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Nuclear Physics:

Artificial transmutation the change of one element to another through the bombardment of a nucleus
(Rutherford).
Rutherford determined through cloud chamber experiment that the alpha particle was absorbed when it
collided with a nitrogen nucleus:

decay, the weak interaction converts a neutron proton while emitting an electron (e ) and an anti-neutrino.
+
+ decay, energy is used to convert a proton neutron, a positron (e ) and a neutrino.

Some nuclei have a larger neutron-proton ratio and thus a relatively larger strong nuclear force as opposed to its
repelling electromagnetic force. Those nuclei are more stable.

Ch7 Atomic and Nuclear Physics

Thomson model: the plum pudding model. Positive pudding with negative plums (electrons).
Rutherford model: like a mini solar system. The flaw was that the electrons would radiate electromagnetic
waves, lose energy and spiral into the nucleus.

Atomic spectra: give atoms energy and they produce light as the electrons travel up the shells. Split up the light to
find the different wavelengths. Electrons only have certain amounts of energy in the first place (quantized). This is
shown by the atomic spectrum as it only releases certain amounts of energy (the thin lines). This means that only
certain energies are possible for different elements (proves energy levels) discrete.
This means light must be quantized, as it is not a continuous wave.
Emission spectrum: a spectrum of light emitted by an element; a series of bright lines, with dark gaps between
the lines where no light is emitted.
Absorption spectrum: a bright continuous spectrum covering the full range of visible colors, with dark lines
where the element absorbs light.

When an electron falls between two energy levels it will emit a photon equal in energy to the difference in
energy levels. The energy of a photon is dependent on its frequency. Thus, the existence of discrete
wavelengths in the spectrum is evidence that energy levels are discrete.

7.2 Quantum Nature of Light

Photoelectric effect: electrons are only emitted if the light source is very bright. If it is dim, we expect no
electrons to be emitted. If some are, there is a time delay as they collect energy. Lower frequency light will
work if still bright enough.
Zinc plate experiment: a zinc plate on an electroscope with UV light shining on it. Lost electrons means less
charge, so electroscope leaf should fall during the photoelectric effect. But: when dim, there was no time
delay, but fell slower. Lower frequency (despite intensity) did not emit any electrons.
Quantum light model: made up of packets of energy called photons. E = hf for photon.
UV has a high frequency, so it gives enough energy to the zinc plate to emit electrons. Lower intensity
means less photons, means less rapid electron loss (but no delay). Low frequency means low energy
photons, means it cannot free electrons.
Millikan created an experiment to find the KE of electrons. He created and electric field and increases the
energy until no electrons could pass through. He used this stopping potential to find the fastest KE:

KE loss = PE gain
2

1/2mv = VSe
KEMAX = VSe
Higher intensity = higher current, same potential. (More plates but the same energy amount VS).
Threshold frequency: the frequency at which photoelectrons are liberated. Max photoelectron KE = energy of
photon energy needed for release KEMAX = hf ( = work function.) OR KEMAX = hf hf0
For photon frequency, change in energy E = hf (for energy levels).
Absorption spectrum: has white lines in the rainbow where electron has absorbed the frequency needed for them
to escape. Proves electron energy levels.

7.3 Wave Nature of Light

Electron gun: filament is made hot by AC current. Electrons are liberated. They accelerate towards anode by
accelerating p.d. Pass through with constant velocity:

V = (2/)1/2

Phosphorescence: electrons when going down energy level(s) emit light.


De Broglie Hypothesis: all matter has a wave-like nature. = h/
For example, electrons passed through a thin film of graphite create a diffraction pattern (wave-like property).
Probability waves: diffraction maps out all the possible results.
Davidson-Germer experiment: a beam of electrons reflected off a nickel crystal. Angle of max intensity can
be explained in terms of constructive interference between De Broglie waves reflected off layers of atoms
(supports De Broglie hypothesis).

Heisenberg uncertainty principle: we cannot know momentum and positive accurately. We can either: pass
through a small slit (know definite location, but it will be diffracted momentum?) or pass through a large
slit (definite momentum, will not deflect, so no definite location).
For momentum and displacement: x > h/4
For energy and time: E t > h/4

7.4 Quantum Atom Models

Electron in a box: an electron isnt free to move outside the atom. To model this, think of a string clamped
at both ends. It can only have certain frequencies (the harmonics), like an electron can only have certain
energies. To create a quantum model, think of it as a probability wave trapped in a box.

