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Table of Contents

Abstract ...................................................................................................... 2

Introduction ............................................................................................... 3

Discussion............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

Errors Faced And their effects ............... Error! Bookmark not defined.

Conclusion ................................................................................................. 9

Recommendation ..................................................................................... 13

References ............................................................................................... 14

Appendix ................................................................................................. 15

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Abstract
We conducted the tensile test experiment to get the force elongation data and diagrams
for the tested materials (like TH 4015 of 0.1% carbon steel). The diagram would include the
stress-strain graph. The main aim of performing this experiment is to get the elasticity E, yield
strength, ductility, modulus of toughness and ultimate strength. Finally, describe the specimen
profile at each step in the test for the material.

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Introduction
As we mentioned before, the aim of this experiment is to find the material properties of
the selected specimen. How we are going to do that is by finding the stress- strain curves of the
specimen. To find out stress and strain we are going to apply a certain force on the specimen and
find out the corresponding deflection in the specimen.
So let us start by defining some important terms and concepts that we will face in this lab
report.
Stress is the force applied on a specified area. Its unit is same as Pressure Pascal. There
are two types of stress compressive and tensile stress.

Strain is the ratio of the change in length over the original length. It is a unit less
property.

Youngs Modulus of Elasticity is the ratio of stress over strain before the limit of
proportionality. It is discovered by a scientist named Thomas Young. It is called as the stiffness
of a material the bigger the Modulus value, the more the stiffness.

Limit of Proportionality is the limit till which point the Hookes Law is valid. Before
that point stress is directly proportional to stress.
Elastic Limit is the limit after which a material experiences plastic deformation. The
material will not return to the original length.
Ultimate Tensile Strength is the point where the maximum stress is applied. At this
point the slope of the stress strain curve is zero and necking starts to occur.
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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Breaking Point/ Fracture - The point where the specimen breaks/ fractures.
Necking The point at which even reduced loading can lead to increased extension.
Ductility It is the ability of a material to withstand plastic deformation without
breaking. It can be found by using any one of the two equations below.

Resilience Area under the curve till the elastic limit.


Toughness Total area under the curve.

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Apparatus
1)

Tensile Testing Machine The


most important apparatus in this
lab is the tensile testing machine.
Using this machine we can apply
tensile force on the specimen and
find out the corresponding
extension. We can connect the
machine to laptop to record the
measurements of force applied
and the corresponding extension.

Figure 1 - Tensile Testing Machine


2)

Specimen The specimen used


in this experiment is 0.1 %
Carbon Steel (TH 4015).

Figure 2 - 0.1 Percent Carbon Steel Specimen


3)

Vernier Caliper To measure


the thickness/ diameter and the
gauge length of the specimen.

Figure 3- Vernier Caliper

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

4)

Laptop A laptop is connected


to the testing machine to collect
all the measurements and give us
the readings.

Figure 4- Laptop

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Test Procedures
1) Measure the original length of the gauge.

2) Calculate the cross sectional area of the specimen by finding its diameter using Vernier
Caliper.
3) Put the specimen between the two chucks of the testing machine and fix it.

4) Start the software program to record the results.


5) Increase the tension force slowly at a constant rate until the breaking point occurs. And
then report the changes in the specimen profile during testing.
6) Use the software program to draw the diagram that will show the relationship between
the force and extension.
7) Take out the tested specimen and examine its fracture surface pattern.
8) Lastly, measure the final cross section area and the gauge length.

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Results
Since the number of values measured is too much, we are not attaching the data file here.
But we will attach the graph here.

Stress Vs. Strain Curve

500
450
400
350

Stress (MPa)

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Strain

Nominal Stress,

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Problems Faced
The original graph of the readings that we are given has some problems with it. That is why we
had to edit the graph. Here are some problems we faced with the previous graph and the changes
we made to it.
1)

Extensions due to ZERO stress.


The first few readings in the
original graph shows an
enormous extension with
ZERO stress. Using logic, we
know that this is
IMPOSSIBLE. Thus we have
removed the first few values
and have taken the first
extension point only when the
stress is applied.

2)

Wrong values of total length


used to find the values of strain.
We found that the formula used
to find the values of strain had
the wrong values of total length.
It should be 83 mm instead of
173 mm. This gave us wrong
strain values.

ZERO
STRESS

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Data Analysis
2) a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Discussion
This experiment was intended to find the tensile strength of different material. To
conduct this experiment, we used Universal Testing Machine; the machine was set in a way that
we can pull the specimen from each side and the force applied can be calculated. The elongation
of the specimen was measured by extensometer attached to the upper side of the specimen. The
process was continued until the specimen ruptured.
The values of force applied at different times and the respective extension was noted.
With these tabulated values, we calculated the corresponding values of stress and strain by
computing values in the above mentioned formulae. After getting values of stress and strain, we
plot the graph of stress against strain. With the help of the graph, we will find and predict the
properties of the material. From the graph, we predicted the proportionality limit, toughness,
ultimate strength, and the ductility of the specimen material.
With respect to the results we got,

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Conclusion
In this experiment, we find out the ability of the specimen under a force i.e. how much it
can bear the force. This test reflects the kind of material whether it is good for the different
applications. The very first step that was taken was to measure the length of the specimen and
calculate its area. By using the tensile-testing machine tensile force was applied on the specimen
until it breaks. Later, finding the stress, strain and the change in length that occurred after the test
has been performed. Lastly, the software program produces the graph showing relationship
between the force and the extension.
However, there were several factors that may have affected the results. Temperature can
be one of the factors as due to change in temperature it may cause expansion and contraction.
Thus, the dimensions may vary, and it can give us false results. The following picture below
shows the break of the specimen. As it is clear from it that the breaking point didnt occur from
the middle. That is the machine used applied the tensile force from once side. Whereas, the
correct elongation require the tensile strength on both sides of the specimen.

Recommendation
[how to remove the errors]

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

References

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Appendix
Formalus and one example of finding the solution

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab