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A Study of Adaptive Modulation Technique in OFDM

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3, 2006

Translated from Denshi Joho Tsushin Gakkai Ronbunshi, Vol. J88-B, No. 3, March 2005, pp. 634642

Tsutomu Usui, Fumio Ishizu, and Keishi Murakami

Information Technology R&D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Kamakura, 247-8501 Japan

such as OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) [1].

Although high-capacity, high-speed communications

is made possible by broadband wireless communications,

the frequency resources are limited and must be utilized

efficiently. The technique of adaptive modulation, in which

the modulation scheme is adaptively modified in accordance with channel conditions in order to improve the system

throughput by using high transmission speeds in channels

with good quality and low speeds in channels with severe

quality is effective in achieving high frequency use efficiency [2].

In the adaptive modulation technique, a method using

a modulation scheme selection chart has been proposed, in

which the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the delay spread

(DS) are used as performance functions [3, 4]. Here the

delay spread does not directly express the effect due to

delayed waves exceeding the guard interval (GI). Rather,

the use of the interference caused by delayed waves exceeding the GI as the performance function allows selection of

the appropriate modulation method so as to improve the

PER and the throughput.

In this paper, in the application of the adaptive modulation technique to OFDM, convolution-encoded soft-decision Viterbi signal processing is assumed. As a measure of

the channel condition, the entire-packet DUR is estimated.

The effect of the delayed wave is recognized and the following channel condition evaluation function is proposed.

In DUR, the sum of the total carrier power inside the GI and

the signal power of the delayed waves outside the GI is

treated as the total signal power (D component). The power

sum of the ISI and ICI due to delayed waves outside GI is

defined as the total interference power (U component).

Then the instantaneous DUR component per packet is

SUMMARY

This paper presents the results of a study of the

OFDM adaptive modulation technique. The adaptive

modulation technique, which selects the modulation

scheme according to the transmission conditions, is effective in improving system throughput. Then, it is important

to study evaluation function under various propagation

conditions. In this paper, we propose an adaptive modulation technique using the instantaneous DUR (desired signal

to undesired signal ratio) per packet as the performance

measure of the transmission path, in which the intersymbol

interference (ISI) and intercarrier interference (ICI) power

of delayed waves exceeding the guard interval are used

under the assumption of convolution coding and soft-decision Viterbi decoding. A DUR estimation method is also

proposed. The effectiveness of the approach is confirmed

by numerical simulation. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Electron Comm Jpn Pt 1, 89(3): 3645, 2006; Published

online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.

wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/ecja.20254

ISI; ICI.

1. Introduction

Recently, the demand for multimedia wireless communications, such as data and image transmission, via the

Internet has increased. As a result, bandwidth enhancement

of wireless communications is indispensable. Intersymbol

interference by the delayed wave is an important problem

for broadband wireless communications. One effective so-

36

Transform) and then is transmitted with the GI attached.

The receiving side is divided into two sequences. In

one of them, the delay profile information is calculated by

using the pilot signals at the head of the packet. From the

delay profile information, the instantaneous DUR is estimated. Depending on the DUR, the modulation method to

be transmitted next is selected and this information is fed

back to the transmitter. In the other, the GI is removed and

the FFT is applied, followed by equalization. Demodulation

is accomplished by demapping, deinterleaving, and soft-decision Viterbi decoding [8].

use of adaptive modulation based on the instantaneous

DUR estimated in this manner improves the throughput.

The assumed system block diagram is presented in

Section 2. The adaptive modulation technique based on the

proposed DUR estimation scheme is given in Section 3, The

results of the numerical simulation are presented in Section

4, and the paper is summarized in Section 5.

In this section, we present the proposed DUR estimation method using the delay profile information and the

adaptive modulation technique.

Information for the OFDM signal is carried by several orthogonal subcarriers. Due to multipath channels, a

receiving level difference occurs for each subcarrier as

shown in Fig. 3. The information carried on subcarriers with

small amplitude such as that subcarrier in section fb2 is

susceptible to error due to interference components. In such

cases the performance is improved by means using an

interleave of sufficiently large size and applying soft-decision error correction. Therefore, the carrier-to-interference

power ratio of all subcarriers is effective as an index that

presumes performance by using interleave and error correction. A scheme to select a modulation method for each

subcarrier (or each block where several subcarriers are

treated as a block) is proposed in Ref. 9. The process which

selects a modulation method for each subcarrier or block,

becomes complex, because the amount of feedback information is overwhelming. Hence, in the present paper, a

Modulation Technique

Figure 1 shows the packet composition of the OFDM

signal, and Fig. 2 presents a system block diagram of the

proposed adaptive modulation technique. As shown in Fig.

1, pilot symbols for channel estimation are added at the

head of the packet and are followed by the data. Next, using

Fig. 2, the signal flow is explained. The convolution-encoded transmitted data sequence is interleaved along the

frequency axis and then is mapped to a modulation method

that is identical for all subcarriers. In the present research,

QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM may be used as the modulation

method. Subsequently, pilot symbols with a length of

20FDM symbols are inserted at the head of the packet so

that the channel condition can be estimated for demodulation on the receiver side [7]. The signal after insertion of the

37

modulation method that is identical for all subcarriers is

used.

Based on the above assumptions, the proposed

scheme is now explained. As an example, let us consider

the case in which three waves are received: the preceding

wave, delayed wave 1 with its delay within the GI, and

delayed wave 2 with a delay exceeding the GI. At the

OFDM demodulator, an ideal time window w(n) as shown

in Fig. 4 is multiplied by the received signal and then FFT

processing is applied. Since the GI is a repetitive waveform,

the preceding wave and delayed wave 1 become the signal

components. Since section a of delayed wave 2 has a

different symbol component, ISI takes place. Also, the

signal component is contained in section b. As described

later, ICI takes place due to a breakdown of orthogonality.

Hence, the carrier-to-interference power ratio is determined

by the signals contained in the preceding wave and delayed

waves 1 and 2 versus the interference power of the ISI and

ICI. This carrier-to-interference power ratio is estimated by

the delay profile. The delay profile can be obtained by first

preparing a time waveform identical to the pilot symbols

shown in Fig. 1 on the receiver side and then taking the cross

correlation with the received signal [8].

In the following sections, the representations of the

received signal are explained. Subsequently, the proposed

DUR estimation method and the adaptive modulation technique are explained.

(1)

Here gn(n) is additive white Gaussian noise, s(n) is the

transmitted signal, 0, 1, and 2 are the powers of the paths,

0, 1, and 2 are phases of the paths, and 1 and 2 are the

delays. The delay of delayed wave 1 is within the GI while

that of delayed wave 2 exceeds the GI.

In the OFDM demodulator, the received signal r(n)

is multiplied by an ideal time window w(n) and then FFT

processing is applied. If the frequency is m, the FFT output

for the received signal r(n) is R(m), and the FFT process is

F[], then

(2)

Here R0(m), R1(m), R2(m), and GN(m) are the FFT outputs

of r0(n), r1(n), r2(n), and gn(n). Also,

(3)

(4)

delayed wave 1 [r1(n)], and delayed wave 2 [r2(n)] are

received, the received signal [r(n)] is given by the following

(where n denotes the time):

s(n).

