You are on page 1of 14

MIHAI ALL\ANDRLSCU

David Mitrany:
From FederaIism
to FunctionaIism
1N A 5 study, Cornclia Navari saw
lunctionalism as a componcnt ol that
idcalism which had managcd to survivc
nationalism and totalitarianism.

At thc
samc timc, Bcn Fosamond considcrcd
that, in thc history ol intcrnational rcla-
tions, thc `kcy ligurc ol lunctionalist
thcory is avid Mitrany.`
2
n thc othcr
hand, in a rcccntly pullishcd study, Craig
N. Murphy contcndcd that Mitrany was
lar lrom lcing thc lirst to dcvclop a lunc-
tionalist approach to intcrnational coop-
cration.
3
unctionalism is a thcorctical app-
roach which cmcrgcd towards thc mid-
dlc ol thc past ccntury as an altcrnati-
vc to lcdcralist dcsigns conccrning thc
organization ol thc intcrnational sys-
tcm. Starting lrom thc criticism ol thc
lunctionalist approach, many thcorists
sought to proposc othcr thcorctical
altcrnativcs. n timc, lunctionalism got
to lc sccn as a thcory ol uropcan intc-
gration. Mitrany`s 65 rcaction to thc
cvolution ol thc uropcan projcct in thc
altcrmath ol World War 1wo highlightcd
his advcrsity to any lormula involving
rcgionalization.
Sr.r.in/, cnn/ . . .
|. /rcn.rr.4 ../ir.|,
//ru/ c rmu|c, n|,
//ru/ c un/in.
Mihai AIexandrescu
Docloral sludenl al abe-olyai
Universily of Clu|-Napoca, specializing
in lhe hislory of inlernalional relalions
in lhe 20
lh
cenlury and in lhe process
of Luropean conslruclion. Aulhor of lhe
book lnstitu(ii i proceduri de decizie
n Uniunea uropean (Inslilulions
and decision-making procedures in lhe
Luropean Union) (2007).
PARADICMS 21
n thc prcscnt study, wc shall procccd to analyzc thc intcllcctual lackground
ol Mitrany and his progrcssion towards a lunctionalist approach, his idcas on
intcrnational govcrnmcnt, his comparison lctwccn lcdcralism and lunctional-
ism, as wcll as thc placc occupicd ly Mitrany and his idcas in thc historiogra-
phy ol intcrnational rclations.
Ihe nvironment that Shaped the FunctionaIist ldeas
1
N A study conccrning thc intcllcctual and prolcssional lackground ol avid
Mitrany, wc indicatcd that `littlc has lccn writtcn alout Mitrany`s lilc
and work. Ncvcrthclcss, as carly as thc timc ol thc irst World War, his statc-
mcnts wcrc citcd in picccs dcvotcd to thc dcvclopmcnts occurrcd in Ccntral
and Southcastcrn uropc.`
+
n chronological ordcr, thc authors who wrotc alout
his lilc and work arc Faul 1aylor,
5
Cornclia Navari,
6
Gcrhard Michacl Amlrosi,
7
and orothy Andcrson.
8
n what conccrns thc lunctionalist approach, rclcrcnccs
to it alound whcn it comcs to studics conccrning loth intcrnational rclations
in gcncral and thc thcorics ol uropcan intcgration. 1hc richcst sourcc ol inlor-
mation conccrning . Mitrany`s lilc and intcllcctual activity arc thc mcmoirs
hc pullishcd in 75 in T/. lun/inc| T/.r, l|i/i.

n 7 hc wcnt on a lccturc tour across thc \nitcd ingdom, in support


ol thc idca ol a pcrmancnt pcacckccping organization. c was accompanicd
ly lour othcr lccturcrs, among whom wc lind conard Wooll and . N. Brailslord.
uring this tour, Mitrany spokc alout `Small Statcs and thc caguc ol Nations.`
n hc was invitcd to join thc Advisory Committcc on ntcrnational Allairs
ol thc alor Farty. c rcmaincd a mcmlcr until 3, alongsidc pcoplc likc
Norman Angcll, G. . . Colc, arold aski and conard Wooll. All ol thc
alovc wcrc intcrcstcd in thc workings ol thc intcrnational systcm, sccking to
dclinc thc rolc ol nation-statcs in thc altcrmath ol World War .
As a Bcrlin corrcspondcnt lor T/. Mcn/./.r Gucr4icn, lctwccn and
22 Mitrany camc into contact with numcrous lcading pcrsonalitics ol thc intcr-
war pcriod, such as, lor instancc, jalmar Schacht, who latcr lccamc a Gcrman
govcrnmcnt ministcr, and {. M. cyncs.
Altcr 22, Mitrany was introduccd to thc Amcrican acadcmic cnviron-
mcnt, as a mcmlcr ol thc Carncgic ntcrnational Fcacc oundation, lcd ly
thcn ly {amcs 1. Shotwcll. . Andcrson contcndcd that thc activity hc carricd
out within this institution (2228) was thc `lasis lor much ol thc latcr dcvcl-
opmcnt ol Mitrany`s thought.`
0
rom 33 to 58 (cxccpt lor thc war ycars),
Mitrany taught at thc School ol Folitics and conomics ol thc nstitutc lor
22 1RANSLVANIAN RLVILW VCL. \VI, NC. 1 (SPRINC 2007)
Advanccd Studics lclonging to Frinccton \nivcrsity. uring thc ycars spcnt in
Amcrican univcrsitics hc laid thc loundations ol thc lunctionalist approach, choos-
ing thc altcrnativc ol planncd lunctionalism, as opposcd to thc dcmocratic lunc-
tionalism advocatcd ly Mary Farkcr ollctt.

