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Detection in Complex Networks

Andres Eduardo

Coca S.

Liang Zhao

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Sao Carlos, SP Brazil

E-mail: aecocas@icmc.usp.br

Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP)

Ribeirao Preto, SP Brazil

E-mail: zhao@usp.br

AbstractIn this paper, we study musical knowledge extraction and discrimination. Specically, we propose a method for

automatic extraction of drums rhythmic patterns of music and

the rhythmic summarization of a set of songs from the same

artist. A musical piece is generally formed of one or more

predened rhythmic patterns and such patterns are composed

of rhythmic cells (RC), which are groups of rhythmic gures

derived from -th division of a larger rhythmic gure. At the

pre-processing and encoding phase, the RCs of drums percussion

lines are represented in duration-weighted notation (DWN). Then,

the vector of DWM is encoded to be free of the dimensional

dependence on the number of gures in the RC. After that, a

network is constructed from the encoded DWM using the method

proposed in this paper. We nd that the rhythmic patterns of the

musical work are related to the formation of communities in the

network. In this work, two community detection algorithms are

used: Louvain algorithm for the disjoint community detection and

Bayesian Nonnegative Matrix Factorization algorithm (BNMF)

for detecting overlapping communities. Moreover, a new measure

for quantifying the relevance of communities to differentiate types

of rhythmic patterns is introduced. The proposed technique has

been applied to automatic extraction of drums rhythmic pattern

of the song Drive my car by The Beatles. Experimental results

show good performance of the proposed method.

similarity values are arranged in a matrix and the patterns

are built concatenating the consecutive cells that are on the

diagonal of the similarity matrix. Experimental results of

rhythmic pattern extraction of the guitar accompaniment of

Bossa Novas songs are described in [8].

Traditionally, in many works of Music Information Retrieval (MIR), the rhythm is processed using rhythmic gures in an individual way. For example, the algorithm of

music composition and classication presented in [9] and

[10], respectively, which generates complex networks with

the transition between independent rhythmic gures. Aiming

to uncover the collective behavior of rhythm, we propose to

represent the rhythm by groups of rhythmic gures, but not

simply by individual gures.

A musical piece is divided into periodic pulses (beats)

with relative duration which group rhythmic gures of lesser

duration. The rhythmic gure that occupies the duration of

a pulse can be divided into gures of same duration,

including silences. This set of gures is called as rhythmic

cell (RC). To represent any type of RC the duration-weighted

notation (DWN) [11] is used. Because the DWNs vector is

affected by dimensional variability, i.e., it depends on the

number of gures of RC, these RCs should be extracted and

encoded automatically. For this purpose, we have develop a

RC encoding algorithm. Due to the page limit, the complete

description and the detailed analysis of the algorithm will be

presented elsewhere.

community detection; topological measures; musical rhythm; drum

patterns

I.

I NTRODUCTION

the Internet and the evolution of automatic data acquisition

techniques have stimulated the emergence of specialized tools

for discriminating and extracting knowledge by automatic processing of implicit information contained in the data [1]. In this

context, machine learning and pattern recognition techniques

have been applied in the knowledge extraction in various areas,

e.g., in astronomy [2], biology [3] and music [4], among others.

proposed is the theory of complex networks. The complex

networks refer to graphs with non-trivial topology and consisting of a large amount of nodes [12]. Some examples include

website content (World Wide Web) [13] and organizational

or business networks between companies [14], among others.

A notable feature present in many complex networks is the

presence of local structures known as communities. Such

communities can be dened as groups of nodes densely connected, while connections between nodes of different groups

are relatively sparse [15]. Network communities represent

patterns of interaction between nodes of the network and their

identication is important in understanding the mechanisms

of network growth and formation. Many community detection

techniques have been proposed, see [15][17] and references

there in.

