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mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan

brZolis saSualeba
angariSi da rekomendaciebi

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan


brZolis saSualeba
angariSi da rekomendaciebi

2013

kvleva Catarda da gamoica saTemo ganviTarebis centris, konsultaciisa da treningis centrisa da saqarTvelos mcire da saSualo sawarmoTa asociaciis erToblivi proeqtis `mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis instrumenti farglebSi, aRmosavleT-dasavleTis
marTvis institutis (EWMI) programis saqarTveloSi sajaro politikis, advokatirebisa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTareba (G-PAC)
mxardaWeriTa da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentos (USAID) dafinanNNsebiT.

kvlevis avtorebi: Tamar bregvaZe, beso sulaberiZe, tato xundaZe


proeqtis gundi: ana margvelaSvili, irina xanTaZe, kaxa koxreiZe,
nino odiSvili, nino sanadiraZe
kvlevis Catareba SesaZlebeli gaxda organizaciebis: qalTa fondi saqarTvelo, Care International, OXFAM, Mercy Corp, saqarTvelos skauturi moZraoba, fondi afxazinterkonti, World Vision, ACF, adamiani gaWirvebaSi
daxmarebis Sedegad.
publikaciis Sinaarsi SesaZloa ar gamoxatavdes USAID-is, amerikis
SeerTebuli Statebis mTavrobis an EE WMI Sexedulebebs.
The content of this publication do not necessarily reflects the view of USAID, the United
States Government, or EWMI.

saTemo ganviTarebis centri, konsultaciisa da treningis centri, saqarTvelos mcire da saSualo sawarmoTa asociacia / 2013

sarCevi
1. Sesavali

2. meTodologia

3. ekonomikuri mdgomareobis mimoxilva

4. mikro da mcire mewarmeobis mxardamWeri programebi saqarTveloSi 11


4.1. startap grantebis specifika

13

4.2. startap grantebis distribuciis geografia da beneficiarebis


SerCevis strategia

14

4.3. saswavlo komponenti

14

5. mikromewarmeobis mxardamWeri iniciativebis miznebi da Sedegebi


saqarTveloSi

15

5.1. startap granti, rogorc sawyisi kapitalis xelmisawvdomobis


gazrdis damoukidebeli instrumenti

16

5.2. mcire granti, rogorc sawyisi kapitalis xelmisawvdomobis gazrdis


Tanmdevi instrumenti

17

5.3. startap granti, rogorc zrdasrulTa ganaTlebis instrumenti

18

5.4. startap granti da Temis ganviTareba

20

5.5 startap grantebis socialuri funqcia

20

6. CarTuloba, mdgradoba da startap grantebis ganxorcielebis


Tanamdevi riskebi

22

7. sistemuri sakiTxebi da saxelmwifos roli

27

8. mikromewarmeobis mxardamWeri sagranto sqemebi - saerTaSoriso


gamocdileba da Sedegebi

28

9. mTavari daskvnebi

34

10. rekomendaciebi

36

11. angariSi mikromewarmobasTan dakavSirebuli sagranto programebis


mxriv, poloneTSi arsebuli gamocdilebis Sesaxeb

39
12. startap sagranto programebSi monawileTa magaliTebi

49

1. Sesavali
2013 wlis maisSi arasamTavrobo organizacia saTemo ganviTarebis centrma (CDC) konsultaciisa da treningis centrTan (CTC) da saqarTvelos
mcire da saSualo sawarmoTa asociaciasTan (GSMEA) partniorobiT daiwyo proeqtis mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba ganxorcieleba. proeqtis mizania, erTi mxriv, mcire mewarmeobis mxardamWeri programebis TvalsazrisiT gaaanalizos saqarTvelos
arasamTavrobo seqtorSi arsebuli gamocdileba, meore mxriv ki, am
analizze dayrdnobiT, moamzados saqarTvelos mTavrobisa da sakuTriv
am sferoSi momuSave aqtorebisTvis Sesabamisi angariSi da gauwios saTanado rekomendaciebi.
organizatorebis mier proeqtis inicireba ganapiroba samma ZiriTadma
mizezma: uSualod siRaribis problemis simwvavem, am problemis mogvarebis TvalsazrisiT bolo wlebSi periodSi gadadgmuli nabijebis naklebefeqtianobam da axlad arCeuli mTavrobisagan mcire mewarmeobis,
rogorc siRaribis daZlevisa da socializaciis erT-erTi instrumentis mimarT interesis gaCenam.
siRaribis problemis simwvave - sxvadasxva gaTvlebiT, saqarTveloSi RaribTa raodenoba aRwevs 1 milion adamians (msoflio bankis
bolo kvlevebis mixedviT saqarTveloSi siRaribis done 25 procentia).1
eqspertTa mosazrebiT, ukidures siRaribeSi cxovrobs saqarTvelos
mosaxleobis 10 %, rac daaxloebiT 440 aTas adamians Seadgens.2 siRaribis problemas ufro met simwvaves matebs is garemoeba, rom bolo 20 wlis
ganmavlobaSi siRaribis zrdis tendencia sakmaod mdgradia.
bolo periodis ganmavlobaSi siRaribis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi gadadgmuli nabijebis naklebefeqtianoba - 2003-2012 wlebSi saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier gatarebuli neoliberaluri ekomikuri politikis pirobebSi ver moxerxda gardatexis Setana siRaribis daZlevaSi.
am periodis ganmavlobaSi socialuri programebi ZiriTadad siRaribis simptomebis da ara maTi gamomwvevi mizezebisa aRmofxvras emsaxureboda. aRsaniSnavia, rom 2005 wlidan saqarTvelos mTavroba Seudga
siRatakis zRvars qvemoT myofi ojaxebis registracias, ris safuZvelzec Semdgom wlebSi daiwyo Sesabamisi socialuri daxmarebebis gacema.
1. The World Bank, 2009, http://data.worldbank.org/country/georgia
2. saqarTveloSi 1 milioni adamiani Raribia, xolo 440 aTasi adamiani - ukiduresad Raribi amerikis xma, d. guguSvili, 2013, http://www.amerikiskhma.com/content/article--1------440------96756439/530029.html

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

damatebiT saqarTvelos mTavrobam ganaxorciela struqturuli reformebi, romelTa wyalobiTac mniSvnelovnad Semcirda korufciis
done da gamartivda biznesis warmoebis regulaciebi. mTavrobis mxridan am nabijebis gadadgmas TiTqos bunebrivad unda mohyoloda siRaribis donis Semcireba, magram am mimarTulebiT man xelSesaxeb Sedegs ver
miaRwia. neoliberaluri politikur-ekonomikuri modelis arsebobis
pirobebSi, saqarTvelos mTavrobam bolo wlebSi faqtobrivad uari Tqva
dasaqmebis politikis centralizebulad gatarebaze. amas adasturebs
is faqti, rom 2006 wels gauqmda kanoni `dasaqmebis Sesaxeb~.3 dasaqmebis
politikis arqonam gamoiwvia umuSevrobis donis zrda (gansakuTrebiT
soflad), rac, Tavis mxriv, proporciulad aisaxa siRaribis donis matebaze. im pirobebSi, roca qveynis mosaxleobis TiTqmis 60 procenti soflad cxovrobs, xolo 55 procenti soflis meurneobaSia dasaqmebuli,
soflis meurneobis mimarT araTanamimdevruli saxelmwifo politika
siRaribis zrdis kidev erTi xelSemwyobi faqtori gaxda.4 amas daemata
isic, rom 2003 wlis Semdeg gatarebuli institucionaluri reformebis
Sedegad samuSao adgilebi ufro meti gauqmda, vidre Seiqmna. miuxedavad imisa, rom iseT sferoebSi, rogorebicaa mSenebloba, sabanko seqtori, wiaRiseuli da saxelmwifo seqtori, gaizarda samuSao adgilebisa
da xelfasis odenoba, aman mainc ver moaxdina didi gavlena dasaqmebis
gazrdaze da, Sesabamisad, siRaribis Semcirebaze, radgan am seqtorebis
wili saerTo dasaqmebis bazarze sakmaod dabalia.5
axalad arCeuli mTavrobisagan mcire mewarmeobis, rogorc siRaribis daZlevisa da socializaciis erT-erTi instrumentis mimarT
interesis gaCena - 2013 wlis ivlisSi saqarTvelos ekonomikis ministrma
ganacxada, rom saqarTvelos ekonomikis saministro gegmavs e.w. startapebis fondis Seqmnas, romelic daafinansebs startap kompaniebs da
inovaciur ideebs. misive TqmiT, ...dasaqmebis kuTxiT erT-erTi mniS3. evrokavSiris samezoblo politika da saqarTvelo (damoukidebel eqspertTa analizi), siRaribis daZleva da socialuri stabiluroba. ciuri anTaZe, 2010, http://www.nplg.
gov.ge/gsdl/cgi-bin/library.exe?e=d-00000-00---off-0civil2-civil2-01-1--0-10-0--0-0---0prompt-10--.%2e-4---4---0-1l--11-ka-10---10-preferences-50--00-3-1-00-0-00-11-1-0utfZz-8-00-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-10&a=d&c=civil
2&cl=CL2.6&d=HASH2097cf9988510f51cdfd72.4.2
4. mTavrobis Secdoma pirvel rigSi is iyo, rom soflis meurneoba araptioritetul dargad gamoacxada - im pirobebSi, roca qveynis mosaxleobis naxevarze meti soflis meurneobaSia dasaqmebuli, saqarTvelos mTavrobam 2010 wels am dargs biujetis 1 procentze
naklebi moaxmara.
5. World Bank, Georgia Poverty Assessment, April 2009, 1, ix. wwwds.worldbank.org/external/default/
WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2009/04/29/000350881_20090429111740/Rend ered/PDF/444000ESW0P10
71C0Disclosed041281091.pdf

vnelovani nabiji swored startap kompaniebis dafinanseba iqneba.6 mcire


mewarmeobis mxardaWeris TvalsazrisiT didi mniSvneloba aqvs okupirebuli teritoriebidan devnilTa da gansaxlebis saministrosa da iusticiis saministros iniciativebsac. kerZod, devnilTa da gansaxlebis
saministros iniciativa iTvaliswinebs okupirebuli teritoriebidan
devnilebisTvis mcire mewarmeobis programebis dafinansebas maTi socialuri mdgomareobis gasaumjobeseblad. garda amisa, iusticiis saministro mcire mewarmeobis mxardamWer sagranto programebs sTavazobs
probacionerebs, rac, erTi mxriv, miznad isaxavs probacionerTa ekonomikuri pirobebis gaumjobesebas, meore mxriv ki - maTi sazogadoebaSi
integraciisa da socializaciis xelSewyobas.
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, CamoTvlili mizezebis gamo gaCnda interesi, rom pirvel rigSi Catarebuliyo kvleva, romelic gaaanalizebda
mcire mewarmeobis sferoSi samoqalaqo seqtoris gamocdilebas da Semdgom etapze am analizis Sedegebs SesTavazebda saxelmwifo uwyebebs.
aseTi tipis samuSaos Catarebas aqtualoba SesZina im faqtmac, rom adgilobriv da saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebs aqvT saqarTveloSi mcire mewarmeobis mxardaWeris programebis ganxorcielebis
mravalwliani gamocdileba da am gamocdilebis gaziarebam, SesaZloa,
saxelmwifo uwyebebs mniSvnelovnad gauadvilos aseTi programebis
efeqtianad Sesruleba.
winamdebare angariSi moicavs saqarTveloSi mikro da mcire mewarmeobis
mxardaWeris programebis modelebis, maTi ganxorcielebis specifikisa
da warmatebuli magaliTebis aRweras. angariSis daskvniT nawilSi mocemulia kvlevis ZiriTadi mignebebi da rekomendaciebi, romlebic miRebulia am sferoSi momuSave aTamde organizaciis gamocdilebisa da am programebis uSualo beneficiarebis mosazrebebis analizis safuZvelze.
kvlevis procesSi SeirCa mcire mewarmeobis mxardamWeri programebis
sferoSi momuSave aTamde organizacia, romelTa warmomadgenlebTanac
Catarda CaRrmavebuli interviuebi. winamdebare angariSze momuSave mkvlevarTa jgufma msgavsi tipis programebis pirdapir beneficiarebTan
muSaobis dros gamoiyena fokus-jgufis meTodic. garda amisa, jgufma
gaaanaliza saerTaSoriso gamocdilebac, maT Soris detalurad Seiswavla poloneTis modeli.7
6. xelisufleba damwyebi kompaniebis dafinansebisTvis specialur fonds qmnis, 2013,
http://commersant.ge/?page=news&id=2198#.UfgKBmcewHW.facebook
7. polonuri gamocdilebis Sesaxeb, anagariSi moamzada organizaciam Rzeszow Regional Development Agency

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

am Temaze amgvari tipis kvleva aqamde ar Catarebula da kvlevis procesSi gamoikveTa ramdenime mniSvnelovani SezRudva (ix. Semdegi Tavi,
kvlevis meTodologia), romelTa aRmofxvrac SesaZlebelia SemdgomSi
damatebiTi kvlevebis CatarebiT. miuxedavad am SezRudvebisa, avtorebi
imedovneben, rom winamdebare angariSi xels Seuwyobs mcire mewarmeobis
mxardaWeris programebis TvalsazrisiT arsebuli gamocdilebis gaazrebas da, aseve, imasac, rom igi daexmareba saxelmwifo uwyebebs ufro
efeqtianad warmarTon TavianTi saqmianoba am mimarTulebiT.

2. meTodologia
kvlevis procesSi ZiriTadad gamoyenebuli iyo CaRrmavebuli interviusa da fokus-jgufis teqnika. mkvlevarTa jgufma proeqtis koordinatorTan erTad, pirvel etapze Caatara SerCeva, ra drosac damyarda
kontaqti mcire mewarmeobis mxardamWeri sagranto programebis ganmaxorcielebel ZiriTad adgilobriv da saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebTan. Semdgom etapze, mkvlevarTa jgufis mier damuSavebuli
struqturirebuli kiTxvaris safuZvelze am organizaciebis warmomadgenlebTan Catarda CaRrmavebuli interviuebi. mkvlevrebma fokus-jgufis meTodi gamoiyenes zemoT aRniSnuli tipis programebis pirdapir
beneficiarebTan. Tumca aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom kvleva Catarda mxolod ori proeqtis samizne fokus-jgufebTan, rac SeiZleba kvlevis
erT-erT SezRudvad CaiTvalos.
garda amisa, kvlevis procesSi mkvlevarebma gamoiyenes meoradi wyaroebi, maT Soris saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier Catarebuli kvlevebi da uSualod sagranto programebis ganmaxorcielebeli organizaciebis angariSebi. aseve, kvlevis procesSi mkvlevrebma aqtiurad
gamoiyenes akademiur sferoSi am Temaze arsebuli literatura. saerTaSoriso gamocdilebis analizis TvalsazrisiT, aRsaniSnavia is faqti,
rom angariSis momzadebis dros polonelma partniorebma SeimuSaves
mcire analitikuri narkvevi, romelic exeba poloneTis gamocdilebas
mcire biznesis mxardamWeri programebis ganxorcielebaSi (ix. danarTi).
kvlevis procesSi gamoikveTa sami ZiriTadi SezRudva:
kvlevam ver moicva yvela is organizacia da proeqti, romelic mimarTulia mcire mewarmeobis mxardamWeri programebis ganxorcielebisaken. Sesabamisad, am mxriv kvlevis areali Semcirebulia.
kvlevis procesSi kvleva fokus-jgufTan Catarda mxolod ori proeqtis beneficiarebTan, rogorc es proeqtis dagegmvisas gadawyda. mkvlevarTa jgufma drois da adamianuri resursebis simciris gamo SeuZle7

blad miiCnia am meTodis gamoyeneba sxva proeqtis beneficiarebTan.


kvlevis procesSi gamoyenebuli angariSebi meoradi wyaroebia. mkvlevarTa jgufi am angariSebidan Sesabamisi masalis gamoyenebis dros
mTlianad eyrdnoba maT avtorebs, radgan maT ar hqondaT Semowmebis
saSualeba. rodesac aseTi tipis angariSebze vlaparakobT, xazi unda
gavusvaT kidev erT SezRudvas. kerZod, SerCeuli organizaciebis warmomadgenelTa didma nawilma ver moaxerxa Sesabamisi angariSebis mowodeba. amitom xSir SemTxvevaSi analizi mTlianad eyrdnoba interviuebis
saSualebiT miRebul cnobebs.

