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Tannery Industry

1.LEATHER MANUFACTURING PROCESS IN TANNERY INDUSTRIES.:


1.LEATHER MANUFACTURING PROCESS IN TANNERY INDUSTRIES.

PROCESS INCLUDES:-:
PROCESS INCLUDES:-

Preparatory stages ::
The preparatory stages are when hide/skin is prepared for tanning.Many options for pretreatment
of skin exist.Not all of the options may be performed.Preparatory stages may include:-
Preservation-the hide/skin is treated with a method which renders it temporarily. unputrescible.
Soaking-water for purpose of washing or rehydration is reintroduced. Liming-unwanted proteins
and opening up is achieved. Preparatory stages :

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Unhairing-the majority of hair is removed. Fleshing-subcutaneous material is removed. Splitting-
the hide/skin is cut into two or more horizontal layer. Reliming-the hide/skin is further treated to
achieve more opening up or more protein removal. Deliming-liming & unhairing chemicals
are removed this step. Bating-proteolytic proteins are introduced to the skin to remove further
proteins and to assist with softening of the pelt.

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Degreasing-natural fats/oils are stripped or as much as is possible from the hide skin. Frizing-
physical removal of fat layer inside the skin. Bleaching-chemical modification of dark pigments
to yield a lighter coloured pelt. Pickling-lowering of pH value to the acidic region. Must be done
in presence of salt. Depickling-raising of the pH out of the acidic region.

SOAKING HIDES.:
SOAKING HIDES.

TRIMMING.:
TRIMMING.

PROCESS OF TANNING & SURFACE COATING.:
PROCESS OF TANNING & SURFACE COATING.

TANNING::
Tanning is the process that converts the protein of the raw hide or skin into a stable material
which will not putrefy and is suitable for a wide variety of end applications. Tanned material
dries out to a flexible form. That does not become putrid when wetted back. TANNING:

CRUSTING::
Crusting is when the hide/skin is thinned, retanned and lubricating often a coloring operation is
included in the crusting sub process. The chemicals added during crusting have to be fixed in
place. The culmination of the crusting sub process is the drying and softening operation.
CRUSTING:

SURFACE COATING::
For some leathers a surface coating is applied. Tanners refer to this as finishing. Finishing may
include:- Oiling Brushing Padding Spraying Roller coating Curtain coating Polishing Plating
Embossing Ironing Combing Glazing SURFACE COATING:

WASTE GENERATION POINTS::
WASTE GENERATION POINTS:

:
Maximum waste generation points in tannery industry are processes such as: Soaking:-
generation of waste water. Unhairing:-waste generation. fleshing:-subcutaneous material waste
generation. Splitting. Trimming. Bleaching. Bating. Deliming.

CHARACTERSTICS OF WASTE WATER,DISCHARGED FROM TANNERY
INDUSTRY::
CHARACTERSTICS OF WASTE WATER,DISCHARGED FROM TANNERY INDUSTRY:

Typical characteristics of tannery waste water::
pH 8.2-8.9 Alkalinity(mg/l) 2000-2700 Total BOD(mg/l) 2000-3100 Soluble BOD(mg/l) 1670-
2600 Total COD(mg/l) 4500-7500 Soluble COD(mg/l) 25000-37000 Chlorine(mg/l) 10000-
15000 Sulphates(mg/l) 1540-3300 Chromium(mg/l) 160-300 Typical characteristics of tannery
waste water:

TANNERY EFFLUENT CONTAINS:-:
SOLIDS:-Solids to be found in tannery effluent fall into several distinct categories:-
SUSPENDED SOLIDS:-Quality of insoluble matter contained in waste water. SETTELEABLE
SOLIDS:-Quantity of solids, having tandency of settle down. GROSS SOLIDS:-They are larger
than a sampling machine can handle. ex-leather pieces,fleshing residue. TANNERY EFFLUENT
CONTAINS:-

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BOD:-Tanning waste have a long break down period,this longer digestion periods can apply to a
variety of chemicals used in manufacturing leather. NITROGEN:-Nitrogen is contained in
several different compounds:- Total kjeldahl nitrogen:-Nitrogen contained in proteinaceous
material(liming and unhairing) SULPHIDES:-Sulphide content is tannery effluent result from the
use of sodium sulphide & sodium hydrosulphide.and the breakdown of hair in unhairing process.

