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NEED ANALYSIS FOR TRAINING IN AN ORGANIZATION

Introduction of Training
It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts,
rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees.

Training is activity leading to skilled behavior.


Its not what you want in life, but its knowing how to reach it
Its not where you want to go, but its knowing how to get there
Its not how high you want to rise, but its knowing how to take off
It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome
Its not what you dream of doing, but its having the knowledge to do it
It's not a set of goals, but its more like a vision
Its not the goal you set, but its what you need to achieve it
Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation
looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time.
Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional
development.

ROLE OF TRAINING

Models of Training
Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales,
HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming
process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills,
and attitudes (KSAs).

The Training System


A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular
function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization.

The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can
be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical
relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA),
formulating, delivering, and evaluating.

There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to
produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in
order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organizations
requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This
approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach,
training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five
steps is system model that is explained below.
Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces,
that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which
may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the
various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with
the latest technologies.

The three model of training are:


1. System Model
2. Instructional System Development Model
3. Transitional model
Methods of Training
There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral
methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on
trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.
Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods
under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal
information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with
changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning.
The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:
Lectures

Demonstrations
Discussions
Computer based training (CBT)

Intelligent tutorial system(ITS)

Programmed instruction (PI)

Virtual reality

Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods
under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are
best used for skill development.

The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:


Games and simulations

Behavior-modeling

Business games

Case studies

Equipment stimulators

In-basket technique

Role plays

Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means.

Another Method is MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT
The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To
become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt
to instill sound reasoning processes.
Management development method is further divided into two parts:
On the Job Training
The development of a manager's abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for on
the job development are:
Coaching
Mentoring
Job rotation
Job instruction technique (JIT)

Off the Job Training


There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job.
The few popular methods are:

Sensitivity training

Transactional analysis

Straight lectures/ lectures

Simulation exercises

Training Need Analysis (TNA)


An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The
purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required
for effective performance and present level of performance.

Why training need analysis?


Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or not.
It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights
the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action.
Training Need arises at three levels:

Corporate need and training need are interdependent because the organization performance
ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and its sub group.
Organizational Level Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic
planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the
organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external
environment such as opportunities and threats.

After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while
strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by

identifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by balancing
it against costs.

For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires to be involved in
strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure that the employees in the
organization have the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future
KSAs requirements at each level.
Individual Level Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every
individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is
performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between
the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there
is a need of training.

However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are
used to analyze the individual need are:

Appraisal and performance review

Peer appraisal

Competency assessments

Subordinate appraisal

Client feedback

Customer feedback

Self-assessment or self-appraisal

Operational Level Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is
being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is
clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical
interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as
open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time. Employees
need to prepare for these changes. The job analyst also gathers information on the tasks needs to

be done plus the tasks that will be required in the future. Based on the information collected,
training Need analysis (TNA) is done.
Training Design
The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has
been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training
program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Training
objectives assist trainers to design the training program.
The trainer Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal,
judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers.
The trainees A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles.
Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that
affect training design.
Training climate A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive
perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes
wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.
Trainees learning style the learning style, age, experience, educational background of
trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program.
Training strategies Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into
specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be
included, what could be included.
Training topics After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered.
Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then
classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
Sequence the contents Contents are then sequenced in a following manner:

From simple to complex

Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance

From known to unknown

From specific to general

Dependent relationship

Training tactics Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear,
trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The
method selection depends on the following factors:

Trainees background

Time allocated

Style preference of trainer

Level of competence of trainer

Availability of facilities and resources, etc

To most organisations, the benefits of investing in ongoing staff training are clear. They include:

Process improvements: reduced duplication of effort, less time spent correcting


mistakes, faster access to information, etc.

Cost savings: lower staff turnover, lower recruitment costs; reduction in bad debts;
reduced customer support calls; reduced help desk calls; reduced need for supervision;
reduced downtime; increased staff productivity; fewer machine breakdowns; lower
maintenance costs, etc.

Improved profitability: increased sales; more referrals due to better customer service;
new product ideas; improved customer satisfaction and retention, etc.

Performance improvement: in quality, quantity, speed, safety, problem solving, etc.

Behavioral improvements: in attitude, ethics, motivation, leadership, communication,


reduced staff conflict, etc.

Increased staff satisfaction: Well trained staff tend to be happier, stay longer, and are
more loyal.