ollowing a scrics ol conlcrcnccs hcld at arvard and Yalc, hc pullishcd


two ol his thcorctical studics conccrning thc intcrnational systcm, `1hc Folitical
Conscqucnccs ol conomic Flanning` and `1hc Frogrcss ol ntcrnational Govcrnmcnt.`
c had thc opportunity to prcscnt his lunctionalist idcas at thc lcginning
ol thc Sccond World War, whcn hc joincd thc orcign Fcscarch and Frcss Scrvicc
(an acadcmic inlormation group) ol thc orcign llicc. 1hus, in {anuary +,
hc sulmittcd a documcnt cntitlcd `1crritorial, dcological, or unctional n-
tcrnational rganization`` According to Mitrany, his supcriors wcrc politc lut
clcarly unintcrcstcd in his proposals, as at thc timc thc dominant trcnd was in
lavor ol lcdcralist dcsigns.
2
\ndcr thcsc circumstanccs, hc lclt thc working group
in qucstion and, in +3, hc pullishcd thc projcct in pamphlct lormat, undcr thc
titlc A Jr|in l.c. S,/.m An Arum.n/ r //. lun/inc| O.r.|(m.n/
In/.rnc/inc| Orcni:c/in. 1hc tcxt gaincd notoricty and was translatcd into
talian, anish, and Norwcgian.
3
lnternationaI Government
6
FS1 pullic prcscntation ol his lunctionalist approach to intcrnational
rclations occurrcd during a scrics ol conlcrcnccs hcld at Yalc \nivcrsity
in 32. vcn at that timc, Mitrany was contcnding that thc major impcd-
imcnt to a glolal socicty was thc `worship` ol political lordcrs. n his vicw,
thc altcrnativc consistcd ol a `lunctional intcgration ol matcrial activitics on an
intcrnational scalc and cultural dcvolution on a rcgional lasis.`
+
is 32 piccc,
`Folitical Conscqucnccs ol conomic Flanning,` and thc lccturcs pullishcd in
33 undcr thc titlc T/. lrr. In/.rnc/inc| Gr.rnm.n/ lcaturc somc ol
his carly idcas on thc gcncral tcndcncics manilcst in contcmporary socicty.
`1hc cnds ol intcrnational govcrnmcnt in no way dillcr lrom thosc ol munici-
pal govcrnmcnt.`
5
n his argumcntation wc noticc thc prcscncc ol clcmcnts
inspircd ly his lilcral pluralist contcmporarics. Cornclia Navari wrotc that thc
British pluralist doctrinc had lccomc thc lilcllood ol Mitrany`s thcory.
6
n
light ol this doctrinc, hc distinguishcd lctwccn nationality and nationalism, indi-
cating that thc lattcr was an instrumcnt cmploycd ly thc statc or ly thosc dcsirous
ol powcr.
T/.r. i r.c||, |i//|. in mmn |./r..n nin./..n// .n/ur, nc/inc|im, r/i/
rc |i|.rc|, cn4 (r..n/ 4c, nc/inc|im, r/i/ i ic|i/i. l.r/c( n. mi//
um i/ u( (|i/ic||, |, c,in //c/ //. ir/ rc n.rn.4 ..n/ic||, ri// .-
/c||i/in c nc/inc| /c/., //. (r..n/ ri// /cnin //. |i. ri//in //c/ /c/..
7
n what conccrns thc statc, Mitrany argucd that it lound itscll in an uncnviallc
position, organizing a group-nation on thc lasis ol conlormity in ordcr to sccurc
thc cohcsion, thc disciplinc, and thc loyalty vital lor its survival.
8
As a consc-
qucncc ol thc irst World War and ol thc grcat cconomic crisis, statcs had cho-
scn in lavor ol cconomic planning, a protcctionist mcasurc consonant with thc
dclcnsivc logic ol thc statc. Bccausc thc intcrnational systcm was anarchical
and marrcd ly incqualitics lctwccn countrics, in his 33 study Mitrany indi-
catcd that hc was chiclly conccrncd with `thc working ol a possillc ncw intcr-
national systcm rathcr than with its cthics.`

1hc samc author claimcd that `il


an intcrnational Govcrnmcnt wcrc to arisc, . . . thc cmploymcnt ol lorcc ly
such Govcrnmcnt would lc comparallc to its cmploymcnt ly thc ministcrs ol
justicc within a Statc.`
20
Nation-statcs had to lc rcplaccd ly a systcm ol lunc-
tional intcrnational agcncics, through a pcrmancnt translcr ol lunctions and
authority lctwccn statcs and thc intcrnational lodics.
1hc idca ol intcrnational coopcration was claloratcd upon ly . 1. olhousc,
and thcn ly . Wooll and G. . . Colc. 1hc main rationalc lchind it was that
`pcacc is morc than thc alscncc ol violcncc.` n thc othcr hand, Mitrany argucd
that a world community was a prcrcquisitc lor world govcrnmcnt. Nationalism
and intcrnational anarchy wcrc sccn as thc causcs lchind thc division ol thc world
community into rival units. c lclicvcd that thc cstallishmcnt ol such a com-
munity would solvc thc prollcms plaguing thc intcrnational systcm.
2
A Working Peace System
1
N A rcccnt study, Craig N. Murphy contcndcd that Mitrany was ly no mcans
thc lirst to dcvclop thc lunctionalist modcl lor thc organization ol thc intcr-
national systcm. c madc rclcrcncc to thc look pullishcd in 8 ly Mary
Farkcr ollctt and cntitlcd T/. N.r S/c/. Gru( Orcni:c/in, //. S|u/in
l(u|cr Gr.rnm.n/. 1hc list can go on, without us having to stray lar lrom
Mitrany`s intcllcctual cntouragc. xamplcs in this rcspcct arc conard Wooll`s
In/.rnc/inc| Gr.rnm.n/ (6), arold aski`s T/. S/c/. in T/.r, cn4 lrc/i.