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NEUTRAL SALTS:-Two common types of salts are to be found in tannery effluent:- Sulphates
Chlorides OIL & GREASE:-During leather manufacture,natural oils and grease are released
from within the skin. pH value:-acceptable limit ranges from 5.5 to 10.0. CHROMIUM
COMPOUNDS:-Two forms of chrome are associated with the tanning industry :- Chrome
3+(trivalent chrome) Chrome 6+(hexavalent chrome)

TREATMENT SCHEMES FOR WASTE WATER .:
TREATMENT SCHEMES FOR WASTE WATER .

SOLIDS REMOVAL::
Most solids can be removed using simple sedimentation techniques with the solids recovered as
slurry or sludge. Very fine solids and solids with densities close to the density of water pose
special problems. In such case filtration may be required. Although flocculation may be used,
using alum salts or the addition of polyelectrolysis. SOLIDS REMOVAL:

REMOVAL OF BIODEGRADABLE ORGANICS:
Biodegradable organics material of plant or animal origin is usually possible to treat using
extended conventional wastewater treatment processes such as activated sludge or trickling
filters. REMOVAL OF BIODEGRADABLE ORGANICS

ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS:
Activated sludge is a biochemical process for treating sewage and industrial waste that uses
air(or oxygen) and micro-organisms to biological oxidize organic pollutants,producing a waste
sludge(or floc) containing the oxidizing material. ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

TRICKLING FILTER PROCESS:
A trickling filter process consists of bed of rocks,gravel,slag,peat moss or plastic media over
which wastewater flows downwards and a contacts a layer of microbial slims covering the bed
media.Aerobic conditions are maintained by forced air flowing through the bed or by natural
convection air.The process involves adsorption of organic compounds in wastewater by the
microbial slime layer, diffusion of air into the slime to provide the oxygen required for the
biochemical oxidation of organic compounds .The end projects include carbon dioxide gas,water
and other products of oxidation.As the slime layer thickness,it becomes the air to penetrate the
layer and an inner anaerobic layer is formed. TRICKLING FILTER PROCESS

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TREATMENT OF OTHER ORGANICS:- Synthetic organics material including
solvents,paint,pharmaceuticals,pestricides,cooking products and so forth can be very difficult to
treat.Treatment methods are often specific to the material being treated.Methods include
advanced oxidation processing,distillation,adsorbtion,vitrification,incineration,chemical
immobilisation or landfill disposal.

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TREATMENT OF ACIDS & ALKALIS: Acids & alkalis can usually be neutralised under
controlled conditions.neutralisation frequently produces a precipitate that will require treatment
as a solid residue that may also be toxic.In some cases,gases may be evolved requiring treatment
for the gas stream.Some other forms of treatment are usually required following neutralisation.
OIL AND GREASE REMOVAL: Oil and grease can be recovered from open water surfaces by
skimming devices.

Treatment of chromium::
Chromium, present in tannery effluent is removed by using chromium salts(chromium chloride
as adsorbate) and cement kiln dust (a waste from white cement industry) as adsorbent. Treatment
of chromium:

INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES :
DEMONSTRATION OF EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT TANNERY EFFLUENT
TREATMENT USING AN INNOVATIVE INTEGRATED AND COMPACT BIOLOGICAL
AND PHYSICAL TREATMENT PLANT INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES

:
A significant number of operations within a tannery are wet operations consuming large amounts
of water, chemicals and energy and leading to large amounts of polluted water. Through process
integrated measures a significant reduction of water consumption and pollution load can be
achieved, however tanneries keep producing wastewater requiring special treatment. In cases
where the potential for process integrated measures has worn out, further pollution reduction
has to be found in the improvement of end-of-pipe measures.

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Compared to Best Available Technology 1 the following effluent quality performance is
demonstrated: - better COD-removal efficiency (+ 5 to 10 %); - better Chromium removal
efficiency (+ 5 to 10 %); - better Sulphur removal efficiency (+ 30 %); - equal Nitrogen removal.
This all is being realised against lower total annual cost than in the BAT situation as a result of: -
lower costs for sludge discharge (reduction sludge volume 50 % compared to BAT); - lower
costs for discharging waste water to municipal treatment plant; - significantly lower chemical
consumption.