Furthermore, research undertaken to uncover the financial impact to an organisation of investing


in staff training shows a clear and quantifiable link between an above average investment in staff
training and superior bottom line performance:

Based on the training investments of 575 companies during a 3-year period, researchers
found that firms investing the most in training and development (measured by total
investment per employee and percentage of total gross payroll) yielded a 36.9% total
shareholder return compared with the 25.5% weighted return for the S&P 500 index for
the same period.

Firms that invest $1,500 per employee in training (per year) compared with those that
spend $125 experience an average of 24% higher gross profit margins and 218% higher
revenue per employee.

Just a 2% increase in productivity has been shown to net a 100% return on investment in
training.

A Louis Harris and Associates poll reports that among employees with "poor" training
opportunities, 41% planned to leave within a year, whereas of those who considered their
company's training opportunities to be "excellent", only 12% planned to leave within the
same period.

So, if we accept the findings above that support the case for investing in a formal staff training
program, how does one go about identifying staff training requirements and putting a suitable
program in place?
Enter The Staff Skills Audit:
If a company's strategic plan involves doubling the workforce size within 3 years and opening
two completely new divisions during that period, then you would hope that the company's HR
Management team have a good handle on what skills the company currently has, and what new

skills it needs to obtain in order for the company to meet its business objectives. As such, a staff
skills audit (uncovering current situation) and training needs analysis (guiding future direction) is
a vital first step in obtaining company-wide quantitative data on what skills an organisation's
workforce currently has, and (based on the company's business objectives) where the skills gaps
lie.
Whilst conducting face-to-face meetings with a select few staff members to discuss training
requirements, or ensuring training needs are raised with staff at their annual performance reviews
can both be a worthwhile exercise, neither approach will give you an accurate company-wide
picture of the organisation's skills status and future training requirements at one point in time. As
such, an annual or bi-annual online staff training needs survey is becoming an increasingly
popular approach to address this requirement.
When assessed against the alternatives of paper-based or face-to-face training needs analysis
surveys, we find the online approach has a number of clear advantages. These include:
1. Speed and ease of reporting: online survey results are generated instantly, and anyone given
authorization can access the results from any web browser in the World, at any time, with the
data securely held on encrypted servers. If the same survey is used results can also be compared
from month to month, or year to year to help spot trends and assist with budgeting and planning.
The online approach also saves significant time with distributing and administering the survey as
a survey link is simply e-mailed to employees.
2. Data entry time/expense/errors: the online survey quickly stores the exact data and scoring
entered by each employee. Management's data entry requirement is removed.
3. High cost: compared with the paper or face-to-face alternatives, the online TNA process has
been shown to cost up to 80% less, and reduce decision making time by up to 90%.

4. Consistency: when a decentralized, verbal training needs analysis system is replaced by a


centralised online process, the training survey issued is the same for all employees and
comparison of like-for-like results made easy.

5. Interviewer bias or interpretation errors: the 'interview' is in the form of an online survey
and what the employee types is exactly what HR report on.
Once the company-wide survey has been conducted, the next steps in the training strategy
development process include:
1. Analyse the survey results.
2. Create a staff training profile.
3. Develop a training development plan.
4. Communicate the training development plan to all employees.
5. Implement the training.
6. Evaluate the training effectiveness.

It is recommended that this process be conducted on a 12 monthly cycle at a minimum.


In short, a well constructed skills audit and training needs analysis process will provide a fast and
accurate snapshot of workforce training requirements, assist with training vendor selection and
budgeting, and ultimately help improve employee retention levels and overall staff satisfaction.

Support facilities It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements
in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc.
Constraints The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:
Time
Accommodation, facilities and their availability
Furnishings and equipments

Budget
Design of the training, etc
Training Implementation
To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is called training
implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system because one wrong
step can lead to the failure of whole training program. Even the best training program will fail
due to one wrong action.

Training implementation can be segregated into:

Practical administrative arrangements

Carrying out of the training

Implementing Training
Once the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the training is implemented.
Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation

phase requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the most important
factor to taste the success. Therefore, following are the factors that are kept in mind while
implementing training program:
The trainer The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content. Trainer
prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds before meeting
with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his
approach.
Physical set-up Good physical set up is pre requisite for effective and successful training
program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classrooms should not be very
small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people together both physically and
psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated to every participant.