(35), in which hc plcadcd lor a community ol statcs having cqual rights and
PARADICMS 23
olligations, with all actors involvcd in a nctwork ol intcrnational rclations dclincd
on thc lasis ol prccisc norms.
22
n his mcmoirs, Mitrany admittcd that a `lirst window` into thc lunctional-
ist approach to social and political mattcrs had lccn opcncd ly . 1. olhousc
and G. Wallas. 1hc two had rcjcctcd thc traditional approach to thc study and
tcaching ol political history, `allcrgic to thc slightcst whill ol dogmatism.`
23
1hc piccc that madc Mitrany lamous in Wcstcrn acadcmic circlcs and in thc
historiography ol intcrnational rclations was his +3 lrochurc callcd A Jr|in
l.c. S,/.m An Arum.n/ r //. lun/inc| O.r.|(m.n/ In/.rnc/inc| Orc-
ni:c/in. t practically introduccd Mitrany`s namc into thc grcat thcorctical dclatc
lrom thc middlc ol thc 20
th
ccntury on thc dcvclopmcnt ol thc intcrnational
systcm. c rcmaincd an activc participant in this discussions lorum, pullish-
ing studics likc A Bc4 / S.uri/, (++), T/. lun/inc| A((rc/ / Jr|4
Orcni:c/in (+8), Jr|4 Uni/, cn4 //. Nc/in (50), T/. lr(./ In/.rc/in
l.4.rc| r lun/inc| (65), T/. lun/inc| A((rc/ in Hi/ric| l.r(./ir.
(7), A l|i/ic| T/.r, //. N.r Si./, (75).
1hc lrochurc pullishcd ly Mitrany in +3 accompanicd thc dc jurc collapsc
ol thc systcm ol thc caguc ol Nations, as thc Sccond World War was raging. As
a mcmlcr ol thc orcign Fcscarch and Frcss Scrvicc ol thc orcign llicc, Mitrany
prcscntcd to thc group (+) and thcn to his supcriors (+2) a projcct callcd
`1crritorial, dcological, or unctional ntcrnational rganization`` 1hc docu-
mcnt analyzcd in minutc dctail thc cxisting intcrnational systcm, as wcll as thc
plans lor its postwar rcorganization. Mitrany claimcd that a lcdcral union only
involvcd an incrcasc in thc tcrritorial and administrativc lasis, lailing to tacklc
thc ollcnsivc potcntial ol thc protagonists. `Wc must put our laith not in a
protcctcd pcacc, lut in a working pcacc.`
2+
Mitrany cnvisagcd a world organizcd on thc lasis ol lunctional rclations.
c advocatcd a comlination lctwccn intcrnational organization and national
lrccdom, as olviously all protagonists did no sharc thc samc intcrcsts and, con-
vcrscly, all common intcrcsts wcrc not cqual in all countrics.
25
n +2, thc lcadcrs ol thc orcign llicc showcd littlc intcrcst in thc doc-
umcnt prcscntcd ly Mitrany. Conscqucntly, hc lclt thc working group, rcturncd
to Chatham ousc, and pullishcd his proposals in pamphlct lormat in +3.
Fcturning to this projcct, Mitrany startcd lrom thc idca that thc aim ol any
unilication dcsign, lrom thc Middlc Agcs to thc prcscnt day, had lccn to lring
alout a pcacclul intcrnational systcm. Still, historical dcvclopmcnt had lcd to a
mosaic ol scparatc national units. At a timc whcn uropcan and Amcrican pan-
contincntal dcsigns wcrc rccciving massivc support lrom loth politicians and
intcllcctuals, Mitrany suggcstcd thc modcl ol an `cxpandcd nctwork` ol intcr-
national activitics and agcncics, achicvcd ly way ol a gradual proccss involving
thc intcgration ol all nations, also callcd rcmiic/in (r..
26
24 1RANSLVANIAN RLVILW VCL. \VI, NC. 1 (SPRINC 2007)
PARADICMS 2S
Mitrany argucd in lavor ol a lunctionalist approach which would supcrscdc
thc importancc ol lordcrs through a `natural growth ol common activitics
and common administrativc agcncics.`
27
1hc thcorist ol thc lunctionalist approach
to intcrnational rclations spokc alout thc cllicicncy ol translcrring a part ol a
country`s cconomic sovcrcignty to intcrnational cxccutivc agcncics scrving a clcar-
ly dclincd purposc.
According to aura Cram, thc kcy to undcrstanding Mitrany`s vision lics in
thc distinction hc madc lctwccn political-constitutional coopcration and tcch-
nical-lunctional coopcration in thc cmcrgcncc ol thc ncw intcrnational socic-
ty.
28
1hc originality ol this approach has nothing to do with thc introduction
ol thc conccpt ol lunctionality in intcrnational rclations, lut rathcr with thc man-
ncr in which it was cxpandcd to covcr thc various lcvcls ol thc rclations lctwccn
intcrnational protagonists.
1hc intcrwar world systcm was dclincd ly its in/.r-nc/inc| charactcr, with
nation-statcs as its main protagonists. thcr actors lcgan to cmcrgc at thc lcgin-
ning ol thc past ccntury, such as intcrnational organizations and multinational
companics. 1hcir scctorial activity cxtcndcd lcyond national lordcrs. Starting
lrom thcsc modcls and having sccn thc lailurc ol thc caguc ol Nations, Mitrany
wantcd to scc thc modcl ol transnational organization cxtcndcd to thc wholc
world. is cxpcricncc as a journalist, diplomat, and analyst ol intcrnational
rclations hclpcd him idcntily thc manncr in which statcs could lc drawn closcr
togcthcr in ordcr to dcvclop somc liclds which ignorcd thc limitations ol polit-
ical gcography. 1his approach is callcd un/inc|im lccausc it rclcrs to thc
nccd to conlcr a lunctional}opcrational charactcr to thc rclations lctwccn pro-
tagonists.