[5] for the last decades. In the rhythmic domain, a specic task

is the extraction of the rhythmic pattern of a musical piece. In

this topic, a method for extracting perception-based musical

pattern is described in [6], which seeks potential candidates

for rhythmic pattern among of all possible combinations of

successive events within a temporal window. However, such

an analysis requires a high computational cost for the sequences containing many events. Another method proposed

for rhythmic extraction calculates the similarity between pairs

978-1-4799-5618-0/14 $31.00 2014 IEEE

DOI 10.1109/BRACIS.2014.77

396

detection in complex networks for extracting the rhythmic patterns of percussion of a song and for rhythmic summarization

of a set of songs of the same genre and artist using symbolic

data. Firstly, a network is generated from the codes of RCs of

the input songs percussion lines instead of only considering

the individual gures, as having been done in the previous

works [10] [9], our network construction method incorporates

the groups of rhythms and also the silence notes, which is

an important element of rhythmic pattern. Then, community

detection techniques are applied to determine the groups of

RCs forming rhythmic patterns within the song. In this work,

the community detection is performed from two different

perspectives: the detection of disjoint communities and the

detection of overlapping communities. For the rst approach,

we use the Louvain algorithm [17] and for the second one, the

Bayesian Nonnegative Matrix Factorization algorithm (BNMF)

[18] is applied. The remaining question is how the detected

communities are related to the rhythmic patterns of the song

under analysis. For this purpose, we also propose a measure

to indicate the correspondence between the communities and

the main rhythmic pattern. Finally, the codes of the nodes of

the most relevant communities are decoded using an algorithm

specially developed by the authors and the MIDI le of the

principal rhythmic pattern is generated.

to the nature of music theory.

A rhythmic cell (RC) is a set rhythmic gures derived from

the -th ( ) division of a rhythmic gure which occupies

the time of a beat (unit of time). A primary rhythmic cell

(PRC) is a cell obtained from natural division of a gure and

a secondary rhythmic cell (SRC) is a cell that is derived from

a PRC (called the primary rhythmic cell of origin) by using

the tie operator among a subset of consecutive sound gures.

For example, for the PRC in Fig. 1(a) three SRCs are formed

as shown in Fig. 1(b). Note that not all primary rhythmic cells

can generate secondary cells.

Both PRCs and SRCs are represented by a vector v

of 1 , here we call vector of representation. The PRCs

are represented in binary notation, where a 1 represents the

onset and a 0 represents the silence. For example, the binary

vector of representation of PRC of Figure 1(a) is [ 0 1 1 1 ],

indicating that the rhythmic cell is composed of 4 gures, the

rst gure is a silence and the other three are sound gures of

equal duration. The SRCs are represented with the durationweighted notation (DWN) [11]. The DWN is a vector with

an amplitude weight (AW) at the position of onset and a zero

elsewhere. For example, the rst SRC of origin PRC ? ( ( (

of Fig. 1 (a) is ? ( and its AW is ( , whose value is 1/2,

and contains two times the AW and ( one time, therefore

the vector of DWN is [0201]. Figure 1(b) shows all SRCs and

their respective vectors of representation of the origin PRC of

Figure 1(a), whose unit of time is a half note ( value 2).

the rhythmic pattern of the drum line of the song Drive my car

by The Beatles and in rhythmic summarization of the musical

genre of a set of songs from the same artists. The results show

that the proposed method for extracting the rhythmic pattern

produces good results.

In rhythmic pattern extraction tasks, many studies use the

signal audio [6] and few others symbolic data [7]. Our method

belongs to the latter group, so only the information contained

in the sheet is necessary. Furthermore, due to the origin of the

proposed method is based on complex networks, the extraction

method can be easily adapted through the adjacency matrix to

other MIR tasks also based on networks, e.g., classication of

musical genres and automatic composition.

Fig. 1. Vector of representation of a (a) primary rhythmic cell (PRC) and its

(b) secondary rhythmic cells (SRCs) with = 4 and unit of time half note.

way for representing groups of rhythmic gures. Once the

representation vector is built, it should be encoded in order to

facilitate the organization, sorting, computational manipulation

and construction of RCs. A rhythmic cell can be completely

encoded using four numbers, each having a specic meaning.

