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PRODUCTION OF 25O,OOO METRI.C TONNES PER.YEAR OF PROPYLENE


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KAMAL ZAKI BIN GHAZALI
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AIN NADIIIRAH BT. AHMAD.SAZLI
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WAN AZFAZAIIITUL IZNOR. ANJUMA
MUHAMMAD NAJMI B. MAT YUSOF
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AZREFN.F.LYANI BT-ROSLAN'
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FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
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UNIVERSITI TEKNOI,OGI MARA
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PRODUCTION OF 250,000 METRIC TONNES PER YEAR OF PROPYLENE





KAMAL ZAKI BIN GHAZALI 2010813912
AIN NADHIRAH BT. AHMAD SAZLI 2010443944
NADIRA BT. IKHSAN 2011449672
WAN AZFAZANITUL IZNOR ANJUMA 2010611138
MUHAMMAD NAJMI B. MAT YUSOF 2011834084
AZREEN ELYANI BT. ROSLAN 2010811278




This report is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements needed for the
award of Bachelor in Chemical Engineering (Hons)



FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
SHAH ALAM

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vi



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the most Merciful
Alhamdulillah, all praise to Allah SWT because of His blessing, we could
complete this final project. In this occasion, we would like to thank all those involved.
First of all, we would like to express my appreciation and gratitude to our
supervisors Miss Siti Norazian Bt. Ismail and allied supervisors En. Saiful b. Tajuddin
on the instruction, guidance and advice throughout the conduct of this project. Both of
their sacrifices in serving our actions will not be forgotten. We are very lucky to get a
supervisor and an allied supervisor who is dedicated and good hearted. Thank you
once again.
Not forgetting to Chemical Engineering Faculty to their cooperate during the
session of project implementation, especially the coordinator who have taken the
trouble to give guidance for the success of this project
We would also like to dedicate this project to our parents for their support,
prayers and encouragement. Not forgetting to others family members. Thanks for your
love and support.
The huge appreciation and thanks to the entire group member for giving full
commitment and contribution in completing this design project.
Last but not least, we would like to thanks to any person that helping direct or
indirectly in this project.
Alhamdullillah. Wassalam











vii



ABSTRACT



Our plant is planned to produce 250,000 metric tonnes per year of propylene
based in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The propylene is produced from
selected process known as propane dehydrogenation (PDH) at temperature between
500
o
C to 600
0
C and pressure 5 to 6 bar with the presence of Platinum-Tin-Alumina
(Pt(Sn)/Al
2
O
3
) as the catalyst in reformer reactor. The PDH process requires further
reaction oxygen will be introduced into oxy-reactor and react with hydrogen to
produce water. The process involved inside oxy-reactor will reduce the coking
formation and increased the selectivity of propylene. The market analysis where the
demand of propylene, supply of propane as raw material, the prices estimation cost
and the break even (BEV) analysis has been conducted. From the survey, world
demand for propylene is higher compared to the production. The market price for
propylene has been set up at USD1800 per tonne. Since UAE is chosen as the
proposed site location, the land cost especially in Ajman area has been estimated
around USD 261,600. The total investment which includes the Capital Expenditure
(CAPEX) is approximately estimated around USD 331 million. The total production
cost per year to produce propylene is around USD 346 million meanwhile the selling
price for 250,000 MT propylene is USD 450 million. From the breakeven analysis, it
is estimated the plant start to gain profit during 800,000 tonnes production (equal to
fourth year production). Our proposed site location is selected based on several
criteria that have been more elaborated in this report. From the study shows that
Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE) is one of the suitable location that fulfil the
criteria such as availability of raw material and facilities, land and others describe in
the report. Since our plant is located in overseas, there are rules and regulation safety
at that country that we need to obey and implement such as Ministerial Decision No.
(32) of 1982 concerning preventive methods to protect employees and also Federal
law No.24 of 1999 Protection and Development of the Environment such as hazard
identification, waste treatment plant and risk control. The wastewater treatment plant
is also proposed in this project. In order to achieve our production target, mass balance
and energy balance are calculated. Based on our mass balance, the basis of raw
material and component flow rates are gained by using selected method of calculation
viii



such as extent of reaction. Besides that, we need to find the energy consumption for
the plant process from the calculated energy balance. Last but not least, in order to
gain important information of the process, simulation process is required to simulate
the process by using HYSYS Simulation software. The comparison between manual
calculations and simulation data is performed to determine the percentage error of our
process.




























ix




LIST OF CONTENTS
PAGE
DECLARATION
SUPERVISORS CERTIFICATION
COORDINATORS CERTIFICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi
ABSTRACT vii
LIST OF CONTENTS ix
LIST OF TABLES xviii
LIST OF FIGURES xxii
LIST OF SYMBOL xxvi
LIST OF ABREVIATIONS xxvii