1his typc ol sociological analysis ol intcrnational rclations ran contrary to
thc Wcstphalian tradition consccratcd at thc middlc ol thc 7
th
ccntury. avid
Mitrany rclutcd thc idca ol thc organization projcct involving a proccss ol planncd
intcgration. c advocatcd a transnational coopcration likcly to grow into a
systcm ol intcrdcpcndcncc, dominatcd ly thc nccd to solvc mutual prollcms.
Considcring thc intcrwar cxpcricncc and that ol thc Sccond World War, Mitrany
argucd that `wc must put our laith not in a protcctcd pcacc, lut in a working
pcacc.`
2
T/. rr|in (.c. ,/.m was luilt around in/.rnc/inc| c.ni.. 1hcy had lunc-
tional rcsponsililitics in managing thosc prollcms lor which thcrc was a con-
scnsus to coopcratc. 1hcsc intcrnational agcncics wcrc to assumc somc ol thc
attrilutions ol nation-statcs, within thc so-callcd rcmiic/in (r. which involvcd
a constant translcr ol lunctions and authority lrom statcs to agcncics. 1hc phc-
nomcnon in qucstion madc no distinction lctwccn protagonists. 1hc conscqucncc
ol ramilication was a domino cllcct, as coopcration in onc licld could lcad to a
ncw coopcration in anothcr licld.
26 1RANSLVANIAN RLVILW VCL. \VI, NC. 1 (SPRINC 2007)
According to Mitrany, countrics had to cnjoy limitcd intcrnal agcntial powcr,
cnough to mcct thc individual nccds ol thcir citizcns. vcn so, thc statc cannot
lully satisly all human nccds, and thcrclorc thc solution was to gradually cxpand
thc lunctional intcrnational institutions.
30
Mitrany dctailcd his lunctionalist approach in rcsponsc to thc lcdcralist dcsigns
ol that timc. n lact, G. M. Amlrosi cvcn contcndcd that `in Mitrany`s lunc-
tionalism onc could maylc dctcct a critical rcaction to thc grand dcsign ol Fopo-
vici`
3
who, in 06, had proposcd a lcdcralization ol Ccntral uropc into thc
\nitcd Statcs ol Grcatcr Austria.
FederaIism vs. FunctionaIism
B./r..n //. n.(/in c unir.rc| |.cu. cn4 //c/ n/in.n/c| unin //.r.
i, //.r.r., c 4i.r.n. n/ m.r.|, 4.r.. |u/ ..n.. T/. |c/ n. ru|4
(r..4 in //. |4 rc, |, c 4.ini/in /.rri/r,, c c m.cn 4i.r.n/ic/in
|./r..n m.m|.r cn4 u/i4.r, c |.cu. ru|4 .|./ cn4 4.in. un/in r
//. n/rcr, (ur(. in/.rc/in //. in/.r./ c||.
32
1his lragmcnt is prcscnt in Mitrany`s `Fan-uropa. A opc or a angcr`` (30),
thcn in T/. lrr. In/.rnc/inc| Gr.rnm.n/ (33. 6), and linally in
T/. lun/inc| T/.r, l|i/i (75. 5+).
1his is what Mitrany wrotc in +, in Nuc B.ri/c Bmcnc (1hc Ncw
Fomanian Fcvicw).
T/.r. i n in4ic/in //c/ c unin |./r..n //. r.c/ nc/in Lur(. i im(-
i||.. On //. n/rcr,, /i/r, /r //c/ .n.m, nc/in cn |.m. 4 ri.n4
cn4 c||i. . . . I, //ru/ i/ .r/, //. L.cu. u..4 in r.c/in //. r.
u/ c unin, //.n //. .n.rc| ru(in c|| r.mcinin nc/in Lur(.
ri|| |. r.|c/ir.|, .c, / c/i.r.. An4, in /im., ri// 4ri|| cn4 mu/uc| ,m-
(c//,, //. u(r.m. i4.c| u|4 |. r.c/.4 //. .4.rc/.4 /c/. Lur(.. T/. 4i-
iu|/i. c.4 |, c r.rm cr. mm.nurc/. / i/ im(r/cn.. Cn.u.n/|,,
c |/ /im. cn4 c |/ rr| cr. n..4.4 in r4.r / (u/ //.. i4.c in/ (rc-
/i., |u/ //. c| i rr//, cn, .r/.
33
What madc avid Mitrany so radically altcr his idcas conccrning thc organiza-
tion ol thc intcrnational systcm and rcplacc lcdcralism with thc lunctionalist altcr-
nativc` t is a qucstion that hc himscll lclt compcllcd to answcr.