These values are arranged in the vector c, called code vector,

so: c = [ ], where indicates the number

of divisions of the rhythmic gure to be divided, is the

decimal value of the binary vector representation of the PRC

of origin, is the lexicographical position of the SRCs within

the total possible secondary rhythmic cells of PRC of origin

and is the number of beats that occupies the RC.

describes the method for extraction of the rhythmic pattern

step by step. Section III presents the experimental results and

Section IV concludes the paper.

II.

EXTRACTION

can be applied to a single music sample or a set of samples. It consists of the following steps: selection of rhythm

information of the MIDI le; debugging using a quantization

method; separation and representation of rhythmic cells and

encoding the representation vectors, construction of a network

from RC codes; communities detection on the constructed

network; calculating the relevance measure; decoding of nodes

in the most relevant community and generating the principal

rhythmic pattern in symbolic notation.

A network can be generated to represent any of the

elements of the music piece, such as harmony, structure, pitch

or rhythm. For the latter case, current works consider the

network construction using only rhythmic gures individually,

where the node corresponds a rhythmic gure and an edge

is created between two consecutive rhythmic gures [10] [9],

this network is a directed graph (digraph). Such a method has

The preliminary phases of preprocessing and encoding are

important steps to guarantee the quality of the nal result. In

397

of intra-community edges minus the expected value of the

same fraction, considering that the edges are randomly inserted

regardless of the community structure. Values of very

close to 0 indicate low probability of the network is divided

into communities, and higher values indicate the presence

of communities [16]. Many algorithms have been proposed

to optimize the factor , for example, the classic algorithm

of modularity proposed by Newman and Girvan in [15], the

agglomerative algorithm hierarchical of Newman [16] and the

Louvain algorithm [17]. The latter is implemented by Gephi

software [19] and will be used in this work. In the case of

detecting overlapping communities will be used the Bayesian

Nonnegative Matrix Factorization algorithm (BNMF) [18].

several shortcomings that affect the quality of data representation through the network: (1) Although the silence notes are

considered, these are not discriminated between silences of

beat and silences within beat; (2) disregard the group structure

of the gures. As a consequence, the constructed network may

loss the order and the hierarchy of gures.

Aimed at resolving all previous drawbacks, in this paper

we propose the use of RCs in the creation of rhythmic network, where a node no longer corresponds with an individual

rhythmic gure, but with the group of several rhythmic gures

that forming a RC. To ease the manipulation and analysis

computational, the rhythmic cells are encoded and decoded

using an algorithm specially developed by the authors.

A musical piece can have one or more line of percussion.

The lines are extracted from the MIDI le and stored in a

separate array. Through the encoding algorithm, we get the

codes of the RCs and with these we create the network, where

the nodes are the code RCs and edges are created between two

consecutive code RCs. For generation of networks for two or

more lines of percussion, two options are possible: concatenate

the vectors with the codes horizontally or vertically. For example, for three lines, the codes obtained for each line are stored

in the vectors a, b and c, respectively. Let be the concatenation operator on the elements (or vectors) and , the result

is . The horizontal concatenation consists of joining the code

vectors of the three percussion lines into a single vector, one

after another, i.e., D = a b c and the resulting vector

is D = [ a b c ]. The vertical concatenation consists of

joining the three code vectors in matrix arrangement, one

below another, with the vector of the rst line at the top, and

then concatenate the elements of the columns of the resulting

matrix to form a single vector. This process is performed using

the concatenation operator as follows: E = aT bT cT ,

T

whose result is [ 1 1 1 2 2 2 ] , where is

the total number of RCs. Finally, the network is constructed

for the vector D or E. For a set of songs the network is created

concatenating horizontally the vectors of each song, i.e., the

vectors that have been concatenated horizontally or vertically.

