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Original Title: Mech of Materials - Lab 1

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You are on page 1of 15

Abstract ...................................................................................................... 2

Introduction ............................................................................................... 3

Errors Faced And their effects ............... Error! Bookmark not defined.

Conclusion ................................................................................................. 9

Recommendation ..................................................................................... 13

References ............................................................................................... 14

Appendix ................................................................................................. 15

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Abstract

We conducted the tensile test experiment to get the force elongation data and diagrams

for the tested materials (like TH 4015 of 0.1% carbon steel). The diagram would include the

stress-strain graph. The main aim of performing this experiment is to get the elasticity E, yield

strength, ductility, modulus of toughness and ultimate strength. Finally, describe the specimen

profile at each step in the test for the material.

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Introduction

As we mentioned before, the aim of this experiment is to find the material properties of

the selected specimen. How we are going to do that is by finding the stress- strain curves of the

specimen. To find out stress and strain we are going to apply a certain force on the specimen and

find out the corresponding deflection in the specimen.

So let us start by defining some important terms and concepts that we will face in this lab

report.

Stress is the force applied on a specified area. Its unit is same as Pressure Pascal. There

are two types of stress compressive and tensile stress.

Strain is the ratio of the change in length over the original length. It is a unit less

property.

Youngs Modulus of Elasticity is the ratio of stress over strain before the limit of

proportionality. It is discovered by a scientist named Thomas Young. It is called as the stiffness

of a material the bigger the Modulus value, the more the stiffness.

Limit of Proportionality is the limit till which point the Hookes Law is valid. Before

that point stress is directly proportional to stress.

Elastic Limit is the limit after which a material experiences plastic deformation. The

material will not return to the original length.

Ultimate Tensile Strength is the point where the maximum stress is applied. At this

point the slope of the stress strain curve is zero and necking starts to occur.

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Breaking Point/ Fracture - The point where the specimen breaks/ fractures.

Necking The point at which even reduced loading can lead to increased extension.

Ductility It is the ability of a material to withstand plastic deformation without

breaking. It can be found by using any one of the two equations below.

Toughness Total area under the curve.

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Apparatus

1)

most important apparatus in this

lab is the tensile testing machine.

Using this machine we can apply

tensile force on the specimen and

find out the corresponding

extension. We can connect the

machine to laptop to record the

measurements of force applied

and the corresponding extension.

2)

in this experiment is 0.1 %

Carbon Steel (TH 4015).

3)

the thickness/ diameter and the

gauge length of the specimen.

5

Mechanics Of Materials Lab

4)

to the testing machine to collect

all the measurements and give us

the readings.

Figure 4- Laptop

6

Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Test Procedures

1) Measure the original length of the gauge.

2) Calculate the cross sectional area of the specimen by finding its diameter using Vernier

Caliper.

3) Put the specimen between the two chucks of the testing machine and fix it.

5) Increase the tension force slowly at a constant rate until the breaking point occurs. And

then report the changes in the specimen profile during testing.

6) Use the software program to draw the diagram that will show the relationship between

the force and extension.

7) Take out the tested specimen and examine its fracture surface pattern.

8) Lastly, measure the final cross section area and the gauge length.

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Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Results

Since the number of values measured is too much, we are not attaching the data file here.

But we will attach the graph here.

500

450

400

350

Stress (MPa)

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

-0.05

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Strain

Nominal Stress,

8

Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Problems Faced

The original graph of the readings that we are given has some problems with it. That is why we

had to edit the graph. Here are some problems we faced with the previous graph and the changes

we made to it.

1)

The first few readings in the

original graph shows an

enormous extension with

ZERO stress. Using logic, we

know that this is

IMPOSSIBLE. Thus we have

removed the first few values

and have taken the first

extension point only when the

stress is applied.

2)

used to find the values of strain.

We found that the formula used

to find the values of strain had

the wrong values of total length.

It should be 83 mm instead of

173 mm. This gave us wrong

strain values.

ZERO

STRESS

9

Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Data Analysis

2) a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

10

Mechanics Of Materials Lab

11

Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Discussion

This experiment was intended to find the tensile strength of different material. To

conduct this experiment, we used Universal Testing Machine; the machine was set in a way that

we can pull the specimen from each side and the force applied can be calculated. The elongation

of the specimen was measured by extensometer attached to the upper side of the specimen. The

process was continued until the specimen ruptured.

The values of force applied at different times and the respective extension was noted.

With these tabulated values, we calculated the corresponding values of stress and strain by

computing values in the above mentioned formulae. After getting values of stress and strain, we

plot the graph of stress against strain. With the help of the graph, we will find and predict the

properties of the material. From the graph, we predicted the proportionality limit, toughness,

ultimate strength, and the ductility of the specimen material.

With respect to the results we got,

12

Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Conclusion

In this experiment, we find out the ability of the specimen under a force i.e. how much it

can bear the force. This test reflects the kind of material whether it is good for the different

applications. The very first step that was taken was to measure the length of the specimen and

calculate its area. By using the tensile-testing machine tensile force was applied on the specimen

until it breaks. Later, finding the stress, strain and the change in length that occurred after the test

has been performed. Lastly, the software program produces the graph showing relationship

between the force and the extension.

However, there were several factors that may have affected the results. Temperature can

be one of the factors as due to change in temperature it may cause expansion and contraction.

Thus, the dimensions may vary, and it can give us false results. The following picture below

shows the break of the specimen. As it is clear from it that the breaking point didnt occur from

the middle. That is the machine used applied the tensile force from once side. Whereas, the

correct elongation require the tensile strength on both sides of the specimen.

Recommendation

[how to remove the errors]

13

Mechanics Of Materials Lab

References

14

Mechanics Of Materials Lab

Appendix

Formalus and one example of finding the solution

15

Mechanics Of Materials Lab

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