1hc ycar + camc at thc cnd ol thrcc dccadcs ol contincntal pcacc. 1hc
shock ol thc war, with its magnitudc and complcxity, lrought to thc surlacc latcnt
PARADICMS 27
conllicts, loth social and national. 1hat gcncration was accustomcd to thc
prcscncc ol an organizcd intcrnational systcm, allcit an anarchic onc. Sccrct diplo-
macy and thc conccrt ol uropcan voiccs gavc thc illusion ol pcrmancncc, scc-
mingly ruling out all proccss ol changc. r, thc shock ol thc irst World War
rcvcalcd thc prcscncc ol social as wcll as national discontcntmcnt. 1hc scnsc ol
injusticc, ol incquality lctwccn thc actors involvcd in thc intcrnational systcm
was dominant in thc countrics ol Ccntral and Southcastcrn uropc. Mitrany
noticcd that `1hc outlrcak ol war in + lound thcm unrcady . . . lor this
chancc to try to lring thc pcoplcs ol Southcrn uropc togcthcr. 1hcy saw it rathcr
as a chancc to multiply thc world ol scparatc nations ly prcssing lor thc lrcak-
up ol thc alslurg mpirc.`
3+
imscll a mcmlcr ol a socicty which promotcd a lcllicosc nationalist dis-
coursc, Mitrany lclicvcd that in ordcr to avoid a ncw world war a lcaguc ol nations
had to lc crcatcd, in kccping with thc principlcs ol thc translcr ol attrilutions
and ol cqual rcprcscntation. 1hc dcvclopmcnt ol thc intcrnational systcm through-
out thc intcrwar pcriod, thc impotcncc and thcn thc uttcr lailurc ol thc caguc
ol Nations pcrsuadcd him that thc lcdcral solution wasn`t rcally thc most suit-
allc or lcasillc onc. 1hcrclorc, Mitrany hailcd thc crcation ol thc uropcan Coal
and Stccl Community (CSC) and ol thc uropcan Atomic ncrgy Community
(uratom).
35
1hc intcrwar pcriod and thc ycars ol thc Sccond World War saw a widc
rangc ol rcgional, contincntal, or glolal lcdcralist dcsigns. n onc way or anoth-
cr, thcy kcpt thc nation-statc at thcir corc. A lcdcration, in thc lorm ol a union
or ol a lcdcral statc, was groundcd in political-constitutional principlcs.
avid Mitrany uscd thc documcnt prcscntcd to thc orcign llicc in + as
an opportunity to cxplain thc dillcrcncc lctwccn thc lcdcralist approach and thc
lunctionalist onc. cdcration was prcscntcd as an altcrnativc to a caguc ol Nations
which had tricd, through dcmocratic mcans, to lring togcthcr scvcral statcs. 1hc
main rcprcscntativc ol this intcrwar trcnd was Count Fichard Coudcnhovc-
alcrgi, who lcd thc pan-uropcan movcmcnt. According to him, thc movcmcnt
hc had loundcd was not `a movcmcnt lor world pcacc lut lor union, similar
to thc movcmcnts lor Gcrman and talian union in thc ninctccnth ccntury.
1hc movcmcnts lor union wcrc inwardly also movcmcnts lor pcacc.`
36
1hc
natural qucstion, thcn, was what wcrc thcsc movcmcnts outwardly`
n 30, in an articlc suggcstivcly cntitlcd `Fan-uropa. A opc or a angcr``,
Mitrany discusscd lor thc lirst timc thc pan-uropcan lcdcralist plan in thc
lorm prcscntcd ly Aristidc Briand lclorc thc Gcncral Asscmlly ol thc caguc
ol Nations. 1hc study in qucstion was cxpandcd ly thc author in 75.
1hc lirst criticism ol thc pan-uropcan dcsign involvcd a comparison lctwccn
thc \SA, thc British Commonwcalth, and thc pan-uropcan dcsign.
28 1RANSLVANIAN RLVILW VCL. \VI, NC. 1 (SPRINC 2007)
T/. Uni/.4 S/c/. Am.ric rm c niu (|i/ic| uni/, //. Bri/i/ Lm(ir.
i /.|4 /.//.r |, //. |n4 mmn riin cn4 /rc4i/in, |u/ lcn-Lur(c
/c n//in r.r, |i4 / |ui|4 u(n. T/. m.4i.rc| .n. uni/, i c //in
//. (c/, //. .n/im.n/ r/i/ in(ir.4 //. nc/inc| mr.m.n/ //. |c/ .n-
/ur, rc rc//.r c .n. 4i.r.n. rm imm.4ic/. n.i/|ur. T in/.rc/.
//.. 4iri4.4 nc/in in/ c n.r n/in.n/c| nc/inc|im /r .|.m.n/ cr.
n..4.4 c|r. c|| c .n. mmn 4cn.r cn4 c .n. inn.r mmuni/,.
37
n what conccrns thc sccond lactor, Count alcrgi spokc alout a `uropcan racc
conscious ol its Wcstcrn nationality.` Mitrany`s opinion ol alcrgi`s dcsign was
lluntly cxprcsscd in his 65 articlc, in which hc talkcd alout thc `alcrrations
ol thc Count Coudcnhovc-alcrgi.`
38
Mitrany rcturncd to thc contrastivc analysis ol lcdcralism and lunctionalism
in a piccc pullishcd in +8 in In/.rnc/inc| Acir and cntitlcd `1hc unctional
Approach to World rganization.` c argucd that thcrc wcrc thrcc main pat-
tcrns lor thc organization ol thc intcrnational systcm. gcncral association (thc
caguc ol Nations and latcr thc \nitcd Nations), lcdcral union, and a systcm
ol lunctional arrangcmcnts. cdcralism was considcrcd to lc an invcntion ol
Amcrican political thcorists. Alongsidc thc olvious advantagcs, thc structurc and
thc activity ol a lcdcral systcm includcd a `comlination ol rigiditics`. thc rigid-
ity ol its lramcworkgcographic or idcological, thc rigidity ol its own structurc,
and thc rigidity ol lilc in gcncral.
3
n +8, Mitrany argucd that thc linal outcomc ol cconomic ramilication and
ol thc cvcr cxpanding rclations lctwccn nations was a world lcdcration.
+0
n
this contcxt, hc rcjcctcd thc idca ol rcgional lcdcralism, which hc saw as an
argumcnt lor thc ncw nationalism, lut not lor thc ncw intcrnationalism.
+
n 65 Mitrany voiccd his critical rcaction to thc uropcan dcvclopmcnt
altcr thc ycar 57.