3. ekonomikuri mdgomareobis mimoxilva


2008-2013 wlebSi saqarTvelos ekonomika araTanabrad viTardeboda.
ruseTTan saomari konfliqtisa da globaluri krizisis zemoqmedebis
Semdgom periodSi saqarTvelo recesiuli mdgomareobidan gamovida,
magram veRar SeZlo gaegrZelebina swrafi ekonomikuri zrda, rac
ganpirobebebuli iyo, rogorc makroekonomikuri, aseve institucionaluri da politikuri faqtorebiT.
2008 wlis meore naxevarSi wliuri mTliani Sida produqtis zrda mkveTrad daeca - 2.3 procentamde. dacema SeiniSneboda TiTqmis yvela seqtorSi. Semdgom wlebSi igi ryevebiT gamoirCeoda. 2008-2012 wlebSi mSp
saSualod wliuri 3.6 procentiT gaizarda. 2012 wlis meore naxevarSi
daiwyo ekonomikuri aqtivobis Seneleba da saSualo wliurma zrdam 2.4
procenti Seadgina. mSp-s zrdis tempi emyareboda tradiciuli sferoebis - gadamamuSavebeli mrewvelobis, transportis, kavSirgabmulobisa
da safinanso Suamavlobis - zrdis maRal tempebs. am wlebSi ekonomikur
ganviTarebas gansazRvravda, rogorc kerZo, ise sazogadoebriv seqtorebSi moxmarebisa da pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis cvlilebebi.
2008-2012 wlebSi moxmarebis wili mTlian mSp-Si investiciebs TiTqmis
3,2-jer aWarbebda. pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi qveynis dargebis
ganviTrebas uzrunvelyofda, gansakuTrebiT 2005-2008 wlebSi da igi
saqarTvelos ekonomikis erT-erTi mamoZravebeli Zala iyo. pirdapiri
ucxouri investiciebis dabandebiT gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeoda energetikisa da gadamamuSavebeli dargebi. 2008-2012 wlebSi sagareo vaWrobaSi gagrZelda is tendenciebi, romelic saqarTvelos axasiaTebda
wina wlebSic - sagareo vaWrobis deficiti gaizarda da mimdinare angariSis balansi gauaresda. 2008-2012 wlebSi ekonomikuri zrdis erT-erTi ganmsazRvreli faqtori iyo momsaxurebis eqsporti, kerZod, turizmidan miRebuli Semosavlebi, romelmac qveynis mTliani gamoSvebis 7
8

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

procenti Seadgina. 2008-2012 wlebSi igi daaxloebiT samjer gaizarda.


2008-2012 wlebSi mcire da saSualo biznesis susti mdgomareoba kvlav
gagrZelda da biznesgaremo konkurenciis ganviTarebisaTvis arasaxarbielo darCa. 2008-2012 wlebSi mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis mier
gamoSvebuli iyo biznesseqtorSi warmoebuli mTliani produqciis 17.9
procenti da dasaqmebuli iyo sul dasaqmebulTa mxolod 43 procenti.
maTi wili warmoebul damatebiT RirebulebaSi 21,8 procentia. SedarebisaTvis, evrokavSiris (27) qveynebSi misi wili erTobliv damatebiT RirebulebaSi Seadgens saSualod 57.6 procents da dasaqmebulia dasaqmebulTa 67,1 procenti.8
mcire da saSualo sawarmoTa seqtors mniSvnelovani roli ekisreba
konkurentuli garemos formirebaSi, socialuri uTanabrobis Serbilebasa da dasaqmebis zrdaSi. mcire sawarmoebi qmediT rols asruleben siRaribis daZlevaSi. isini moqnilad da swrafad reagireben bazris
cvlilebebze, advilad iTviseben axal produqcias da ZiriTadad orientirebuli arian adgilobriv bazarze. ekonomikis am segmentis recesiuli mdgomareoba uaryofiTad moqmedebda ara marto socialuri
garemos gaumjobesebaze, aramed qveynis konkurentunarianobisa da biznesgaremos srulyofaze, ris Sedegadac umuSevroba da siRaribe kvlavindeburad qveynis ZiriTad problemad rCeboda.
dRes saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri zrda ZiriTadad msxvili sawarmoebis
wilad modis. mcire da saSualo sawarmoebis konkurentunarianoba da
efeqtianoba dabalia. isini sustadaa ganviTarebuli da ver asruleben
ekonomikis qmediTi mamoZravebeli Zalis rols.
arsebuli mdgomareoba aisaxeba dasaqmebasa da umuSevrobaze. umuSevroba yvelaze mniSvnelovani socialuri problemaa, romelic ganpirobebulia mcire da saSualo biznesis ganuviTareblobiT da daqiravebiT
dasaqmebulTa dabali wiliT dasaqmebulTa saerTo raodenobaSi. bolo
5 wlis ganmavlobaSi es maCvenebeli mcirediT klebulobda. oficialurad umuSevrobis done 2008 wels 16.5 procents Seadgenda. 2013 wels man
15 procenti Seadgina.
aq isic unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom bolo wlebSi investiciebis didi
nawili kvlavindeburad dabandebuli iyo transportsa da kavSirgabmulobaSi, mopovebiTsa da gadamamuSavebel mrewvelobaSi. man, marTalia,
pozitiuri zegavlena moaxdina mTliani Sida produqtis zrdaze, magram,
radganac am dargebs SezRuduli aqvT axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis
8. Eurostat. Statistics in Focus. 2008. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-SF-08-031/
EN/KS-SF-08-031-EN.PDF

SesaZleblobebi, isini ver uzrunvelyofen socialuri fonis gaumjobesebas da dasaqmebis zrdas.


mikromewarmeobis ganviTarebas aqvs mTeli rigi sagadasaxado barierebi. 2010 wlis 29 dekembris sagadasaxado cvlilebebs dabali brunvis
sawarmoTaTvis SeRavaTiani pirobebis Seqmnis daniSnuleba hqonda. cvlilebebi SeRavaTebs iTvaliswinebda, Tumca warmoiqmna garkveuli SezRudvebic. amgvari magaliTebia:
1. mewarme fizikuri pirebi, romelTa Semosavali ar aRemateba 100,000
lars da romlebic ewevian saqarTvelos mTavrobis N 419 dadgenilebiT9 gansazRvrul saqmianobas, gaTavisuflebuli arian saSemosavlo
gadasaxadisagan.10 TumcaRa, saqmianobis es saxeebi 2011 wlamdec gaTavisuflebuli iyo saSemosavlo gadasaxadisagan, xolo 2011 wlis Semdeg
saqmianobaTa CamonaTvali Semcirda. kerZod, avtomobilebis teqnikuri
momsaxureba, samdivno da mTargmnelobiTi momsaxurebis gaweva, sacxovrebeli adgilebis mokle vadiT gadacema, saparikmaxero momsaxureba dRes
fiqsirebuli gadasaxadiT dabegvris obieqtad iqca. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom
am nawilSi mikrobiznesSi dasaqmebul pirTa mdgomareoba gauaresebulia.
2. mewarme fizikuri pirebi, romelTa Semosavalic ar aRemateba 30,000
lars. aRniSnul jgufSi Semavali mewarmeebi gaTavisuflebuli arian
saSemosavlo gadasaxadisagan. es siaxles warmoadgens 2011 wlamde moqmed sagadasaxado kodeqsTan SedarebiT. TumcaRa, SeRavaTi ar vrceldeba rig saqmianobebze (saqmianoba, romelic saWiroebs licenzias an
nebarTvas, savaluto operaciebi; samedicino, arqiteqturuli, saadvokato an sanotaro, saaudito, sakonsultacio saqmianoba, saTamaSo biznesi, vaWroba, qonebis ijariT gacema, da sxva).11
3. fizikur an iuridiul pirebs, romelTa brunvac ar aRemateba 100,000
lars, SeuZliaT gadaixadon fiqsirebuli gadasaxadi. gamartivebuli
aRricxva da sakontrolo salaro aparatis gamoyenebisgan gaTavisufleba mniSvnelovania mikrobiznesisaTvis. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia, rom 2011
wlamde saqmianobaTa didi nawili, romelic moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT
fiqsirebuli gadasaxadiT dabegvris obieqti gaxda, saerTod gaTavisuflebuli iyo saSemosavlo gadasaxadisagan. aseve, mewarme gaTavisuflebuli iyo salaro aparatis gamoyenebisganac.12
9. saqarTvelos mTavrobis N 419 dadgenileba, danarTi 1, 29/12/2010
10. 2011 wlamde moqmedi ssk, 168-e muxlis pirveli nawili, l qvepunqti
11. saqarTvelos mTavrobis N419 dadgenileba, danarTi 2, 29/12/2010
12. 2011 wlamde moqmedi ssk, 104-e muxlis meoTxe nawili, 97-e muxlis meoTxe nawilis, g
qvepunqti

10

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

4. mikrobiznesSi dasaqmebuli piri SeiZleba iyos mxolod fizikuri


piri. mewarmeTa umetesoba amjobinebs biznesis registracias SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebis formiT. es SesaZleblobas miscemda
Sps-s, sawyis etapze mieRo mikrobiznesis statusi, Semdeg mcire biznesis statusi da Semdeg gaegrZelebina saqmianoba Cveulebrivi dabegvris
reJimSi. amavdroulad, daqiravebuli piris gamoyenebis SezRudva xels
uSlis raime qmediTi biznesis dawyebis SesaZleblobas.
5. am sakanonmdeblo normiT sawarmoebs ara aqvT ufleba, mikrobiznesis
statusis mqone pirebisgan da fiqsirebuli gadasaxadis gadamxdelebisgan SeZenili saqoneli an momsaxureba gamoiqviTos xarjebSi. msgavsi SezRudva xels uSlis mikrobiznesSi dasaqmebul pirebs, saqmiani kavSirebi
daamyaron sxva sawarmoebTan da ganaviTaron sakuTari saqmianoba.13
6. Tu sagadasaxado organos mier Catarebuli inventarizaciis Sedegad
dadginda, rom mikrobiznesis statusis mqone fizikuri piris sasaqonlomaterialuri maragebis naSTi aRemateba 45,000 lars, mikrobiznesis statusi mimdinare sagadasaxado wels uqmdeba. magram mikromewarmeobis statusi ganisazRvreba brunvis da ara sasaqonlo-materialuri maragebis
mixedviT.14 Sesabamisad, ssk-a garkveul winaaRmdegobas Seicavs.
7. Tu mikrobiznesis statusis mqone fizikuri piri eweva mikrobiznesisTvis akrZalul saqmianobas an 3-jer ar gamoyenebs salaro aparats da
mas daekisreba sanqcia kalendaruli wlis ganmavlobaSi, sagadasaxado
organo uuqmebs mas mikrobiznesis statussa da specialuri dabegvris
reJims da ajarimebs 500 lariT. amave brZanebiT, igive vrceldeba mcire
biznesis statusis mqone fizikur pirze15. vinaidan mikrobiznesis saqmianobis sfero SezRudulia, xolo kalendaruli wlis ganmavlobaSi miRebuli Semosavali ganisazRvreba 30,000 laris odenobiT, mizanSewonili
iqneboda, sajarimo sanqcia diferencirebuli yofiliyo mikro da mcire
biznesisTvis.

4. mikro da mcire mewarmeobis mxardamWeri programebi


saqarTveloSi
arasamTavrobo seqtoris mxridan mikromewarmeobis mxardaWeris
pirveli talRa saqarTveloSi daiwyo 90-iani wlebidan sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebisa da humanitaruli daxmarebis misiebis muSao13. ssk, 106-e muxli, z da T qvepunqtebi
14. ssk, 85 -e muxli, `b~ qvepunqti da 84-e muxli
15. saqarTvelos finansTa ministris N 999 brZaneba, muxli 8 da muxli 18, 31/12/2010

11

bis gaaqtiurebasTan erTad.


sawyis etapze am organizaciebis intervenciebs hqonda pirdapiri humanitaruli daxmarebis saxe, rac TandaTanobiT ganviTarebis programebma Caanacvla. ganviTarebis programebis farglebSi mcire biznesis
xelSewyoba, xSirad organizaciebis sxva prioritetebis (Temis ganviTareba, konfliqtebis mogvareba, efeqtiani mmarTvelobis Camoyalibeba,
siRaribis aRmofxvra) Tanamdev mimarTulebas warmoadgenda - fermerebis an fermeruli jgufebis daxmareba umetes SemTxvevebSi saTemo kavSirebis, asociaciebis an momsaxurebis momwodeblebis meSveobiT xdeboda da gulisxmobda sxvadasxva tipis (maT Soris saganmanaTleblo)
servisisa da sawarmoo saSualebebis miwodebas, produqciis xarisxis
gaumjobesebasa da produqciis gasaRebaSi daxmarebas. organizaciebis
prioritetebis nusxaSi mcire mewarmeobis ganviTarebis sakiTxis amgvari
gaazreba dResac farTod aris gavrcelebuli.
mcire biznesis mxardaWeris meore mimarTulebaa uSualod mcire biznesis xelSemwyobi sagranto programebi, romelTa farglebSi mniSvnelovan da mzard mimarTulebas e.w. startap (sawyisi) grantebi warmoadgens.
ganviTarebaze momuSave organizaciebis strategiebSi startapebi da mikro da mcire biznesis mxardamWeri sxva sagranto programebi 2000 wlis
Semdeg sxvadasxva etapze sesxebis programebis paralelur an Camnacvlebel intervenciad gvevlineba.
qveyanaSi politikur-ekonomikuri konteqstis SecvlasTan erTad ganviTarebisa da pirdapiri daxmarebis programebis, iseve rogorc sesxebisa da startap grantebis komponentebis, xvedriTi wilebis urTierTmimarTeba daxmarebis programebSi icvleboda (erT-erTi amgvari
ryeva donori organizaciebis grZelvadian strategiebSi, magaliTad,
2008 wlis movlenebma gamoiwvia - ganviTarebis programebi calkeul regionebSi kvlav pirdapiri daxmarebis programebma Secvala, xolo qveyanaSi Semqnili ekonomikuri krizisisa da saprocento ganakveTis zrdis
fonze sakredito programebi arasamTavrobo organizaciebis strategiebSi TiTqmis yvela SemTxvevaSi mikrograntebis komponentma Caanacvla). dReisaTvis mcire biznesis xelSemwyobi startap grantebi, ZiriTadad, mowyvladi jgufebiskenaa mimarTuli da qveyanaSi mikrosafinanso
programebis paralelur instrumentad moiazreba.
saerTaSoriso da adgilobriv arasamTavrobo organizaciebs dReisaTvis mikro da mcire mewarmeobis programebis dagegmvis, ganxorcielebisa
da monitoringis mdidari gamocdileba daugrovdaT. saqarTveloSi am
mimarTulebiT milionobiT dolari daixarja, Tumca dReisaTvis es ga12

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

mocdileba naklebad aris Sejerebuli da ganzogadebuli.


mikrobiznesis xelSemwyobi arasamTavrobo iniciativebis farglebSi
calkeuli organizaciebisa da programebis dagrovebuli codnisa da gamocdilebis analizi da gamTlianeba dReisaTvis ori mizeziT aris mniSnelovani:
socialuri mxardaWeris, regionuli ganviTarebisa da mikro da mcire
biznesis xelSemwyobi saxelmwifo programebis amoqmedebis fonze mniSnelovania ganisazRvros is niSa, sadac arasamTavrobo seqtori SeZlebs
axal konteqstSi efeqtianad funqcionirebas da saxelmwifo programebTan sinergiuli efeqtis miRwevas;
arasamTavrobo seqtorSi mikro da mcire mewarmeobis mxardaWeris
TvalsazrisiT dagrovebuli gamocdilebis struqturireba - intervenciebis susti da Zlieri mxareebis gamovlena da am gamocdilebis integrireba saxelmwifo programebis strategiebSi xels Seuwyobda am mimarTulebiT saxelmwifo intervenciebis efeqtianobis gazrdas.

4.1. startap grantebis specifika


mikrobiznesis xelSemwyobi sagranto programebis miznobriv jgufs,
ZiriTadad, dabali socialur-ekonomikuri statusis mqone individebi
warmoadgenen, romlebsac surT, sakuTari biznesis wamowyeba.
daxmarebis paketi TiToeuli individisaTvis saSualod 1000-dan 3000mde laris odenobis grantis micemas gulisxmobs. grantis komponents,
Cveulebriv, win uZRvis da Tan axlavs teqnikuri mxardaWera - treningebi
biznesis wamowyebisaTvis mniSvnelovan zogad da dargobriv kompetenciebSi da agreTve konsultaciebi biznesis ganviTarebis sawyis etapze.
TiToeuli proeqtis saSualo xangrZlivoba 2 welia, saidanac pirveli ramdenime Tve mosamzadebel (saswavlo/saorganizacio) komponents
eTmoba. proeqtis msvlelobisas, Cveulebriv, donori organizacia axorcielebs monitorings biznesgegmaSi Camoyalibebuli indikatorebis
Sesrulebis kontrolisaTvis da, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, beneficiarebs
specifikur sakiTxebze miznobrivi konsultaciebiT uzrunvelyofs.
saqarTveloSi aseve xorcieldeba ufro xanmokle (eqvsTviani) an xangrZlivi - 6 wlamde xangrZlivobis startap proeqtebic.
kvlevaSi CarTuli organizaciebisa da beneficiarebis informaciiT, grantebis naxevarze meti sasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobaSi gaicema
(ZiriTadad, mecxoveleobaSi). Tumca, calkeul SemTxvevebSi, grantebi
aseve gaicema arasasoflo-sameurneo saqmianobisaTvisac, rac ZiriTadad gulisxmobs soflis mosaxleobisaTvis iseTi servisebis Seqmnas,
13

rogorebicaa maRazia, veterinaruli klinika, internet-kafe, saparikmaxero da a.S.


startap proeqtebi, Cveulebriv, gulisxmobs beneficiaris Tanamonawileobas startap iniciativaSi fuladi an sxva saxis kontribuciis saxiT.