A network measure is proposed in this work with the

objective of quantifying the relevance of the communities

in terms of the amplitude and density of the weights. The

main idea is that the frequency of appearance of the data that

generates the network is reected in the weights of the edges

and in its intra-community distribution. For the network with

adjacency matrix W the vector of relevance regarding matrix

communities C, denoted as (C) [0, 1], is given by:

d

(C) =

(1)

where d is an intermediate vector containing the quantication of the concentration of the weight of edges within

communities,

and whose ]elements are calculated as: =

] /[

[

T

T

(AC) C

for communities 1 ,

(WC) C

of relevance can be used in both disjoint and overlapping

communities. A high relevance value of a community indicates

how representative of this community in the whole network.

In this way, the less relevant communities can be ignored

without losing relevant information associated to the original

input data.

A community structure is dened by the tendency of some

nodes of network organized into modules with a high density of connection between them and low density connection

between the nodes belonging to other modules [16]. There

are many examples that can be found in nature and in everyday life, such as, scientic, technological, biological, social

communities and other [12]. Several techniques have been

developed for detecting communities in complex networks,

these techniques take advantage of the existing properties

between the internal nodes of communities or between nodes

of different communities. The detection algorithm returns a

matrix C of rows and columns, where is the number of

communities and the element , is 1 if node belongs to

the community , and zero otherwise. In addition, communities

can share nodes, in this case, the matrix of communities has

values in the range [0, 1], indicating the degree of membership

of each node within each community. This case is known as

overlapped communities.

The communities with the highest relevance correspond

with the main rhythmic patterns and less relevant with fortuitous phrases or transition as bridges, intro, coda...etc. The

nodes of the most important communities are used to create the

main pattern. To build the rhythmic pattern a walk among the

involved nodes should be performed, but some rules should

be established. These rules are: It should be considered (a)

all nodes; (b) all edges; (c) the weight of the edges; and (d)

the order of the nodes and the direction of the edges must be

respected.

In the summarization task, the most relevant community

corresponds with all the main patterns of each samples in the

set of songs. Therefore, making a walk in this community

many patterns are possible. However, to extract only the pattern

which summarizes the entire set, the nodes with the largest

intra-community mean total degree (MTD) are selected. The

rhythmic pattern summarization is created by making a walk

with these nodes respecting the rules described above.

network in communities, known as modularity factor , was

398

III.

E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS

concatenated is shown in Figure 3. In Table II are listed the

nodes of the network that compose the patterns and bridges

described in Table I. Note that there are some RCs shared by

multiple parties, for example, RC 3, 5 and 6 between the parts

1 and 2, and RC 7 to 11 among the bridges 1, 2, and 3.

In this section, the proposed method is applied for extracting the drum rhythmic patterns of a known song and for

summarizing rhythm of a set of songs from the same genre

and the same artist. Specically, the goal is to determine which

are the RCs that compose the main rhythmic pattern executed

by drums and to extract the rhythmic pattern that represents

the musical genre of a set of songs, as well as the order of

occurrence of RCs within each pattern. Subsequently, a MIDI

le of the main pattern is generated.

The chosen song in this simulation is Drive my car by

The Beatles. For our purpose, only one part of the song is

sufcient, this is the line of percussion performed by drums.

The sheet music of percussion of the song Drive my car is

shown by Fig. 2. The percussive structure executed by drums

is formed by the hit-hat cymbals; the second one, located in

the middle part, executes middle and high tom-tom; the third

one, located at the bottom, executes the bass drum.

concatenated (using codes of RCs).

TABLE II.

Fig. 2.

Typo of phrase

Intro

Pattern 1

Pattern 2

Bridge 1

Bridge 2

Bridge 3

Bridge 4

Bridge 5

Total nodes

2

4

3

6

7

7

2

2

TABLE III.

ALGORITHM FOR THE DIGRAPH AND RELEVANCE MEASURE OF EACH

COMMUNITY

Communities

1

2

3

4

5

TABLE I.