T/. Lur(.cn .4.rc|i/ /cr. |..n cinc/.4 |, c r.c4i|, nr.ni.n/ r-
mu|c //c/ //., /cr. c|.4 /r i/ rr| r/.r. i/ .xi/, nr r/.//.r i/ riin
|.cr cn, r.|c/in / //. (r||.m uni/in c ru( /c/. in //. (r..n/
ic| cm|i.n..
+2
Mitrany`s mcssagc considcrcd thc rolc playcd ly thc organization ol thc intcr-
national systcm whcn it camc to thc common social and cconomic nccds ol
thc actors involvcd. c indicatcd that thc rcal sccurity prollcm laccd ly all
protagonists involvcd not only thc prcscrvation ol pcacc lctwccn scparatc nations,
lut also thcir willingncss to coopcratc.
+3
Mitrany lclicvcd that two lactors lay
at thc loundation ol lunctionalist coopcration, cvcn at world lcvcl. on thc onc
hand, thc nccd lor a common oljcctivc and a common pcrspcctivc, rootcd in
social goals and policics, and, on thc othcr hand, thc nccd lor incrcascd similarity
lctwccn thc ways and thc mcans ol action.
++
Also, thc author ol thc 65 study
wantcd to dcmonstratc that lunctionalist logic was not opposcd to national
lcclings or to thc pridc in onc`s sovcrcignty. A lunctionalist systcm is opcn ly
virtuc ol its own naturc, its mcmlcrs lcing intcgratcd without violcnt intcr-
vcntions upon national policics and administration. 1hus, Mitrany argucd that
thc CSC and uratom wcrc `straight lunctional lodics,` similar to \N agcn-
cics and lcaturing many points ol coopcration, whilc thc C was an organiza-
tion `with a lurcaucratic tcndcncy lccausc it is dillusc, and an cxpansionist
tcndcncy lccausc it is lurcaucratic.`
+5
Considcring Mitrany`s criticism ol thc uropcan construction and thc intcn-
tions conccrning thc cstallishmcnt ol a political community, lunctionalism
docs not appcar as a thcory ol uropcan intcgration. c lclicvcd that rcgional
unions arc not a solution, lut a translcr ol prollcms to a highcr lcvcl, as intcrna-
tional lcdcrations crcatc morc prollcms than thcy solvc. n thc introduction to
thc lourth cdition to thc look that madc his lamc, A Jr|in l.c. S,/.m, Mitrany
statcd that `Sovcrcignty cannot . . . lc translcrrcd cllcctivcly through a lormu-
la, only through a lunction,`
+6
namcly, through thc crcation ol spccializcd agcn-
cics mcant to solvc thc cconomic and social prollcms and mcct pcoplc`s nccds.
ConcIusions
)
1F 1 shock ol thc irst World War, thc ncw intcrnational systcm was
mcant to climinatc violcncc lrom thc rclations lctwccn statcs and pro-
vidc intcrnational sccurity, thc outcomc lcing thc signing ol thc caguc
ol Nations pact. 1hc 30s, markcd ly thc lirst criscs ol thc intcrnational sys-
tcm, highlightcd thc vulncralilitics ol thc \crsaillcs systcm.
Mitrany sought to cxplain that intcrnational pcacc could not lc limitcd to prc-
vcnting violcncc lctwccn protagonists, and that it also had to lactor in thc
social and thc cconomic componcntscsscntially, thc nccd lor social unity, along-
sidc thc tcrritorial-constitutional onc. c contcndcd that thc rcal sccurity issuc
was not thc prcscrvation ol pcacc lctwccn scparatc nations, lut rathcr thc man-
ncr in which thcy could lc pcrsuadcd to coopcratc.
l wc considcr Mitrany`s work in its cntircty, wc scc a dcvclopmcnt in his undcr-
standing ol thc organization ol thc intcrnational systcm. is intcllcctual and pro-
lcssional cxpcricnccs and thc opportunity to takc part in thc intcrwar thcorcti-
cal dclatc on intcrnational rclations hclpcd him dclinc his idcas conccrning thc
organization ol thc intcrnational systcm.
1hc lunctionalist approach to intcrnational rclations rcachcd maturity in thc
work ol avid Mitrany. Still, thc lorcrunncrs ol lunctionalist logic arc . 1.
PARADICMS 29
olhousc, conard Wooll, Mary Farkcr ollctt, G. . . Colc or . aski.
avid Mitrany`s contrilution to thc historiography ol intcrnational rclations was
thc cstallishmcnt ol a lunctional-sociological approach, in contrast to thc polit-
ical-constitutional onc. 1hc lailurc ol thc caguc ol Nations to maintain pcacc
ly institutional and intcr-govcrnmcntal mcans madc thc thcorist ol lunctional-
ism considcr a totally dillcrcnt lorm ol intcrnational coopcration, onc that was
not rootcd in lcdcralist dcsigns, lut rathcr in thc nccd to cnsurc thc wcllarc ol
pcoplc. n thc spirit ol thc British lilcral pluralist school, hc plcadcd lor intcr-
national coopcration. Mitrany argucd that thc intcrdcpcndcncc ol nations could
lc cstallishcd through coopcration at tcchnical and cconomic lcvcl.