4.2. startap grantebis distribuciis geografia da


beneficiarebis SerCevis strategia
dReisaTvis ganviTarebis organizaciebis mier startap proeqtebi ZiriTadad soflad xorcieldeba da saqarTvelos yvela regions
moicavs, Tumca gansakuTrebuli aqcenti keTdeba eTnikuri umciresobebiT an iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebul da
maRalmTian regionebze.
saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc msoflios bevr qveyanaSi, grantebis ganawileba efuZneba potenciuri beneficiaris mier gamocxadebul survils, monawileoba miiRos programaSi16. Sesabamisad, programas win
uZRvis sainformacio kampania samizne adgilebze, rac gulisxmobs informaciis gavrcelebas sxvadasxva sainformacio saSualebebiT da Temis krebebis organizebas.
xSirad startap proeqtebis beneficiarebis SerCevisas moqmedebs
damatebiTi kriteriumebi (magaliTad, mikuTvnebuloba konkretuli
mowyvladi jgufisadmi). aseTebia: qalebi, mravalSviliani ojaxebi, martoxela dedebi, iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebi, SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone pirebi.
programisaTvis beneficiarebis SerCeva, Cveulebriv, or etapad mimdinareobs. pirvel etapze gadaarCeven sagranto konkursSi monawileobis
msurvelebis mier SemuSavebul sawyis biznesideebs da amowmeben beneficiaris Sesabamisobas SerCevis sabazo kriteriumebTan (magaliTad,
mikuTvnebulobas mowyvladi jgufis an konkretuli geografiuli adgilisadmi), SerCevis meore etapze ki gadaarCeven Sesabamisi treningis
gavlis Semdeg SemuSavebul detalur biznesgegmebs.

4.3. Tanmdevi saswavlo komponenti


saswavlo komponenti startap grantebis programebis mniSvnelovani
Semadgeneli nawilia. saganmanaTleblo komponents, ZiriTadad, modu16. Macours. K., Premand, P., Vakis, R. 2013 Demand versus Returns? Pro-poor targeting of business grants
and vocational skills training . The World Bank. Latin America and the Caribbean Region. Poverty, Gender
and Equity Unit

14

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

laruli struqtura aqvs da, pirobiTad sam nawilad SeiZleba daiyos:


pirveli komponenti biznesgegmebis SemuSavebasa da mcire biznesis warmoebis sabazo unarebSi wvrTnas gulisxmobs. meore etapze ukve gadarCeuli biznesgegmebis avtorebi da grantis mflobelebi gadian wvrTnas
dargobriv kompetenciebSi (proeqtis specifikis mixedviT), xolo grantis administrirebis etapze beneficiarebi iReben konsultaciebs muSaobis procesSi warmoqmnili saWiroebebis mixedvT.
mikrobiznesis xelSewyobis programebis ganmaxorcielebeli organizaciebi saganmanaTleblo komponentSi eyrdnobian, rogorc Sida,
ise gare resursebs. biznesis warmoebis sabazo unarebis treningis
provaiderebi arian bazarze arsebuli zrdasrulTa ganaTlebis organizaciebi, xolo dargobrivi kompetenciebis ganmaviTarebeli programebis uzrunvelyofas sagranto programebis ganmaxorcielebeli
organizaciebi ZiriTadad individTa (dargis eqspertTa) resursebze
dayrdnobiT axerxeben. grantebis monitoringi, iseve rogorc Tanmxlebi konsultaciebi, umetes SemTxvevaSi grantis gamcemi organizaciebis
Sida resursebis (mobilizatorebis) funqcias warmoadgens, Tumca
saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi isini iyeneben gare resursebsac.
saganmanaTleblo komponentis pirveli ori etapis xangrZlivoba,
Cveulebriv 2-3 kviraa, xolo monitoringis Tanmxlebi konsultaciebis
xangrZlivoba da intensivoba calkeuli proeqtebis specifikasa da xangrZlivobazea damokidebuli. saSualod monitoringisa da konsultaciebis etapi erT weliwads an weliwad-naxevars grZeldeba.

5. mikromewarmeobis mxardamWeri iniciativebis mizne


bi da Sedegebi saqarTveloSi
saqarTveloSi, iseve rogorc msoflios bevr sxva qveyanaSi, mikromewarmeobis mxardamWeri programebis da, konkretulad, startap sagranto iniciativebis ZiriTad mizans miznobrivi jgufebis dasaqmebisa da
Semosavlebis maCveneblebis zrda warmoadgens. vinaidan unar-Cvevebisa
da kapitalis deficiti zRudavs produqtiul arCevans17, ganviTarebis
programebi pirvel rigSi am SezRudvebis aRmofxvrisken aris mimarTuli. Sesabamisad, daqiravebuli Sromidan da TviTdasaqmebidan Semosavlebis odenobis zrdis xelSewyobis mTavar instrumentebad am tipis
17. Lucas, R. E., Jr. (1978). "On the Size Distribution of Business Firms." The Bell Journal of Economics 9(2):
508-523.
Banerjee, A. V. and A. F. Newman (1993). "Occupational Choice and the Process of Development." Journal of
Political Economy 101(2): 274-298.

15

programebSi likvidobis Semaferxebeli barierebis Semcireba da miznobriv jgufebSi biznesis wamowyebisaTvis mniSnelovani kompetenciebis
ganviTareba warmoadgens18. aseve mniSvnelovania mcire biznesis xelSemwyobi sagranto programebis Tanamdevi socialuri efeqti: miznobrivi
jgufebis socialuri statusis amaRleba da maTi integracia sazogadoebaSi, TemSi sxvadasxva servisebisa da produqciis xelmisawvdomobis gazrda, TanamSromlobiTi kulturisa da RirebulebiTi jaWvebis
formireba.

5.1. startap granti, rogorc sawyisi kapitalis xelmi


sawvdomobis gazrdis damoukidebeli instrumenti
donorebica da beneficiarebic iziareben mosazrebas, rom mcire biznesis ganviTarebis sagranto programebi, pirvel rigSi, mniSvnelovania, rogorc biznesis sawyisi dafinansebis wyaro. miuxedavad Tanxis
simcirisa (2,000-dan 3,000 laramde), am odenobis kapitalic ki Znelad misawvdomia sofelSi (danazogi, sxva saqmianobiT mopovebuli fuli).
grantis sidide saSualod 2,000 lars Seadgenda. SeiZleba es ar aris
didi Tanxa, magram am fulis mopoveba soflad Zneli, TiTqmis SeuZlebelia - aRniSnavs startap grantis erT-erTi beneficiari da xazs usvams
am mcire investiciis mniSvnelobas Tavisi biznesis wamowyebisaTvis.
programaSi CarTuli adamianebis ukukavSiri aCvenebs, rom mikrosafinanso sferoSi mimdinare reformebis miuxedavad, fuladi saxsrebis
xelmisawvdomoba kvlav mniSvnelovan problemas warmoadgens soflad
mcxovrebi Raribi mosaxleobisaTvis:
mqonda didi oTaxi, sadac mindoda gamekeTebina ritualuri momsaxurebis darbazi (sufra qorwilis, dasaflavebis,
dabadebis dRis Tu sxva msgavsi RonisZiebis dros), magram
ar mqonda Tanxa misi SekeTebisa da aRWurvisaTvis. granti
SekeTebisa da aRWurvisaTvis gamoviyene da, Sesabamisad,
grantis gareSe bizness ver daviwyebdi;~

programis beneficiari

arsebuli biznesis zrdisaTvis kapitalis sxva wyaros biznessesxic


warmoadgens, Tumca sesxi bevri beneficiaris mier biznesis wamowyebis
18. Macours. K., Premand, P., Vakis, R. 2013 Demand versus Returns? Pro-poor targeting of business grants
and vocational skills training . The World Bank. Latin America and the Caribbean Region. Poverty, Gender
and Equity Unit

16

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

sawyis etapze ar ganixileba rogorc mikrograntis alternativa. amis


mizezad respondentebi ramdenime faqtors asaxeleben:
pirvel mizezs maRali saprocento ganakveTi warmoadgens (36%). im SemTxvevaSi, Tu SesaZlebelia, kapitalis wyarod damatebiT gamoyenebul
iqnes sayofacxovrebo sesxi, granti amcirebs sesxis momsaxurebis
tvirTs klientebisaTvis:
`isedac dawyebuli mqonda maRaziis mSenebloba, da vapirebdi kreditis aRebas. amitom CemTvis mniSvnelovania, rom
ar vixdi procents. vfiqrob axla kidev gamovitano krediti, sasaqonlo maragebisaTvis;~

programis beneficiari

5.2. mcire granti, rogorc sawyisi kapitalis xelmi


sawvdomobis gazrdis Tanmdevi instrumenti
dReisaTvis donori organizaciebis mier mcire granti strategiulad
ganixileba, rogorc ara mxolod sesxebis alternativa, aramed sesxebis
xelmisawvdomobis gazrdis winapirobac, radgan mikrosafinanso programebis warmatebas mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs beneficiarebis wina
gamocdileba da kompetenciebi, sawyisi ekonomikuri da socialuri kapitali19.
programis monawileTa da ganmaxorcieleblTa azriT, am TvalsazrisiT
granti beneficiarebis momzadebis efeqtur instruments warmoadgens.
`2003 wlidan pirdapiri komponenti iyo biznesstartapebis mxardaWera, im dros bankebi ar iZleodnen startap
sesxs, imitom rom (potenciur beneficiarebs) gamocdileba
ar hqondaT. Cven SevTavazeT sqema - daviwyebT ideebis Segrovebas, gavfiltravT, movamzadebT klientebs, istoriac
rom hqondeT, biznesgegmis werac icodnen da gamocdilebac
SeiZinon.~

donori organizaciis warmomadgeneli

gamocdilebis arqonas, rogorc biznessesxebis xelmisawvdomobis


SemzRudav faqtors, programebis beneficiarebic asaxeleben - biznesis warmoebis gamocdileba sesxebis gacemisas erT-erT mniSvnelovan
kriteriumad ganixileba da xSirad dadebiTi gadawyvetilebis miRebisas
19. Nenova, T. 2009. Bringing finance to Pakistans poor : access to finance for small Enterprises and the
underserved. The World Bank.

17

Semaferxebel garemoebas warmoadgens.


`fuli, raime danazogi, ar mqonda, banki biznessesxs ar
momcemda, radgan biznesi ar arsebobda. swored am gagebiT vambob, rom programa stimuli iyo. imis Semdeg, rac
grantiT daviwye biznesi (SevakeTe marani, movawesrige ezo),
bankma momca sesxi (4,000 lari, 48% wliuri ganakveTiT da
kerZo piris TavdebobiT);~

programis beneficiari

respondentebi imasac aRniSnavdnen, rom gamocdilebis arqona moqmedebs, agreTve, rogorc subieqturi Semaferxebeli faqtori sesxis
aRebisas - gamocdilebis arqonas Tan axlavs SiSi, sakuTar ZalebSi daurwmunebloba, rac damatebiT fsiqologiur barierebs warmoqmnis:
`sabanko sesxis aRebisa meSinia, ara var darwmunebuli
sawarmos stabilurobasa da Cemi saqmis warmatebaSi~.
programis beneficiari

donorebi da programis beneficiarebi Tanxmdebian imaSi, rom startap


grantebi xels uwyobs sawyisi gamocdilebis Seqmnas, biznesis dagegmvisa da ganxorcielebis unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebas da sawyisi kapitalis
formirebas, rac mniSvnelovnad zrdis mikrosafinanso programebSi
monawileobisaTvis mzaobasa da warmatebis Sansebs.

5.3. startap granti, rogorc zrdasrulTa ganaTlebis


instrumenti
mewarmeobisaTvis mniSvnelovani unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebis xelSewyoba formaluri da araformaluri ganaTlebis sistemebSi prioritetul
amocanas warmoadgens evropis qveynebis saganmanaTleblo sistemebSi.
saqarTveloSi es sakiTxi gansakuTrebiT mwvaved dgas, radgan, iseve rogorc sxva postsabWoTa qveynebSi, saqarTveloSic mewarmeobisaTvis
mniSvnelovani kompetenciebis ganviTarebas warsulSi saerTod ar eTmoboda yuradReba saswavlo gegmebSi. dRes erovnuli saswavlo gegma mewarmeobis kompetenciebis ganviTarebas iTvaliswinebs. Tumca am prioritetis realizaciis mimarTulebiT mxolod pirveli nabijebi idgmeba.
startap grantebi da maTi Tanmdevi saganmanaTleblo komponenti am
TvalsazrisiT, rogorc Teoriuli codnis SeZenis, ise am codnis praqtikaSi ganmtkicebis efeqtian saSualebas warmoadgens.
18

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

donori organizaciebis warmomadgenlebis azriT, startap grantebi,


zogadad, xels uwyobs mewarmeobisaTvis mniSvnelovani sabazo unarCvevebis ganviTarebasa da codnis gaRrmavebas mosaxleobaSi.
`ZiriTadad fuli unda yvelas, treningi ki ar undaT. Zalian didi dro miaqvs imis Cvenebas, rom man ar icis, fuli
rogor gamoiyenos. amitom mere giwevs mobilizeba, treningis Catareba, rom iman dainaxos, Tu ra aris biznesi - rogor unda daxarjos ufro efeqturad fuli, ratom aris
aucilebeli reinvestireba.~
donori organizaciis warmomadgeneli
`bevri programa SecdomiT eZaxis startaps iseT proeqtebs, sadac grants gascems Zroxis SesaZenad. Zalian
bevri fulia daxarjuli amgvarad - kreditebis 70% gacemulia mecxoveleobaSi, aqedan 80% gulisxmobs, magaliTad,
Zroxis yidvas, da imis gamo, rom arasworad aris komponenti
dagegmili - Zroxa ar aris biznesi, biznesad Zroxa im SemTxvevaSi gadaiqceva, Tu beneficiari gegmavs reinvestirebas.~
donori organizaciis warmomadgeneli

kvlevaSi CarTuli startap programebis beneficiarebi laparakoben


agreTve programis farglebSi SeZenili codnisa da kompetenciebis mniSvnelobazec.
`saqmis keTebis dros bevri ram viswavle. vin ifiqrebda,
rom SevZlebdi CurCxelebis ara mxolod saojaxo moxmarebisaTvis gakeTebas, aramed maT realizacias? vfiqrob, es unari saqmianobis dros SeviZine da Cemi Tavis imedic gamiCnda.~
programis beneficiari

startap grantebis beneficiarebi imasac aRniSnaven, rom proeqtebis


ganxorcielebis procesSi maT mxolod axali codna da gamocdileba ki ar
SeiZines, aramed am codnis gaRrmavebis survili da swavlis gagrZelebis
motivaciac gauCndaT:
radgan Cem saqmeSi, siRnaRSi Camosuli stumrebis momsaxurebis dros unda vicode ucxo ena, inglisuris swavla
daviwye. aseve meti unda vicode sastumros momsaxurebis

19

Sesaxeb da veZeb, sad SeiZleba gaviaro Sesabamisi treningi.


programis beneficiari

5.4. startap granti da Temis ganviTareba


donorebisa da beneficiarebis ukukavSiris Tanaxmad, startap grantebi, aseve, xels uwyobs TemSi axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas, RirebulebaTa jaWvebis formirebas, servisisa da infrastruqturis gaumjobesebas.
`proeqti mniSvnelovania soflebisTvisac, radgan isini amarageben
rZis produqtebiT Cems sawarmos~ - aRniSnavs erT-erTi respondenti da
msjelobs proeqtis efeqtze mTlianad soflis cxovrebis gaumjobesebis TvalsazrisiT.
zogierTma respondentma, agreTve, aRniSna startap proeqtebis mniSvneloba soflad axalgazrdobis damagrebisaTvis.
`vaJi unda dabrundes Tbilisidan da Caebas am saqmeSi. yovelTvis ganvicdidi, ras Sveboda TbilisSi, sadac kargad ver
moewyo da uWirda, dabrunebiT ki ver brundeboda, radgan
aq saqme araferi hqonda. yvelasTvis kargia, sofelSi roca
iqneba Tavis ojaxTan erTad;~

amasTanave, startap grantebi xels uwyobs TemSi codnis gavrcelebas


da motivaciis gazrdas mcire mewarmeobis warmowyebisaTvis:
axloblebs Zalian moswonT, surT, amgvar saqmeSi miiRon
monawileoba, siamovnebiT gaakeTebdnen amisTana proeqts;~
programis beneficiari

5.5. startap grantebis socialuri funqcia


startap grantebis kidev erTi mniSvnelovani Sedegia Tanmdevi socialuri efeqti.
erT-erTi respondenti sakuTar gamocdilebaze msjelobisas aRniSnavs, Tu rogor imoqmeda startapma mis TviTSefasebaze:
`...ufro metsac getyviT, exla rom viwyebde, Tavidan ukve
met pirutyvs SeviZendi, imitom rom SiSi, sakuTar ZalebSi
daurwmunebloba gadavlaxe.~
proeqtis beneficiari

20

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

amasTanave, beneficiarTa azriT, startap grantebi iniciativis da motivaciis gazrdis efeqturi saSualebaa:
`didi xania, vfiqrobdi eTnografiuli ezos mowyobaze,
romelic siRnaRis municipalitetSi Camosul turistebs
moemsaxureboda. magram ramdenime mizezis gamo ver viwyebdi: erTi, rom ver vbedavdi, vfiqrobdi, ver SevZleb, Tavs
ver gavarTmev-meTqi; meore, rom usasrulod gadavdebdi
xolme am ideis ganxorcielebas, radgan aravis winaSe ar
mqonda pasuxismgebloba;
muSaobis survili gamiCnda. rodesac arafers akeTeb, muSobis survilic sul ufro knindeba. exla ki, rac mets vakeTeb, miT meti minda vakeTo. davinaxeT, rom raRac gamodis.
me puris gamocxoba CemTvis mezareboda, exla ki Tones vamuSaveb;~
proeqtis beneficiari

respondentebs, zogjer TemSi da mikrosocialur jgufebSi socialuri rolebis struqturis cvlilebis TvalnaTeli magaliTebic mohyavT:
`qmari mexmareba ToneSi muSaobaSi, xandaxan umcrosi qaliSvilic. qmars Tavidan rcxvenoda - puris cxoba ra kacis
saqmeao, - Tavs uxerxulad grZnobda, roca mezoblebi xelSi
comiT xedavdnen, exla ki CemTan erTad muSaobs~;

startap programebis beneficiari qalebi siamayiT aRniSnaven, Tu rogor gafarTovda maTi socialuri kavSirebi da statusi, rogorc TemSi,
ise ojaxSi.
`yvela molaparakebas Tavad vawarmoeb. magaliTad, siRnaRis sastumroebTan, romlebic eZebdnen adgils Tavisi stumrebis sazeimo sadilisaTvis. sofelSi ufro didi pativiscemiTa da ridiT mepyrobian~.