Schrodingers Model: he realised the electrons position probability was not as simple as the sine wave used
previously. The wave function is called Schrdingers equation () and the probability of finding the
2

electron is . His model predicted the most likely electron position. It showed that some energy
transitions are more likely, and why some spectral lines are brighter.
FOR HYDROGEN:

7.5 Nuclear Structure

Mass of the nucleus: found using mass spectrometer. Projected at right angles to a uniform field; path
radius mass. m = BQr/v. The ion experiences two forces (magnetic force and electric force) so v = E/B.

Counting the number of dots on the photographic plate is the number of ions.

Charged particle scattering experiment: like Geiger-Marsden experiment. Deflected alpha particles hit a
nucleus. The KE can be calculated, and distance too. To find the nucleus size, they fired faster alphas until
they no longer returned. The faster ones got the closest.

Nuclear force: very short, short range force holding nucleus together (same for all nucleons).

Binding energy: the amount of work required to pull apart a nucleus. E = mc . The energy is converted to
mass (not KE, as the nucleus is not moving). The binding energy curve of a nucleus is found by the
difference between the mass of the nucleus and mass of the parts (the mass defect).

Large nuclei are less stable as they have more protons pushing the nucleus apart. All systems will try to reach the
lowest possible energy. BE is released when a nucleus is formed, so changing to higher BE means energy is
released (so higher BE = good/more stable).

Nuclear mass is measured in (u). 1u = 931.5MeV. BE = mass defect.


BE per nucleon = mass defect/nucleon number.

all on the left of Fe undergo fission as it attains a more stable state with combined mass leading BE.

Nuclear Physics:

Artificial transmutation the change of one element to another through the bombardment of a nucleus
(Rutherford).
Rutherford determined through cloud chamber experiment that the alpha particle was absorbed when it
collided with a nitrogen nucleus:

In - decay, the weak interaction converts a neutron (n0) into a proton (p+) while
emitting an electron (e-) and an anti-neutrino ( ):
.o

In + decay, energy is used to convert a proton into a neutron, a positron (e+) and a
neutrino ( ): energy + p+ n0 + e+ + . Requires energy thus cannot occur in
isolation.

DISCRETE ENERGY SPECTRA OF ALPHA EMMISSION SUGGESTS


NUCLEUS HAS DISTINCTIVE ENERGY LEVELS & CAN BE EXCITED TOO.
7.8 Nuclear Reactions
Transmutation: changing a nucleus by adding nucleons.
Artificial/induced transmutation: for example, nitrogen to carbon.
14

1
14
1
7N + 0n 6C + 1p (Nitrogen absorbs a neutron and emits a proton.)

Nuclear fusion: nuclear fusion is the main source of the suns energy. It is the joining of two small nuclei to form
one big one. Greater mass = greater BE (shown by graph).
Nuclear fission: nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei. The total BE increases again.
Nuclear fission: process in which a heavy nucleus splits up into lighter nuclei.
Large amounts of energy produced, can be self-sustaining due to chain reactions.
Nuclear fusion: joining of two light nuclei into a heavier one.
High temperatures required to provide sufficient kinetic energy to approach each other, overcoming electrostatic
repulsion.

6.1 Atoms and their constituents


6.1.1 : The idea of Millikan's oil drop expt was the have very small 'oil drops' which had some charge balanced
between two electric plates. By knowing the strength of the field between the plates, it was possible to calculate
the amount of force being applied per charge on the drop, which, if it was floating, would be exactly the same as
the force of gravity downwards. From this, it is possible to find the mass to charge ratio of the drops. 1.6 x 10 -19 C,
the charge of an electron.
6.1.2 : If a mass is being suspended by an electric field, then mg = qE (mass x gravity = charge x electric field
strength). Electric field strength can be can be expressed as V/d, (potential difference divided by distance) and so
some calculations can be done with this stuff.
6.1.3 : The results showed that the minimum difference between charges was 1.6 x 10 -19 C and so this must be the

smallest unit of charge possible.