+7
1hc idca ol intcrnational agcncics also lay at thc loundation ol {can Monnct`s
dcsign, which lcd to thc cstallishmcnt ol thc uropcan Coal and Stccl Community
(CSC) and latcr ol thc uropcan Atomic ncrgy Community (uratom).
t was in 65 that Mitrany lirst rcactcd to thc cvolution ol thc uropcan cons-
truction proccss altcr 57 and to thc dcsigns lor a political union ol uropcan
statcs. c continucd to support thc lunctionalism hc had advocatcd two dccadcs
carlicr. Mitrany rcjcctcd thc solution ol rcgionalization. n thc onc hand, this
phcnomcnon limitcd thc lunctional charactcr ol coopcration, and, on thc othcr,
it was nothing lut a gcographic cxpansion ol national sovcrcignty. All ol thc alovc
indicatc that Mitrany`s contrilution was tangcntial rathcr than dircct,
+8
making
it dillicult to talk alout lunctionalism as a thcory ol uropcan intcgration.
unctionalism lclt its imprint upon thc thcorctical dclatc conccrning thc rcor-
ganization ol thc intcrnational systcm at thc middlc ol thc 20
th
ccntury. vcn
through avid Mitrany was an intcllcctual ol Fomanian cxtraction, who acknowl-
cdgcd thc inllucncc ol his Ccntral uropcan cxpcricnccs upon his conccrns
and thcorctical thought, hc has lccn ignorcd ly thc Fomanian historiography
ol intcrnational rclations. unctionalism will havc to lc rcdiscovcrcd ly Fomanian
thcorists lclorc thcy can put togcthcr a pcrtincnt thcorctical discoursc dctail-
ing thc Fomanian pcrccption ol thc proccss ol uropcan construction and, impli-
citly, ol thc contcmporary intcrnational systcm.
G
Notes
. Cornclia Navari, `avid Mitrany and ntcrnational unctionalism,` in T/in|.r
//. Tr.n/, T.cr' Crii In/.r-Jcr I4.c|im B.c..4, cds. avid ong and Fctcr
Wilson (xlord. Clarcndon Frcss, 5), 2+.
2. Bcn Fosamond, T/.ri. Lur(.cn In/.rc/in (ampshirc. Falgravc, 2000), 3.
3. Craig N. Murphy, G||c| In/i/u/in, Mcrinc|i:c/in, cn4 O.r.|(m.n/ (ondonNcw
York. Foutlcdgc, 2005), 7+.
30 1RANSLVANIAN RLVILW VCL. \VI, NC. 1 (SPRINC 2007)
+. Mihai Alcxandrcscu, `avid Mitrany. orma(ia intclcctuala i prolcsionala` (progrcss
rcport, doctoral school, Cluj-Napoca, {unc 2006), 2.
5. Faul 1aylor, `ntroduction,` in avid Mitrany, T/. lun/inc| T/.r, l|i/i (ondon
School ol conomics & Folitical Scicncc. Martin Folcrtson, 75), ixxxv, id.,
`unctionalism. 1hc Approach ol avid Mitrany,` in lrcm.rr| r In/.rnc/inc|
C-(.rc/in, cds. A. {. F. Groom and Faul 1aylor (ondon. Fintcrn Fullishcrs,
0), 2538, A. {. F. Groom and Faul 1aylor, cds., lun/inc|im T/.r, cn4
lrc/i. in In/.rnc/inc| B.|c/in (ondon. \nivcrsity ol ondon Frcss, 75).
6. Navari, 2+2+6, id., `unctionalism \crsus cdcralism. Altcrnativc \isions ol
uropcan \nity,` in Jiin Lur(.cn Uni/,, cds. Fhilomcna Murray and Faul Fich
(Ncw York. Wcstvicw Frcss, 6), 630.
7. Gcrhard M. Amlrosi, `avid Mitranys unktionalismus als analytischc Grundlagc
wirtschaltlichcr und politischcr Ncuordnungcn in uropa,` in Oi. 4.u//(rc/i.
rir//c/ri.n/c/|i/. Lmirc/in nc/ 1933, cd. arald agcman (Marlurg.
Mctropolis, 6), id., `cyncs and Mitrany as nstigators ol uropcan Govcrnancc,`
in Mi||.nium III 2}3 (Summcr 2005). 27288.
8. orothy Andcrson, `avid Mitrany (88875). An Apprcciation ol is ilc and
Work,` B.ri.r In/.rnc/inc| S/u4i. 2+ (8). 57752.
. avid Mitrany, `1hc Making ol thc unctional 1hcory. A Mcmoir,` in Mitrany,
T/. lun/inc| T/.r, l|i/i, 382.
0. Andcrson, 578.
. Scc Murphy, 730.
2. Mitrany, T/. lun/inc| T/.r, l|i/i, 20.
3. Andcrson, 580.
+. Mitrany, T/. lun/inc| T/.r, l|i/i, 030+, scc also Will Banyan, `utllanking
thc Nation-Statc. 1hc rigins ol thc 'unctional Approach` to thc Ncw World rdcr,`
www.paranoiamagazinc.com}outllanking.html.
5. avid Mitrany, T/. lrr. In/.rnc/inc| Gr.rnm.n/ (ondonNcw avcn. Allcn
& \nwin, Yalc \nivcrsity Frcss, 33), 03.
6. Navari, 28.
7. Mitrany, T/. lun/inc| T/.r, l|i/i, 20.
8. {amcs Fatrick Scwcll, lun/inc|im cn4 Jr|4 l|i/i A S/u4, Bc.4 n Uni/.4 Nc/in
lrrcm lincnin Lnmi O.r.|(m.n/ (Frinccton. Ncw {crscy \nivcrsity Frcss,
66), 30.
. Mitrany, T/. lrr. In/.rnc/inc| Gr.rnm.n/, +5.
20. lid., 552.
2. imitris N. Chryssochoou, Michacl {. 1sinisizclis, Stclinos Stavridis, and ostas lantis,
T/.r, cn4 B.rm in //. Lur(.cn Unin (Manchcstcr. Manchcstcr \nivcrsity Frcss,
2003), 8.
22. arold aski, T/. S/c/. in T/.r, cn4 lrc/i. (ondon. Gcorgc Allcn & \nwin,
35), 28.
23. Mitrany, `1hc Making ol thc unctional 1hcory,` 6.
2+. avid Mitrany, `1crritorial, dcological, or unctional ntcrnational rganization``
in T/. lun/inc| T/.r, l|i/i, 2.