38

side of Eq. (2). As shown in Fig. 4, delayed wave 2 r2(n)

consists of the time width a [O a c, c is the time width

of w(n)] in which the previous symbol is leaking in, and the

self-symbol component of the remaining width b = c a. If

the transmitted symbol one slot earlier is sp(n) and the time

window of a is wa(n), then the FFT output of the leaking

component is the ISI and is given by

(7)

In Section 3.1, each component of the OFDM signal

after FFT is expressed. In the present section, the results are

used to express the estimated DUR value. When convolution coding, soft-decision Viterbi decoding, and sufficiently

large interleave processing including the frequency axis are

assumed for the OFDM signal, the signal power D is the

sum of the signal powers of all subcarriers. Specifically, the

result is the sum of the power of Eqs. (3) and (4) and the

first term on the right-hand side of Eq. (7):

(5)

Here RISI(m) is the FFT output of the previous symbol

component leaking in and Wa(m) is the FFT output of

wa(n). 0 denotes the convolution process. The ISI component is spread along the frequency axis.

With regard to the self-symbol, let the FFT output be

Rc(m) and the time window function of the self-symbol

component be wb(n). Then,

(8)

The interference component U is the sum of Eq. (5) (ISI

component) and the second term on the right-hand side of

Eq. (7) (ICI component):

(6)

(9)

response of w(n) is orthogonal to the other subcarrier component as shown in Fig. 5(a), and the frequency response of

wb(n) is spread as shown in Fig. 5(b), so that orthogonality

is lost. Thus, ICI with other subcarrier components take

place. As a result, the FFT output Rc(m) of the self-symbol

of delayed wave 2 is expressed as the sum of the signal

component Rs(m) and the ICI component RICI(m):

(10)

described in the next section if the delay profile can be

estimated as in Fig. 4.

3.3. Proposed adaptive modulation technique

The method of DUR estimation in the frequency

domain was expressed in Section 3.2. In the present section,

a method of DUR estimation in the time domain by using

the delay profile information obtained from the received

signal is proposed. The proposed adaptive modulation technique varies the modulation method according to the estimated DUR value.

As shown in Fig. 4, let P0, P1, and P2 be the received

powers of the preceding wave, delayed wave 1, and delayed

wave 2 calculated from the cross correlation between the

known pilot signal and the received waveform.

Since the time waveform of the OFDM signal behaves like noise, the variation of the average power on the

time axis for each OFDM symbol is considered negligible.

39

the self-symbol component contained in the FFT processing section for delayed wave 2 is PISI : Pc = a : b and is given

by

(16)

(11)

(12)

The method proposed in this paper calculates the

deterioration by the ISI and ICI in the presence of delayed

waves exceeding the GI by means of the DUR [given by

Eq. (16)] and selects the modulation method adaptively

depending on the DUR.

the signal component Rs(m) and the ICI component

RICI(m) as shown in Eq. (7). Since the self-symbol component is multiplied by the time window, that is, b / (a + b) of

the FFT window section, the signal power of delayed wave

2 Ps is expressed as

4. Numerical Simulation

(13)

4.1. Propagation model

the ICI power PICI is

The propagation model used for numerical simulation is an equally spaced exponentially decaying model

with 18 waves. Each path is assumed to have an independent Rayleigh distribution. The parameters of the propagation model used in this paper are given in Table 1.

(14)

method

estimation method for ISI and ICI (instantaneous DUR), the

instantaneous DUR versus the PER obtained by numerical

simulation is shown in Fig. 6. The simulation parameters

are listed in Table 2. As shown in the table, the modulation

method is 64 QAM. As the propagation model, model E is

used, in which many delayed waves exceeding the GI arrive

so that both ISI and ICI are generated. Also, in order to focus

on the effects of ISI and ICI, we let CNR = . The figure

shows that a correlation of the smoothly decreasing PER

with an increase of the proposed instantaneous DUR occurs, and the effectiveness of the instantaneous DUR estimation scheme is confirmed. In the region where the DUR

(15)

which three waves, namely, the preceding wave and the

delayed waves within the GI and exceeding the GI, are

received. Cases with more delayed waves can be handled

similarly. Let Np be the number of arriving delayed waves,

Pi be the received power of the i-th arriving wave, ai be the

time width in which other symbols penetrate into the FFT

section, and bi be the time width containing the self-symbol.