21

6. CarTuloba, mdgradoba da startap grantebis ganx


orcielebis Tanamdevi riskebi
msoflio bankis mier bolo wlebSi gamocemuli angariSebi cxadyofs,
rom mikromewarmeobis mxardamWeri RonisZiebebi da, kerZod, startap
grantebi xels uwyoben Semosavlebis zrdas da dasaqmebisa da TviTdasaqmebis maCveneblebis gaumjobesebas mowyvlad jgufebSi20.
calkeul qveynebSi ganxorcielebuli eqsperimentuli kvlevebis
Tanaxmad, mikro-grantebis beneficiar qalTa Semosavlebi sakontrolo
jgufTan SedarebiT 80%-iT maRalia, xolo mamakac beneficiarTa - 30%
-iT maRali. grantis miRebidan 2 wlis Semdeg sakontrolo jgufTan SedarebiT programis beneficiarTa aqtivebis Sefasebebi mniSvnelovnad
gansxvavdeba21.
startap grantebis programebis monawile mowyvladi jgufebis warmomadgenlebSi mniSvnelovnad izrdeba TviTSefasebis, cxovrebiT kmayofilebis, motivaciis maCveneblebi22.
analogiuri suraTi ikveTeba saqarTveloSic. miuxedavad imisa, rom
qveyanaSi am TvalsazrisiT sando statistikuri monacemebi naklebad
moipoveba, donorebisa da beneficiarebis SefasebiT, am tipis iniciativebs dadebiTi efeqti aqvs, rogorc Semosavlebis, ise dasaqmebis
maCveneblebis zrdis TvalsazrisiT.
treningebisa da konsultaciebis centris mier ganxorcielebuli mikromewarmeobis xelSemwyobi programis anagariSis mixedviT iZulebiT
gadaadgilebuli pirebis Sinameurneobis Semosavlebi 2010-2012 wlebis
ganmavlobaSi saSualod 37%-iT gaizarda.
qalTa fondi saqarTveloSi programis angariSSi amave periodis (20102012) ganmavlobaSi beneficiar qalTa Semosavlebis 77%-ian zrdaze
miuTiTebs.
20. Macours. K., Premand, P., Vakis, R. 2013 Demand versus Returns? Pro-poor targeting of business grants
and vocational skills training . The World Bank. Latin America and the Caribbean Region. Poverty, Gender
and Equity Unit
Fiszbein, A.m Kanbur, R., Yemtsov, R. 2013. Social Protection, Poverty and the Post-2015 Agenda. The World
Bank Human Development Network Social Protection and Labor Department. Policy Research Working
Paper
Nenova, T. 2009. Bringing finance to Pakistans poor : access to finance for small Enterprises and the underserved. The World Bank.
21. The World Bank. Human Development Network. 2013. From Evidence to Policy. Policy Breif.
22. Macours. K., Premand, P., Vakis, R. 2013 Demand versus Returns? Pro-poor targeting of business grants
and vocational skills training . The World Bank. Latin America and the Caribbean Region. Poverty, Gender
and Equity Unit

22

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

calkeuli donori organizaciebis monacemebiT, zogadad mikromewarmeobis mxardamWeri programebis sawyis etapze mowyvladi jgufebis
programaSi CarTvis motivacia da, Sedegad, monawileobis maCveneblebi
SedarebiT dabalia imave georgafiul adgilas sxva jgufebis CarTulobis maCveneblebTan SedarebiT. Tumca TemSi am kuTxiT warmatebuli
magaliTebis dafiqsirebis Semdeg monawileobis msurvelTa ricxvi izrdeba23.
donori organizaciebis monacemebiT, beneficiarTa 90%-ze meti
aRniSnavs, rom startap grantebis programaSi monawileoba swori
gadawyvetileba iyo da kmayofilia SedegebiT24.
miuxedavad amisa, donorebi am tipis iniciativebis Sedegebis gaaanalizebis dros garkveul SezRudvebsac aRniSnaven. kerZod:
a) dafinansebuli biznesproeqtebis saSualod naxevarze mets grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi problemebi eqmneba mdgradobis TvalsazrisiT;
b) xSir SemTxvevaSi dafinansebuli biznesproeqtebi wlebis Semdeg
imave saxisaa da naklebad viTardeba;
g) mikro biznesproeqtebis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi didad aris
damokidebuli calkeul subieqtebs Soris TanamSromlobiTi urTierTobebis Camoyalibebasa da kooperaciaze, magram calkeul proeqtebs
Soris TanamSromlobis magaliTebi cotaa an saerTod ar aris:
erTad naklebad akeTeben rames, ar TanamSromloben, donorisgan Tu
ar modis iniciativa da Tavidanve ar aris jgufuri proeqti. Tu sxvadasxva regionia da sxvadasxva proeqti - TanamSromloba saerTod ar
aris - aRniSnavs erT-erTi donori organizaciis warmomadgeneli
Seqmnili situaciis mTavar mizezebad donorebi ramdenime faqtors miiCneven. es faqtorebia:
dabali pasuxismgebloba - beneficiarebi grantis Tanxebis xarjvas naklebi pasuxismgeblobiT ekidebian, vidre sesxis SemTxvevaSi.
`rogorc ki organizacia konkurss gamoacxadebs, modis uamravi xalxi,
romelsac ubralod fuli sWirdeba. muqTa fuli cudia. riskze ufro
midis. imitom rom am muqTa fuls debs Zalian uxarisxo raRacaSi. rodesac modis muqTa fuli, romelzec pasuxismgebloba ar gaqvs, did riskzec
midixar~.
manipulirebis SesaZlebloba - calkeul SemTxvevebSi grantiT gamo23. Womens Fund in Georgia. 2013. Womens Economic Independence in the Post-conflict Zone and Remote Regions of Georgia. Final Report.
24. Center for Training and Consultancy (CTC). 2012. Sustainable integration of IDPs into value creation
chains in new settlement areas. Final Report

23

yofili Tanxebi aramiznobrivad ixarjeba. aplikantebi konkursSi sxve


bis Sedgenil biznesgegmebs waradgenen.
xSirad yofila, mosulan qalbatonebi da saerTod ar icodnen, ra eweraT (biznesgegmaSi). mohyvebodaT biZa da mere aRmoCndeboda, rom proeqti
biZisa yofila.
dabali mzaoba, informirebuloba - mewarmeobaSi gamocdilebis arqonis pirobebSi potenciuri beneficiarebi arasworad afaseben riskebs,
mosalodnel sargebels da sakuTar SesaZleblobebs, rac xSirad gadametebuli an, piriqiT, dabali TviTSefasebis winapirobaa.
arasakmarisi kapitalizacia - gamoyofili grantebis moculobis da
imavdroulad gascemi grantebis raodenobis swori balansis moZebna am
tipis intervenciebis erT-erT mTavar amocanas warmoadgens. startap
grantebis gacemis sistemaSi CarTulma bevrma organizaciam beneficiarTa raodenobis gazrdis mizniT mniSvnelovnad Seamcira startap
grantis moculoba. programebis beneficiarTa, iseve rogorc donori
organizaciebis warmomadgenelTa nawilis azriT, startap grantebisaTvis gansazRvruli Tanxebis odenoba Zalian mcirea, rac zrdis biznesis
ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebul riskebs. garda amisa, socialurad
daucveli da ukiduresad gaWirvebuli ojaxebis dafinansebis SemTxvaSi
arsebobs imis saSiSroeba, rom maT mogeba mTlianad moaxmaron ojaxis
mimdinare xarjebs da ar moaxdinon reinvestireba biznesSi.
`kapitalizacia mainc ar aris sakmarisi, mTeli mogeba reinvesticiisaTvis gamoiyeneba. aRmoCnda, rom, imis garda,
rac gavakeTeT, kide bevri ram aris dasamatebeli, amitom
jerjerobiT ojaxs araferi moxmarebia, ufro metic, sesxis
aRebas vapireb damatebiT~.

programis beneficiari
`mcire problemac ki SeiZleba gaxdes biznesis gakotrebis
mizezi. magaliTad, daavadebis gamo damexoca goWebi da
aRar vici, rogor gavagrZelo mewarmeoba~.

programis beneficiari
bazarze dargobrivi kompetenciebis ganmaviTarebeli programebis
provaiderebis nakleboba - mikrograntebis Tanmdev saganmanaTleblo

komponentSi grantis gamcem organizaciebs dargobrivi kompetenciebis


ganmaviTarebeli programebisaTvis provaiderebis moZebnisas xSirad
problemebi eqmnebaT.
24

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

"gvqonda universitetebTan TanamSromlobis mcdeloba, magram didi survili ar gamouTqvamT. garemos dacvis
mimarTulebiT ufro iolia instituciuri TanamSromloba, soflis meurneobaSi provaiderebis qseli ar arsebobs. moTxovna Zalian didia, magram momwodebeli cotaa.
magaliTad, yvelis teqnologiebSi saqarTveloSi mxolod 5
eqspertis moZiebaa SesaZlebeli. sakiTxs gaaCnia - agronomiis mimarTulebiT metia, vidre Tanamedrove teqnologiebis
mimarTulebiT".

donori organizaciis warmomadgeneli
winaswari kvlevebis nakleboba - mikromewarmeobis mxardamWeri iniciativebi xSirad usistemo xasiaTisaa da naklebad aris dakavSirebuli
samizne regionis an Temis ganviTarebis grZelvadian strategiasTan, iseve rogorc adgilebze arsebul saWiroebebTan.

`startapebTan muSaoba Zalian rTulia. startapi imas niSnavs, rom adamians am saqmeSi gamocdileba ara aqvs. gamouc
deloba Zalian mniSvnelovania. iluziebi aqvT. Semosavali
naklebia, mogeba naklebia, biznesSi reinvestireba naklebia. amitom marketinguli kvleva kidev ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre arsebuli dafinansebuli biznesis dros. es aris
sruli aucilebloba~.

donori organizaciis warmomadgeneli
socialuri daxmarebis paketebis sixiste - mikromewarmeobis mxardaWeris programebSi mowyvladi jgufebis monawileobas xSirad aferxebs is faqti, rom maT angariSze fulis daricxvisTanave beneficiarebs
uuqmdebaT socialurad daucvelis statusi.

`Cven upiratesobas socialurad gaWirvebulebs vaniWebT,


magram problemas wavawydiT - maT eSiniaT, rom socialur
daxmarebas dakargaven da meorec, rom es Tanxa ver auva
ojaxis xarjebs. socialuri paketi ufro stabilurad miaCniaT, miT umetes axla, roca is ormagdeba. Tu adre gamodioda ojaxze 150 lari, axla aris 300 lari. TiToeuli wevri
iRebda 24 lar daxmarebas. amas emateba socialuri SeRavaTebi - swavla, janmrTelobis dazRveva da Sen ki eubnebi,
rom 960 lars (erTjeradad) mogcem, samagierod ki kargav
1000 larso, romelsac xelis gaunZrevlad, garantirebu-

25

lad iRebs. realurad, socialuri politika am iniciativas


xels uSlis~.
donori organizaciis warmomadgeneli

CamoTvlili riskebis Semcirebis mniSnelovan strategiebad donori


organizaciebi Semdeg RonisZiebebs miiCneven:
- startap grantebis monitoringis sqemebi myisieri amonagebis Sefasebaze ki ar unda iyos orientirebuli, aramed Sedegisa.
- proeqtis warmateba Catarebuli treningebis an SeZenili saqonlis
raodenobiT ki ar unda gaizomos, aramed imiT, Tu rogor SeZlo
beneficiarma am resursebis gamoyeneba.
- saswavlo komponenti unda iyos startap grantebis aucilebeli
Tanmdevi komponenti.
- adamianma, sul mcire, biznesgegmis Sedgena unda icodes. reinvestirebis mniSvnelobis gaazreba unda SeeZlos. Tavisi dro unda
Cados xarjebSi - alternatiuli Rirebulebis cneba Tu ar icis, ese
igi verafers gaakeTebs. xSirad ar ician, rogoria investiciis efeqtianoba. roca glexs vuTxariT, rom weliwadSi 110 lari aqvs Semosavali, gagiJda, warmodgenac ar hqonda amis Sesaxeb.
- beneficiaris fuladi Tanamonawileoba mniSvnelovania beneficiarTa motivaciis gazrdisaTvis, Tumca Tanamonawileobis odenoba
winaswari mokvlevis safuZvelze unda ganisazRvros.
- zogierT SemTxvevaSi ar miiReba mxedvelobaSi, ra mogebas naxavs
da sakmarisia Tu ara is ojaxisTvis. es avtomaturad klavs iniaciativas. amas emateba isic, rom kontribuciiT unda Semovides. Tu
araferi ara aqvs, rogor Semodis kontribuciiT.
- saWiroa xangrZlivi monitoringi da daxmareba.
- erTi weli marto mosamzadebeli samuSaosTvis aris saWiro, soflis
meurneobaSi - gansakuTrebiT. minimum 4-5 wli unda iyos startapis
proeqti. 4 welze naklebi araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar unda iyos amgvari
proeqtebi.
- programebis sawyis etapze gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces
potenciur beneficiarTa SesaZleblobebisa da mdgomareobis Seswavlas, raTa garantirebuli iyos miznobrivi xarjva da proeqtis
mdgradoba. unda SemuSavdes daxmarebis diferencirebuli paketebi
Raribi da ukiduresad Raribi mosaxleobisaTvis.
- kargad unda ganisazRvros, am TanxebiT vis SeuZlia ganviTardes,
imitom rom arian Raribebi da ukiduresad Raribebi. Raribebs aqvT
26

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

saSualeba, rom ganviTardnen, magram, Tu upirvelesi saWiroebebi


ara gaqvs dakmayofilebuli da TviTgadarCenaze fiqrob, bizness
ver daiwyeb.
- saganmanaTleblo programebis provaiderebis naklebobis problemis aRmosafxvrelad provaiderebTan TanamSromlobas instituciuri xasiaTi unda mieces. kerZod, dargobrivi kompetenciebis ganviTarebis programebis danergvis mimarTulebiT unda gaZlierdes
kooperacia formalur saganmanaTleblo sistemasTan - umaRles da
profesiul saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebTan.

7. sistemuri sakiTxebi da saxelmwifos roli


mikrobiznesis xelSewyobis programebis warmateba saqarTveloSi didad aris damokidebuli zogad konteqstze da iseTi sistemuri
sakiTxebis regulirebaze, romelic scdeba am programebSi CarTuli
organizaciebis mandats. makro doneze zogadi xedvis arseboba da Tanmimdevruli nabijebi am xedvis ganxorcielebisaTvis am iniciativebis
warmatebis sawindaria.
kvlevaSi CarTuli respondentebis azriT, mikrobiznesis programebis
warmatebisaTvis mniSvnelovani sistemuri sakiTxebia:
- mikrobiznesis mflobelTaTvis metad xelSemwyobi samarTlebrivi
garemos Seqmna;
- socialuri daxmarebis gauqmebis pirobebis imgvarad Secvla, rom es
winaaRmdegobaSi ar modiodes mikrobiznesis xelSemwyobi programebis
strategiasTan da ar aferxebdes mowyvladi jgufebis monawileobas am
programebSi;
sxvadasxva sferoebSi mimdinare reformebis, iseve rogorc mikrobiznesis xelSemwyobi calkeuli programebis koordinaciis xelSewyoba:
- am TvalsazrisiT erT-erT mniSvnelovan strategiul mimarTulebas,
romelic, SesaZlebelia, daukavSirdes mikrobiznesis ganviTarebis programebs soflad, warmoadgens kooperativebis Camoyalibebis saxelmwifo iniciativa.
- meore mniSvnelovani mimarTulebaa mikromewarmeobis programebis
Sedegebis monitoringis erTiani sqemis Camoyalibebis xelSewyoba da
mikromewarmeobis xelSemwyobi iniciativebis dakavSireba, erTi mxriv,
mikrosafinanso programebTan da, meore mxriv, formaluri ganaTlebis
sistemaSi arsebul saganmanaTleblo resursebTan.
27

- kidev erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxi, romelic sistemur doneze unda


gadaiWras, gaxlavT mikromewarmeobis iniciativebis regionaluri ganviTarebis gegmebTan dakavSireba. mikromewarmeobis xelSemwyobi iniciativebis dagegmvisa da monitoringis dros xelmisawvdomi unda iyos
informacia regionis prioritetebis, dagegmili da ganxorcielebuli
intervenciebis Sesaxeb da, piriqiT, mikromewarmeobis xelSewmyobi inciativebis strategia da Sedegebi integrirebuli unda iyos regionaluri
ganviTarebis gegmebSi.

8. mikromewarmeobis mxardamWeri sagranto sqemebi saerTaSoriso gamocdileba da Sedegebi


mikromewarmeobis mxardamWeri grantebis sqema dReisaTvis aqtiurad
gamoiyeneba msoflioSi, rogorc socialuri da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi instrumenti. mowyvlad jgufebze gaTvlil sxva instrumentebTan erTad, rogorebicaa sakredito momsaxureba, danazogis
formirebis xelSewyoba, dazRveva da teqnikuri mxardaWeris paketebi, es
instrumenti xels uwyobs, rogorc finansuri usafrTxoebis qselebis
Camoyalibebas Rarib SinameurneobebSi, ise kapitalis ufro efeqtianad
gamoyenebas (World Bank, 2002).
CamoTvlili instrumentebidan dReisaTvis yvelaze farTod mikrosafinanso sqemebi (sesxebi, danazogi) gamoiyeneba. Tumca msoflio bankisa
da evrokavSiris mier ganxorcielebuli uaxlesi kvlevebi aCvenebs, rom
mowyvlad jgufebTan muSaobis TvalsazrisiT ufro efeqtur sawyis
strategias xSir SemTxvevaSi grantebis sqema warmoadgens.
es mosazreba gamyarebulia ori daSvebiT:
a. sakredito sqemebSi CarTulobis maCveneblebi mniSvnelovnad dabalia mowyvlad jgufebSi (Navajas et al 2000; Morduch 2002)
sakredito momsaxureba SedarebiT naklebad gamoiyeneba uRaribesi
mosaxleobis mier, radgan mosaxleobis es jgufi (im SemTxvevebis garda,
rodesac mikrosafinanso iniciativebi specialurad maTzea gaTvlili
da specialuri sainformacio da wamaxalisebeli kampaniebic axlavs
Tan), ar ganixilavs sesxebis programas, rogorc TavisTvis gankuTvnil
serviss, arc aqvs mcdeloba, gamoscados sakuTari SesaZleblobebi dabali TviTSefasebis gamo, eSinia siaxlis, Tvlis, rom ara aqvs Sesabamisi
tansacmeli da sxva (Ibid 2002).
mikrokreditis xelmisawvdomoba Raribi da ukiduresad Raribi mosaxleobisaTvis problemaa ara mxolod ganviTarebad qveynebSi. magali28

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

Tad, evrokavSiris axal wevr qveyanebSic mosaxleobis mesameds ara aqvs


raime saxis kavSiri bankTan, naxevars ara aqvs gaxsnili angariSi da danazogi da daaxloebiT sam meoTxeds ara aqvs wvdoma kreditze. amis sapirispirod, evrokavSirSi Semaval 15 qveyanaSi, 10-dan 8 zrdasrul adamians
SeuZlia miiRos sabanko momsaxureba; aTidan 7-s aqvs danazogi an krediti da aTidan mxolod erTi aRniSnavs, rom kreditis aRebisas uari miiRo.
evrokavSiris uaxlesi publikaciebis Tanaxmad, sabazo finansur operaciebze (sabanko angariSi da martivi tranzaqciebi) wvdomis SezRuduloba aferxebs integracias evropis sazogadoebaSi, radgan finansuri
eqskluzia pirdapir kavSirSia socialur eqskluziasTan (European Commission 2010).
b. sakredito momsaxurebaze wvdomis pirobebSic, mowyvladi jgufebis
kategoria ufro naklebi albaTobiT iyenebs sesxs produqtiulad (Parker
and Pearce 2001)
Semosavlis momtani saqmianobis nacvlad sesxi SeiZleba gamoyenebul
iqnes sabazo samomxmareblo da janmrTelobis saWiroebebisaTvis. Sesabamisad, valze dafuZnebuli iseTi instrumentis, rogoricaa mikrokrediti, am jgufTan gamoyeneba kidev ufro amZimebs maT mdgomareobas.
Sesabamisad, grantze dafuZnebuli sqemebi sawyisi safexuria, romelic exmareba gaWirvebaSi myof adamians, miaRwios im mdgomareobas,
roca mas SeuZlia fiqri samomavlo gegmebsa da investiciebze. garda
amisa, granti exmareba mowyvlad jgufebs, Seiqmnan erTgvari stabilurobis garantia da gamoyon dro da resursebi Sesabamisi unar-Cvevebis
ganviTarebisa da aqtivebis formirebisaTvis, rac Semdgom sakredito
momsaxurebis xelmisawvdomobisa da misi efeqturad gamoyenebis winapirobaa (Parker and Pearce 2001).
amgvari intervenciis TvalsaCino magaliTia BRAC IGVGD (Income Generation for Vulnerable Groups Development) programa bangladeSSi. es programa
mTavrobis, World Food Program-isa da bangladeSis erT-erTi umsxvilesi
arasamTavrobo organizaciis, BRAC-is erTobliv iniciativas warmoadgens. igi exmareba beneficiarebs ukiduresi siRaribidan ekonomikuri
damoukideblobis kondiciaSi gadasvlis procesSi. programis samizne
jgufs soflad mcxovrebi qalebi warmoadgenen. IGVGD iwyeba 18-Tviani
pirdapiri daxmarebiT (romelSic Tanamonawileobs mTavroba da World
Food Program). pirdapiri daxmarebis komponents Tan axlavs intensiuri
treningi mewarmeobaSi. garda amisa, beneficiarebi sargebloben janmrTelobis dacvis sabazo paketiT. am drois ganmavlobaSi monawileebi
29

swavloben Semosavlis momtani saqmianobis dagegmvasa da ganxorcielebas da iwyeben sakuTar saqmes. bolo aTi wlis manZilze am programis
farglebSi amgvari tranzicia milionze metma adamianma moaxdina. orwliani periodis ganmavlobaSi daaxloebiT 80 % ukve flobs mcire Semosavlis momtan saqmes, aqvs danazogi da gaxda BRAC-is mikrosakredito
sqemis beneficiari.
Sefaseba aCvenebs, rom bangladeSis programis kompleqsuri formati
- granti, treningi, TviTdasaqmeba - efeqturad muSaobs ukiduresi siRaribis, socialuri izolaciis, Sesabamisi kompetenciebis naklebobis,
dabali TviTSefasebis daZlevis mimarTulebiT, rac adre am adamianTa
TviTdasaqmebisaTvis barierebs warmoadgenda (Hossain & Zahra, 2010).
sagranto komponentis (rogorc ukiduresad Raribi da mowyvladi
jgufebis socialuri da ekonomikuri integraciisaken mimarTuli intervenciebis, sawyisi etapis) efeqtianobaze miuTiTebs msoflio bankis
uaxlesi kvlevebi sxva qveynebSic. unda aRiniSnos, rom es kvlevebi samecniero sazogadoebis CarTulobiTaa ganxorcielebuli, iyenebs eqsperimentul dizains da farTo, reprezentatiul SerCevebs eyrdnoba.
magaliTad, msoflio bankis mier mowyvladi jgufebisaTvis mikromewarmeobis xelSemwyobi saxelmwifo sagranto programis Sefasebis
Tanaxmad, ugandaSi mowyvladi jgufebisTvis gacemuli mikrograntebi
aumjobesebs dasaqmebis maCveneblebs da amcirebs siRaribes - programis
dawyebdan 4 wlis Tavze isini, vinc granti miiRo, 41%-iT met Semosavals
iRebdnen, vidre sakontrolo jgufi (igive socialur-ekonomikuri maxasiaTeblebis mqone jgufi, romelic ar iyo CarTuli programaSi). sagranto sqemis beneficiarTa dasaqmebis albaToba saxelobo sferoSi 65%-iT
ufro maRalia, biznesis registraciis albaToba - 31 %-iT ufro maRali,
xolo gadasaxadebis gadaxdisa da aRricxvis warmoebis albaToba - 40%iT ufro maRali, vidre sakontrolo jgufSi (World Bank, 2013).
aseve, ugandaSi ganxorcielebuli Sefaseba miuTiTebs ukugebis ufro
maRal maCveneblebze qalebisaTvis. programaSi CarTul qalTa Semosavali 84 %-iT ufro maRalia sakontrolo jgufis maCveneblebTan
SedarebiT, maSin rodesac mamakacTa eqsperimentuli da sakontrolo
jgufebisaTvis gansxvaveba 31%-s Seadgens. erT-erTi mizezi, kvlevis
Tanaxmad, SeiZleba iyos isic, rom qalebs (grantis arqonis SemTxvevaSi),
Semosavlisa da danazogis ufro dabali sawyisi maCveneblebi hqondaT da
kreditis ufro SezRuduli wvdoma, rac arTulebda sawyisi kapitalis
Segrovebis process.
aseve, ugandaSi ganxorcielebuli kvleviT ar dadasturda hipoTeza
30

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

grantebis aramiznobrivad xarjvis maRali albaTobis Sesaxeb mowyvlad jgufebSi. maTgan, vinc miiRo granti, 76%-ma miznobrivad gamoiyena
Tanxa. aseve, grantis armqone pirebisaTvis gacilebiT dabalia profesiul ganaTlebasa da sxvadasxva treningebSi CarTvis albaToba.
kvlevis Tanaxmad, sagranto programis beneficiarebma ara mxolod
miznobrivad daxarjes, aramed efeqtianad gamoiyenes miRebuli Tanxa.
yoveli investirebuli dolaridan erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi ukugeba 1.4
dolars Seadgenda. sakontrolo jgufTan SedarebiT, grantis mimRebma
jgufma 4-5-jer meti daxarja biznesisaTvis mniSvnelovani masalis SeZenaSi. 4 wlis Tavze biznesmasalebis Rirebuleba beneficiarTa jgufSi
51%-iT ufro maRali iyo, vidre sakontrolo jgufSi.
analogiuri kvlevis Sedegebis Tanaxmad, nikaraguaSi Raribi mosaxleobis mxardaWeris sagranto programa mniSvnelovnad zrdis monawileobisa da Semosavlis maCveneblebs da arasasoflo-sameurneo sferoSi
TviTdasaqmebis maCveneblebs. garda amisa, es kvleva mkafiod aCvenebs
sagranto programebis gansakuTrebul efeqts ukiduresad Raribi mosaxleobis jgufze (Macours et al, 2013).
miuxedavad sagranto komponentis efeqtianobisa, mowyvladi jgufebis
ekonomikuri da socialuri integraciis kompleqsuri programebis
dagegmvisas unda gaTvaliswinebuli iyos ramdenime piroba. kerZod:
Tanamedrove kvlevebis Tanaxmad, granti, mikrokreditTan SedarebiT,
ufro efeqtur sawyis intervenciad moiazreba:
sagangebo situaciebis Semdgom periodSi;
qronikuli ekonomikuri krizisis pirobebSi;
naklebad ganviTarebuli infrastruqturis, servisisa da bazris wvdomis pirobebSi;
mosaxleobis gafantulobis SemTxvevaSi;
erTi tipis ekonomikur aqtivobaze damokidebulebis pirobebSi;
barterze damokidebulebis pirobebSi;
mosaxleobis arastabilurobis pirobebSi (iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebiT, ltolvilebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebuli regionebi).
imisaTvis, rom mikrograntis instrumentma efeqturad imuSaos:
guldasmiT unda iyos SerCeuli miznobrivi jgufi - mikrograntebis
sqema unda emsaxurebodes im adamianebs, romlebic ver sargebloben
mirkokreditiT konkretul konteqstSi (magaliTad, ukiduresad
Raribi mosaxleoba an iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebi);
unda iyos erTjeradi da ganixilebodes, rogorc gardamavali etapi
mikrokreditis etapze gadasasvlelad;
31

unda iyos kargad struqturirebuli da axldes monitoringis Zli


eri komponenti, raTa uzrunvelyofili iyos miznobrivi xarjva.
unda axldes treningisa da konsultirebis komponentebi;
moiazrebdes, sul mcire, 5-10-procentian kontribucias grantis
mimRebis mxridan (Parker and Pearce 2001).
mikrosakredito programebTan koordinacia, rogorc mikrograntebis, ise mikrosafinanso iniciativebis warmatebis aucilebeli pirobaa.
aseve, saerTaSoriso kvlevebi adasturebs, rom mikrograntebis komponentis paralelurad mniSvnelovania:
kompleqsuri RonisZiebebi samizne regionSi infrastruqturis gasaumjobeseblad (gzebi, komunikaciebi, irigacia da sxv.);
arasafinanso servisis uzrunvelyofa, romelic moicavs e.w. socialur intermediacias socialuri kapitalis Seqmnisa da TemSi
sabazo unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebisaTvis, iseve rogorc e.w. biznesis
ganviTarebis servisi (Business Development Services/BDS). socialuri
intermediacia exmareba Rarib da marginalur jgufebs ekonomikuri
SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebaSi sabazo safinanso unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebisa da Sesabamisi safinanso servisebis Sesaxeb informaciis
miwodebis gziT.
BDS prog
ramebi ki mimarTulia potenciur an arsebul mewarmeebze,
miznad isaxavs biznesis warmowyebisa da ganviTarebis Semaferxebeli
barierebis aRmofxvras da moicavs Semdegs:
trenings, mentorobas, sakonsultacio serviss;
bazris Sesaxeb informaciis miwodebas sabazro agentebis, monacemTa bazebis, publikaciebis, vizitebisa da sxva meqanizmebis gamoyenebiT;
mewarmeebis dakavSirebas bazarTan da SemsyidvelebTan;
biznesqselebisa da kavSirebis damyarebas, firmebs Soris kooperaciis xelSewyobas;
efeqtiani teqnologiebis danergvas.
BDS provaiderebi bolo dros ufro metad komerciul sawyisze muSaoben. fasiani servisi xels uwyobs am servisis xarisxis gaumjobesebasa
da ukeT morgebas saWiroebebze, vinaidan mewarmeebi ar SeiZenen serviss,
romelic ar sWirdebaT.
mikrograntebi, rogorc mewarmeobis xelSemwyobi instrumenti, gamoiyeneba ara mxolod gardamavali, aramed ganviTarebuli ekonomikis mqone
qveynebSic. magaliTad:
32

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

startap grantebi intensiurad gaicema amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi;


avstraliaSi axali sawarmoebis waxalisebis sqema gulisxmobs grantebs,
mcire biznesis marTvis trenings, finansuri daxmarebis 12-Tvian pakets,
bizneskonsaltingsa da mentorobas. axal zelandiaSi moqmedi saxelmwifo sqemebi srulad an nawilobriv faravs sawarmos gaxsnis xarjebs.
finansebis wvdomis gaumjobeseba krizisTan brZolis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi instrumentia evropaSic. mikrosafinanso operaciebTan
erTad evropis bevr qveyanaSi moqmedebs sastarto subsidiebi da teqnikuri daxmarebis sqemebi, magaliTad, subsidiebi konsaltingSi (luqsemburSi) an umuSevar qalTaTvis mewarmeobis mxardaWeris programa (saberZneTSi).
maltaSi moqmedi sqema daiwye Seni biznesi miznad isaxavs umuSevari da
pasiuri mosaxleobis mxardaWeras sakuTari biznesis wamowyebis procesSi. programis farglebSi beneficiarebma SeiZleba isargeblon konsultirebis servisiT, gaiaron treningi da miiRon finanasuri mxardaWera.
soflad biznesis wamosawyebad safrangeTSi 250 gansxvavebuli sagranto sqema da subsidia moqmedebs. maT Sorisaa, rogorc evrokavSiris subsidiebi, ise grantebi centralur, regionalur da Temis doneze.
evropis masStabiT mikromewarmeobis dawyebisaTvis saWiro sawyisi
kapitali, ZiriTadad, uzrunvelyofilia ufro farTo politikuri
iniciativebis konteqstSi da mimarTulia inovaciebis xelSewyobisaken
mewarmeobasa da, zogadad, biznesSi.
angariSis danarTSi detalurad aris aRwerili poloneTis magaliTi,
sadac mewarmeobis mxardamWeri mikrograntebi dasaqmebisa da mewarmeobis xelSemwyobi saxelmwifo intervenciis mniSvnelovan komponents warmoadgens.