Establishing rapport with participants There are various ways by which a trainer can
establish good rapport with trainees by:
Greeting participants simple way to ease those initial tense moments
Encouraging informal conversation
Remembering their first name
Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another
Listening carefully to trainees comments and opinions
Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed
Getting to class before the arrival of learners
Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time
Using familiar examples
Varying his instructional techniques
Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down
Reviewing the agenda At the beginning of the training program it is very important to review
the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program, what is
expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and how the program will run. The
following information needs to be included:

Kinds of training activities

Schedule

Setting group norms

Housekeeping arrangements

Flow of the program

Handling problematic situations

Training Evaluation
The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Training evaluation
checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether
candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the regular
work routines.

Purposes of Training Evaluation

The five main purposes of training evaluation are:


Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it
to learning outcomes.
Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of
knowledge at the work place, and training.

Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective,
then it can be dealt with accordingly.
Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative
data to manipulate it for their own benefits.
Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the
expected outcomes

Process of Training Evaluation


Before Training: The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program.
During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at
most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the
program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether
those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style.

During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually consist of
short tests at regular intervals
After Training: It is the phase when learners skills and knowledge are assessed again to
measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training
has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There are various
evaluation techniques for this phase.
Techniques of Evaluation
The various methods of training evaluation are:

Observation

Questionnaire

Interview

Self diaries

Self recording of specific incidents

LITERATURE REVIEW
To most organisations, the benefits of investing in ongoing staff training are clear. They include:

Process improvements: reduced duplication of effort, less time spent correcting


mistakes, faster access to information, etc.

Cost savings: lower staff turnover, lower recruitment costs; reduction in bad debts;
reduced customer support calls; reduced help desk calls; reduced need for supervision;
reduced downtime; increased staff productivity; fewer machine breakdowns; lower
maintenance costs, etc.

Improved profitability: increased sales; more referrals due to better customer service;
new product ideas; improved customer satisfaction and retention, etc.

Performance improvement: in quality, quantity, speed, safety, problem solving, etc.

Behavioral improvements: in attitude, ethics, motivation, leadership, communication,


reduced staff conflict, etc.

Increased staff satisfaction: Well trained staff tends to be happier, stay longer, and are
more loyal.

Furthermore, research undertaken to uncover the financial impact to an organisation of investing


in staff training shows a clear and quantifiable link between an above average investment in staff
training and superior bottom line performance:

Based on the training investments of 575 companies during a 3-year period, researchers
found that firms investing the most in training and development (measured by total
investment per employee and percentage of total gross payroll) yielded a 36.9% total

shareholder return compared with the 25.5% weighted return for the S&P 500 index for
the same period.

Firms that invest $1,500 per employee in training (per year) compared with those that
spend $125 experience an average of 24% higher gross profit margins and 218% higher
revenue per employee.

Just a 2% increase in productivity has been shown to net a 100% return on investment in
training.

A Louis Harris and Associates poll reports that among employees with "poor" training
opportunities, 41% planned to leave within a year, whereas of those who considered their
company's training opportunities to be "excellent", only 12% planned to leave within the
same period.

So, if we accept the findings above that support the case for investing in a formal staff training
program, how does one go about identifying staff training requirements and putting a suitable
program in place?
Enter The Staff Skills Audit:
If a company's strategic plan involves doubling the workforce size within 3 years and opening
two completely new divisions during that period, then you would hope that the company's HR
Management team have a good handle on what skills the company currently has, and what new
skills it needs to obtain in order for the company to meet its business objectives. As such, a staff
skills audit (uncovering current situation) and training needs analysis (guiding future direction) is
a vital first step in obtaining company-wide quantitative data on what skills an organisation's
workforce currently has, and (based on the company's business objectives) where the skills gaps
lie.
Whilst conducting face-to-face meetings with a select few staff members to discuss training
requirements, or ensuring training needs are raised with staff at their annual performance reviews
can both be a worthwhile exercise, neither approach will give you an accurate company-wide
picture of the organisation's skills status and future training requirements at one point in time. As

