 1)
=
23
= 7n
= 7(9t + 2)
The next solution will be x = 28, y = 112.
The general solution is x = 5 + 23t,
y = 14 + 63t; t 0 and t Z.
9

Consider the value of the two types of


cattle.
410x + 530y = 10 000
41x + 53y = 1000
Using a graphics calculator, a
spreadsheet, or trial and error,
x = 5, y = 15.
5 of the $410 cattle and 15 of the $530
cattle.

10 Let the required number be x.


If it leaves a remainder of 6 when
divided by 7, then x = 7n + 6.
If it leaves a remainder of 9 when
divided by 11, then x = 11m + 9.
7n + 6 = 11m + 9
7n 11m = 3
One solution is n = 2, m = 1.
The general solution is n = 2 + (11)t,
m = 1 7t.
Replacing t with t gives n = 2 + 11t,
m = 1 + 7t.
t = 0 gives n = 2, m = 1, x = 7 2 + 6 = 20.
The smallest positive number is 20.
The general form is
x = 7n + 6
= 7(2 + 11t) + 6
= 77t + 20 for t N {0}

11 Let x be the number of 5-litre jugs used


and y the number of 3-litres jugs used.
5x + 3y = 7
5x = 7 3y
x = 7 3y
5
Solutions will only exist when 7 3y is
a multiple of 3.
This occurs when y = 1: x = 7 + 3 = 2
5
To measure exactly 7 litres, you would
pour two full 5-litre jugs into a container
and then remove one 3-litre jugful.
12 Obviously the post office can't sell 1c or
2c worth of postage. Nor can it sell 4c or
7c worth, because there's no way to
arrange 3c and 5c to get those values.
It can sell 6c worth (3 + 3 = 6) and 8c
worth (3 + 5 = 8).

So the problem can be rephrased as


3x + 5y = n, n 8
where x is the number of 3c stamps and
y the number of 5c stamps.
If n = 8, 3x + 5y = 8; the obvious
solution is x = 1, y = 1.
If n = 9, 3x + 5y = 9; the obvious
solution is x = 3, y = 0.
If n = 10, 3x + 5y = 10; the obvious
solution is x = 0, y = 2.
Since this set of three can be made using
3x + 5y, the next set of three amounts
(11, 12, 13) can be made as 3x + 5y + 3,
or by adding another 3c stamp.
Similarly, every set of three consecutive
amounts can be made by adding an
additional 3c stamp.
Therefore it's possible to create all
amounts in excess of 3c, except for 4c
and 7c.
13 Consider total cost.
1.7a + b = 29.6
17a + 10b = 296
Using a graphics calculator, a
spreadsheet, or trial and error,
a = 8, b = 16.
8 of type A and 16 of type B.

412

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Exercise 25D Solutions


1
a

b = aq + r, 0 r < a
43 = 5q + r
=58+3
(5, 43) = (5, 3) by theorem 2
5=31+2
(3, 5) = (3, 2) by theorem 2
3=21+1
(2, 3) = (2, 1) by theorem 2
2=21+0
(43, 5) = (5, 3) = 1
b = aq + r, 0 r < a
39 = 13q + r
= 13 3 + 0
(39, 13) = (13, 0) = 13

b = aq + r, 0 r < a
37 = 17q + r
= 17 2 + 3
(17, 37) = (17, 3) by theorem 2
17 = 3 5 + 2
(3, 17) = (3, 2) by theorem 2
3=21+1
(2, 3) = (2, 1) by theorem 2
2=21+0
(37, 17) = (17, 3) = 1
b = aq + r, 0 r < a
128 = 16q + r
= 16 8 + 0
(128, 16) = (16, 0) = 16

If d is a common factor of a and b,


then a = nd and b = md.
a + b = nd + md
= d(n + m)
d is a divisor of a + b.
If d is a common factor of a and b,
then a = nd and b = md.
a b = nd md
= d(n m)
d is a divisor of a b.

3
a

9284 = 4361 2 + 562


(4361, 9284) = (4361, 562)
4361 = 562 7 + 427
(4361, 562) = (427, 562)
562 = 427 1 + 135
(427, 562) = (135, 427)
427 = 135 3 + 22
(135, 427) = (22, 135)
This process could continue, but at this
point it is quicker and easy to notice that
the two numbers have no common
factor other than 1, so (4361, 9284) = 1.

