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Pak-American Fertilizer Plant

Iskandarabad Mainawali
Pakistan.

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Report Submitted By

M. Saleem Iqbal (05)


M. Ahsan Nasir (10)
M. Umair Ashraf (16)
Basit Ali (17)
M. Usman (25)
Rameez-ul-Hassan (32)
M. Faheem Iqbal (37)
M. Imran Farooq (38)

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CONTENTS
HISTORY ....................................................4
PROCESS DESCRIPTION ............................4
AMMONIA SECTION .....................................5
UREA SECTION ............................................11
UTILITIES SECTION......................................15

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HISTORY
The Plant is located at Iskanderabad, District Mianwali. It was the first nitrogenous
Plant built in Pakistan. The project when commissioned in 1957, was designed
to produce 40 metric tone per day of Ammonia to be fully converted into 150
metric tone per day of Ammonium Sulphate. The unit underwent expansion in 1968
when the capacity was increased to 273 metric tones per day i.e. 90,000 metric tones
per annum of Ammonium Sulphate.

The Ammonium Sulphate Plant was closed in June, 1997 and a new Ammonia /
Urea Complex having capacity of 600 metric tone per day of Ammonia and 1050
metric tone per day of Urea, started commenced production in November, 1999.
The annual production capacity of the Plant is 346,500 metric tone of urea.

Total completion cost of the Project was Rs.9, 700.060 million, out of which Rs.6;
878.119 million was in foreign currency. The authorized and paid up capital of the
Company is Rs.3,000 million, which is subscribed by NFC.

The raw material used is Natural Gas from SNGPL Network.

Today the plant is running at 1176 tone per day which is the 112% of the designed
capacity 1050 tone per day of Urea and 650 tones per day of Ammonia.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
The PAFL plant consist the following major section are

1. Ammonia Section

2. Urea Section

3. Utility Section

4. PH& S (Product Handling & Storage)Section

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A view of ammonia section

AMMONIA SECTION
Ammonia is produced in a process in which nitrogen and hydrogen react in the
presence of an iron catalyst to form ammonia. The hydrogen is formed by reacting
natural gas and steam at high temperatures and the nitrogen is supplied from the air1.
Other gases (such as water and carbon dioxide) are removed from the gas stream and
the nitrogen and hydrogen passed over an iron catalyst at high temperature and
pressure to form the ammonia. The process is shown schematically in Figure 1.

STEP 1 - HYDROGEN PRODUCTION


Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of methane with water. However, before this
can be carried out, all sulfurous compounds must be removed from the natural gas to
prevent catalyst poisoning. These are removed by heating the gas to 400oC and
reacting it with zinc oxide:

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ZnO + H2S → ZnS + H2O

Following this, the gas is sent to the primary reformer for steam reforming, where
super-heated steam is fed into the reformer with the methane. The gas mixture heated
with natural gas and purge gas to 770oC in the presence of a nickel catalyst. At this
temperature the following equilibrium reactions are driven to the right,

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converting the methane to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and small quantities of carbon
monoxide:

CH4 + H2O → 3H2 + CO

CH4 + 2H2O → 4H2 + CO2

CO + H2O → H2 + CO2

This gaseous mixture is known as synthesis gas.

STEP 2 NITROGEN ADDITION


The synthesis gas is cooled slightly to 735oC. It then flows to the secondary reformer
where it is mixed with a calculated amount of air. The highly exothermic reaction
between oxygen and methane produces more hydrogen. Important reactions are:

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2
O2 + 2CH4 → 2CO + 4H2
O2 + CH4 → CO2 + 2H2
2O2 + CH4 → 2H2O + CO2

In addition, the necessary nitrogen is added in the secondary reformer.

As the catalyst that is used to form the ammonia is pure iron, water, carbon
dioxide and carbon monoxide must be removed from the gas stream to prevent
oxidation of the iron. This is carried out in the next three steps.

STEP 3 - REMOVAL OF CARBON MONOXIDE


Here the carbon monoxide is converted to carbon dioxide (which is used later in the
synthesis of urea) in a reaction known as the water gas shift reaction:

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2

This is achieved in two steps. Firstly, the gas stream is passed over a Cr/Fe3O4
catalyst at 360oC and then over a Cu/ZnO/Cr catalyst at 210oC. The same reaction
occurs in both steps, but using the two steps maximizes conversion.