6.1.4 : This means that charge must be quantized (only come in discrete bits, not continuous), and the quantum of
charge was 1.6 x 10-19 C.
6.1.5 : An electron gun relies on the principle of thermonic emission. There is a large PD created between two
metal plates in a vacuum. The cathode (the one from which the electrons come) has a hole in it, and so some of
the electrons fly through and create a sort of beam of electrons (originally called a cathode ray)
For what it's worth, Miten Shah offers this advice about remembering that the cathode is negative, and the anode
positive...
Well I remember it like this, maybe it will help some of you confused souls...hehe cathode - negatve ......."C" anode - posivte ......... "A+"
6.1.6 : Cathode rays can be deflected by both electric and magnetic fields, and act as negatively charged particle
would in such fields. both these properties can be explained by the fact that they are actually electrons.
6.1.7 : Thompson's experiment involved using electric and magnetic fields to exactly cancel each other's effects
and allow an electron to pass undeflected. The electric field is then removed and the radius of curvature is then
measured. The equations then simplify down to give an expression for e/min which all the other terms are known,
and so the ration could be accurately found.
6.1.8 : By knowing the charge of an electron (Millikan) and the charge to mass ratio (Thompson) it is possible to
find the mass of an electron...So that makes Thompson the discoverer of the electron...well horray for him.
6.1.9 : The alpha particle scattering experiment involved firing alpha particles at a sheet of very thin gold foil, and
detecting where they went (with a screen).
6.1.10 : The results of the above experiment were that the majority of alpha particles passes straight through. Of
those which were deflected, many were deflected through very large angles, and even straight back at the source.
This result suggested that atoms consisted mostly of empty space, whit a small nucleus of high positive charge.
6.1.11 : Rutherford's model was therefor that around the small, highly charged nucleus, electrons orbited like
planets around the sun. This created many more questions...why didn't the electrons emit radiation and lose
energy...and how would they be kept in a constant orbit.
6.2 Nuclei and their constituents
6.2.1 : Radioactive decay is basically atoms (or more specifically nuclei) spontaneously breaking off small parts
(alpha, beta and gamma particles) of themselves. This was accidentally discovered due to the effects of these
particles on photographic film which was being kept in a drawer with them. This lead to a systematic analysis of
such particles, and the elements which produced them. The three different types mentioned above were found and
separated, and the effect on the atoms undergoing this process (changing elements from one type to another) was
examined.
6.2.2 : The three types of radiation were first divided by their ionising power. Rutherford later showed an alpha
particle to be the nucleus of a helium atom by measuring their emission spectra. Beta particles were found to be
free electrons, but emitted from the nucleus as a result of the changes which occurred in it. Gamma rays were
found to be a type of very high frequency electromagnetic radiation.
6.2.3 : The products of alpha and beta decay are quite easy to find...simply write out and balance the nuclear
equations...
X ->

A
Z

A-4

Z-2

Y+

He ... then determine what element and isotope Y is.

6.2.4 : Radiation tends to ionise (strip the electrons from) gases when it passes through. This fact is used the the
detection of radiation with geiger counters. (no real detail is required here)
6.2.5 : AZX -- A is the mass number, the number of nucleons or whatever else you'd like to call it...the number of
protons + the number of neutrons. Z is the proton number, the atomic number...the number of protons. To find
the number of neutrons, obviously, subtract Z from A.
6.2.6 : Artificial transmutation ... cool name for a somewhat boring thing ... when atoms decay, they change into
different atoms, and this is called artificial transmutation. Atoms usually only lose alpha and beta particles (gamma
is just a loss of energy, so not relevant here). An alpha particle is 2 protons and 2 neutrons. A beta particle is 1