such, an annual or bi-annual online staff training needs survey is becoming an increasingly
popular approach to address this requirement.
When assessed against the alternatives of paper-based or face-to-face training needs analysis
surveys, we find the online approach has a number of clear advantages. These include:
1. Speed and ease of reporting: online survey results are generated instantly, and anyone given
authorization can access the results from any web browser in the World, at any time, with the
data securely held on encrypted servers. If the same survey is used results can also be compared
from month to month, or year to year to help spot trends and assist with budgeting and planning.
The online approach also saves significant time with distributing and administering the survey as
a survey link is simply e-mailed to employees.
2. Data entry time/expense/errors: the online survey quickly stores the exact data and scoring
entered by each employee. Management's data entry requirement is removed.
3. High cost: compared with the paper or face-to-face alternatives, the online TNA process has
been shown to cost up to 80% less, and reduce decision making time by up to 90%.
4. Consistency: when a decentralized, verbal training needs analysis system is replaced by a
centralized online process, the training survey issued is the same for all employees and
comparison of like-for-like results made easy.
5. Interviewer bias or interpretation errors: the 'interview' is in the form of an online survey
and what the employee type is exactly what HR report on.
Once the company-wide survey has been conducted, the next steps in the training strategy
development process include:
1. Analyze the survey results.
2. Create a staff training profile.
3. Develop a training development plan.
4. Communicate the training development plan to all employees.
5. Implement the training.

6. Evaluate the training effectiveness.


It is recommended that this process be conducted on a 12 monthly cycle at a minimum.
In short, a well constructed skills audit and training needs analysis process will provide a fast and
accurate snapshot of workforce training requirements, assist with training vendor selection and
budgeting, and ultimately help improve employee retention levels and overall staff satisfaction.

COMPANY PROFILE
Manhattan Review India
The New York based Manhattan Review has its overseas branches in Hyderabad and
Bengaluru. At Manhattan Review, India you find certified faculty members, excellent practice
materials and state-of-the-art infrastructure. Student-friendly trainers and sophisticated
classrooms and labs give you a congenial learning experience.
We have regular batches for GMAT, GRE, SAT and TOEFL at our branches in Hyderabad and
Bangaluru. Moreover, weekend batches are available at all branches.
Incredible Training for GMAT, GRE, SAT, TOEFL, IELTS
Unlike academic tests, GMAT, GRE, SAT and TOEFL require a distinctively diagnostic
approach. Individuals who endeavor to attempt these seemingly hard tests with conventional testtaking methods tend to end up in despair.
However, Manhattan Review has unraveled these tests and come up with ingenious test-taking
techniques. The incredible scores of our students reveal the credibility of our training methods.
Why Manhattan?
Let us face it. You can crack a nut with your teeth or you can crack it with a nut-cracker. You
can crack the GMAT, GRE, and TOEFL tests by yourself or with the professional help of an
expert and an experienced trainer. Indiamr helps you gain the edge over other examinees taking
the exams, by helping you prepare well in a manner that you excel in these tests.
The experience of the faculty and the success they personally had in cracking these exams will
help you do the same. The personal attention you will receive by being in a class that has no
more than 12(GMAT)/18(GRE) students per batch, allows you to gain the know how of cracking
the exams. The institute is Wi-Fi enabled for you to use your own laptop to access the net
whether it is to take one of our online tests or access our online library or just to browse around
the net if you are taking a break before getting back into the flow of our preparation. All the
classrooms are equipped with an air conditioner and comfortable seating.

Whether it is GMAT or GRE, Indiamr offers you the option to join its sister company, MicroTek
Consulting LLC, based in Dearborn Heights, Michigan. You can choose to be an employee of
MicroTek soon after the completion of your MS, MA or MBA and receive help in job placement
and avail the benefits that MicroTek offers its employees.
We will be with you all the way until and beyond your Green Card in the USA. So in a way,
Indiamr assists you in your career path until you land in your dream job. You can choose to
receive free or paid training in one or many of the software packages that MicroTek provides
training in, in the USA and in India. Joining as a group? We have great news for you, if you and
a few of your friends plan on receiving training from Indiamr, check out our ongoing
promotional offers.
Courses Offered:

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Objectives:
To analyze the need for training in an organization.
To understand the necessity for organize training programme for a new employee
To study the different kinds of training methods adopted in the organization.
To analyze the effective method of training.
To study the employee perceptions regarding their training programme.

Scope of the study:


The study focuses on employee training in an organization. A training needs analysis (TNA) is
the process of identifying the areas where both individuals and groups in an organisation would
benefit from training in order to become more effective at achieving their own objectives and the
objectives of the organization.
This study will bring out the perception of employees towards their training programmes. It
confined to the feelings of employees and it analyzes the factors needed to be improved in order
to get maximum satisfaction in their training programme.