PARADICMS 31
25. lid., 5.
26. avid Mitrany, A Jr|in l.c. S,/.m An Arum.n/ r //. lun/inc| O.r.|(m.n/
In/.rnc/inc| Orcni:c/in (ondon. Foyal nstitutc lor ntcrnational Allairs,
+3), 6.
27. lid., 2627.
28. aura Cram, `ntcgration 1hcory and thc Study ol thc uropcan Folicy Froccss,` in
Lur(.cn Unin lr.r cn4 l|i,-mc|in, cd. {crcmy Fichardson (ondonNcw
York. Foutlcdgc, 200), 5+.
2. Mitrany, T/. lun/inc| T/.r, l|i/i, 2.
30. {ohn M. olson, T/. S/c/. cn4 In/.rnc/inc| B.|c/in (Camlridgc. Camlridgc
\nivcrsity Frcss, 2000), 88.
3. G. M. Amlrosi, `Somc itcraturc rclating to avid Mitrany, unctionalism, and
uropcan ntcgration`, www.uni-tricr.dc}amlrosi}lilcs}pullik}amlrosi}mitrany.html.
32. . Mitrany, `Fcgional Facts. 1hcir \scs and angcrs,` in T/. lun/inc| T/.r,
l|i/i, 5+.
33. . Mitrany, `Sprc lcdcra(ia curopcana,` Nuc B.ri/c Bmcnc 5, 7 (30 March
+). 262.
3+. Mitrany, T/. lun/inc| T/.r, l|i/i, +.
35. lid., 35.
36. lid., 0.
37. lid., 53.
38. avid Mitrany, `1hc Frospcct ol ntcgration. cdcration or unctional`` in
In/.rnc/inc| B.inc|im B.c4in, cd. {oscph S. Nyc {r. (Boston. ittlc, Brown and
Company, 68), +7.
3. avid Mitrany, `1hc unctional Approach to World rganization,` in T/. Uni/.4
Nc/in cn4 c }u/ Jr|4 Or4.r, cds. Fichard A. alk, Samucl S. im, and Saul .
Mcndlovitz (BouldcrSan ranciscoxlord. Wcstvicw Frcss, ), 5+57.
+0. uring thc intcrwar pcriod, many Anglo-Saxon political scicntists advocatcd thc
altcrnativc ol `world lcdcralism.` n thcir vicw, this solution did not rulc out thc tcr-
ritorial naturc ol a statc, lut rathcr highlightcd thc nccd lor countrics to yicld
somc ol thcir sovcrcignty to a highcr authority in ordcr to avoid war and guaran-
tcc a lasting pcacc. Scc, lor instancc, C. Brinton, lrm Mcn, On. T/. lr. l|i/ic|
In/.rc/in, T/. lr||.m Jr|4 Gr.rnm.n/ (Camlridgc. arvard \nivcrsity Frcss,
+8), N. M. Buttcr, J/, Jcr? (Ncw York. Charlcs Scrilncr`s Sons, 38),
C. aglcton, Anc|,i //. lr||.m Jcr (Ncw York. 1hc Fonald Frcss Company,
37), S. {. cmllclcn, l|cn r Jr|4 l.c. T/ru/ Six C.n/uri. (Chicago.
\nivcrsity ol Chicago Frcss, +3), . Fccvcs, Anc/m, l.c. (Ncw York. arpcr
and Brothcrs, +5).
+. avid Mitrany, `1hc unctional Approach to World rganization,` In/.rnc/inc|
Acir, {uly +8. 360.
+2. Mitrany, `1hc Frospcct ol ntcgration`, 52.
+3. Mitrany, T/. lun/inc| T/.r, l|i/i, 8+.
++. Mitrany, `1hc Frospcct ol ntcgration,` 62.
32 1RANSLVANIAN RLVILW VCL. \VI, NC. 1 (SPRINC 2007)
+5. lid., 686.
+6. avid Mitrany, A Jr|in l.c. S,/.m, +
th
cd. (ondon. National Fcacc Council,
+6), .
+7. Scc Gcnc dward Faincy, look rcvicw in T/. }urnc| l|i/i 2, 3 (Aug. 67).
606, Martin Grilliths, li/, K., T/in|.r in In/.rnc/inc| B.|c/in (ondon.
Foutlcdgc, ), 3, Cram, 573, Banyan, Andcrson.
+8. Scc also Michacl `Ncill, T/. l|i/i Lur(.cn In/.rc/in A B.c4.r (ondonNcw
York. Foutlcdgc, 6), 32.
Abstract
David Milrany: Irom Iederalism lo Iunclionalism
Although an intcllcctual ol Fomanian cxtraction, so lar avid Mitrany has lccn largcly ignorcd
ly our historiography. n thc contcxt ol thc ncw uropcan idcntity ol our country, it lccomcs cvcn
morc rclcvant to considcr thc cxamplc ol a thinkcr who quitc carly in this ccntury dcvotcd his cllorts
to thc possillc avcnucs ol contincntal dcvclopmcnt. 1hc prcscnt articlc discusscs thc main lca-
turcs ol thc thcory supportcd and lurthcr dcvclopcd ly Mitrany, thc so-callcd lunctionalist approach,
which cmcrgcd around thc middlc ol thc ccntury as an altcrnativc to thc lcdcralist dcsigns lor a lutu-
rc intcrnational systcm. Mitrany`s carly advcrsity to any lorm ol rcgionalization lccomcs particu-
larly rclcvant at a timc whcn thc uropcan \nion is laccd with dillicult choiccs conccrning its
own luturc.
Keywords
lunctionalism, lcdcralism, intcrnational govcrnmcnt, uropcan intcgration
PARADICMS 33