negative charge, effectively a neutron turning into a proton in the nucleus. These facts can be put together to
predict the results of nuclear equations.
6.2.7 : Describe how the reaction between N and He led to the discovery of the proton...By bombarding nitrogen
nuclei with alpha particles, Rutherford caused the ejection of hydrogen nuclei and the production of a new oxygen
nucleus. As a result, the proton was discovered.
6.2.8 : The proton is the thing in the nucleus of a hydrogen atom, and there are an increasing number in other
atom's nuclei. It has the same magnitude of charge as an electron, though of positive rather than negative.
6.2.9 : Radioactive decay is a random process for individual atoms, but overall, a block of radioactive atom's rate
of decay is exponential, falling to zero eventually. The decay rate can not be affected by physical or chemical
conditions. For a large number of atoms, the number of radioactive atoms will halve over a regular period of time,
called the half life, and this results in the exponential nature.
6.2.10 : Half life is the period of time (average, though accurate for a large number of atoms) required for the rate
of decay of a radioactive sample to decrease to half it's initial value. This is a constant for a given isotope.
6.2.11 : The half life life can be determined from a graph by taking a point on the graph, finding it's rate, finding
the rate which is half of this, then finding the point on the graph which corresponds to this half rate. The half life is
the time, as it is on the x-axis, between the two points.
6.2.12 : The reactivity after n half lives will be Initial x (1/2)n. (not in data book, but fairly obvious...)
13.1 Atoms and their constituents
13.1.1 : Millikan's oil drop experiment involved first producing small droplets of oil with an atomizer. Some of
these then fell through a small hole, and into a region between two fields. Using a variable resistance, the
strength of the field was adjusted until the upward force of the field (The +ve plate was up the top, -ve on the
bottom, but could be reversed for drops of opposite charge) equals the downward force of gravity. after it was
balanced, the voltage was recorded, and then the drop was allowed to fall. After falling some distance, the
drop falls at a constant speed (where the force of gravity is equaled by the air resistance). This terminal speed
is measured, and allows the mass to be found using Stoke's law.
Then, we equate Fg and Ff, as follows ... qE = mg ... q = mg/E. Since the mass of the drop can be found, and
both g and E are known, we can find the charge of the drop. By graphing these charge values, we find that the
smallest difference between them is e, 1.6 x 10-19C.
13.1.2 : Thompson's experiment is based around the counteracting effects of electric and magnetic fields.
First, the two fields are adjusted so the beam passes undeflected between them, with the deflection effects of
each equaling out ... Therefore, Fe = Fb, and so Eq = Bqv therefore v = E/B. The electric field is then removed,
meaning the beam is deflected downwards by the magnetic field. Since the force from a magnetic field = evB,
from Fc = mv2 / r we get evB = mv2 / r. this simplifies down to e/m= v/Br. We can measure the radius of
curvature, we know the velocity from above, and we know the strength of the B field, and so the value of
e
/mcan be found.
13.1.3 : The distance of closest approach of a particle to the nucleus can be found by the conservation of
energy. The initial energy of the particle is defined by Ek = 1/2mv2. This energy is converted into potential
energy as the charge approaches the nucleus. The potential energy at a given point is equal to the work done
to move the charge to that point, so W = qalphaV. V for a radial field is 1/ (4 x Pi x Eo) x qnucleus/d, so the
potential energy is (qalpha qnucleus) / (4 x Pi x Eo x d). When this is equated with the kinetic energy, all the terms
are known except the distance, which can therefore be found.
13.2 Nuclei and their constituents
13.2.1 : The mass spectrometer ... First we start with a source of ions, all with a +1 charge. These are
accelerated through an electric field. These ions then enter a velocity selector, an area with both magnetic and
electric fields applying a force in opposite directions, so as to cancel each other out. This, as above the two
forces equal out, and we get Fe = Fb, and so Eq = Bqv therefore v = E/B. Thus, only ions with a particular speed
are allowed through to the next stage. The electric field ends, and the ions are deflected through a magnetic
field, resulting in a circular path. This means there is a centripetal force supplied by the field, and so mv 2 / r =
Bqv, which rearranges to m = Bqr/v. Assuming the B field is varied to keep the radius constant, mass is
proportional to magnetic field strength, as everything else is constant.
13.2.2 : How Chadwick discovered the neutron, thanks to Jonathan Chui.

Chadwick discover the effect by bombardment of Beryllium with alpha particles. A wax block (with its chain of
hydrocarbons it serves as a proton source) is placed after a short distance, and protons are detected after the
wax block. Thus there must be some way to 'knock out' the proton. From the energy the protons are in, the
Compton effect due to possible gamma ray emission is too low to compensate. If the particle that alpha
knocked out is a neutron though, it fits perfectly both by the conservation of energy and the conservation of
momentum (since the p and n have approx. same mass, we would expect the 'pool players' result') Yet these
particles are indeed uncharged. Further more, when these are to collide with protons in cloud chambers, a
right angle track would result.
13.2.3 : Beta decay and the neutrino...
the mechanisms are ... p -> n + e+ + a neutrino (written like a curly v) and n -> p + e- + an antineutrino
(which is the same curly v with a bar on top).
13.2.4 : decay chains ... Everything can be written as a series of nuclear equations ... such as
1Y, the totals must be kept constant on both sides, but it's fairly easy.