HYPOTHESES:
Hypothesis 1:
Null hypothesis: There is no need for training in the organization
Alternative Hypothesis: There is a need for training in the organization

Statistical tools for analysis:


1. Graphs
2. Charts
3. Tables
Sampling:
Sampling method: Non-probability sampling (convenience sampling)
Sample size: 100

Data and Sources of data:


Data collection
Primary data: The primary data is collected through questionnaire which would be used as
schedules involving mostly personal interviews and few questionnaires given directly to the
target sample and taken back on response.
Secondary data
International, National Articles, publications and books are taken as secondary source to identify
the gaps in the researches and gaining conceptual knowledge building insight into the concepts.
Limitation of the study:
1. The study is done in only one organization hence it cannot be generalized to the
whole industry.
2. Another major constraint was the time. The study is undertaken for a period of 60
days only

DATA INTERPRETATION

1. Have you undergone any training program?


a. Yes

b. No

Training undergone
16%

Yes
No

84%

Interpretation:

From the above pie chart, it is observed that the organization has conducted training program as
majority of the respondents 84% attended the training. Only 16% of the respondents are not
attended the training

2. If yes, specify the training program?


a. Technical skills

b. Soft skills

c. Process training

d. All

Training program
29
30
24
25
20

16

15

15
10
5
0
Technical skills

Soft skills

Process training

All

Interpretation:

According to the graph, it is shown that 24 respondents has taken training on soft skills, 16
respondents has taken training on technical skills, 15 respondents has taken training on process
training and the remaining 29 respondents has taken training on all the skills.

3. What kind of training is given in the organization?


a. In-house training

b. External training

c. Both

d. None

Kind of training
42

45
40
35

32

30
25

20

20
15
6

10
5
0
In-house training

External training

Both

None

Interpretation:

In the above graph, it is noticed that 42 respondents had provided with the external training,32
respondents has taken In-house training, 20 respondents had provided with both external and inhouse training program and for remaining 6 respondents no training is provided.

4. Does your organization have a set procedure for identifying training needs?
a. Yes

b. No

c. Dont know

Standard procedure for assessing training needs


16%

Yes
16%

No
Don't know

68%

Interpretation:

According to the pie chart, it is observed 68% of the organizations are following standard
procedures for conducting training programs. 16% of the organizations are not having any
standard procedure to conduct the training program. The remaining 16% of the organizations are
not conducting any training programs.

5. According to you, which team is responsible for identifying the training requirements?
a. Concerned department

b. Human resource development team

c. Top management

d. Others (please specify)

Team is responsible for identifying the training


requirements
40

36

35

27

30
21

25
16

20
15
10
5
0
Concerned
department

Human resource
development
team

Top management

Others

Interpretation:

From the above graph, 36 respondents believe that the concerned department should identify the
requirement for training, 21 refer to the top management, 16 respondents refer to human resource
development team and the remaining 27 respondents to others.

6. What is the basis on which the training process is initiated?


a. Performance appraisal

b. New projects taken up

c. New employees

d. Others (specify ____________)

Basis for initiation of training


43
45
40

34

35
30
25
15

20
15

10
5
0
Performance
appraisal

New projects
taken up

New employees

Others

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 43 respondents are given training on the basis of their performance and
15 respondents are given training when new projects are taken up. 34 underwent training after
the joining and the remaining respondents are trained on the basis of other issues.

7. Which of the following according to you is the major reason for regular training of the
employees?
a. Skills may deteriorate
b. Technology may change
c. The organization may move into new areas, changing the type of jobs that exist
d. Others (please specify___________________)

Reason for regular training


29

26

Skills may deteriorate

Technology may change

The organization may move into


new areas, changing the type of
jobs that exist
Others
24

21

Interpretation:

According to the pie graph, 26 respondents was given training when the skills of employee are
not up to the mark, 24 respondents was given training when the organization moves into new
areas or changing the type of jobs that exist, 21 respondents was given when the technology is
changed and the remaining 29 respondents for other reasons.

8. Which of the following methods are used in your organization to assess the training
needs? review/evaluate/charge/levy/judge the training needs?
a. Appraisal and performance review
b. Peer appraisal
c. Competency assessments
d. Subordinate appraisal
e. Client feedback
f. Customer feedback
g. Self-assessment or self-appraisal

Methods for assessing training needs


Appraisal and performance
review

12%
20%

Peer appraisal
Competency assessments
18%
Subordinate appraisal
9%
Client feedback
Customer feedback
12%
14%

Self-assessment or selfappraisal
15%

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 20% of the respondents follow the method of appraisal and performance
review, 18% of the respondents follow customer feedback, 15% of the respondents from
subordinate appraisal, 14% of the respondents follow client feedback, 12% of the respondents
from competency assessment, 12% of the respondents follow the method of self-assessment or
self appraisal and the remaining 9% of the respondents follows peer appraisal.

