110 views

Original Title: Five Steps of Hypothesis Testing

Uploaded by jervrgbp15

- 7z-testimp
- Sampling Distributions and One Sample Tests
- Using R to Simulate Permutation Distribution
- 2. Maths - Two Sample Statistical Hypothesis Test for Trapezoidal Fuzzy Interval Data
- z test
- 8
- 07 Learning About a Mean
- Chapter10 Stats
- Healy MJR -- Non-normal Data.
- AAI Dos Donts
- A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF PRIMARY & SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OF RAMPUR DISTRICT TOWARDS CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION
- Preparatory Exercise
- Is my research significant? Why you shouldn't rely on p values
- Generalised Test for C Matched Samples
- QNT 351 QNT351.pdf
- Excel for Statistical Data Analysis
- Explanation of Statistical Methods
- Testing Hypotheses
- Causal Links Between Trade Fd i and Eg
- TI-NSPIRE CX Graphing Calculator: Enhancing Students’ Performance in Mathematics Learning

You are on page 1of 3

The basic logic of hypothesis testing is to prove or disprove the research question. By

only allowing an error of 5% or 1% and making correct decisions based on statistical

principles, the researcher can conclude that the result must be real if chance alone could

produce the same result only 5% of the time or less. These five steps consists of all the

decisions a researcher needs to make in order to answer any research question using an

inferntial statistical test.

The first step is to state the research problem in terms of a question that identifies the

population(s) of interest to the researcher, the parameter(s) of the variable under

investigation, and the hypothesized value of the parameter(s). This step makes the

researcher not only define what is to be tested but what variable will be used in sample

data collection. The type of variable (or combination of variables as in relationship type

research questions) whether categorical, discrete or continuous further defines the

statistical test which can be performed on the collected data set.

For example:

Is the mean first salary of a newly graduated student equal to $30,000?

The population of interest is all students who have just graduated. The parameter of

interest is the mean and the variable salary is continuous. The hypothesized value of the

parameter, the mean, is $30,000. Since the parameter is a population mean of a

continuous variable variable, this suggests a one sample test of a mean.

The second step is to state the research question in terms of a null hypothesis (H0) and a

alternative hypothesis (HA). The null hypothesis is the population parameter, =

$30,000 (H0: = $30,000). The alternative hypothesis is the population parameter does

not equal $30,000 ( HA: NE $30,000). This HA suggests a two-tailed test as NE

$30,000 can be less than $30,000 or more than $30,000. Sometimes the alternative

hypothesis is stated in terms of a direction such as less than or greater than a value such at

$30,000. A directional HA calls for a one-tailed test, in the direction stated in the HA.

The next part of step 2 is to select a significance level (Type I error) typically alpha is

used at the .05 or the .01 level. A good researcher will also not neglect Type II error. In

this step we are not only setting up our research question in terms of statistical

hypotheses, but we must evaluate whether all the assumptions appropriate for the

statistical test have been met.

Example:

H0: = $30,000

HA: NE $30,000 alpha=.05

approximately >=30 and 2) the sample we have used to collect the data was drawn

randomly from the population. If these test assumptions have not been meet, then data

collection should be reevaluated or continued under caution.

The third step is to calculate a statistic analogous to the parameter specified by the null

hypothesis. If the null hypothesis is defined by the parameter , then the statistics

computed on our data set would be the mean (xbar) and the standard deviation (s). A

histogram of our sample data set gives us our best approximation of what we expect our

population distribution to look like.

Since the best estimate of is xbar, our sample mean, the test statistic is based on a

distribution of sample means, the sampling distribution of the mean, xbar, with n, sample

size, equal to the number of data values used to compute xbar. We have hypothesized

from the research question the mean of this distribution and want to see if our sample

mean is close to this value. To determine where our sample mean fits on this sampling

distribution, we convert our sample mean, xbar, to a z-score. Thus the test statistic would

be :

z = xbar- (hypothesized)

standard error of xbar

The standard error of xbar (point estimate) is s, the sample standard deviation, divided by

square root of n, the sample size since the population standard deviation is unknown.

