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Aerodynamics 1

AE 302
Department of Aeronautical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
University of Tripoli
March 2014

Aerodynamics
Ludwing Prandtl, 1949 defined aerodynamics as The term
aerodynamics is generally used for problems arising from flight and
other topics involving the flow of air.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English, 1969 defined
aerodynamics as the dynamics of gases, especially atmospheric
interaction with moving objects.

Fluid Dynamics is subdivided into three areas as follows:


Hydrodynamics : Flow of liquids
Gas Dynamics : Flow of gases
Aerodynamics : Flow of air
In those three areas there are many similarities and identical
phenomena between them.

Applications:

External aerodynamics: Deals with external flow over a body.


Internal Aerodynamics: Deals with flows internally within ducts.

In addition to forces, moments and aerodynamics heating


associated with a body, we are frequently interested in the
details of flow field away from the body.

Progression of airplanes over the 70 years


Douglas DC-3: One of most famous aircraft of all time, is low speed
subsonic transport designed during 1930s. Without a knowledge of
low speed aerodynamics, this aircraft would have never existed.
The Being 707: Opened high-speed flight to millions of passengers
beginning in the late 1950s. Without a knowledge of high speed
subsonic aerodynamics, most of us would still be relegated to ground
transportation.
The Bell X-1 became the first piloted airplane to fly faster than sound,
1947. Without a knowledge of transonic aerodynamics, neither the X1, nor any other airplane, would have ever broken sound barrier.

 The Lockheed F-104 was the first supersonic airplane designed to fly
at twice the speed of sound, accomplished in the 1950s.
The Lockheed-Martin F-22 is a modern fighter aircraft designed for
sustained supersonic flight. Without a knowledge of supersonic
aerodynamics, these supersonic airplanes would not exist.
Finally, an example of an innovation new vehicle concept for high
speed subsonic flight in the blended wing body. Blended wing body
promises to carry from 400 to 800 passengers over long distance with
almost 30% percent less fuel per seat mie than a conventional jet
transport.

This course
The goal of this course is to introduce the fundamental of
aerodynamics and to give the student a much deeper insight to
technical applications.

Aerodynamics Forces and Moments


Aerodynamics Forces and Moments on the Body are only due to:
1. Pressure distribution
2. Shear Stress distribution

R : Resultant aerodynamics forces


M: Resultant aerodynamic moments

Where
R: Resultant aerodynamic force on the body.
L: Lift = Component of R perpendicular to V.
D: Drag = Component of R parallel to V.
N: Normal Forces = Component of R perpendicular to c.
A: Axial Force = Component of R parallel to c.
: Angle of attack = Angle between V and c.

How do we compute the aerodynamic forces and moments

Stress on Airfoil

N- Total normal force per unit span


A- Total axial force per unit span

On the upper surface


d =  
  
d =    +  

On the lower surface


d  =  
  
d  =    +  

( +ive cw from vertical line to


the direction of p and Horizontal
line to direction of )



 = 





 = 






+     + 




 sin +  cos   + 




   
 sin +  cos  

Substitute N and A into


 = 
  
  + 

 =  
To compute the lift and drag per unit span for a body with arbitrary shape

Aerodynamic Moments

Positive moment (Pitch up)

Negative moment (Pitch down)

Moment per unit span about the leading edge


d! = 
+   "  +   + 
# 
d!  = 
+   "  +   + 
# 

 Integrating from the LE to the TE we get




! = 





+




+   "   
#  


+   " +   + 
#  

Where , x and y are known functions of s for a given body shape. pu,
pl, u, and l are also functions of s from theory or experiment.
Hence L, D and M can be computed.

Dynamic Pressure: $% '()*+*(, Lift Coefficient: , .*- /,

1
3
Drag Coefficient: ,0 .*
and
Normal
force
Coefficient:
,

.
2
/
.* /

5
7
Axial Force Coefficient: ,4 .*
,
and
Moment
Coefficient:
,

.
6
/
.* /8

Where S is reference area and l is reference length.