Then, an approximate equation for the DUR is

*

Originally, the power sum is as follows and the third term is considered

negligible:

Propagation

model

A

C

E

40

Path spacing

[ns]

20

50

80

Attenuation

between

Delay spread

[ns]

paths [dB]

1.70

1.35

1.28

50

150

250

on the number of resends and affects the effective throughput. In the present simulation, it is assumed that there is a

delay corresponding to the number of resends as shown in

Table 3 (see the specification of IEEE802.11a for 5-GHz

wireless LAN [10]). In the present specification, the resend

delay time is not uniquely determined by the number of

resends.

Table 3 gives the average values; it is seen that the

resending delay time increases as the number of resends

increases. Hence, if the propagation path conditions are

poor, limitation of the increase in the number of resends by

the use of adaptive modulation to select the modulation

method for secure communications is important for improvement of throughput.

Figure 7 shows the number of resends and the delay

time (packet spacing). In the case shown, the packet received at t2 to t3 contains a packet error and is resent at t4 to

t5 and correctly demodulated. Since Packet 1 at t0 to t1 and

Packet 2 at t4 to t5 are correctly received, the time required

before the next packet is received is 145.5 s, as given in

Table 3. Since Packet 2 at t2 to t3 contains packet error, the

time before the next packet is received is 217.5 s. In the

resending process, information identical to that of the prior

packet is used for modulation by the modulation method

reported to the other party, and the packet is transmitted. On

attributed to the lack of an absolute number of corresponding packet errors.

4.3. Definitions of resending delay and

throughput

As shown in Fig. 7, there is a spacing between packets

in wireless communications, and hence there is a delay

Modulation method

Coding rate

Interleave

FFT size

Number of carriers

GI

Number of transmitted

packets

Transmitted data length

Propagation model

Doppler frequency

Receiving filter

Sampling frequency

CNR

Synchronization

Channel estimation

64QAM

1/2 (constraint length 7)

Bit interleave (along the

frequency axis)

64

48

16

5000

1000 bytes

E

50 Hz

Ideal

25 MHz

Number of resends

0

1

2

3

4

5

More than 6

Ideal

Cross correlation process

with the received signal and

replica

41

145.5

217.5

361.5

649.5

1225.5

2377.5

4681.5

the receiving side, demodulation and error-correcting decoding are carried out with a single packet.

Next, the effective throughput defined in this simulation is explained. The effective throughput is defined as the

total number of bits of the packets correctly received divided by the total transmission time. Using Fig. 7 as an

example, the effective throughput is the number of bits

contained in Packets 1, 2, and 3 divided by (t7 t0).

4.4. Numerical simulation results

In order to verify the effectiveness of the method

proposed in this paper, a numerical simulation was performed. The simulation parameters are listed in Table 4. As

the modulation method, QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM was

used for each packet in accordance with the proposed

adaptive modulation technique. The propagation models

used were Model A (delay spread 50 ns, Doppler frequency

20 Hz) and Model C (delay spread 150 ns, Doppler frequency 20 Hz), both of which had delays almost all within

the GI, and Model E (delay spread 250 ns, Doppler frequency 50 Hz) with many delayed waves exceeding the GI

arriving. Also, it was assumed that synchronization, CNR

estimation, and reporting of adaptive modulation informa-

(conditions 1).

tion were ideal and that the reporting of the adaptive modulation information was without delay.

Next, we explain the chart used for selecting the

modulation method (selecting the modulation format by the

CNR and the instantaneous DUR) in the adaptive modulation technique. In the selection charts shown in Figs. 8 and

9, the CNR is the averaged value. In the simulation, the

estimation of the CNR is assumed to be ideal in order to

focus on the effect of the proposed DUR estimation scheme.

