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LECTURE 3

THE CONTENTS OF THIS LECTURE ARE AS FOLLOWS:

1.0 SHOCK FACTOR


2.0 TYPES OF BENDS
3.0 SHOCK LOSS FACTOR FOR BENDS
4.0 SHOCK LOSS FACTOR FOR AREA CHANGES
5.0 DRAG COEFFICIENT
REFERENCES

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1.0 SHOCK FACTOR


We have already learnt that obstructions, area changes, bends, etc. also contribute
loss in pressure of air flowing through mine airways besides shape and size of mine
airways and their corresponding roughness. The pressure loss due to these factors
is termed as shock loss. While deriving equation for shock pressure loss, we
introduced a term called shock loss factor, . Its value is not constant and
depends on type of area changes, obstructions, type of bends, etc. The values of
shock loss factors for most of these are determined empirically.
2.0 TYPES OF BENDS
We have already seen the effect of different types of obstructions on the air flow
pattern. We have also studied about the head loss for different types of entry. Now,
let us learn about different types of bends and basic idea about how they contribute
to shock pressure loss.
To understand the basic idea about how resistance to airflow is added by bends, let
us look at Fig.1.

Fig.1 Flow pattern at bend

Fig.1 gives the following information regarding disruption produced in the flow
pattern of air at bends:
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i.

Constriction of airways at bends and hence contraction of air takes place

ii.

Formation of eddies around the bends, intensity being more at corners

iii.

Expansion of airways after the bend and hence expansion of air taking
place. The expansion of air takes place at a slower rate compared to the
rate of contraction. This expansion of air extends to a considerable length
of airways.

The entire three phenomena are dependent on types of bend and velocity of air.
Let us now discuss about few types of bend. They are explained in Table 1 with
their corresponding figures.
Besides the bends mentioned in Table 1, there are many other types of bends,
which are generally transformed forms or variations of the above mentioned types.
Some of them are transformed to reduce shock pressure loss.
3.0 SHOCK LOSS FACTOR FOR BENDS
Before we discuss about the shock loss factor for bends, it is better to understand
few terminologies which are used in the mathematical expression for shock loss
factor.
a. Radius Ratio ():- It is defined as the ratio of radius of curvature (R) to
width of the gallery (w).
=

( )
( )

b. Aspect ratio ():- It is defined as the ratio of the height of gallery (h) to
width of gallery (w).
=

( )
( )

c. Angle of deflection ():- The angle through which the axis of the airway is
deflected at the bend.

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They are also called bend characteristics. Let us look at Fig. 2 for clear
understanding.
Table 1 Some types of bends
Sr.

Type of bend

Figure of bends

Remarks

no.
1.

Square bend

Outer corner : square


Inner corner : square or radial
curved centered on diagonal

2.

Normal bend

Outer corner : rounded centered on


diagonal
Inner corner : square or radial
curved concentrically to outer radial
curve

3.

Crowded

Outer corner : radial curve

bend

Inner corner : radial curve


But outer radial curve has larger
diameter compared to the inner
radial curve

Inner bend

Outer corner : square


Inner corner : truncated corner

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Fig. 2 Bend characteristics (after Banerjee, 2003)


McElroy (1935) proposed shock loss factor for the two most commonly used bends
i.e normal bends and square bends.
a. Normal bends
=

b. Square bends
=

( )

Where,
= Shock loss factor
= Radius ratio
= Aspect ratio
= Angle of deflection in degrees

The value of should be minimum 0.5. Better results are obtained for = 1.5. It is
advisable to keep up to around 1.5.

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4.0 SHOCK LOSS FACTOR FOR AREA CHANGES


Consider Fig.3 given below showing flow pattern of mine air in different areas.

Fig.3 Flow pattern of mine air at area discharge (after Banerjee, 2003)
Fig.3 shows mine air flowing through an airway at which it changes area. It
suggests that in total three area changes is occurring in a sequential way from Aa to
Ao, Ao to Ac and Ao to Ae. Ac is called area of vena contracta. It is a condition
brought about by the contraction of air beyond the edge of the constriction. Ac does
not exist in physical form in the airways at all. Hence, we can say that the airway
first contract from Aa to Ao and then expands to Ae. According to their magnitude,
they follow the relation (as per Fig.3).
Aa>Ae>Ao> Ac
Hence, we can say that flowing air undergoes contraction at the first two area
changes and expansion at the third area change. Terminologies related to the ratio
of the three different area changes are
a.

= =

b.

= =

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c.

= =

Let me tell you that here we can use three different shock loss factor for calculating
shock pressure loss depending upon whether the velocity we refer to in our
equation is at Ao, Aa or Ae. They are given in Table 2.
Table 2 Equations for shock loss factor
S. No.
1

Equation for shock loss factor


1
( )2

=
2

Velocity referred at
Aa

2
1
= ( )

Ao

( )2

Ae

In the above equations, C is given by the equation (after McElroy, 1935)


=

1
1

( 2 + 2 )2

Where, Z is the value of contraction factor. The value of Z as suggested by Hartman


et al. (1982) for some of the edge conditions are given in Table 3. The shock loss
factor for abrupt area changes is given in Table 4.
Table 3 Value of Z for some of the edge conditions
S. No.

Edge condition

Formed i.e. bell moth entrance

1.05

Rounded

1.50

Square

2.5

Very sharp

3.8

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Table 4 Shock loss factor for abrupt area changes (after McPherson, 1993)
Condition
Abrupt contraction

Figure showing condition

Abrupt expansion

Shock loss factor


2
2 = 0.5 (1 )2
1

2 = (

2
1)2
1

1 2
)
2
(useful if A2 is very
large)
1 = (1

5.0 DRAG COEFFICIENT


When there is any obstruction placed in mine airways, it applies drag force on
flowing air. This accounts for loss in pressure of moving air. This drag force applied
is responsible for the shock pressure loss phenomenon due to obstructions. The loss
in pressure is given by
=

2
2

Where,
= Drag coefficient (dimensionless)
The Drag Coefficient values for different types of buntons used in mine shafts is
shown in Fig. 4

= Coefficient of fill (dimensionless) = ,


Where,

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S = Frontal surface area of obstructing body (m2)


A= Cross sectional area of airway for free flow (m2)
= Density of air (kg/m3)
= Air velocity (m/s)

Fig. 4 Drag Coefficient (CD) for different types of buntons used in mine
shafts (after Banerjee, 2003)
REFERENCES
Banerjee S.P. (2003); Mine Ventilation; Lovely Prakashan, Dhanbad, India.

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Hartman, H. L., Mutmansky, J. M. & Wang, Y. J. (1982); Mine Ventilation and Air
Conditioning; John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Le Roux, W. L. (1972); Mine Ventilation Notes for Beginners; The Mine Ventilation
Society of South Africa.
McElroy, G. E. (1935); Engineering Factors in the Ventilation of Metal Mines;
USBM Bulletin No. 385.
McPherson, M. J. (1993); Subsurface Ventilation and Environmental Engineering;
Chapman & Hall, London.
Misra G.B.

(1986); Mine Environment and Ventilation; Oxford University Press,

Calcutta, India.
Vutukuri, V. S. & Lama, R. D. (1986); Environmental Engineering in Mines;
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

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