33

9. mTavari daskvnebi
mikromewarmeobis xelSemwyobi startap grantebi saqarTveloSi dabali socialuri statusis mqone jgufebis dasaqmebisa da Semosavlebis
maCveneblebis zrdis efeqturi instrumentia. programebis ganmaxorcielebeli organizaciebisa da beneficiarebis SefasebiT:
mcire biznesis ganviTarebis sagranto programebi sawyisi kapitalis xelmisawvdomobis gazrdis efeqturi instrumentia, gansakuTrebiT soflad mcxovrebi Raribi mosaxleobisaTvis, sadac,
mikrosafinanso sferoSi mimdinare reformebis miuxedavad, fuladi saxsrebis xelmisawvdomoba kvlav mniSvnelovan problemas warmoadgens da biznesis wamowyebis sawyis etapze sesxi mikrograntis
alternativad ar ganixileba maRali saprocento ganakveTis gamo.
startap grantebi sesxebis xelmisawvdomobis gazrdis winapirobasac warmoadgens, radgan mikrosafinanso programebis warmatebas
mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs beneficiarebis gamocdileba da kompetenciebi, sawyisi ekonomikuri da socialuri kapitali. am TvalsazrisiT startap granti aris beneficiarebis momzadebis efeqturi
saSualeba, romelic zrdis mikrosafinanso programebSi CarTvis
motivaciasa da am programebSi warmatebis albaTobas.
startap granti efeqturad muSaobs saqarTveloSi, rogorc zrdasrulTa araformaluri ganaTlebis instrumenti. igi mewarmeobisTvis aucilebeli Teoriuli codnisa da am codnis praqtikaSi ganmtkicebas uwyobs xels. es komponenti gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania
im fonze, rom sabWoTa kavSirSi formaluri ganaTlebis sistemis
saswavlo gegmebi ar iTvaliswinebda mewarmeobisTvis mniSvnelovani
kompeteneciebis ganviTarebas, xolo mowyvladi jgufebis (gansakuTrebiT ufrosi asakis mosaxleobis) CarTuloba umaRles akademiur da profesiul ganaTlebaSi dReisaTvis mcirea.
donorebisa da beneficiarebis ukukavSiris Tanaxmad, startap
grantebi, aseve, xels uwyobs soflad Temis gaZlierebas - samuSao
adgilebis Seqmnas, servisebis da saqonlis xelmisawvdomobas.
startap grantebis ekonomikur efeqtTan erTad Zalian mniSvnelovania am programebis socialuri efeqti:
programebi xels uwyobs adamianTa mobilizebas (organizebas, stimulirebas) mewarmeobisaTvis da maT mier pirveli nabijis gadadgmas.
mewarmeoba cvlis TviTSefasebas, zrdis sakuTari Tavis imeds
da dadebiTad aisaxeba riskis aRqmaze. dadebiTi magaliTi mniSvnelovania SromiTi motivaciis Semdgomi amaRlebisaTvis; progr34

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

amebi exmareba beneficiarebs socialuri kavSirebis gamdidrebaSi;


startap grantebi xels uwyobs socialuri rolebis struqturis
Secvlas, genderul Tanasworobas, beneficiarebis socialuri statusis amaRlebas, rogorc TemSi, ise ojaxSi.
startap grantebi mniSvnelovania ara mxolod Tavad mewarmis, aramed misi ojaxis wevrebis dasaqmebis TvalsazrisiTac;
programis monawileTa warmateba sxvebisaTvis magaliTia. Tumca,
SesaZloa, es TemSi Surisa da konfliqtis mizezic gaxdes.
miuxedavad am tipis programebis pozitiuri efeqtisa, donorebi da beneficiarebi Sedegebis gaanalizebisas garkveul SezRudvebsac aRniSnaven:
dafinansebuli biznesproeqtebis saSualod naxevarze mets grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi problemebi eqmneba mdgradobis TvalsazrisiT;
xSir SemTxvevaSi dafinansebuli biznesproeqtebi wlebis Semdeg
imave saxisaa da naklebad viTardeba;
mikro biznesproeqtebis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi didad aris
damokidebuli calkeul subieqtebs Soris TanamSromlobiTi urTierTobebis Camoyalibebasa da kooperaciaze, Tumca calkeul proeqtebs
Soris TanamSromlobis magaliTebi an cotaa, an saerTod ar aris.
mikromewarmeobis mxardamWeri startap grantebis efeqturobis
Semaferxebel faqtorebad saxeldeba:
potenciur beneficiarTa dabali mzaoba, informirebuloba da pasuxismgebloba - mewarmeobaSi gamocdilebis arqonis pirobebSi potenciuri beneficiarebi arasworad afaseben riskebs, mosalodnel
sargebels da sakuTar SesaZleblobebs.
arasakmarisi kapitalizacia - ris Sedegadac izrdeba biznesis Cavardnis riskebi, xolo dabali ekonomikuri statusis mqone beneficiarebSi mcirdeba biznesSi reinvestirebis albaToba.
bazarze dargobrivi kompetenciebis ganmaviTarebeli programebis
provaiderebis nakleboba da, kerZod, naklebi kavSiri formaluri
ganaTlebis sistemasTan, rac aferxebs saganmanaTleblo programebis efeqturobasa da efeqtianobas.
mikromewarmeobis mxardaWeris iniciativebis naklebi kavSiri
samizne regionis an Temis ganviTarebis grZelvadian strategiasTan, iseve rogorc adgilebze arsebul saWiroebebTan.
socialuri daxmarebis paketebis sixiste - mikromewarmeobis mxardaWeris programebSi mowyvladi jgufebis monawileobas xSirad
aferxebs is faqti, rom maT angariSze fulis daricxvisTanave beneficiarebs uuqmdebaT socialurad daucvelis statusi.
35

10. rekomendaciebi
rekomendaciebi sistemuri xasiaTisaa da gankuTvnilia qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri politikis ganmsazRvreli institutebisa da mTavrobisaTvis.
warmodgenili rekomendaciebi efuZneba im mosazrebas, rom saxelmwifom ufro aqtiuri roli Seasrulos mikromewarmeobis ganviTarebaSi
da xeli Seuwyos moqalaqeTa samewarmeo aqtivobas. es gulisxmobs ara
mxolod samarTlebrivi da sagadasaxado regulaciebis Seqmnas, aramed
mikromewarmeobis wamaxalisebeli konkretuli RonisZiebebis Catarebasac. warmodgenili rekomendaciebi gamomdinareobs zemoT aRwerili kvlevis daskvnebidan da Sedegebidan:
1. mikromewarmeobis xelSewyobis saxelmwifo CarCo-meqanizmis
Seqmna

umTavresi SeTavazebaa, Seiqmnas mikromewarmeobis waxalisebis saxelmwifo CarCo-meqanizmi, romelic safuZvels Cauyris mikromewarmeobis xelSewyobis calkeuli saxelmwifo programebis efeqtur ganxorcielebas;
meqanizmi unda moicavdes mikromewarmeobis xelSewyobis ZiriTad
socialur da ekonomikur miznebs, prioritetul miznobriv jgufebs,
programebis mTavar midgomebs da ganxorcielebis gzebs, aseve mikromewarmeobis programebis mqone samTavrobo uwyebebs Soris koordinaciis,
monacemTa Segrovebisa da analizis principebs;
mniSvnelovania, rom erT-erTma saxelmwifo uwyebam SeiTavsos mikromewarmeobis xelSewyobis yvela programis monacemebis mogrovebis,
efeqtianobis kvlevis da politikis Sefasebis funqcia. es xels Seuwyobs
programebis mudmiv srulyofas da mewarmeobis waxalisebis politikis
ganviTarebas;
mikromewarmeobis mxardamWeri programebis analizi gviCvenebs, rom
principuli mniSvneloba aqvs biznesis marTvis sabaziso unar-Cvevebis
ganviTarebis mizniT mikromewarmeebis uzrunvelyofas sawyisi kapitaliT (grantis an subsidirebuli kreditis saxiT) da Sesabamisi saswavlo
Tu sakonsultacio daxmarebiT. Sesabamisad, rekomendebulia, rom CarCo-meqanizmi am komponentebs iTvaliswinebdes;
Zalze efeqtiani iqneba mikromewarmeobis xelSewyobis programebis
ganxorcieleba municipalur doneze. amitom rekomendebulia, rom municipalitetebs mieceT SesaZlebloba, adgilze ganaxorcielon saxelmwifo
uwyebebis programebi.
36

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

2. mikromewarmeobis xelSewyobis programis ganxorcieleba

mikromewarmeobis xelSewyoba unda xorcieldebodes CarCo-meqanizmze dayrdnobiT sxvadasxva saxelmwifo uwyebebis mier inicirebuli
programebis saxiT;
yoveli programa konkretulad unda gansazRvravdes miznobrivi
jguf(eb)is moqmedebis gegmas da mosalodnel Sedegebs. aseve, unda iTvaliswinebdes monitoringisa da Sefasebis gamarTul sistemasac, romelic uzrunvelyofs programebis mdgradi ekonomikuri (dasaqmeba,
Sinameurneobis Semosavlis zrda, wili mTlian Sida produqtSi) da socialuri (samewarmeo aqtivoba, TviTSefaseba, kmayofileba cxovrebiT)
Sedegebis gazomvas;
programebi, SesaZloa, xorcieldebodes Sesabamisi uwyebis mier garedan Sesyiduli momsaxurebis gziT, kerZod, saproeqto winadadebebis
konkursiT, romelSic monawileobis ufleba eqnebaT, rogorc municipalitetebs, aseve kerZo samarTlis sxva subieqtebs;
3. gamocdilebis gaziareba da TanamSromloba sazogadoebriv
seqtorTan

rekomendebulia, rom mikromewarmeobis politikisa da programebis


dagegmvisa da ganxorcielebis dros saxelmwifo struqturebma iTanamSromlon qarTul sazogadoebriv da saqarTveloSi momuSave saerTaSoriso organizaciebTan, romlebsac aqvT amgvari programebis ganxorcielebis gamocdileba. TanamSromloba, SesaZloa, gulisxmobdes,
rogorc gamocdilebis gacvlas, aseve am organizaciebis monawileobas
programebis ganxorcielebaSi;
4. samewarmeo unarebis swavleba

grZelvadiani SedegebisaTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania meti yuradReba


daeTmos zogadi ganaTlebis programebSi mewarmeobis unar-Cvevebis
swavlebas da Sesabamisi saganmanaTleblo resursebis ganviTarebas. am
mizniT, pirvel rigSi, rekomendebulia, rom ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis
saministrom SeimuSaos specialuri samoqmedo gegma da moiZios Sesabamisi resursebi;
aseve mniSvnelovania, rom ufro xelmisawvdomi gaxdes biznesis warmoebis sabaziso unarebis swavleba zrdasruli mosaxleobisaTvis. am
TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebuli roli eniWeba zrdasrulTa araformaluri ganaTlebis programebs. radgan qveyanaSi ar arsebobs zrdasrulTa
araformaluri ganaTlebis erTiani politika, pirveli rigis prioritetad gvesaxeba saxelmwifo xedvisa da strategiis SemuSaveba am mimarTulebiT.
37

38

(; )

- -

- -

angariSi mikromewarmobasTan dakavSirebuli


sagranto programebis mxriv poloneTSi
arsebuli gamocdilebis Sesaxeb
momzadebuli JeSuvis `regionuli ganviTarebis saagentos~ mier

1. rodis daiwyo poloneTSi analogiuri proeqtebis ganxorcieleba?


mewarmeobisa da TviTdasaqmebis gafarToeba miiCneva umuSevrobasTan
brZolis erT-erT warmatebul meTodad - igi zrdis profesiul saqmianobas sazogadoebaSi da stimulirebas uwevs regionebis socialur da
ekonomikur ganviTarebas. 2004-2006 wlebis periodSi, anu evrokavSirSi
poloneTis gawevrianebis Semdeg, regionuli ganviTarebis integrirebuli saoperacio programis farglebSi SemoiRes RonisZieba 2.5 - mewarmeobis xelSewyoba. zemoxsenebuli RonisZiebis uSualo amocana iyo
dasaqmebis aqtiuri xelSewyoba axali mikrobiznesebis daarsebis stimulirebisa da axlad Seqmnili biznesebisTvis daxmarebis xelmisawvdomi
instrumentebis gamoyenebaSi xelSewyobis gziT.
2007-2013 wlebis periodSi SemoiRes saoperacio programa `adamianuri
kapitali~, rac SesaZlebels xdis ganacxadis wardgenas Tanadafinansebaze axali biznesaqtivobis wamosawyebad. aRniSnuli programis farglebSi Camoyalibda RonisZieba 6.2 - mewarmeobisa da TviTdasaqmebis
xelSewyoba da stimulireba. am RonisZiebis mizania iseTi iniciativebisa
da procesebis xelSewyoba da stimulireba, romlebic miznad isaxaven
axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas da produqtiuli midgomebis damkvidrebas. aRniSnuli axali samuSao adgilebi da produqtiuli midgomebi
safuZvlad daedeba mewarmeobisa da TviTdasaqmebis ideis ganviTarebas.
2. romeli jgufebi iReben startaps mTavrobisgan?
RonisZieba 6.2-is - mewarmeobisa da TviTdasaqmebis xelSewyoba da stimulireba - farglebSi daxmareba SeiZleba gaewios pirs, romelic apirebs
axali biznesis wamowyebas (garda im pirebisa, vinc registrirebuli iyo
biznessaqmianobis reestrSi, kompaniaTa iuridiul reestrSi (LRoC), an
eweoda biznessaqmianobas sxva kanonis safuZvelze, maT Soris iuristis,
davalianebaTa amoRebaze uflebamosili piris saqmianobas an pedagogis
saqmianobas, proeqtSi CarTvis TariRamde 12-Tvian periodSi).
RonisZieba 6.2-is farglebSi daxmareba mimarTulia miznobriv jgufebze, romlebic yvelaze did sirTuleebs ganicdian Sromis bazarze Sesv39

laSi da iq damkvidrebaSi. kerZod, am jgufebSi Sedian:


pirebi, vinc proeqtSi CarTvis TariRamde bolo 24 Tvis ganmavlobaSi,
sul mcire, 12 Tves (zedized) iyo umuSevari;
qalebi (kerZod, is qalebi, vinc brundeba da Sedis Sromis bazarze
bavSvis dabadebasTan an aRzrdasTan dakavSirebuli wyvetis Semdeg, magaliTad, sadekreto Svebulebis Semdeg);
25 wlamde asakis pirebi, maT Soris studentebi, romlebic sruli datvirTviT swavloben;
SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone pirebi, maT Soris SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone pirebi, romlebic samsaxurs eZeben;
45 welze ufrosi asakis pirebi;
soflad da/an sasoflo/urbanul teritoriebze mcxovrebi pirebi da
25 000-mde mosaxleobis mqone qalaqebSi mcxovrebi pirebi, vinc apirebs
samuSaos povnas iseT adgilebSi, sadac ar xdeba marcvleulis moyvana
da/an saqonlis moSeneba.
proeqtis ganmaxorcielebel TiToeul dawesebulebas aqvs ufleba/
SesaZlebloba, daaviwroos proeqtisTvis ayvanili miznobrivi jgufi
zemoT miTiTebul kategoriebamde. TiToeul monawiles, romelic eZebs
finansur daxmarebas mewarmeobis ganviTarebis mizniT RonisZieba 6.2-is
farglebSi, moeTxoveba, warmoadginos gancxadeba, rom igi paralelurad ar sargeblobs sxva saxelmwifo fondebiT, gansakuTrebiT ki Sromis
fondis saxsrebiT an saoperacio programa `adamianuri kapitalis~ finansuri wyaroebiT, romlebic gamiznulia biznessaqmianobis wamowyebasTan da marTvasTan an kooperativis Tu socialuri kooperativis wamowyebasTan dakavSirebuli xarjebis dasafarad.
3. romeli saxelmwifo struqturebi uzrunvelyofen Tanadafinansebas axali biznesebis wamosawyebad?
axali biznessaqmianobis wamosawyebad da RonisZieba 6.2-is farglebSi proeqtebis gansaxorcieleblad Tanxebi grantebis saxiT SeiZleba
gamoyon arasamTavrobo organizaciebma, biznesinkubatorebma, biznesgaremos dawesebulebebma, treningis dawesebulebebma, adgilobrivi
xelisuflebis organoebma, universitetebma da umaRlesma saswavleblebma. yvela zemoxsenebuli dawesebuleba da organizacia SeirCeva ganacxadebis konkursiT da saoperacio programa `adamianuri kapitalis~
RonisZieba 6.2-is farglebSi ganmaxorcielebeli dawesebulebebisTvis
moTxovnili dokumentaciis wardgenis safuZvelze poloneTis 16 provinciaSi (savoevodoSi). ganmaxorcielebeli dawesebulebebi - umetes
40