In Figs. 8 and 9, the threshold values are set so that 16QAM

and 64QAM are selected even in the region where the CNR

is small. This is because the instantaneous CNR and instantaneous DUR may become large instantaneously, so that

error-free communications is possible with either the

16QAM or 64QAM modulation method. The threshold

values in the modulation method selection chart were obtained by calculation of the throughput at each CNR by

numerical simulation with the threshold value as the parameter followed by selection of an optimum threshold. In

this instance, two types of selection charts are presented, as

shown in Figs. 8 and 9, because the suitable modulation

scheme selection chart can differ depending on the propagation model. Figure 8 shows a modulation scheme selection chart suitable for a propagation model in which the

delayed waves are almost all within the GI (with the DUR

threshold DURth specified) (suitable for propagation model

A, C). Figure 9 is a chart suitable for a propagation path

with many delayed waves exceeding the GI (suitable for

propagation model E). The results given by the adaptive

modulation technique for each selection chart are denoted

as AMC1 and AMC2* in Figs. 10 to 15. It is assumed that

Modulation method

Coding rate

Interleave

FFT size

Number of carriers

GI

Number of transmitted

packets

Transmitted data length

Propagation model

Doppler frequency

Receiving filter

Sampling frequency

Synchronization

CNR estimation

Notice of adaptive modulation information

Channel estimation

1/2 (constraint length 7)

Bit interleave (along the

frequency axis)

64

48

16

5000

1000 bytes

A, C, E

20, 50 Hz

Ideal

25 MHz

Ideal

Ideal

Ideal

Cross correlation process

with received signal and

replica

42

(conditions 2).

propagation models.

Based on the above, Figs. 10 to 15 show the PER

characteristics and the effective throughput when the adaptive modulation technique is used with the proposed instantaneous DUR as the performance function. In these figures,

the horizontal axis represents the CNR and the vertical axis

represents the PER in Figs. 10 to 12 and the effective

throughput in Figs. 13 to 15. Figures 10 and 13 show the

simulation results for Model A, Figs. 11 and 14 those for

Model C, and Figs. 12 and 15 those for propagation model

E.

In Figs. 10 to 15, the case of communications by

means of fixed QPSK is denoted as QPSK, that with

16QAM as 16QAM, and that with 64QAM as 64QAM.

The figures are interpreted as follows.

(Model A).

43

the PER becomes poor for modulation method with large

multiplicity such as 64QAM (PER > 20%) so that the

resending delay is substantially increased. It is then effective to increase the threshold for 64QAM and 16QAM at a

high CNR, at which 64QAM is easily used. In paths in

which there is no (or negligible) ISI and ICI, such as Models

A and C, the PER of 64QAM becomes rather good (PER <

10%). Hence, by reducing the threshold of 64QAM and

16QAM, it becomes effective to increase the application

rate of 64QAM.

(3) In propagation model E, the throughput of

64QAM is substantially less than in A and C (see Fig. 15).

In Model E, many delayed waves have delays exceeding the

GI arrive. Owing to the ISI and ICI of these delayed waves,

the PER becomes poor. Because PER > 20% even at a high

CNR (as shown in Fig. 12), the number of resends increases

and the transmission time becomes excessively long (see

Table 3).

(Model C).

(1) From Figs. 13 to 15, it is found that high throughput is obtained in all propagation models regardless of the

CNR, so that the effectiveness of the proposed method is

confirmed. Also, from Figs. 10 to 12, it is confirmed that

the proposed method can achieve high quality and high

throughput, since PER < 10% (IEEE802.11a specification)

is almost always satisfied when modulation scheme selection chart AMC2 is used.