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STEP 4 - WATER REMOVAL
The gas mixture is further cooled to 40oC, at which temperature the water condenses
out and is removed.

STEP 5 - REMOVAL OF CARBON OXIDES


Carbon dioxide is highly soluble in K2CO3, and more than 99.9% of the CO2 in the
mixture dissolves in it. The remaining CO2 (as well as any CO that was not converted
to CO2 in Step 3) is converted to methane (methanation) using a Ni/Al 2O3 catalyst at
325oC:

CO + 3H2 → CH4 + H2O

CO2 + 4H2 → CH4 + 2H2O

STEP 6 - SYNTHESIS OF AMMONIA


The gas mixture is now cooled, compressed and fed into the ammonia synthesis loop
(see Figure 1). A mixture of ammonia and unreacted gases which have already been
around the loop are mixed with the incoming gas stream and cooled to 5oC. The
ammonia present is removed and the unreacted gases heated to 400oC at a pressure
of 330 barg and passed over an iron catalyst. Under these conditions 26% of the
hydrogen and nitrogen are converted to ammonia. The outlet gas from the ammonia
converter is cooled from 220oC to 30oC. This cooling process condenses more the half
the ammonia, which is then separated out. The remaining gas is mixed with more
cooled, compressed incoming gas. The reaction occurring in the ammonia converter is:

N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

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The ammonia is rapidly decompressed to 24 barg. At this pressure, impurities such
as methane and hydrogen become gases. The gas mixture above the liquid ammonia
(which also contains significant levels of ammonia) is removed and sent to the ammonia
recovery unit. This is an absorber-stripper system using water as solvent.

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The remaining gas (purge gas) is used as fuel for the heating of the primary reformer.
The pure ammonia remaining is mixed with the pure ammonia from the initial
condensation above and is ready for use in urea production, for storage.

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UREA SECTION
GENERAL
Urea [CO (NH2)2], also known as carbamide or carbonyl diamide, is marketed as a
solution or in solid form. Most urea solution produced is used in fertilizer mixtures, with
a small amount going to animal feed supplements. Most solids are produced as prills or
granules, for use as fertilizer or protein supplement in animal feed, and in plastics
manufacturing. Five U. S. plants produce solid urea in crystalline form. About 7.3
million mega grams (Mg) (8 million tons) of urea were produced in the U. S.in 1991.
About 85 percent was used in fertilizers (both solid and solution forms), 3 percent in
animal feed supplements, and the remaining 12 percent in plastics and other uses.
PROCESS DESCRIPTION
The process for manufacturing urea involves a combination of up to 7 major unit
operations.
These operations, illustrated by the flow diagram in Figure 8.2-1, are solution synthesis,
solution concentration, solids formation, solids cooling, solids screening, solids coating
and bagging, and/or bulk shipping.
In the solution synthesis operation, ammonia (NH3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are
reacted to form ammonium carbamate (NH2CO2NH4).
Typical operating conditions include temperatures from 180 to200°C (356 to 392°F),
pressures from 140 to 250 atmospheres (14,185 to 25,331 kilopascals) NH3:CO2 molar
ratios from 3:1 to 4:1, and a retention time of 20 to 30 minutes. The carbamate is then
dehydrated to yield 70 to 77 percent aqueous urea solution. These reactions are as
follows:

The urea solution can be used as an ingredient of nitrogen solution fertilizers, or it can
be concentrated further to produce solid urea.
The 3 methods of concentrating the urea solution are vacuum concentration,
crystallization, and atmospheric evaporation. The method chosen depends upon the
level of biuret (NH2CONHCONH2) impurity allowable in the end product. Aqueous urea
solution begins to decompose at 60°C (140°F) to biuret and ammonia. The most
common method of solution concentration is evaporation.

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The concentration process furnishes urea "melt" for solids formation. Urea solids are
produced from the urea melt by 2 basic methods: prilling and granulation. Prilling is a
process by which solid particles are produced from molten urea. Molten urea is sprayed
from the top of a prill tower. As the droplets fall through a countercurrent air flow, they
cool and solidify into nearly spherical particles.

There are 2 types of prill towers: fluidized bed and non fluidized bed. The major
difference is that a separate solid cooling operation may be required to produce
agricultural grade prills in a non fluidized bed prill tower.
The solids screening operation removes off size product from solid urea. The off size
material may be returned to the process in the solid phase or be redissolved in water
and returned to the solution concentration process.
Clay coatings are used in the urea industry to reduce product caking and urea dust
formation.