X+

-1

e ->

A
Z-

13.2.5 : The equation N = No x e-lambda x t is in the data book, while delta-N/delta-t = -lambda x N is not. Both can be
used to find decay stuff. N is the number of radioactive nuclei, No is the starting number and lambda is defined
as ln2/half life (that's in the data book). delta-N/delta-t is the rate of decay.
13.2.6 : deduce lambda = ln2/half life. We start by taking a time after one half life, therefore N = N o/2. Therefore,
N = No x e-lambda x t becomes 2 = e-lambda x t. We then ln both sides to get ln2 = lambda x t0.5, and this rearranges
to the required expression.
13.2.7 : By coulomb's law, the protons in the nucleus should all repel each other and break it to bits.
Therefore, there must be another force holding it all together, called the strong nuclear force. This is a force
which greatly outweighs the electromagnetic repulsion, but only acts over a very small distance (within the
nucleus).
13.3 Energy changes within atoms
13.3.1 : Atomic emission and absorption spectra result from the fact that electrons can move between energy
levels when they have sufficient energy put in. They will then fall back, emitting a defined amount of energy
as light. emission spectra result from electrons being excited by electricity or something, then emitting light as
the electrons fall back. Absorption spectra result from electrons absorbing energy from electromagnetic
radiation, and so effectively blocking it. In the emission case, there will be a series of thin bands representing
the wavelengths of light produced, and for absorption, there will be a full spectrum with some lines cut out
(the wavelengths that were absorbed).
13.3.2 - 13.3.4 thanks to Jonathan Chui
13.3.2 : State Bohrs postulates a)Some stable orbits exists (assumed circular) b)electrons absorbs/emits
energy in changing orbits c)Quantum condition (rules for changing orbit) : mvr = n (h/2*pi), where
n=1,2,3,... This formula can be derived by equating Angular momentum L with n * hbar (hbar means
h/2*pi). Historically it is based on expt discovery. We'll call it *1 later.
13.3.3 : Describe the spectrum of atomic hydrogen and account for it, using Bohrs' model. (This account
should be slightly more detailed than that required by the IB.) The charge in the nucleus = Ze charge in
electron = e Assuming a circular path, centripetal force = m(v square)/radius. Since this force is supported
by the electronic attraction, m (v square) / r = k (Ze)(e)/ (r square) Simplifying we obtain r = k (Z)(e
square)/ m(v square). Let's call it *2
From above *1, mvr = n (hbar), thus rearrangin we obtain v = n (hbar)/mr. Plugging into *2, simplify and
you'll obtain a equation, which relates the orbital radius with (constant)(n square). Energy of the electron =
KE + PE = 1/2 m(v square)+ k Z(e square)/r. Substitute v by expression *1, we'll arrive at E at nth shell =
(constant)/r at nth shell. Since r is proportional to (n square), E = (constant)/ n square. (required by
IB) Knowing this and E = hc / lambda (Planck's equation), you'll also need to know the Rydberg eqn. This is
shown in the syllabus, and can be easily derived from the above.
13.3.4 : Evaluate the success and limitations of Bohr's model
Success: 1) Explains why atoms emit and successfullly predict emission for Hydrogen. 2)Explains why
atoms absorb 3)Ensures the stability of atoms 4)Predicts accurately the ionisation energy for Hydrogen.
Limitations: 1)Not successful for multi-electron atoms. 2)Can't explain fine structures (emission lines