2160 = 999 2 + 162


(999, 2160) = (162, 999)
999 = 162 6 + 27
(162, 999) = (27, 162)
162 = 27 6 + 0
(999, 2160) = 27

(372, 762) = (372, 762)


762 = 372 2 + 18
(372, 762) = (372, 18)
372 = 18 20 + 12
(372, 18) = (12, 18)
18 = 12 1 + 6
(12, 18) = (6, 12)
12 = 6 2 + 0
(372, 762) = 6

716 485 = 5255 136 + 1805


(716 485, 5255) = (1805, 5255)
5255 = 1805 2 + 1645
(1805, 5255) = (1805, 1645)
1805 = 1645 1 + 160
(1805, 1645) = (160, 1645)
1645 = 160 10 + 45
(160, 1645) = (45, 160)
This process could continue, but at this
point it is quicker and easy to notice that
the two numbers have a highest
common factor of 5, so
(716 485, 5255) = 5.

413

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

4
a

Apply the division algorithm to 804


and 2358.
2358 = 804 2 + 750
804 = 750 1 + 54
750 = 54 13 + 48
54 = 48 1 + 6
48 = 6 8

Working backwards with these results,


6 = 54 48 1
6 = 54 (750 54 13)
6 = 54 750 + 54 13
6 = 54 14 750
6 = (804 750 1) 14 750
6 = 804 14 750 14 750
6 = 804 14 750 15
6 = 804 14 (2358 804 2) 15
6 = 804 14 2358 15 + 804 30
6 = 804 44 2358 15
A solution is x = 44, y = 15.
The general solution is
x = 44 + 2358 t
6
= 44 + 393t
y = 15 804 t
6
= 15 134t, t Z
b

This is equivalent to 3x + 4y = 1.
The algorithm is still useful.
4=31+1
1 = 3 1 + 4
A solution is x = 1, y = 1.
The general solution is
x = 1 + 4t
y = 1 3t, t Z

478 = 3 478 + 4 478


A solution is x = 478, y = 478.
The general solution is
x = 478 + 4t
y = 478 3t, t Z

The algorithm is still useful.


5 = 3 2 + 1
1 = 3 2 + 5
1=3251
38 = 3 76 5 38
A solution is x = 76, y = 38
The general solution is
x = 76 + 5t
y = 38 + 3t
This can be simplified. If t 15 is used
instead of t, then
x = 76 + 5(t 15)
= 1 + 5t
y = 38 + 3(t 15)
= 7 + 3t, t R

Apply the division algorithm to 804


and 2688.
2688 = 804 3 + 276
804 = 276 2 + 252
276 = 252 1 + 24
252 = 24 10 + 12
24 = 12 2
Working backwards with these results,
12 = 252 24 10
12 = 252 (276 252 1) 10
12 = 252 276 10 + 252 10
12 = 252 11 276 10
12 = (804 276 2) 11 276 10
12 = 804 11 276 22 276 10
12 = 804 11 276 32
12 = 804 11 (2688 804 3) 32
12 = 804 11 2688 32 + 804 96
12 = 804 107 2688 32
A solution is x = 107, y = 32.

The general solution is


x = 107 + 2688 t
12
= 107 + 224t
y = 32 804 t
12
= 32 67t, t R

414

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Apply the division algorithm to 1816


and 2688.
2688 = 1816 1 + 872
1816 = 872 2 + 72
872 = 72 12 + 8
72 = 8 9
Working backwards with these results,
8 = 872 72 12
8 = 872 (1816 872 2) 12
8 = 872 1816 12 + 872 24
8 = 872 25 1816 12
8 = (2688 1816 1) 25 1816 12
8 = 2688 25 1816 25 1816 12
8 = 2688 25 1816 37
A solution is x = 37, y = 25.

The general solution is


x = 37 + 2688 t
8
= 37 + 336t
y = 25 1816 t
8
= 25 227t, t R

415

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Solutions to Multiple-choice Questions


1

The square of an even number is always


an even number, and an even number
plus an odd number always gives an odd
result.
This means that m2 + n will be odd, so
option E is false.
E

If x 3 > 0, then x 2 > 0.


The product of two numbers greater
than zero will also be greater than zero.
Therefore option D is true.
D

If p and q are both positive, and


p + q = 1, then p and q are both less
than 1, and 1 and 1 will be greater than 1.
p
q
1
1
> and 1 > 1.
Since p > q,
pq p
pq q
The largest quantity will be 1 .
C
pq

If pq < 0, and p > q, then p will be


positive and q will be negative, in which
case 1 would be positive and greater
p
than 1 , which would be negative.
q
Therefore pq must be greater than zero
(i.e. p and q are both positive) for 1 to
p
1
E
be less than .
q
You can choose any number of 2s from
0 to p in (p + 1) ways. For each of these,
you can choose any number of 3s from 0
to q in (q + 1) ways, and for each of
these combinations you can choose any
number of 5s from 0 to r in (r + 1) ways.
The total number of ways
= (p + 1)(q + 1)(r + 1)
D