The coating also reduces the nitrogen content of the product. The use of clay coating
has diminished considerably, being replaced by injection of formaldehyde additives into
the liquid or molten urea before solids formation. Formaldehyde reacts with urea to
from methylenediurea, which is the conditioning agent. Additives reduce solids caking
during storage and urea dust formation during transport and handling.

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SYNTHESIS
ACES21® process synthesis section consists of a reactor, a stripper and a carbamate condenser.
Liquid ammonia is fed to the reactor via the HP Carbamate Ejector which provides the driving
force for circulation in the synthesis loop instead of the gravity system of the original ACES. The
reactor is operated at an N/C ratio of 3.7, 182 °C and 152 bar.

The CO2 conversion to urea is as high as 63%


at the exit of the reactor. Urea synthesis
solution leaving the reactor is fed to the
stripper where unconverted carbamate is
thermally decomposed and excess ammonia
and CO2 are efficiently separated by CO2
stripping. The stripped off gas from the
stripper is fed to the Vertical Submerged
Carbamate Condenser (VSCC), operated at an
N/C ratio of 3.0,180°C and 152 bar.

Ammonia and CO2 gas condense to form


ammonium carbamate and subsequently urea
is formed by dehydration of the carbamate in
the shell side. Reaction heat of carbamate
formation is recovered to generate 5 bar steam
in the tube side. A packed bed is provided at
the top of the VSCC to absorb uncondensed
ammonia and CO2 gas into a recycle
carbamate solution from the MP absorption
stage. Inert gas from the top of the packed bed
is sent to the MP absorption stage.

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UTILITIES SECTION

General introduction of Utilities plants

WATER INTAKE FACILITY


For the supply o f raw water, PAFL has its own water pumping station near Indus River
(Banian Tree site/area.). The Raw water coming from Banian Tree area is used for the fo llowing
purposes:
 Make up water for Cooling Tower (old +new).
 Potable water at Plants.
 Potable water at PAFL Housing colony.
 Water Treatment plant to produce DM water.
 As cooling water during emergencies.
 As fire water.
Water intake facility comprises on the following:

TUBE WELLS

06 tube wells are in operative condition, designed capacity of these tube wells is 3.0
cusec but due to continuous operation, capacity of old pumps (installed in 1997and before)
has dropped to 2.0 ~ 2.5 Cusec.

1. No of Tube Wells in operative condition, installed before 1997 01


2. No of Tube Wells in operative condition, installed in 1997 03
3. No of Tube Wells in operative condition, installed in 2004 02
(for these two tube wells, new bores were drilled,

one new pump and one old pump were installed)

PIPE LINE

1. 24” ø and 3948 meters length Pipe Line from Banian Tree to PAFL plants.
12” ~ 08 ø and 1500 meters length Pipe Line from PAFL plants to Housing Colony.

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RAW WATER ANALYSIS

pH 7.5-7.6
M. Alkalinity 120-130 ppm CaCO3
Calcium 112-125 ppm CaCO3
Magnesium 40-50
Total hardness 160-170
Chloride 10-17 ppm
Sulphate 40-50
Silica 12-16
Water Treatment plant

For the production of de-mineralized water, required for steam generation PAFL has
a water treatment plant of El-Car Company of Italy having 85-tons/hr capacity. This plant
comprises on three sand filters and two Ion Exchange Lines, each line comprising on
Cationic exchangers, de-gasifier, Anionic exchangers, mixed bed and Auxiliaries for the
regeneration of these Ion exchangers.

Operating hours of each line/train are:


Cation exchanger/Anion Exchanger = 1020 m3
Mixed Bed = 168 hrs

Following resins are being used at Water treatment Plant


i. Strong Cation resin (for Mixed bed exchanger) Amber jet 1200 Na
ii. Strong Anion resin (for Mixed bed exchanger) Amber jet 4200 Cl
iii. Weak Acid Cation resin (for Cationic exchanger) D 113/ Dulite C 433
iv. Strong Acid Cation resin (for Cationic exchanger) Amber jet 1200 Na
v. Strong base Anion resin (for Anionic exchanger) Amber jet 4200 Na
For the regeneration of Cationic resins 98% H2SO4 is used and for the regeneration of
Anionic resins 50% NaOH is used.