9. Rate the importance of the following factors for proper need assessment of training.
Mark 4 if it highly important
Mark 3 if it important
Mark 2 if it not much important
Mark 1 if it is not at all important
a.

Size/geographic factors

__

b.

Growth factors

__

c.

Range of job skills

__

d.

Existing HR systems

__

Chart Title
46

50

42

45

45

43

40
35

31
28

30

29
23

25

20

20

15

14

17

16

15

10

12

10
5
0
Highly important
Size/geographic factors

Important
Growth factors

Not much important


Range of job skills

Not at all important


Existing HR systems

Interpretation:
According to the graph, the size or the geographical factors, the range of job skills available in
the organization and the growth factors of the organization form important factors for assessing
the need for training. They should be taken into account carefully for delivering effective
training programs. The respondents feel that the existing HR system need not considered
seriously in assessing the training needs.

10. To the statements below, indicate your level of need for training.

a. Using and developing the knowledge


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

Using and developing the knowledge


60
48

No. of respondents

50
40
32
30

20
20
10
0
High

Medium

Low

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 32 respondents are in the high need for training in terms of using and
developing their knowledge, 48 respondents require the same to the medium extent and the
remaining 20 respondents require training to a low extent.

b.

Technical appreciation and use of equipment/tools/machinery for my area and related


areas.
i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

Technical appreciation and use of


equipment/tools/machinery
45

42

40

36

No. of respondents

35
30
25

22

20
15
10
5
0
High

Medium

Low

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 42 respondents are in the high need Technical appreciation and use of
equipment/tools/machinery for in their related areas, 48 respondents require the same to the
medium extent and the remaining 20 respondents require training to a low extent.

a.

Striving for personal development.


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

Striving for personal development


70
62

No. of respondents

60
50
40

34

30
20
10

0
High

Medium

Low

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 62 respondents are in the high need for training Striving for personal
development, 34 respondents require the same to the medium extent and the remaining 4
respondents require training to a low extent.

b. Taking personal responsibility to resolve problems, even those not of my own


making
i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

Taking personal responsibility to resolve problems


70

63

No. of respondents

60
50
40
30
20

23
14

10
0
High

Medium

Low

Interpretation:

From the above graph, it is observed that only 14 respondents require high training for
considering as personal responsibility to resolve the problems, 23 respondents as medium and the
remaining 63 considering to a low extent.

c. Developing positive relationships.


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

Developing positive relationships


70

66

No. of respondents

60
50
40
30
20
20

14

10
0
High

Medium

Low

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 14 respondents are in the high need for training in developing positive
relationships, 66 respondents require the same to the medium extent and the remaining 20
respondents require training to a low extent.

d. Keeping focused and productive, reliable and dependable


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

Keeping focused and productive, reliable and dependable


60

54

No. of respondents

50
40
30

25
21

20
10
0
High

Medium

Low

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 14 respondents are in the high need for training in focusing and
productive reliable and dependable, 54 respondents require the same to the medium extent and
the remaining 25 respondents require training to a low extent.

e. Planning how to achieve my work and personal goals.


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

Planning how to achieve my work and personal goals


60
53

No. of respondents

50
40
29

30
20

18

10
0
Low

Medium

High

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 18 respondents are in the low need for training in planning to achieve the
work and personal goals, 29 respondents require the same to the medium extent and the
remaining 53 respondents require training to a high extent.

f. Managing stress and conflict.


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

Managing stress and conflict


80
68

70
No. of respondents

60
50
40
30
21
20
11
10
0
High

Medium

Low

Interpretation:
According to the graph, 21 respondents are in the high need for training in managing stress and
conflict, 68 respondents require the same to the medium extent and the remaining 11 respondents
require training to a low extent.

g.

Managing upwards and sideways (my managerial superiors and my peers)


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

Managing upwards and sideways


50
43

45

No. of respondents

40
35

31

30

26

25
20
15
10
5
0
High

Medium

Low

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 31 respondents are in the high need for training in managing upwards
and sideways, 43 respondents require the same to the medium extent and the remaining 26
respondents require training to a low extent.

h. Contributing positively to team/company morale and spirit.


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

Contributing positively to team/company morale and spirit


50
43

45

39

No. of respondents

40
35
30
25
20

18

15
10
5
0
High

Medium

Low

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 18 respondents are in the high need for training in contributing
positively to team/company confidence and strength, 43 respondents require the same to the
medium extent and the remaining 39 respondents require training to a low extent.

i. Seeking and picking up responsibility that I see waiting to be filled.