Example:

Suppose we randomly sampled 100 high school seniors and determined their salary of

their first job. The sample mean salary, xbar, was $29,000 with a standard deviation of

$6,000. Since sample size is >30, we don't have to worry about whether the population is

normally distributed (Central Limit Theorem). The test statistic would be:

z = $29,000 - $30,000 = -$1,000 = -1.667

$6,000/sqrt(100)

$600

REGION.

The fourth step is to calculate the probability value (often called the p-value) which is the

probability of the test statistic for both tails since this this two-tailed test. The

probability value computed in this step is compared with the significance level selected in

step 2. If the probability is less than or equal to the significance level, then the null

hypothesis is rejected. If the probability is greater than the significance level then the

null hypothesis is not rejected. When the null hypothesis is rejected, the outcome is said

to be "statistically significant"; when the null hypothesis is not rejected then the outcome

is said be "not statistically significant." If the outcome is statistically significant, then the

null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis.

Example:

is .048+.048=.096

Since this value is greater than alpha=.05 selected when we set up out hypotheses, we

accept the null hypothesis, H0: = $30,000.

If we wish to use a rejection region of alpha=.05 (.025 in each tail) to determine if we

accept or reject the null hypothesis, the cut-off z-score would be -1.96 and 1.96. If our

test statistic is >=1.96 or <= -1.96, then we would reject the null hypothesis at alpha=.05.

We can say that our test statistic (transformed into a z-score) is in the rejection region. In

this example, our test statistic, z=-1.667 for our test statistic does not fall in the rejection

region (sometimes called the acceptance region), so we must accept the null hypothesis.

5. STATE CONCLUSIONS.

The fifth and final step is to describe the results and state correct statistical conclusions in

an understandable way. The conclusions consists of two statments-one describing the

results of the null hypothesis and the other describing the results of the alternative

hypothesis. The first statement should state as to whether we accepted or rejected the null

hypothesis and for what value of alpha or p-value for our test statistic. The second

statement should answer the research question proposed in step 1 stating the sample

statistic collected which estimated the parameter we hypothesized.

Example:

Accept the null hypothesis at alpha=.05 or p-value of .096. Based on a sample mean of

$25,000, the mean salary of a newly graduated student does not equal $30,000.

- 7z-testimpUploaded byPuNeet ShaRma
- Sampling Distributions and One Sample TestsUploaded byAnastasia
- Using R to Simulate Permutation DistributionUploaded byhackenberger
- 2. Maths - Two Sample Statistical Hypothesis Test for Trapezoidal Fuzzy Interval DataUploaded byiaset123
- z testUploaded bySaha Suprio
- 8Uploaded byAnusionwu Stanley Obinna
- 07 Learning About a MeanUploaded byJustinMalin
- Chapter10 StatsUploaded byPoonam Naidu
- Healy MJR -- Non-normal Data.Uploaded byAspirin A. Bayer
- AAI Dos DontsUploaded byPeng He
- A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF PRIMARY & SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OF RAMPUR DISTRICT TOWARDS CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATIONUploaded byAnonymous CwJeBCAXp
- Preparatory ExerciseUploaded bydavparan
- Is my research significant? Why you shouldn't rely on p valuesUploaded bySandi Mcintyre
- Generalised Test for C Matched SamplesUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- QNT 351 QNT351.pdfUploaded byAAAUOPCourse
- Excel for Statistical Data AnalysisUploaded byKetan Gajjar
- Explanation of Statistical MethodsUploaded byRoshini Kr- Dubey
- Testing HypothesesUploaded byM.Shahid Sharif
- Causal Links Between Trade Fd i and EgUploaded byRashedul Hasan Rashed
- TI-NSPIRE CX Graphing Calculator: Enhancing Students’ Performance in Mathematics LearningUploaded byAsia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research
- ps2SOL.pdfUploaded byqiucumber
- Gah 16001Uploaded byEdu
- Gravity ModelUploaded byYusriana Riana
- Ba5103-Statistics for ManagementUploaded bysuriya
- Henry II ForecastingUploaded byalirezashoja
- Dichev, A. and Tang, V. 2009. Earnings volatility and earnings predictability.Uploaded bynishisha
- All Notes Data InterpretationUploaded byJosh Kovoor
- BTM8106 Entire CourseUploaded byshehri
- parker karen assignment 2 researchUploaded byapi-430877565
- Statistics for Dummies Rachel EnriquezUploaded byAnne Rome

- AnthropometricsUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Baroque EraUploaded byjervrgbp15
- TelephoneUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Jeje MonUploaded byjervrgbp15
- TitleUploaded byjervrgbp15
- ClassicalUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Anthropometrics Measurements2.0Uploaded byjervrgbp15
- ArtUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Table of ContentsUploaded byjervrgbp15
- SONA_July 26, 2010Uploaded byPocholo Goitia
- no pagesUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Compiled WorkUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Ward 3c Telephone DirectoryUploaded byjervrgbp15
- add to my partUploaded byjervrgbp15
- EAFONSUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Learning Derived RoxUploaded byjervrgbp15
- - The Client and His CareUploaded byjervrgbp15
- 4 CKD - Client Based RationaleUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Acute Pain LeptoUploaded byjervrgbp15
- List of Problems IdentifiedUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Likert-tallying TableUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Table of Contents Thesis!Uploaded byjervrgbp15
- PATHO ErrataUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Creme BruleeUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Basic Tools RoxUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Summary of PaUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Chemotherapy DrugUploaded byjervrgbp15
- Family History. JpegUploaded byjervrgbp15
- FormatUploaded byjervrgbp15

- AS 244Uploaded byMemo Gonzalez Aleman
- Tesis_comportamiento Del Asentamiento en Presas de ConcretoUploaded bylizabethllanos12
- Haber Process for the Production of Ammonia 1Uploaded byNisha Sundar
- Calculus - Class 1 (Introduction to Limits)Uploaded byMike Graczyk
- 01B 参考文献 Sanchez 2016Uploaded by方琳 徐
- HDPE Pipe Thickness CalculationsUploaded bySantanu Karar
- ASh SeriesUploaded byAyman Saber
- 1C2Uploaded bys915
- How to Create Secondary Index on DSO in SAP BWUploaded byokrashid2001
- Astm d2320Uploaded byAmbar
- Demodulation AlgoritmsUploaded byPraveen Kumar Bodireddy
- Engineering Mathematics 4E MatreciesUploaded byأحمد كرار
- H-2007-0266Uploaded by100003
- Ch8-KanbanUploaded byAmit Kumar
- Frank Pti KatalogUploaded bysava88
- 10 Science Light Reflection and Refraction Impq 2Uploaded bySatyajit Kumura
- Akash Pisharody PaperUploaded byakash prabhakaran
- Electromagnetism IIUploaded byKatherine Heigl Madrigal
- Sap-Abap Class NotesUploaded byAdarsh
- cc48cf4c2309135b9592c158b48f7bb6Uploaded byainn
- AISI 1513 Carbon Steel Plate, AISI 1513 Sheet, AISI 1513 Flat Bar, AISI 1513 Round Bar,AISI 1513 SuppliersUploaded byCarmen Servigna
- docc1981Uploaded byswchen
- Tecnotion TM Series SpecsheetUploaded byElectromate
- Jsf-facelets Interview QuestionsUploaded bytowid
- TIME TRAVELUploaded byHima Sekhar
- Leroy Somer 910kva 5279f_enUploaded byEmraan Mughal
- CME 106 - CheatsheetUploaded byH Jerry
- 01-02-08-02 Prospekt Buchholzrelais ENGLISCHUploaded byrhap_0925060
- metaphorical expression lpUploaded byapi-316916452
- 61525589 Truck Spec Training BookletUploaded byMark Mach Allen