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Steam Generation
PAFL has the following steam generation facilities.
Boiler # 1
Boiler No. 1 is manufactured by Babcocks and Wilcox Company of U. S. A and was installed in
1954. Initially it was designed for coal firing, but in 1972 its firing method was modified and
changed from coal burning to Natural gas burning. Its steam generation capacity is 155000 Ibs/hr
and is used for supplying steam for power generation and to Phase-II for plant operation.

Manufacturer = Babcocks & wilcox Boilers


Type = Water tube
Capacity = 155000 Ib/hr
Steam pressure = 775 Psi (g)
Heating surface = 13948 sq. ft.
Fuel = Natural gas (modified) coal (design)
No. of Burner = 04
Boiler water holding capacity = 96,400 Ibs
(at normal level)
Furnace draft = Balance draft
Heat recovery system = Tubular type air pre-heater
Temperature control system = Attemprator, surface contact type.

Boiler # 3
The Mitsui Boiler is fitted with combination firing steam using oil and gas as fuel.
Burners firing is automatic and equipped with safety tripping devices.
The unit is equipped with wind box housing adjustable blade type air regulator for
producing the necessary turbulence, air movement, provided with manual control device,
inspection and ignition doors, stainless steel damper impeller, explosion door etc.
For fuel oil firing, complete line starting from Furnace oil receiving station to all burners.

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Each burners is provided with manual shut off and electro-preumatic shut off valve connected to
flame protection devices. Steam consumption for Furnace oil atomization is not more than 1.1%
of Boiler minimum production.
Turn down ration of the Boiler is not less than 4 to 1

Manufacturer Mitsui Engineering Corporation, Japan

Evaporation Capacity at peak 90,000 Kg/hr


at MCR 85, 000 Kg/hr
Design pressures 60 Kg/cm2 G.
Steam pressure at super heater outlet 50 Kg/cm2 G.
Steam temperature at super heater outlet 450 + 5 oC
Feed water temperature drum inlet 165 oC
Draft system forced draft
Firing system oil & gas
Fuel natural gas
Furnace oil
Heat recovery system gas air heater

Package Boiler
Manufacturer HMC, Pakistan

Evaporation Capacity 30000 Kg/hr


Design pressures 45 Kg/cm2 G.
Steam temperature at super heater outlet 395 + 5 oC
Air temperature at FDF inlet 25 oC
Draft system forced draft
Fuel natural gas
Heat recovery system Economizer

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Power Generation
The powers station is for the supply of electric power, heating steam and
condensed water to the factory. For this purpose two set of turbo generator set of A. E. G
Company are provided. The power production capacity of each unit is 11.5 MW. Normally one
unit remains in operation and other remains stop.

Main equipment involved

Power generation units consist on the following main equipment.


1) Main Turbine
2) Generator
3) Condensate & its auxiliaries
4) Deareator

Turbine

It is multi stage, condensing, extraction and compound type Turbine, used as prime mover for
three-phase synchronous generator. Turbine has total eleven (11) stages out of which first stage
is impulse type and rest of the stages are of reaction type.
For Power generation two Turbo generator set having 11.5 MW/each generation capacity
available these generator were installed in 1954 and since these are in operation.

Turbine ratings

Out put (Rated) = 11.5 MW


Steam pressure (Max.) = 770 psig (54 atg)
(Nor.) = 642 psig (45 atg)
STEAM TEMPERATURE (MAX.) = 850 OF (455 OC)

(Nor.) = 830 OF (443 OC)


Critical speed (rang) = 1290 to 2310 rpm
Normal speed = 3000 rpm

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Generator Rating

Rated output = 15,000 kVA or 12,000 kV at 0.8 P. F


Rated voltage = 6300V
Rated Current = 1375 A
Frequency = 50 c/s
Speed = 3000 rev/ min
Power factor = 0.8

Cooling Tower section


Cooling Tower section is to supply cooling water to the Urea, Ammonia and Utilities
plants required for the cooling of different equipments and process streams.

For this purpose this section is equipped with 6 Nos. cooling fans. 3 Nos. cooling water
pumps, one motor driven cooling water pumps, 3 Nos. condensing Turbines for cooling water
pumps, surface condenser, cooling water chemical treatment unit and 2 Nos. side stream filters
for the filtration of cooling water.