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

SemTxvevaSi Sromis samsaxurebi - Seafaseben wardgenil ganacxadebs da


Sefasebis Sedegad SeirCeva is dawesebulebebi, romlebic Seasruleben
`sagranto~ proeqtebs.
saoperacio programa `adamianuri kapitalis~ RonisZieba 6.2-is farglebSi proeqtebis ganmaxorcielebeli dawesebulebebi pasuxismgebelni
arian SerCevis proceduris Catarebaze, anu daqiravebis procesze, biznessaqmianobis warmarTvis principebTan dakavSirebiT treningebis organizebaze, im pirebis SerCevis proceduris warmarTvaze, romelTac
mieniWebaT finansuri daxmareba axali biznessaqmianobis dasaregistrireblad da dasawyebad, finansuri daxmarebis miniWebis proceduraze da
miniWebuli finansuri daxmarebis farglebSi gaweuli xarjebis Sesabamisobis makontrolebel saqmianobaze.
axali biznessaqmianobis wamosawyebad finansuri daxmarebis miRebiT
dainteresebulma pirma piradad unda mimarTos dawesebulebas, romelic axorcielebs proeqtebs saoperacio programa `adamianuri kapitalis~ RonisZieba 6.2-is farglebSi, raTa monawileoba miiRos konkretuli proeqtisTvis dakompleqtebis procesSi.
ganmaxorcielebeli dawesebulebebi arc treningisTvis dakompleqtebis process awarmoeben da arc grantebs gamoyofen axali biznessaqmianobis wamosawyebad. maTi amocanaa ganacxadebis konkursis
gamocxadeba/gamoqveyneba. am gancxadebaze gamoxmaureba SeuZlia nebismier dainteresebul dawesebulebas, romelic akmayofilebs moTxovnebs
- man unda waradginos ganacxadis forma, maT Soris detaluri biujeti
da mTeli proeqtis ganxorcielebis ganrigi. ganacxadebis procesis Semdeg ganmaxorcielebeli dawesebulebebi pasuxs ageben saukeTeso proeqtebis SerCevasa da maTTvis finansuri resursebis gadacemaze ganxorcielebis, angariSsworebis da kontrolis mizniT.
4. ra pirobebiT gaicema biznesis startapis fondebi?
piri, romelsac surs finansuri daxmarebis mopoveba, unda akmayofilebdes proeqtis ganmaxorcielebeli organizaciis mier dawesebul
yvela moTxovnas da unda SeirCes proeqtSi monawileobis misaRebad.
monawileobis misaRebad ayvanis pirobebsa da moTxovnebs adgenen proeqtis ganmaxorcielebeli organizaciebi da isini SeiZleba moicavdes,
magaliTad, pirad gasaubrebas, biznesgegmis winaswari monaxazis wardgenas, fsiqologiur testebs biznesis damoukideblad warmoebisTvis
kandidatebis Sesaferisobis dasadgenad. proeqtisTvis SerCevis da
konsultaciebisa da treningis etapis warmatebiT dasrulebis Semdeg
41

proeqtis TiToeul monawiles SeuZlia Seitanos ganacxadi Tanxebze sakuTari biznesis dasawyebad. proeqtis Semdegi nabijia finansuri daxmarebis misaRebad ganacxadis formebis da yvela aucilebeli danarTis
wardgenis saboloo vadis dadgena. ganacxadis formebs afasebs komisia,
romelic iniSneba proeqtis ganmaxorcielebeli organizaciis mier. xdeba axali biznesis registrireba proeqtis ganmavlobaSi. es unda ganxorcieldes am konkretuli proeqtis ganmaxorcielebeli organizaciisgan
finansuri daxmarebis Taobaze dadebiTi gadawyvetilebis miRebis Semdeg. ar SeiZleba finansuri daxmarebis (grantis) gamoyofa TevzWerisa
da akvakulturis seqtorebSi biznessaqmianobisTvis (rogorc es gansazRvrulia evropis Tanamegobrobis sabWos #104/2000 gankargulebaSi).
aris agreTve SezRudvebi soflis meurneobis seqtorSi biznesebisa da
sasoflo-sameurneo produqciis gadamuSavebisa da realizaciisTvis.
nebismieri piri, romelsac aqvs eWvi konkretuli tipis saqmianobisTvis
finansuri daxmarebis mopovebis SesaZleblobasTan dakavSirebiT, unda
gaecnos regionuli ganviTarebis ministris 2008 wlis 6 maisis brZanebis
30-e muxlis me-2 punqts saoperacio programa `adamianuri kapitalis~
farglebSi finansuri daxmarebis gamoyofis Sesaxeb. aRniSnul muxlSi
mocemulia nebismieri gamonaklisebi zemoxsenebuli finansuri daxmarebis misaRebad ganacxadis Setanis SesaZleblobidan.
5. romel sxva Sesabamis momsaxurebas exeba es fondebi: magaliTad,
swavlebas?
RonisZieba 6.2-is - mewarmeobis da TviTdasaqmebis xelSewyoba da stimulireba - farglebSi gaTvaliswinebulia Semdegi usasyidlo daxmareba,
romelic unda gaewios pirebs, romelTac surT axali biznessaqmianobis
dawyeba (maT Soris kooperativebisa da socialuri kooperativebis Camoyalibeba):
fondebis gamoyofa mewarmeobis ganviTarebisTvis (maT Soris kooperativebisa da socialuri kooperativebis formebisTvis, im pirobiT,
rom kooperativis yvela wevrs dawyebuli aqvs biznessaqmianoba erTi
proeqtis farglebSi) 40,000 polonuri zlotis maqsimalur Tanxamde
erT pirze (da 20,000 pirze kooperativebisa da socialuri kooperativebis SemTxvevaSi). grantma SeiZleba dafaros axali biznesis wamowyebis RirebulebasTan dakavSirebuli xarjebis 100%. arsebobs sakuTari finansuri resursebis gamoyenebis an naturiT Senatanis gakeTebis
SesaZlebloba. granti gaicema or calke tranSad. pirvel tranSs ixdian
mTliani miRebuli grantis 80%-is odenobiT. darCenil nawils gascemen
42

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

axali biznessaqmianobis registrirebasa da dawyebaze gaRebuli xarjebis asanazRaureblad. es niSnavs, rom proeqtis beneficiarebma unda
Seitanon sakuTari resursebi, romlebic anazRaurdeba yvela gaweul
xarjTan dakavSirebuli saboloo angariSsworebis Semdeg. granti SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes kapitaluri danaxarjebis (maT Soris ZiriTadi
saSualebebis, saremonto da samSeneblo samuSaoebis Rirebulebis) da
likvidur aqtivebTan dakavSirebuli xarjebis (romlebic damtkicda,
rogorc aucilebeli am konkretuli biznessaqmianobis dasaarseblad da
saTanadod iqna dasabuTebuli ganmcxadeblis mier) dasafarad. finansuri daxmarebis meSveobiT SeZenili likviduri aqtivebis (sabuRaltro
aRricxvis Sesaxeb 1994 wlis 29 seqtembris kanonSi mocemuli mniSvnelobiT) saerTo Tanxa ar unda aRematebodes gamoyofili daxmarebis 40%-s.
damxmare xelSewyoba (e.w. `brijingi~), romelic gaicema 6/12 Tvis
ganmavlobaSi kontraqtis xelmoweris dRidan, moicavs: a) `brijingis~
finansur xelSewyobas, romelic unda gadaixadon yovelTviurad im
minimaluri yovelTviuri xelfasis odenobiT, romelic arsebobda `brijingis~ kontraqtis xelmowerisas; b) trenings da konsultaciebs grantis efeqtianad gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT (mxolod im monawileebisTvis, vinc axali biznessaqmianoba am konkretuli proeqtis farglebSi
daiwyo). `brijingis~ ZiriTadi daxmareba gaicema proeqtis im beneficiaris TxovniT, vinc waradgina ganacxadis forma. `brijingi~ beneficiarisTvis xdeba 6 Tvis ganmavlobaSi xelSekrulebis dadebidan da aRniSnul daxmarebasTan dakavSirebiT kontraqtis xelmoweridan. zogierT
mizanSewonil SemTxvevaSi da aseve beneficiaris TxovniT `brijingi~
SeiZleba 12 Tvemde gagrZeldes. proeqtis ganmaxorcielebel organizaciebs aseve SeuZliaT zogierT mizanSewonil SemTxvevaSi daTanxmdnen proeqtis beneficiaris mier gaweuli xarjebis anazRaurebas biznessaqmianobis registrirebidan `brijingis~ xelSewyobis Taobaze
kontraqtis xelmoweris TariRamde drois periodSi. Cveulebriv, `brijingi~ SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes registrirebisa da biznessaqmianobis dawyebis Semdgomi periodisTvis. `brijingis~ xelSewyoba SeiZleba
mieniWos warmodgenili ganacxadis formis safuZvelze da mas SeiZleba
hqondes Semdegi formebi: specifikuri konsultacia - treningiT momsaxureba an finansuri daxmareba, romelic gaeweva yovelTviurad im
minimaluri yovelTviuri xelfasis odenobiT, romelic arsebobda `brijingis~ kontraqtis xelmowerisas, konkretul axlad daarsebul biznessaqmianobasTan uSualod dakavSirebuli Tviuri xarjebis dasafaravad.
`brijingis~ finansuri xelSewyoba SesaZlebelia gamoyenebuli iqnes
43

xarjebis Semdegi tipebis dasafaravad:


finansuri Senatanebi, garda pirgasamtexloebis da jarimebisa;
satelekomunikacio gadasaxadebi (telefoni, interneti da a.S.);
komunaluri gadasaxadebis xarjebi (wyali, gazi, eleqtroenergia
da a.S.);
ijaris, qiris xarjebi;
manqana-danadgarebisa da aparaturis qiraobis da ijaris xarjebi;
individualuri da sicocxlis dazRvevis xarjebi;
biznessaqmianobasTan uSualod dakavSirebuli saqmianobebis qvekontraqtebiT gacemis xarjebi (magaliTad, sabuRaltro momsaxureba, vebgverdis Seqmnis da warmoebis xarjebi da a.S.).
konsultaciebi (individualuri an jgufuri) da treningi axali biznessaqmianobis dawyebamde, iseTi axali unar-Cvevebisa da codnis
SesaZenad, romlebic aucilebelia axali biznesis wamosawyebad da
samarTavad. treningi moicavs sul mcire trenings da/an konsultaciebs biznesTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. Tumca daxmarebas
SeiZleba ufro farTo saxe hqondes. daxmarebis detaluri moculoba SeiZleba gansxvavebuli iyos konkretuli proeqtebis ganmaxorcielebeli organizaciebis mixedviT. mosalodnelia, rom
proeqtis TiToeuli monawile monawileobas miiRebs savaldebulo
sakonsultacio-treningis modulSi, Tumca am TvalsazrisiT saboloo gadawyvetilebas organizacia Rebulobs. magram treningSi
monawileobidan gamonaklisis daSveba mxolod gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSia SesaZlebeli.
6. xdeba Tu ara Sedegebis Sefaseba da analizi? ramdenad efeqtiania
aseTi midgoma siRaribesTan brZolis da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis
TvalsazrisiT?
im proeqtebis mTavari mizani, romlebic gankuTvnilia sakuTari biznessaqmianobis wamowyebis msurveli adamianebisaTvis, aris iseTi pirobebis damkvidrebaSi daxmarebis gaweva, romlebic xels uwyobs mewarmeobis da TviTdasaqmebis ganviTarebas da qmnis axal samuSao adgilebs.
saoperacio programa `adamianuri kapitalis~ RonisZieba 6.2 fokusirebulia umTavresad im yvelaze metad daucvel jgufebze, romlebsac
yvelaze did barierebi xvdebaT Sromis bazarze SesvlaSi da iq damkvidrebaSi. proeqtebi gamiznulia 25 wlamde asakis pirebis, SezRuduli
SesaZleblobebis mqone pirebis, 45 welze ufrosi asakis pirebisa da
didi xnis ganmavlobaSi umuSevrebisTvis. sagangebod unda aRiniSnos,
44

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

rom proeqtebi Cveulebriv xorcieldeba im axalgazrda unarSezRuduli adamianebisTvis, romlebsac aqvT maRali safexuris an umaRlesi ganaTleba da romlebic uvlian bavSvebs da maT kmayofaze myof sxva pirebs.
rogorc proeqtebis ganxorcielebis procesSi, ise maTi dasrulebisas
xdeba sxvadasxva monacemTa monitoringi da grovdeba Semdegi saxis informacia: ramdenma adamianma miiRo sargebeli am proeqtidan (maT Soris,
xdeba klasificireba asakis, sqesis, sacxovrebeli adgilis, ganaTlebis
donis mixedviT), ramden adamians gamoeyo finansuri daxmareba da sxva
saxis daxmareba, ramdeni damatebiTi samuSao adgili Seiqmna, ramden xans
warimarTeboda axali biznessaqmianoba, rogori Sedegebi aqvs mas da a.S.
garda amisa, xdeba iseTi aspeqtebis Seswavlac, rogoricaa beneficiarebis kmayofileba proeqtiT, miRebuli daxmarebis Sefaseba, treningamde da konsultaciebamde arsebuli codnis donis Sedareba miRebuli
codnis donesTan da a.S.
JeSuvis regionuli ganviTarebis saagentos mier RonisZieba 6.2-is proeqtebis beneficiarebis Sesaxeb Catarebuli kvlevis mixedviT, axali
biznessaqmianobis wamowyebaSi yvelaze didi daxmarebis gamwevad da sasargeblod miiCneva usasyidlo grantebi. rac Seexeba proeqtis monawileTa asaks, yvelaze mravalricxovani jgufi moicavs 25-34 wlis, aseve
45 welze ufrosi asakis pirebs. xolo rac Seexeba proeqtis monawileTa
ganaTlebis dones, maT umetesobas aqvs maRali safexuris an umaRlesi
ganaTleba. proeqtebis teritoriuli gavrcelebis mxriv, monawileTa
umetesoba urbanuli teritoriebidanaa.
dRemde yvelaze gavrcelebuli mizezi imisa, Tu ratom SeaqvT
ganmcxadeblebs ganacxadi daxmarebis zemoxsenebuli formebis misaRebad, aris maTi survili, moipovon Tanxebi, romlebic miscems maT SesaZleblobas, wamoiwyon axali biznessaqmianoba. mewarmeoba gadamwyveti
faqtoria socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebisTvis da arsebiTi piroba/winapiroba qveynis ekonomikis konkurentunarianobis misaRwevad.
biznessaqmianobis pirobebis gaumjobesebisken mimarTul RonisZiebebs
Tavisi wvlili Seaqvs ekonomikis konkurentunarianobis gaZlierebaSi,
samuSao adgilebis SeqmnaSi da umuSevrobis donis SemcirebaSi.
podkarpaties savoevodoSi 2007 wlidan 2013 wlis martamde periodSi
10 766 pirma miiRo granti axali biznessaqmianobis wamosawyebad. SedarebisaTvis: imave periodSi mTel qveyanaSi 148 603 pirs mieniWa Tanadafinanseba.

45

7. ra kriteriumebiT izomeba amgvari startapisTvis sagranto


programebis mdgradoba da efeqtianoba?
RonisZieba 6.2-is proeqtebis beneficiarebs moeTxovebaT, monitoringi gauwion miRebuli grantis farglebSi gaweuli xarjebis Sesabamisobas 12 Tvis ganmavlobaSi kontraqtis/xelSekrulebis xelmoweris
dRidan. is monawileebi, visac finansuri daxmareba mewarmeobis (maT Soris kooperativebis da socialuri kooperativebis) ganviTarebis mizniT
gamoeyo, valdebulni arian, daabrunon miRebuli Tanxebi dagrovil procentebTan erTad, Tuki isini ukve oficialurad iyvnen CarTuli raime
biznessaqmianobaSi an iyvnen kooperativis wevrebi 12 Tveze naklebi xnis
ganmavlobaSi an, Tu maT daarRvies xelSekrulebis romelime piroba,
kerZod, iseTi piroba, romelic exeba aRniSnuli Tanxebis gamoyenebas.
8. ra saxiT cxaddeba da vrceldeba informacia sagranto programebis Sesaxeb?
evrokavSiris TanxebiT Tanadafinansebuli proeqtebis ganxorcielebisas TiToeuli proeqtis ganuyofeli nawilis saxiT, tardeba
rigi sainformacio RonisZiebebisa. es exeba RonisZieba 6.2-s - mewarmeobis da TviTdasaqmebis xelSewyoba da stimulireba - farglebSi ganxorcielebul proeqtebsac.
es Sedegia saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebis da sakanonmdeblo normebisa,
romlebic evrokavSiris mier dafinansebuli proeqtebis ganmaxorcielebeli yvela organizaciisTvis awesebs sainformacio-sareklamo kampaniebis Catarebis moTxovnas. saoperacio programa `adamianuri kapitalis~ farglebSi sainformacio-sareklamo kampaniebis warmarTvis
koordinirebaze pasuxismgebloba akisria mmarTvel uwyebas - regionuli ganviTarebis saministros. komunikaciis procesSi aseve CarTuli
arian sxva dawesebulebebic, romelTac akisriaT mTlianad programis
ganxorcielebis pasuxismgebloba. eseni arian Suamavali organoebi, ganmaxorcielebeli uwyeba, mmarTveli uwyeba da, aseve, evrokomisia.
programa `adamianuri kapitalis~ sakomunikacio gegma 2007-2013 wlebisaTvis momzadebulia. es aris strategiuli dokumenti, romelic adgens
2007-2015 wlebSi gansaxorcielebeli sainformacio da sareklamo saqmianobebis saorientacio mimarTulebebs. am dokumentSi gansazRvrulia
programis farglebSi komunikaciis wesebi, maT Soris Tanmimdevruli
vizualizacia, imiji da gzavnilebi. masSi aseve mocemulia komunikaciis wesebi yvela im dawesebulebisa da uwyebisaTvis, romelTa funqciebi
46