(2) From Figs. 13 to 15, the following is found. If a

relatively high throughput is desired for all propagation

models, the modulation scheme selection chart in Fig. 9 is

used. When high throughput is desired only for Models A

and C, in which the delay of the delayed wave is within the

GI, the modulation scheme selection chart in Fig. 8 should

chosen as 20 Hz (with a moving velocity of 1.2 m/s) for

Models A and C, assuming a small room such as an office

environment, and as 50 Hz (with a moving velocity of 2.9

m/s) for model E, assuming a rather large area such as a

large hall or factory. If we consider that the applied modulation method is fed back, it is impossible to keep up with

the fading variations when the Doppler frequency becomes

high, so that the characteristics are degraded. Hence, evaluation with the Doppler frequency as a parameter and the

development of remedies for high-speed motion are topics

of future research.

Other future topics of study include finding a method

of estimation of the instantaneous CNR and creating an

adaptive modulation technique using the instantaneous

CNR and the instantaneous DUR.

5. Conclusions

In this paper, under the assumption of convolution

coding and soft-decision Viterbi decoding, a method of

modulation scheme selection using the instantaneous DUR

and taking account of the ISI and ICI by delayed waves

exceeding the GI is proposed for adaptive modulation in

OFDM. The effectiveness of the proposed method was

confirmed by numerical simulation.

Koezuka and Manager K. Kikuchi of the Information Technology R&D Center for providing the opportunity to perform this research.

(Model E).

44

(HiSWANa). Association of Radio Industries and

Businesses; 2000.

8. Taira A, Ishizu F, Miyake M. A timing synchronization scheme for OFDM in frequency selective fading

environment. Trans IEICE 2001;J84-B:12551265.

9. Yoshiki T, Sampei S, Morinaga N. OFDM based

adaptive modulation systems with a multilevel transmit power control for high bit rate transmission.

Trans IEICE 2001;J84-B:11411150.

10. IEEE Std 802.11a-1999. Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)

specifications. High-speed Physical Layer in the 5

GHz Band, 1999.

11. Yamazaki K, Ishizu F, Miki M, Murakami K. A

timing synchronization scheme making use of FFT

gain for OFDM. Trans IEICE 2003;J86-B:2097

2106.

REFERENCES

1. Itami M. OFDM modulation techniques. Triceps;

2000.

2. Sasaoka S. Mobile communications. Ohm Press;

1998.

3. Otsuki S, Matsuoka H, Suzuki K, Sampei S, Morinaga N. Performance analysis of adaptive modulation

systems using square QAM. Tech Rep IEICE,

1994;RCS94-66.

4. Muneta S, Matsumoto Y, Mochizuki N, Umehira M.

A new frequency-domain link adaptation scheme for

broadband OFDM systems. VTC 1999;1:253257.

5. Usui T, Ishizu F, Murakami K. A study on adaptive

modulation scheme using DUR for OFDM. 2002

IEICE Society Convention (Communication), B-5166.

6. Usui T, Ishizu F, Murakami K. A study on adaptive

modulation scheme in OFDM. Tech Rep IEICE

2002;RCS2002-126.

Tsutomu Usui (member) graduated from the Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Kanazawa University, in 1998, completed the M.S. program in 2000, and joined Mitsubishi Electric. Since then, he has been engaged in research

and development related to broadband mobile communications systems. He is now affiliated with the Wireless IP Access

Technology Department of the Information Technology R&D Center.

Fumio Ishizu (member) graduated from the Department of Electronic and Communications Engineering, Waseda

University, in 1983, completed the M.S. program in 1985, and joined Mitsubishi Electric. Since then, he has been engaged in

research and development in the fields of satellite communications and digital modulation and demodulation schemes for mobile

communications. He is now a manager in the Wireless IP Access Department of the Information Technology R&D Center.

Keishi Murakami (member) graduated from the Department of Electronic and Communications Engineering, Waseda

University, in 1974, completed the M.S. program in 1976, and joined Mitsubishi Electric. Since then, he has been engaged in

research and development in the fields of satellite communications systems, digital mobile communications systems, and digital

modulation and demodulation systems. He is now a manager in the Communication Laboratory of the Information Technology

R&D Center. He is a member of IEEE and the Society of Information Theory and Its Applications.

45

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