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Polisher unit
This unit is for supply Polished water to Ammonia plant required for steam generation for
this purpose 2 Nos. of Polishers are provided having 75 m3/hr capacity each.

Instrument air/ Plant air section


For the supply of plant air and Instrument air, a air compressor IGB 3601 A having
capacity of 3520 Nm3/hr is provided along with the provision of air supply from Ammonia plant
air compressor 101 J.
To meet power failure emergency air compressor IGB 3601 B and air reservoir IFA 3601
is also provided.
For Instrument air two set of air dryers are provided.
Inert gas generation unit
To supply low pressure and high pressure Nitrogen gas to Ammonia, Urea and Utilities
plants, Nitrogen generation unit of AG Linde Germany having generation capacity 450 Nm3/hr
(Max) is provided. This unit comprises on air compressor, 2 Nos. pressure swing adsorption
tower, deoxidation unit and Nitrogen dryer.

For supply of high pressure Nitrogen a booster compressor IGB 3702 and an emergency
N2 reservoir is provided.

Emergency Diesel engine generator


To provide electricity power required at different sections of plants during power failure
a Diesel oil engine driven generator having generation power of 1250 KW is provided.

Natural gas receiving section


Natural gas received from SNGPL is fed to know out drum and then to dust filters from
where it is supplied to Ammonia plant.

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Furnace oil/ Diesel oil section
PAFL has Furnace oil/ Diesel oil storage and piping facility. Furnace oil is used as fuel at
Boiler # 3 during emergency and Diesel oil is used at emergency Diesel engines.

Fire Water unit


Firewater pumping unit comprises of four pumps. Two are Diesel engine driven and two
are motor driven. The purpose of this unit is to supply “Firewater” to the firewater circuit and
keep pressurizing it with small jockey pump

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ANALYTICAL & QUALITY CONTROL LABORATORIES.
Analysis Report Of Effluents.
Dated : 01/07/09
NH3 Zinc Cr- B.O.D Suspended
Date Time pH 40.00 Urea 10.00 5.0 1.0 80.00 Matter
6-9 ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm 150 ppm
01/06/09 0845 8.2 28.86 5.6 0.39 Nil 30.6 128
1700 8.3 35.4 6.8 --- --- --- ---
2300 8.4 38.8 7.6 --- --- --- ---
02/06/09 0730 8.3 35.8 6.4 0.42 Nil 30.8 136
1700 8.4 36.8 8 --- --- --- ---
2245 8.2 31.2 5.2 --- --- --- ---
03/06/09 0800 8.3 33.6 6 0.36 Nil 31.4 126
1530 8.4 34.5 5.6 --- --- --- ---
2315 8.3 31.2 5.8 --- --- --- ---
04/06/09 0715 8.3 32.9 6.2 0.38 Nil 31.7 130
1700 8.4 38.8 7.6 --- --- --- ---
0015 8.2 27.3 6 --- --- --- ---
05/06/09 0745 8.3 34.1 6.4 0.32 Nil 32 126
1515 8.2 29.6 5.9 --- --- --- ---
2345 8.4 36.6 6.6 --- --- --- ---
06/06/09 0745 8.3 34.7 6.3 0.35 Nil 32.8 130
1700 8.3 35.28 6.4 --- --- --- ---
2245 8.5 39.9 7.8 --- --- --- ---
07/06/09 0745 8.5 37.96 7.4 0.37 Nil 32.8 128
1800 9.9 1200 2000 --- --- --- ---
2330 9.2 400 200 --- --- --- ---
08/06/09 0800 8 225 933.0 0.27 Nil 31.4 126
1600 8.8 88.2 22.7 --- --- --- ---
0030 8.5 48.92 16 --- --- --- ---
09/06/09 0845 8.4 38.8 9.4 0.37 Nil 31.5 140
1600 8.2 31.6 6.7 --- --- --- ---
0015 8.3 33.84 6.2 --- --- --- ---
10/06/09 0900 8.4 36.86 7.6 0.32 Nil 33 128
1600 8.4 35.6 7.2 --- --- --- ---
2300 8.4 34.8 7 --- --- --- ---
11/06/09 0830 8.3 32.7 6.8 0.34 Nil 32.4 136
1615 8.2 30.9 5.9 --- --- --- ---
2315 8.4 35.1 6.3 --- --- --- ---
12/06/09 0900 8.3 34.6 7.2 0.35 Nil 33.1 128
1730 8.2 32.9 6 --- --- --- ---