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

da/an mimdinare proeqtebi akisrebs maT am TvalsazrisiT sainformacio


da sareklamo saqmianobebis ganxorcielebas. programis "adamianuri
kapitali" da evropis socialuri fondis sainformacio da sareklamo
saqmianobebSi monawile yvela dawesebulebisTvis zemoxsenebul dokumentSi Camoyalibebuli da damtkicebuli principebis, pirobebisa da
moTxovnebis Sesruleba savaldebuloa. dokumentis saxelmZRvanelo
principebSi moxseniebul informaciaSi Tanadafinansebis Sesaxeb igulisxmeba, rom miTiTebuli unda iqnes informacia evropis socialuri
fondis mxridan Tanadafinansebis Sesaxeb da gamoyenebuli iqnes programa `adamianuri kapitalis~, evrokavSirisa da evropis socialuri
fondis logoebi. yvela logo gamoyenebuli unda iyos zemoxsenebul
dokumentSi aRwerili principebisa da pirobebis Sesabamisad.
saxelmZRvanelo principebSi ganmartebulia, Tu rogor unda moxdes
proeqtebis ganxorcielebisas aRniSnuli informaciis miTiTeba. evropis struqturul fond ESF-is SemTxvevaSi saWiroa informaciis datana
proeqtis ofisze, raTa yvelasTvis TvalsaCino iyos, rom es aris konkretuli proeqtisTvis gankuTvnili ofisi (ofisSi misulma TiToeulma
adamianma unda dainaxos proeqtis logo da gancxadeba Tanadafinansebis
Sesaxeb). evropis struqturuli fondis saxsrebiT SeZenil aparaturaze,
avejsa da nivTebze mikruli unda iyos stikeri programis logoTi da
gancxadebiT Tanadafinansebis Sesaxeb. igive exeba programis broSurebsa da posterebs, dasarigebel masalebs, dokumentebs, samuSao adgilebs,
programis farglebSi Tanadafinansebul publikaciebs. Tanadafinansebis Sesaxeb informacia unda gaJRerdes konferenciebze, seminarebze,
sainformacio Sexvedrebze, bazrobebze da sxva sareklamo-sainformacio RonisZiebebze. zemoxsenebul saxelmZRvanelo principebSi 20072015 wlebisaTvis aseve mocemulia detaluri aRwera imisa, Tu rogor
unda gamoiyurebodes esa Tu is logo (Sesaferisi zoma, ferebi da a.S.).
poloneTSi sainformacio da sareklamo kampaniebis miznebisaTvis informaciis gavrcelebisa da reklamirebis sxvadasxva formas iyeneben.
am mxriv Zalze mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs interneti da media. bevri proeqtis farglebSi saqmianoba da zogadad proeqtebi radiosadgurebTan, presasTan da televiziasTan mWidro TanamSromlobiT xorcieldeba. tardeba sareklamo kampaniebi, romelTa msvlelobisas xdeba
specialuri sareklamo adgilebis gamoyeneba. proeqtebis vebgverdebis
mizani mxolod sainformacio funqciis Sesruleba ki ar aris, aramed isini warmoadgenen gamocdilebis gaziarebis instrumentsac da proeqtis
dasrulebis Semdeg vebgverdebi SesaniSnavi adgilia proeqtis Sedegebis
47

Sesaxeb informaciis gansaTavseblad. proeqtebis ganmaxorcielebeli


organizaciebi iyeneben maRalkvalificiuri sareklamo studiebis, proeqtis logos Sesaqmnelad qvekontraqtis safuZvelze daqiravebuli
kompaniebis, aseve stambebis (romlebic nabeWd produqcias - flaierebs,
bukletebs, broSurebs, posterebsa da a.S. - awvdian maT) momsaxurebas.
proeqtebis farglebSi sxva RonisZiebebis organizebac xdeba sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis (PR) gamocdili kompaniebis mier, romlebic
Cveulebriv pasuxs ageben konkretuli proeqtis gaSuqebaze mediaSi.
proeqtis reklamireba aseve moicavs bilbordebs da/an TefSebs, dafebs,
romlebic ekvreba am konkretuli proeqtis saxsrebiT Tanadafinansebul Senobebze, axlad Seqmnil kompaniebSi da a.S.

48

startap sagranto programebSi


monawileTa magaliTebi

49

hamlet kapanaZe we
rovanis devnilTa CasaxlebaSi meoTxe welia
meuRlesTan, or qaliSvilTan da SviliSvilTan
erTad cxovrobs. axalgazrdobis wlebi cxinvalSi gaatara, samaCablos omis Semdeg sofel
avnevSi dasaxlda da 2008
wlis agvistos movlenebamde iq cxovrobda. batoni hamleti qarTul-osuri ojaxidanaa. dediT osia da osi erovnebis
naTesavebis garemocvaSi gaizarda. meuRle - qalabatoni nunu yandareli
avnevis skolaSi rusuli enis pedagogad muSaobda.
hamlet kapanaZes sofelSi didi avto-saxelosno darCa, sadac xuTi
Tanasofleli hyavda dasaqmebuli. omis Semdeg samsaxuris Zebna Tbilisis avto-saxelosnoebSi scada, Tumca, samuSao iaraRebis uqonlobis
gamo mcdeloba uSedegod dasrulda.
2011 wels USAID-is sagranto ganviTarebis programis farglebSi konsultaciisa da treningis centris mier gamocxadebul konkursSi miiRo
monawileoba. konkursis yvela etapi warmatebiT gadalaxa da dafinansebac miiRo. `Cemma ramdenime mezobelma am proeqtis daxmarebiT mcire
biznesi wamoiwyo, swored maT mirCies konkursSi monawileobis miReba.
konkurencia Zalian didi iyo da gamarjvebas ar velodi. grantis TanxiT
kotejis gverdiT saxelosno kapitalurad movaSene da samuSao iaraRebi
SeviZine. iaraRebi sakmaod Zviria da rom ara granti, sakuTari ZalebiT
maT SeZenas ver movaxerxebdi~, - ambobs batoni hamleti. dafinansebis
Semdeg klientebis raodenoba mniSvnelovnad gaizarda da xSirad rigSic
uwevT yofna. gasul wels ramdenime avtodilerTan molaparakeba Sedga
da axla ukve yovelTviurad 10-15 gasayidi manqanis SekeTebas uzrunvelyofs. ojaxis materialuri mdgomareoba gaumjobesda, danazogiT saxlisTvis personaluri kompiuteri, saojaxo teqnika da aveji SeiZines.
dafinansebidan erTi wlis Tavze batoni hamleti sakuTar wamowyebas
warmatebulad afasebs. Tvlis, rom Tu adamians Tavisi saqme uyvars da
Sroma ar ezareba, yvelafers miaRwevs. ocnebobs, patara SviliSvils Tavisi xeloba Seaswavlos da momavalSi erTad izrunon biznesis ganviTarebaze.
50

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

levan wereTeli, zaqaria mosiaSvili, Teimuraz qebaZe


goris raionis sofel
meRvrekisSi mefrinveleobis ferma ukve ramdenime
welia arsebobs. amJamad
fermaSi mudmivi samsaxuri
rva adamians aqvs da kidev
eqvsi periodulad iRebs
droebiT samsaxurs.
fermis mflobeli 3 adgilobrivi mewarmea: levan wereTeli, zaqaria mosiaSvili da Teimuraz
qebaZe. partniorebma 2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTvelos omamde ori wliT
adre aaSenes ferma da biznesic warmatebiT daiwyes, magram omis periodSi meurneoba moiSala, frinveli daixoca da teqnika gaiZarcva. `rodesac
sofelSi davbrundiT fermaSi mxolod carieli kedlebi dagvxvda, ar vicodiT, ra unda gvekeTebina~ - ixsenebs levan wereTeli.
proeqtSi `2008 wlis omis Sedegad iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli pirebisa
da dazaralebuli soflebis mosaxleobis TviTdasaqmebis xelSewyoba~,
romelic 2010 wels USAID-is dafinansebiT daiwyo, mewarmeebma konkursSi monawileoba jgufurad gadawyvites da SerCevis ramdenime etapi
warmatebiT gaiares. sawyis etapze proeqti 8000 lariT dafinansda, grantis TanxiT Senoba kapitalurad garemontda da pirveli sawarmoo ciklis dasawyebad 800 saxorce jiSis wiwila SeiZines.
proeqtis oficrebis daxmarebiT moxerxda produqciis realizaciis
axali arxebis Seqmna. mewarmeebma saqmiani urTierToba daamyares ramdenime SuamavalTan, romlebic produqciis distribucias gorSi, rusTavsa
da TbilisSi ewevian.
biznesi swrafad viTardeba da dRes ukve ferma 5000 frTa qaTams iTvlis. sakvebis did nawils adgilobrivi mwarmoeblebisgan yiduloben,
rac dadebiTad aisaxeba adgilobrivi biznesis ganviTarebaze.
mewarmeebi mudmivad axdenen mogebis reinvestirebas biznesSi warmoebis danaxarjebis Semcirebisa da efeqturobis gazrdis mizniT. isini
axlo momavalSi kidev erTi fermis aSenebasac apireben, risTvisac arsebuli Senobis mimdebared 3000 m2 farTobis miwis nakveTi ukve SeiZnies.

51

nona awkarunaSvilis ojaxi cxinvalidanaa.


samaCabloSi
pirveli omis Semdeg
sofel
TamaraSenSi
dasaxlda da 2008
wlis agvistos omamde
iq cxovrobda. amJamad qalbatoni nonas
eqvssuliani
ojaxi
sofeli
berbukis
devnilTa
dasaxlebaSi cxovrobs, maTi
Semosavlis ZiriTad
wyaro dasaxlebaSi mdebare patara maRaziaa.
qalbatonma nonam maRaziis gaxsna meuRlesTan erTad berbukSi
dasaxlebisTanave gadawyvita. ojaxs am sferoSi muSaobis sakmaod didi
gamocdileba hqonda. Tavdapirvelad mewarmeebma mcire zomis savaWro jixuri sesxad aRebuli TanxiT SeiZines da pirveladi moxmarebis
produqtis realizacia daiwyes. moTxovna izrdeboda da mewarmeebma
biznesis gafarToebis gzebis Zieba daiwyes. maT gadawyvites USAID-is sagranto ganviTarebis programis farglebSi sitisis mier gamocxadebul
konkursSi mieRoT monawileoba.
mewarmeebi amboben, rom msgavs konkursSi monawileoba aqamde arasdros miuRiaT da Sesabamisad, proeqtis weris gamocdilebac ar hqondaT.
maT gaiares treningi `biznesis administrireba mikrosawarmosaTvis~.
treningze miRebuli codna Zalian daexmaraT biznes-gegmis SemuSavebaSi. nonam dafinanseba miiRo rogorc sitisisgan, aseve CHF-sagan.
maRazia, romelic sacxovrebeli kotejis mimdebared, gzis piras mdebareobs, dRes ukve produqciis mdidar asortiments sTavazobs momxmarebels da didi popularobiT sargeblobs dasaxlebaSi, radgan aq
adgilobriv mosaxleobas SeuZlia swrafad da iafad SeiZinos sxvadsxva
produqti.
mewarmeebi miRebuli SemosavlebiT kmayofilebi arian; yovelTvis
droulad ixdian kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul gadasaxadebs da Tavisi wvlili SeaqvT qveynis biujetSi.

52

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

Tamar mirianaSvili cxovrobs


siRnaRis municipalitetis sofel
nukrianSi. 2007 wlamde muSaobda
sofel nukrianis sakrebuloSi.
`gamaTavisufles samsaxuridan
da daviwye fiqri, ra saarsebo saSualeba meSova. gadavwyvite maRaziis
aSeneba, radgan vaWrobaSi muSaobis
gamocdileba mqonda da specialobiTac vaWrobis ekonomisti var~.
sakuTar ezoSi aaSena maRazia 20
kvm. farTobiT, Tumca saqonlis SesaZenad Tanxas veRar Soulobda.
`swored am dros Sevitye proeqtis `biznesi startisTvis~ Sesaxeb, romelsac saqarTveloSi axorcielebda saTemo ganviTarebis
centri poloneTis sagareo saqmeTa saministros mxardaWeriT. gadavwyvite, monawileoba mimeRo programaSi.~
proeqtis farglebSi gaiara saswavlo treningebi, dawera biznesgegma
da miiRo granti 3000 laris odenobiT.
`SeviZine macivari maRaziisTvis da saqoneli. gavxseni Sereuli tipis
saubno maRazia. vcdilob, konkurencias gavuZlo da davZlio winaaRmdegobebi~.
2013 wlis 1 ianvridan dRemde maRaziis jamuri brunva Seadgens 7000
lars. maRaziaSi aqvs 3000 laramde Rirebulebis saqoneli.
`marTalia, gegmis mixedviT mogeba meti unda mqonoda, magram Zalian
bevri nisiebi aqvT, rac Tanxis brunvas aferxebs~.
qalbatoni Tamari maRaziaSi Tavad muSaobs. jerjerobiT misi yovelTviuri mogeba 100 laria, Tumca imedovnebs, rom mogeba aucileblad gaizrdeba.
qalbatoni Tamari aRniSnavs, rom sakuTari saqmis wamowyebiT SeZ
lo daeZlia mravalwliani gaucxoeba sazogadoebisgan da sakuTar
SesaZleblobebSi darwmunebuliyo. maRaziis gaxsnis Semdeg mcire sesxis misaRebad miakiTxa erT-erT safinanso instituts da axla maT
warmomadgenladac (soflis konsulad) muSaobs sofel nukrianSi.

53

Tamar yalabegaSvili meuRlesTan da or mcirewlovan SvilTan erTad cxovrobs sofel nukrianSi.


`profesiiT filologi var. vcdilobdi meSova samsaxuri, magram
yoveli Cemi mcdeloba uSedegod
mTavrdeboda. eTnografiuli ezos
mowyobis idea 2007 wlidan gamiCnda,
mas Semdeg, rac siRnaRis reabilitacia moxda da siRnaRi turistul
zonad gamocxadda. yovelTvis darwmunebuli viyavi, rom, Tu ideas
xorcs Sevasxamdi, Zalian karg bizness avawyobdi, radgan Cemi saxlis ezodan alaznis velis gamorCeuli
xedi iSleba, rac turistebs gansakuTrebiT izidavs. ideis ganxorcielebaSi xels miSlida ufuloba. verc sesxi gamomqonda bankidan, radgan arc
me da arc Cemi meuRle arsad ar vmuSaobdiT. Zalian gamimarTla, rodesac movxvdi proeqtSi `biznesi startisTvis~, romelic 2012 wels ganaxorcieles sofelSi saTemo ganviTarebis centrma da polonurma organizacia B4-ma poloneTis sagareo saqmeTa saministros mxardaWeriT.~
miiRo granti 3000 laris odenobiT. aRniSnuli TanxiT SeiZina samSeneblo masala Rvinis marnis asaSeneblad da ezos keTilmosawyobad.
`davregistrirdi indmewarmed, ramac momca SesaZlebloba, bankidan biznessesxi mimeRo 4000 laris odenobiT, romliTac SevZeli mSeneblobis
dasruleba. meuRle gverdSi damidga da uamravi ram Tavisi xeliT gaakeTa. minda xazgasmiT aRvniSno, rom am grantiT miRebuli sawyisi kapitali
rom ara, banki biznessesxs ar damimtkicebda da, vin icis, kidev ramden
xans damrCeboda idea ganuxorcielebeli.~
2013 wlis zafxulidan eTnografiuli ezo `qiziyi~ ukve maspinZlobs
ucxoel turistebs.
`imedi maqvs, samomavlod stumarTa ricxvi kidev ufro gaizrdeba. stumrebi Zalian kmayofilebi midian da momavali zafxulisTvis winaswar
gviTanxmdebian. samomavlod ukve vapireb didi kreditis gamotanas bankidan da saojaxo sastumros gakeTebas, radgan stumrebi iTxoven, rom Ramis gaTevis SesaZleblobac hqondeT. aseve, vapireb, SeviZino fqvili da
stumrebs sakuTar ToneSi gamomcxvari dolis puri SevTavazo. es Cemi biznesis konkurentul upiratesobasac gazrdis da stumarTa kmayofilebasac~.
54

mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba

gamoyenebuli literatura:
Hossain, N. and Zahra, N . 2010. Poverty Reduction and MDG Localization: a case study of the IGVGD
Programme in Bangladesh
Morduch, J. 2001. Analysis of the Effects of Microfinance on Poverty Reduction
European Commission. 2010. Financial exclusion Ensure an adequate access to basic financial services
Parker, J. and Pearce, D. 2001. Microfinance, Grants, and Non-Financial Responses to Poverty Reduction: Where Does Microcredit Fit? Consultative Group Focus Note No. 20.Washington, DC. World Bank
Macours. K., Premand, P., Vakis, R. 2013 Demand versus Returns? Pro-poor targeting of business
grants and vocational skills training . The World Bank. Latin America and the Caribbean Region. Poverty, Gender and Equity Unit
Fiszbein, A.m Kanbur, R., Yemtsov, R. 2013. Social Protection, Poverty and the Post-2015 Agenda.
The World Bank Human Development Network Social Protection and Labor Department. Policy Research Working Paper
Nenova, T. 2009. Bringing finance to Pakistans poor : access to finance for small Enterprises and the
underserved. The World Bank.
The World Bank 2013. From Evidence to Policy: If you give the poor cash, does it help? Policy Breif.

55

SeniSvnebi

56

proeqti `mikromewarmeoba, rogorc siRaribesTan brZolis saSualeba~ xorcieldeba aRmosavleT-dasavleTis marTvis institutis (EWMI) programis
- saqarTveloSi sajaro politikis, advokatirebisa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTareba (G-PAC) farglebSi. proeqtis ganxorcieleba SesaZlebeli
gaxda amerikis xalxis gulisxmieri mxardaWeris Sedegad, amerikis SeerTebuli
Statebis saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentos (USAID) dafinasebiT.
The project Micro Enterprises as a Tool for Fighting Poverty is implemented in the framework of The
East-West Management Institutes (EWMI) Policy, Advocacy, and Civil Society Development in Georgia
(G-PAC) Program, funded by United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The brochure/study is made possible by the generous support of the American people through the USAID.