existing as 2 or more close lines) 3)Can't explain bonding of atoms in molecules or solids & liquids 4)Can't
explain different intensity of spectral lines.
13.4 Energy changes within nuclei
13.4.1 : Einstein's mass-energy equivalence ... delta-E = delta-m x c2 ... yey ... E is in joules, and m in
kilograms.
13.4.2 : term definitions...
unified mass unit ... one twelfth the mass of a carbon 12 atom ...
mass defect ... the amount of mass which is converted into energy in a nuclear reaction.
binding energy ... the energy equivalent of the difference in mass between the nucleus of an atom, and the
masses of the individual protons and neutrons which make it up.
13.4.3 : The binding energy can be calculated as described above, but finding the total mass defect between
the individual nucleons, and the whole nucleus. The binding energy per nucleon is therefore, this divided by
the number there are.
13.4.4 : The graph of atomic number vs binding energy per nucleon runs from Z=2 increasing rapidly (with a
3 peaks I don't think we need to worry about) to about Z=20 where it runs relatively flat at around 8 Mev per
nucleon then begins to drop off after Z = 60. The higher an element is (ie the more binding energy it has) the
more stable it will be, and so the most stable elements are those around Z = 20.
13.4.5 : Fission is the process by which an atom breaks up into smaller fragments. This is often caused by the
addition of neutrons to the atoms, causing it to become unstable and eventually break up. This breaking up
may, in some cases, produce more neutrons, and so these can then go on to produce more fission reactions,
creating a chain reaction which perpetuates itself.
13.4.6 : Fission is good because it provides a lot of energy form a source that is more viable long term than
fossil fuels, and because it is relatively clean in terms of air pollution compared to fossil fuels. The down side
is, it produces radioactive material which must be stored somewhere, and also, it can be dangerous if not
controlled properly (meltdowns and stuff...)
13.4.7 : Nuclear fusion occurs when two smaller nuclei fuse together to form one bigger, and more stable
nucleus, and produce lots of energy in the process. Initiation of fusion requires a great deal of heat, because
the nuclei must be given enough initial energy to overcome the coulomb repulsion between them as they
approach. Energy calculations can be done using E = mc2, when the masses of the different fragments are
given.
13.5 Interaction of matter and energy
13.5.1 : The explanation of the photoelectric effect is that the energy carried by light is broken into discrete
units, the size of which depend on the frequency of the radiation. the energy carried in each 'photon' is defined
as E = hf (plank's constant x frequency). The atoms require a certain amount of energy to release an electron,
Wo = hfo. where Wo is called the work function. if there is more energy than this, then that may be given to the
electron in the form of kinetic energy, and so E = hf = Wo + 1/2x m x vmax2.
13.5.2 : The photoelectric effect can be measured by applying a stopping voltage in the opposite direction to
the current induced by the photoelectron emission. As the frequency of the light is increased, more energy will
be required to stop these electrons. If the frequency is decreased, however, there is eventually a point where
no emissions occur, and so no voltage is required. hf = hf o + eVs, where Vs is the stopping voltage.
13.5.3 : X-rays are produced by first placing an anode and cathode in a vacuum tube. Behind the anode is
some type of photo-sensitive material, and between the two is a potential difference of about 150 000v. The
cathode is heated to produce thermo-electrons. These electrons the accelerate towards the anode. When the
electrons are deflected, by coming close to the nuclei, their kinetic energy changes. This change results in the
production of an x-ray. Since the electrons can come as close or as far away from the nucleus, the x-ray
spectrum is continuous, not discrete. There are, however, peaks caused by inner shell electrons being excited
by small energy loss. These peaks occur on the left side of the curve, which is generally an inverted parabola
type shape. There is a shortest wavelength possible for the x-rays due to the fact that when electrons lose all
their kinetic energy, there is not way to make higher frequency waves.

13.5.4 : When electrons lose some of their energy, x-rays are produced...the short wavelength limit is when
they lose all of it so eV = hc/lambda = 1/2 mv2. and then lambdamin = hc/eV ... there's some other stuff I should
come back to.
13.5.5 : DeBroglie's equation is ... lambda = h/p. Thus, we can see that all mass has a wave equivalent, and
any wave has a mass equivalent.
13.5.6 : the velocity of an electron can be found from 1/2mv2 = eV, and this can then be used in the equation
mv=h/lambda, to find the electron's wavelength. This can be seen/verified by the diffraction of electrons through
thin crystals, showing that electrons have a wave nature.
13.6 Particle physics
13.6.1 : Linear accelerators are designed based on a series of 'tubes' through which the particles are pulled,
and then pushed by electric fields. The lengths of the tubes become longer and longer so the frequency with
which the electric fields must oscillate are constant.
13.6.2 : Circular particle accelerators work on the basis of magnetic fields making the particles rotate, and
when they cross between the two Ds, they are accelerated between them by a electric field. The radius inside
is defined by r = mv/Bq, and so as the velocity increase, the magnetic field must be increased to keep the radius
constant.
13.6.3 : When a particle having been accelerated collides with a fixed target, both usually break up into
smaller fragments. These can sometimes be identified in a cloud chamber.
13.6.4 : Particle anti-particle pairs are only really produced from interactions involving great amounts of
energy. Then two such particles collide, the completely annihilate, producing only energy.
13.6.5 : particle / anti particle pairs ...
electrons - positrons (these are less common, but technically, electrons are the anti particle).
proton - antiproton (these are the same except for charge...same as above)
photon - photon (same particle)