R HYTHMIC PATTERNS AND BRIDGES OF THE SONG Drive my

car AND SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS : LENGTH IN BEATS (LB),

QUANTITY OF RC S (QRC S ), AND RANKING ESTIMATED OF RELEVANCE

()

Louvain

Nodes

(C)

1,2

0.02

3,4,17,18

0.19

5,6

0.70

7,8,9,10,11,12,13,16 0.40

14,15

0.05

BNMF

Nodes

(C)

2,4,6,9,12,13,15,18 0.18

8,11,13,17

0.18

3,5

0.45

7,10,14,16

0.19

obtained are consistent to the actual structure of the song,

because these results show the information of dependency

and the order of the gures within each beat, as well as, the

relationship between the RCs of the lines during the evolution

of music. In this case, it can be noticed that the community 1

(nodes 1 and 2) corresponds to the RCs of part 1 (introduction),

communities 2 and 3 (nodes 3, 4, 5, 6, 17, 18) correspond to the

LB QRCs

2

1

4

3

4

3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17, 18, 20 3*(1+6+1)+1+8+2*4=41 4

4

1

4, 10, 14

5+1+5+5+5=21

4

3

2

5e6

1

8

6

4

5e7

1+1=2

8

7

3

5 e 16

1

8

7

4

12 e 19

1+1=2

4

2

3

21

1

4

4

4

No. Bar

Nodes

1,2

3,4,5,6

3,6,5,6

7,8,9,10,11,12

7,8,9,10,11,12,13

7,8,9,10,11,13,16

14,15

17,18

algorithm and the relevance values of the detected communities

are described in Table III. Moreover, Figure 4 illustrates the

communities obtained by the Louvain algorithm.

Table I lists the patterns and bridges that make up the song

and some of the basic features: number of the bars that occupy,

total number of repetitions, length in beats (LB), quantity of

RCs (QRCs) and ranking of relevance estimated according to

the total number of occurrences within the entire musical piece

(where the rst position is the largest estimated relevance).

()

The song is rhythmically composed of an introduction, 2

patterns and 5 bridges. Note that the bridges 1 to 3 have similar

features and can be grouped into a single part.

Type of phrase

Intro

Pattern 1

Pattern 2

Bridge 1

Bridge 2

Bridge 3

Bridge 4

Bridge 5

my car

Total repetitions

399

the RC 13 is used by bridges 2 and 3. It means that the

communities detected by BNMF algorithm only partially agree

to the expected values.

Fig. 4.

community 4 (nodes 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16) with bridge 1,

2 and 3, which are considered as a single part due to their

similarity.

within the communities detected by BNMF algorithm. With

regard to node 13, we can see that its membership value is

larger in the community 2, which conrms that this node

is more connected to nodes 8 and 11, thus conforming the

bridge 1 and 2 of the Table II. With regard to node 15, the

algorithm indicates that it is more connected to the community

4, thus conforming to the bridge 4 of the Table II. With this

information the bridges can be constructed in a similar way.

community has high relevance to rhythmic pattern of the song.

So, the nodes that make up the most relevant communities

are the RCs of the main patterns of the song, and the nodes

in less relevant communities correspond to fortuitous phrases

(rhythmic bridges). In this simulation, the community 3 has

the highest relevance with 70%, the community 2 has the

second highest relevance with 19%. The relevance of other

communities are less than 10%. These values agree to the

in Table I. Therefore, the

ranking of estimated relevance ()

main rhythmic pattern corresponds to the nodes 3, 4, 5, 6, 17,

18 of the network shown by Fig. 3.