CHAPTER 1 PROCESS SIMULATION
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Chemical Identification 2
1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties of
Propylene 3
1.4 Thermodynamics Properties 5
1.4.1 K-Value of the Reaction 7
1.4.2 Rate of Reaction 7
1.5 Application and Uses of Propylene 9
1.6 Process Background 11
1.6.1 Metathesis 11
1.6.2 Steam Cracking 16
1.6.3 Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) 21
1.6.3.1 Types of FCC Processes 23
1.6.4 Propane Dehydrogenation (PDH) 29
1.7 Comparison of the Process 34
1.8 Types of PDH Process 37
1.9 Types of Catalyst 42
1.10 Process Description 47
x



1.11 Summary 51

REFERENCES 53

CHAPTER 2 MARKET ANALYSIS
2.1 Introduction 58
2.2 Market Study 59
2.2.1 World Demand of Propylene 59
2.2.2 World Propylene Production 61
2.2.3 World Suppliers of Propane 62
2.2.4 World Consumption of Propane 63
2.2.5 Supplier of Catalyst 64
2.2.6 Suppliers of Pure Oxygen 65
2.3 Price Of The Chemicals 66
2.3.1 Price of Propane 66
2.3.2 Price of Propylene 67
2.4 Production Rate 68
2.5 Economic Analysis 69
2.5.1 Economic Benchmark 69
2.5.2 Cost Estimating 70
2.5.3 Fixed Capital Cost 70
2.5.4 Start-up Cost 73
2.5.5 Total Investment Cost 73
2.4.5.1 Land Price 74
2.5.6 Estimating Total Operating Cost 74
2.5.6.1 Annual cost of Raw
Materials 75
2.5.6.2 Catalyst Annual Cost 75
2.5.6.3 Operating Labor Cost 76
2.5.6.4 Estimation of Utilities
Cost 79
2.5.7 Total Revenue 80
2.6 Breakeven Analysis 80
2.7 Conclusion 84
xi





REFERENCES 85

CHAPTER 3 SITE LOCATION
3.1 Introduction 88
3.2 Criteria of the Selection 89
3.2.1 Location 89
3.2.2 Raw Material 90
3.2.3 Transportation 90
3.2.4 Labor Availability 91
3.2.5 Utilities Availability 91
3.2.6 Environment and Safety 92
Consideration
3.2.7 Local Communities Consideration 92
3.2.8 Land Availability and 93
Marketing Area
3.2.9 Climate 93
3.2.10 Political and Strategic 93
Considerations
3.2.11 Major Selected Countries 94
3.3 Assumptions and Limitations 94
3.4 Selected Countries 96
3.4.1 China 96
3.4.1.1 Location With Respect to 98
Marketing Area
3.4.1.2 Raw Material 100
3.4.1.3 Transportation 100
3.4.1.4 Labor Availability 103
3.4.1.5 Utilities Availability 108
3.4.1.6 Environement Effect and 108
Effluent Disposal
3.4.1.7 Land Availability 109
3.4.1.8 Climate 109
xii



3.4.1.9 Summary 110
3.4.2 Canada 111
3.4.2.1 Location With Respect to 112
Marketing Area
3.4.2.2 Raw Material 113
3.4.2.3 Transportation 114
3.4.2.4 Labor Availability 117
3.4.2.5 Utilities Availability 120
3.4.2.6 Environment Effect and 124
Effluent Disposal
3.4.2.7 Local Communities 125
Consideration
3.4.2.8 Land Availability 125
3.4.2.9 Climate 126
3.4.2.10 Taxes 127
3.4.2.11Summary 129
3.4.3 United Arab Emirates 131
3.4.3.1 Location With Respect to 134
Marketing Area
3.4.3.2 Raw Material 134
3.4.3.3 Transportation and
Logistic Infrastructure 135
3.4.3.4 Labor Availability 137
3.4.3.5 Utilities Availability 139
3.4.3.6 Environment Effect 139
andWaste Management
3.4.3.7 Land Availability 139
3.4.3.8 Climate 142
3.4.3.9 Taxes 142
3.4.3.10 Summary 144
3.4.3 Comparison of Selected 145
Countries
3.4.3 Finalized Selected Countries 146
3.5 Proposed Site Location 148
xiii



3.5.1 Target Raw Material Supplier 148
3.5.2 Sharjah Airport International 153
Free Zone Authority (SAIFZA)
3.5.2.1 Land Price 153
3.5.2.2 License 154
3.5.2.3 Transportation 155
3.5.2.4 Utilities Availability 156
3.5.2.5 Environment 157
Considerations
3.5.2.6 Propylene Demand 158
3.5.3 J ebel Ali Free Zone
Authority(J AFZA) 160
3.5.3.1 Land Price 160
3.5.3.2 License 162
3.5.3.3 Transportation 162
3.5.3.4 Utilities Availability 163
3.5.3.5 Propylene Demand 164
3.5.4 Ajman Free Zone 165
Authority( AFZA )
3.5.4.1 Land Price 165
3.5.4.2 License 166
3.5.4.3 Transportation 167
3.5.4.4 Utilities Availability 167
3.5.4.5 Propylene Demand 169
3.5.4.6 Labor Cost 170
3.5.5 Comparison of Site Location 172
3.5.6 Finalized Site Location 175
3.6 Conclusion 177
REFERENCES 178