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

Seeking and picking up responsibility that I see waiting


to be filled
70
60

No. of respondents

60
50
40
30
20

24
16

10
0
High

Medium

Low

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 14 respondents are in the high need for training in looking and picking
up the responsibility wishing to be filled, 24 respondents require the same to the medium extent
and the remaining 60 respondents require training to a low extent.

j. Using integrity and ethics in my judgement about work and organizational issues.
i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

Using integrity and ethics in my judgement about work


and organizational issues
60
48

No. of respondents

50
40
30

26

26

20
10
0
High

Medium

Low

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 26 respondents are in the high need for training to be honesty and struck
to the principles about the work and organizational issues, 48 respondents require the same to the
medium extent and the remaining 26 respondents require training to a low extent.

11. Considering all the above factors, what is your level of need for training?
i) Very high

ii) High

iii) Medium

iv) Low

v) Too low

Need for training


35
31
30
No. of respondents

26
25
21
20
15

14

10

5
0
Very high

High

Medium

Low

Too low

Interpretation:

According to the graph, 14 respondents require very high need for training, 26 respondents
requires high, 31 respondents require medium, 21 respondents require low and 9 respondents
require too low.

Hypothesis Testing:
Null hypothesis: There is no need for training in the organization
Alternative Hypothesis: There is a need for training in the organization
Most of the respondents feel that there is a need for training in the organization in the technical
aspects. That means alternative hypothesis is accepted. Hence there is need for training in the
organization.

FINDINGS:
1. Above 80% of the employees has undergone training in the organization.
2. Among the 100 respondents, 29 respondents have taken training for soft skills, technical
skills and process training.
3. 42% of the organizations have given external trainings and 32% of the respondents have
taken in-house training while 20% of the respondents have taken both kinds of trainings.
4. Before giving the training to the employees 68% of the organizations follow certain
standard procedure for assessing the training needs.
5. Among the 100 respondents, 36% of the respondents feel that concerned department
should identify the training requirements, 16% of the respondents feel as Human resource
development Team, 21% of the respondents feel as top management and 27% of the
respondents feel it as others.
6. The employees are given training on the basis of their performance and when new
projects are taken or when the employees newly join.
7. Regular training is conducted when the employee skills are not up to the mark, when the
technology was changed/updated or when the organization moves into new areas,
changes were made in the type of job that exists.
8. The methods of evaluating training needs are done through appraisal and performance
review, peer appraisal, competency assessment, subordinate appraisal, client feedback,
customer feedback and self assessment or self appraisal.
9. The size or the geographical factors, the range of job skills available in the organization
and the growth factors of the organization form important factors for assessing the need
for training. They should be taken into account carefully for delivering effective training
programs. The respondents feel that the existing HR system need not considered
seriously in assessing the training needs.
10. A medium need of training should be there for using and development the knowledge
factor, keeping focused and productive, reliable and dependable factor, managing stress
and conflict factor and developing positive relationships factor.

11. There is high need of training for technical appreciation and use of the resources and
striving for personal development factors.
12. Medium extent of training is required for managing upwards and sideways in the
organization factor, contributing positively to team/company morale and spirit factor and
using integrity and ethics in my judgment about work and organizational issues factor.
13. All of the above factors, 40 respondents require high need of training and 29 respondents
require low need of training in the organization.

SUGGESTIONS:
1. Both In-house training and external training should be given in the organization to
effectively attain the training objectives.
2. All the organizations should follow pre-set procedures to identify the training needs for
the employees to work effectively and for the growth of the organization.
3. The training program should be initiated at the time of launching new products, so that
the employees have clear idea about the work they should have to do.
4. The training objective are in keeping with the needs and abilities to trainee and it is this
that provide to be the major reason for success of the training as a whole.
5. The organization should conduct regular training programs in order to improve the
employee performance.
6. Some of the employees indicated that there is a need of training for the following factors:
- 1) using and developing the knowledge 2) Technical appreciation and use of the
resources 3) striving for personal development 4) planning how to achieve my work and
personal goals 5) managing stress and conflict.
7. Stress management training is more important for employee as it was observed that
people are all the time in tension like situation as to how to do, when to do, no time and
things like that which kept them tensed all the time.

CONCLUSION
The study on Need analysis for training in Manhattan Review was undertaken with the
objective of getting an insight into training practices in the organization. The present study
focuses on the analyzing the need for training in the organization, the necessity for organizing
training programs for new employees and the different kinds of training methods adopted in the
organization.