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2300 8.2 30.4 5.5 --- --- --- ---
13/06/09 0930 8.4 36.8 7.2 0.29 Nil 32.8 120
1700 8.3 34.2 5.6 --- --- --- ---
0000 8.5 39.8 7.6 --- --- --- ---
14/06/09 0830 8.3 31.96 5.2 0.33 Nil --- 128
1600 8.3 33.6 5 --- --- --- ---
0030 8.4 38.4 7.9 --- --- --- ---
15/06/09 0800 8.3 34.5 6.5 0.3 Nil 33 125
1800 8.2 28.4 5.2 --- --- --- ---
2330 8.3 31.9 5.8 --- --- --- ---
16/06/09 0900 8.5 38.9 8.8 0.35 Nil 33.2 138
1700 8.2 28.6 5.6 --- --- --- ---
0015 8.4 34.8 7.2 --- --- --- ---
17/06/09 0815 8.3 35.6 6.2 0.31 Nil 33.2 144
1710 8.2 26.44 4.8 --- --- --- ---
0030 8.3 30.8 6.7 --- --- --- ---
18/06/09 0800 8.3 31.4 6.2 0.37 Nil 33.8 128
1500 8.4 35.4 7 --- --- --- ---
0030 8.3 32.6 6.8 --- --- --- ---
19/06/09 0800 8.4 35.8 7.4 0.38 Nil 32.6 134
1530 8.4 36.7 7.1 --- --- --- ---
0015 8.3 32.8 6.4 --- --- --- ---
20/06/09 0745 8.2 26.84 5.2 0.33 Nil 32.8 128
1545 8.4 39.4 7.2 --- --- --- ---
0030 8.2 32.6 6.4 --- --- --- ---
21/06/09 0800 8.3 30.42 5 0.39 Nil --- 132
1630 8.4 34.7 7.2 --- --- --- ---
2300 8.4 36.6 7 --- --- --- ---
22/06/09 0830 8.2 27.34 4.9 0.33 Nil 33.1 122
1600 8.3 31.9 5.6 --- --- --- ---
2245 8.5 37.9 7.9 --- --- --- ---
23/06/09 0900 8.3 30.92 5.2 0.39 Nil 32.8 130
1500 8.3 32.6 5.9 --- --- --- ---
2245 8.4 35.2 6.2 --- --- --- ---
24/06/09 0830 8.3 31.6 5.8 0.39 Nil 32.4 136
1630 8.4 34.7 6.4 --- --- --- ---
2245 8.3 32.9 5.6 --- --- --- ---
25/06/09 0830 8.3 30.4 4.8 0.33 Nil 33 134
1630 8.4 36.8 8.2 --- --- --- ---
2330 8.4 37.6 7.8 --- --- --- ---
26/06/09 0915 8.5 39.8 8.2 0.39 Nil 32.7 148
1640 8.4 34.8 7.2 --- --- --- ---

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2300 8.4 35.3 7.6 --- --- --- ---
27/06/09 0915 8.3 36.4 6.7 0.32 Nil 32.9 136
1530 8.4 37.9 7.9 --- --- --- ---
2300 8.5 38.8 8 --- --- --- ---
28/06/09 0815 8.4 33.9 7.6 0.36 Nil --- 128
1700 8.4 34.6 7.2 --- --- --- ---
0015 8.2 27.22 4.8 --- --- --- ---
29/06/09 0715 8.3 31.9 5.9 0.4 Nil 33.2 134
1700 8.4 36.9 7.84 --- --- --- ---
0030 8.2 28.46 5 --- --- --- ---
30/06/09 0715 8.3 33.6 6.9 0.36 Nil 33.24 130
1615 8.4 37.2 7.6 --- --- --- ---
2345 8.3 32.16 5.6 --- --- --- ---
Avg. 8.4 53.9 41.4 0.35 Nil 32.53 131.23

Exhaust and Noise


Annex -III
Avg. Results for
Sr.
Parmaeters NEQ Standards the month of June
No
2009
40 % or 2 on the Ringleman Scale during engine acceleration
1 Smoke mode. N.A

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