Example: S - planform area of the wing
- d2/4 for cylinder

l - chord c for a wing /airfoil


- diameter for a cylinder
 For 2D bodies, the forces and moments are per unit span, hence
,

, .*
,
:

1
,; .*
:

and

,6 . 7<(
*

The Momentum Equation


The momentum equation is given by
=
@ ;B )+
@ .; +
@ FG H;B )I ;BJKLMN<O
)+

=>

Control Volume: abcdefghia

Surface forces on the control volume


1. Due to Pressure distribution over abhi or -PQRS 
Also important are:
*
Pressure Coefficient: ,T UVU
.*
and Skin Frication Coefficient: ,I .W*

The equations for the force and moment coefficient in integral for are
X = YZ [`<

;_
;_
<
ZU,8 GZU,\ ;]B[` Z^,\ ;]\ BZ^,8 ;]8 ;]

P = YZ [`<

;_
;_
<
ZU,\ ;]\ GZU,8 ;]8 ;]B[` Z^,\ BZ^,8 ;]

6, = ZY( [`<

;_
;_
;_
;_
<
<
<
ZU,\ GZU,8 ];]B[` Z^,\ \ BZ^,8 8 ];]B[` ZU,\ \ BZ^,\ _\ ;]B[` GZU,8 8 BZ^,8 _8;]
;]
;]
;]
;]

Where dx= ds cos and dy= -ds sin.


2. The surface, forces on def due to the presence of the airfoil:
Shear stresses on ab and hi are neglected.
Since cd and fg are next to each other all force on one is cancelled by
forces on the other.

Flow gives rise to p and or


the resultant force R.

Equal or Opposite reaction;


Body exerts surface force
on the CV def.

Then total surface force on the control volume abcdefghia is


Surface force= -PQRS  b

Flow exerts p and leading


to a resultant force R

Body exerts equal and opposite


reaction R on the control Volume

Hence total surface force on the control volume is -PQRS  b

 From the integral momentum equation we have


h
j cdK + f cdK.  dK = f e b
hi

PQRS

Assume steady flow, then

b =  cdK .  dK PQRS e

Taking the x-component of the above eqn.


 = f cdK .  gK f e


PQRS

Where D is the aerodynamic drag per unit span, which is the x-comp. of R.

 Since p is constant along abhi then


Hence
 = f


e

=0

PQRS

cdK .  gK

Where ds is perpendicular to CS evaluated over the closed surface of


the CV.
The section ab, hi and def are streamlines. Hence dK  = 0 along these.
 cd and fg are very close to each other, hence their net contribution is
zero.

 The only contribution to the above integral is from ai and bh. Hence
 = f cdK .  gK =


+  cY gYl #
S

cdK .  = 0

From the continuity equation 

 cl gll #

(*)

Applying this equation to CV leads to


P

 cY gY # +  cl gl # = 0
S

or

 cY gYl # +  cl gY gl # = 0
S

 =  cl gY gl #  cl gll # = 0
R

substitute in (*)

or,  = [R cl gl gY gl #

Flow is incompressible, 2D, steady, find Drag.


At the upstream end dK = m% n
 At the down stream end:

For 0 # q dK = st*_ u + v w
For H # 2q dK = z* u + v{ w
For q # 0 dK = st*_ u v w
For 2H # q dK = z* u v{ w

Where v and v0 are not measured

 = c  gl gY gl #

only the x-comp.

(
~
}
|
0
;_B

F


G

G
;_B


G
;_B
[
[
[
[
(
(
( ( '
~ ( '
} ( ' G( ;_
) ' ( ' (
`

as u1=u2


_
_
_
_
=  m% 
m% + m% 
# +  m% 
m% m% 
#
c
G

 =

(
)z*
,
;
,

='

0

(Z
)z*
(

,; =

( {.{lZ
)z*
'
(Z
)z*
(

= 0.01667

Pressure Coefficient
*
Pressure Coefficient: ,T UVU
.*

From Bernoullis equation (incompressible flow):


% +'()+*( FTB'()+ ( or  % = '()
UVU*
.*

'
)
(

( G+ (
+*

' (
(*

or ,T =

( G+ (
+*

UVU*
(
FYG
.*
*

Condition on V for incompressible flows


From the continuity equation:

=) @ @
B .)+
=>

=0

Continuity Equation for incompressible Flow:

@ .)+
@

=0