The study is done at Hyderabad at Manhattan Review India with the employees as the
respondents of the study. The sampling technique used was convenience sampling. The
respondents were asked to fill the questionnaires and thus the primary data is collected.
Secondary data was collected from various sources like books, survey reports, web etc.
The data collected from the primary source and the secondary sources was analyzed using
appropriate research tools like graphs, tables etc. From the study, it was found that the
organization frequently conducts the need assessment for training after the performance after
regular appraisals, acceptance of new projects, technology updation etc. It was also found the
employees needed training in the technical aspects.
The management the organizations should follow pre-set procedures to identify the training
needs for the employees to work effectively and for the growth of the organization. Based on the
needs assessed, proper objectives should be framed and the training is given to meet such
objectives effectively.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Donald L. Kirkpatrick, James D. Kirkpatrick, Evaluating Training Pograms, Berrett-Koehler
Publishers in 2006.
Jack J. Phillips, Training Evaluation and Measurement Methods, Gulf Publishing in 1997.
Dr.Y.K.Singh and Dr.R.B.Bajpai, Research methodology, APH Publishing, 2007

Websites:
www.wikipedia.org
www.tutor2u.net
www.trainingforwarriors.com
www.citehr.com

ANNEXURE-1
QUESTIONNAIRE
Demographics:
i)

Age:____________
a. 15-25yrs

ii)

b. 25-35yrs

c. 35-45yrs

d. Above 45yrs

Gender____________________
a. Male

b. Female

iii)

Residence___________________

iv)

Qualification__________
a. Undergraduate

b. Graduate

v)

Designation____________

vi)

Experience in the previous organization:


a. Less than 1yr

vii)

b. 1-2yrs

c. Post Graduate

d. Others

c. 2-5yrs

d. 5-10yrs

e.Above 10yrs

c. 2-5yrs

d. 5-10yrs

e.Above 10yrs

Experience in the current organization:


b. Less than 1yr

viii)

b. 1-2yrs

Annual income (in lakhs)______________


a. Below 1

b. 1-2

c. 2-3

d. 3-5

e. 5-8

f. Above 8

1. Have you undergone any training program?


a. Yes

b. No

2. If yes, specify the training program?


a. Technical skills

b. Soft skills

c. Process training

d. All

3. What kind of training is given in the organization?


a. In-house training

b. External training

c. Both

d. None

4. Does your organization have a set procedure for identifying training needs?
a. Yes

b. No

c. Dont know

5. According to you, which team is responsible for identifying the training requirements?
a. Concerned department

b. Human resource development team

c. Top management

d. Others (please specify)

6. What is the basis on which the training process is initiated?


a. Performance appraisal

b. New projects taken up

c. New employees

d. Others (specify ____________)

7. Which of the following according to you is the major reason for regular training of the
employees?
a. Skills may deteriorate
b. Technology may change
c. The organization may move into new areas, changing the type of jobs that exist
d. Others (please specify___________________)

8. Which of the following methods are used in your organization to assess the training
needs?
a. Appraisal and performance review
b. Peer appraisal
c. Competency assessments
d. Subordinate appraisal
e. Client feedback
f. Customer feedback
g. Self-assessment or self-appraisal

9. Rate the importance of the following factors for proper need assessment of training.
Mark 4 if it highly important
Mark 3 if it important
Mark 2 if it not much important
Mark 1 if it is not at all important
e.

Size/geographic factors

__

f.

Growth factors

__

g.

Range of job skills

__

h.

Existing HR systems

__

10. To the statements below, indicate your level of need for training.

a. Using and developing the knowledge


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

b. Technical appreciation and use of equipment/tools/machinery for my area and


related areas.
i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

c. Striving for personal development.


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

d. Taking personal responsibility to resolve problems, even those not of my own


making
i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

e. Developing positive relationships.


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

f. Keeping focused and productive, reliable and dependable


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

g. Planning how to achieve my work and personal goals.


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

h. Managing stress and conflict.


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

i. Managing upwards and sideways (my managerial superiors and my peers)


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

j. Contributing positively to team/company morale and spirit.


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

k. Seeking and picking up responsibility that I see waiting to be filled.


i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

l. Using integrity and ethics in my judgement about work and organizational issues.
i) High

ii) Medium

iii) Low

11. Considering all the above factors, what is your level of need for training?
i) Very high

ii) High

iii) Medium

iv) Low

v) Too low

12. Suggestions please!


________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________