Analyzing the network of Fig. 3, we see that the nodes

17 and 18 must terminate the sequence by having a weight

equal to 1, node 3 is connected to 4, but, to return to 4 it must

pass through 5 e 6, so the communities 2 and 3 should be

together. Preserving the rules is obtained the sequence: 3,4,5,6,

3,4,5,6....,3,4,17,18. The codes of the nodes of this sequence

are decoded to get the note matrix for each RC and hence

the MIDI le. The sheet of the rhythmic pattern extracted is

shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5.

by BNMF algorithm.

pattern, if it exists, of any song, of any artist and any genre.

As additional examples, consider the numbered songs in Table

V. For these songs, in Table IV are presented the nodes of the

most relevant community (NMRC), the relevance value and

the sheet of extracted drums rhythmic pattern (DRP). Note that

different songs share the same pattern, which are separated and

grouped in the table.

of RCs shared by two or more patterns has been disregarded.

In other words, each node belongs to one and only one

community, which is not true according to the structure of

the musical work (Table I). Therefore, the use of an overlapping community detection algorithm is more appropriate for

this study. The last columns of Table III show the detected

communities using BNMF algorithm and their corresponding

relevance values. Figure 6 shows the membership value of

the nodes within the communities detected by the BNMF

algorithm, colors close to red indicate higher membership of

node to community . It is veried that the nodes 13 and

15 are common nodes to many communities. This is expected

of a set of 8 songs by The Beatles (shown by Table V),

a network is generated with the RCs of these songs. The

generated network as well as the communities obtained by the

Louvain algorithm are shown by Fig. 8. The relevance of the 4

communities is: [ 0.44 0.01 0.22 0.29 0.02 ]. The rst

community has the highest relevance value, therefore, it will

be selected to generate the rhythmic pattern of the genre of

the songs. Thus, the nodes with the largest intra-community

mean total degree (MTD) are the nodes 1, 2, and 3, with

MTD of 0.37, 0.19, 0.30, respectively. Applying the controlled

400

TABLE IV.

RELEVANCE MEASURE AND SHEET OF EXTRACTED DRUMS RHYTHMIC

PATTERN (DRP) FOR THE SONGS OF THE TABLE V

No. Song

2

3

4

NMRC

1,2,3

6,7,8

1,2,3

(C)

0.99

0.64

0.80

1

5

7

2,3

1,2

1,2

0.99

0.90

0.94

6

8

3,4,5,6

1,2,3,4

0.70

0.91

and a new measure for characterizing the relevance of the

detected communities has been proposed. The use of rhythmic

cells and of the relevance measure is interesting because the

RCs allow to reect the rhythmic information within network

communities with high quality and the relevance measure

allows to distinguish the types of drums rhythmic patterns.

Such a measure can be also used for debugging networks

generated with another data type, for example, to distinguish

sporadic groups of friends in a social networks. Finally, it is

worth mention that this rhythmic pattern extraction is useful in

various applications, for example, in the characterization and

classication of musical genres.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

walk over these nodes, following the above mentioned rules,

the sequence of nodes is 1,2,1,3 .... Applying the decoding

algorithm to this sequence, we get the rhythmic pattern shown

by Fig. 9. The obtained rhythmic pattern summarizes the

musical genre of the set of songs and it is a typical drum

pattern of the rock.

TABLE V.

for nancial supports of this research.

R EFERENCES

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SUMMARIZATION

1.

2.

3.

4.

Names

I Need You

5.

Im Looking Through You

6.

I Want To Hold Your Hand

7.

From Me To You

8.

Song

Do You Want To Know A Secret

Drive Me Car

Act Naturally

Dizzy Miss Lizzy

with the 8 songs by The Beatles shown in Table V.

Fig. 9. Drums rhythmic pattern that summarizes the musical genre of the

set of songs by The Beatles shown in Table V.

IV.

C ONCLUSION

musical piece and for rhythmic summarization of a set of song

has been proposed in this paper. The novelty is that the method

is based in complex network and, consequently, capable to

reveal topological structures of the rhythm. In this method,

the rhythmic cells are adopted to represent more faithfully

the musical rhythm. The representation vector of RCs are

encoded to avoid the dimensional dependency. Community

401

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