Let the digits be a and b, so the number


n = 10a + b.
The sum of its digits is a + b.
10a + b = k(a + b)
= ka + kb
10a ka = kb b
(10 k)a = b(k 1)
a= k1 b
10 k
The number formed by interchanging
the digits is m = 10b + a.
Adding the two numbers,
10a + n + 10b + 1 = 11a + 11b
= 11( a + b)
k( a + b) + m = 11( a + b)
m = (11 k)( a + b)
The new number is the sum of the digits
multiplied by 11 k.
C

m + n = mn
n = mn m
= m(n 1)
m= n
n1
This will only be integral if n = 2, m = 2
or n = 0, m = 0.
B
There are two solutions.

Except for option D, the statements will


be affected by either a, b or c being
negative.
D

Solutions can be written in terms of


another variable, and the number will
be infinite.
E

10 (n 1), (n 2) and (n 3) are


consecutive numbers. Thus at least one
of the factors of (n 1)(n 2)(n 3)
will be a multiple of 3, and at least one
will be even. Thus the number will be
divisible by 1, 2, 3, and 6, but not
always by 5.
B

416

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

Solutions to Short-answer Questions


1

2
a

1885 = 365 5 + 60
(1885, 365) = (60, 365)
365 = 60 6 + 5
(60, 365) = (60, 5)
60 = 5 12 + 0
(1885, 365) = 5
Apply the division algorithm to 43 and 9.
43 = 9 4 + 7
9=71+2
7=23+1
2=21
Working backwards with these results,
1=723
1 = 7 (9 7 1) 3
1=793+73
1=7493
1 = (43 9 4) 4 9 3
1 = 43 4 9 16 9 3
1 = 43 4 9 19
A solution to 9x + 43y = 1 is x = 19, y = 4.
A solution to 9x + 43y = 7 is
x = 19 7 = 133, y = 4 7 = 28.
The general solution is
x = 133 + 43t
y = 28 9t, t R
Other solutions are possible.
t = 4 gives a specific solution of x = 39,
y = 8, leading to a general solution of
x = 39 + 43t
y = 8 9t, t R

If a and b are odd, they may be written


as 2n + 1 and 2m + 1 respectively,
where n and m are integers.
ab = (2n + 1)(2m + 1)
= 4mn + 2n + 2m + 1
= 2(2mn + n + m) + 1
This will be an odd number since
2mn + n + m is an integer.

12 121 = 10 659 1 + 1462


(12 121, 10 659) = (1462, 10 659)
10 659 = 1462 7 + 425
(1462, 10 659) = (1462, 425)
1462 = 425 3 + 187
(1462, 425) = (187, 425)
425 = 187 2 + 51
(187, 425) = (187, 51)
187 = 51 3 + 34
(187, 51) = (51, 34)
51 = 34 1 + 17
(51, 34) = (34, 17)
34 = 17 2 + 0
(12 121, 10 659) = 17

5
a

If x > 0, 39 + 43t > 0

t > 39
43
If y > 0, 8 9t > 0
t< 8
9
These two inequations cannot both be
true if x is an integer.
There is no solution for
+
+
xZ , yZ .

The algorithm is still useful.


7=51+2
5=22+1
1=522
1 = 5 (7 5 1) 2
1=572+52
1=5372
A solution is x = 3, y = 2.
The general solution is
x = 3 + 7t
y = 2 5t, t R
If 1 = 5 3 7 2, then
100 = 5 300 7 200.
A solution is x = 300, y = 200.
The general solution is
x = 300 + 7t
y = 200 5t, t R

x = 300 + 7t , y = 200 5t

417

Cambridge Essential Advanced General Mathematics 3rd Edition Worked Solutions CD-ROM

If y x,
2 5t 3 + 7t
12t 5
t 5
12
Since t is an integer, t 0.
The solution is
x = 3 + 7t
y = 2 5t, t 0, t R

First, let Toms age be t and Freds age


be f.
Since it appears Tom is older than Fred,
and we must look at the time when Tom
was Freds age, we will define d as the
difference in ages, specifically how
many years Tom is older than Fred.
t=f+d
t + f = 63
(f + d) + f = 63
2f + d = 63
When Tom was Freds age, d years ago,
Fred was aged f d.
Tom is now twice that age, 2(f d).
t = 2(f d)

t = 2( f d )

Since t = f + d,
f + d = 2(f d)
= 2f 2d
3d = f
Substitute f = 3d into 2f + d = 63.
6d + d = 63
7d = 63
d=9
f = 3d
= 27
t + f = 63
t = 36
Tom is 36 and Fred is 27.

418