CHAPTER 4 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL

4.1 Introduction 180
4.1.1 Objectives 180
xiv



4.1.2 Hazard Identification 181
4.2 Potential Incident Hazard 190
4.2.1 Potential Incident Major Hazard 190
4.2.2 Potential Health Effect and First 192
Aid Measure
4.2.2.1 Raw Material 192
4.2.2.2 Product 194
4.2.3 Summary of Previous Accident 196
4.3 Control and Preventive Measure 201
4.3.1 Basic Preventive and Protective 201
Measure
4.3.2 Fire Detector and Fire Alarm 202
4.3.3 Personal Protective Equipment 203
4.3.4 Material Safety Data Sheet & Health 204
4.3.5 Emergency Evacuation 204
4.3.6 Maintenance of Equipment 205
4.3.7 Firefighting 205
4.4 OSH Legislation and Regulation 206
4.4.1 Health and Safety Legislation and 206
Regulation in UAE
4.5 Summary of Hazardous Material, Chemical
And Physical Properties 209
4.6 Waste Treatment 210
4.6.1 Objectives of Waste Treatment Process 210
4.6.2 Relevant Environmental Act and 211
Regulations
4.6.2.1Federal Law No.24 211
4.6.2.2 The Waste Management Act 212
4.6.2.3Waste Environment Regulation 212
4.6.3 Waste Identification 212
4.6.3.1 Waste water 213
4.6.3.2 Waste Air 214
4.6.4 Waste Water Treatment Process 214
4.6.5 Light gases recycle 219
xv



4.6.6 Waste Management 221
4.6.6.1 Labelling 221
4.6.6.2 Collection and Storage 221
4.6.6.3 Transportation 222
4.6.6.4 Waste Minimizing 222
4.6.6.5 Training 222
4.7 Conclusion 223
REFERENCES 224

CHAPTER 5 MASS BALANCE
5.1 Introduction 226
5.2 Summary of Process Description 227
5.3 Sample of Calculation 228
5.3.1 Overall Mass Balance 228
5.3.2 Mass Balance on Reformer (R-101) 229
5.3.3 Mass Balance on Oxy-Reactor (R-102) 233
5.3.4 Mass Balance on Distillation
Column 1 (D-301) 236
5.3.5 Mass Balance on Distillation
Column 2 (D-302) 240
5.3.6 Mass Balance on Distillation
Column 3 (D-303) 243
5.3.7 Mass Balance on Mixer (M-101) 245
5.4 Conclusion 247
REFERENCES 248

CHAPTER 6 ENERGY BALANCES

6.1 Introduction 249
6.2 Equations Used in Calculations 249
6.2.1 General Equations 249
6.2.2 Equation for Reactive
Process 250
6.2.3 Equation for Process with
xvi



Phase Changes 250
6.2.4 Equation for Non-Reactive 250
6.2.5 Equation for Heat Capacity 250
6.2.6 Total Heat for Energy Balance
(non-reactive process) 250
6.2.7 Total Heat for Energy Balance
(reactive process) 250
6.2.8 Equation Heat of Reaction 250
6.2.9 Equations Used in Calculation 251
6.3 Assumptions 252
6.4 Sample of Calculation 253
6.4.1 Reactor R-101 253
6.4.1.1 Balance for Stream 254
6.4.1.2 Balance for Stream 4 255
6.4.2 Oxyreactor R-102 262
6.4.3 Heat Exchanger EA-201 264
6.4.4 Heat Exchanger EA-202 266
6.4.5 Heater H -101 268
6.4.6 Cooler C -201 269
6.4.7 Distillation Column 270
6.4.7.1 Condensor 1 at D-301 270
6.4.7.2 Boiler 1 at D-301 272
6.4.7.3 Condenser 2 at D-302 273
6.4.7.4 Boiler 2 at D-302 275
6.4.7.5 Condensor 3 at D-303 276
6.4.7.6 Boiler at D-303 277
6.4.8 Pump-P301 278
6.4.9 Heater H -301 279
6.5 Comparison of Energy Balance 281
6.6 Conclusion 282
REFERENCES 283

CHAPTER 7 PROCESS SIMULATION
7.1 Process Simulation 283
xvii



7.2 Process Description 283
7.2.1 Reaction Section 284
7.2.2 Heat Recovery Section 286
7.2.3 Separation Section 286
7.3 Error of Deviation 288
7.3.1 Mass Balance 293
7.3.2 Energy Balance 294
7.4 Conclusion 295
REFERENCES 296

APPENDICES
A Summary of Process Description
Modifies Process Flow Diagram
HYSYS Process Flow Diagram
Stream Table
HYSYS WorkBook Table
B Price Material List
C MSDS of Chemicals
D Summary of Mass Balance
E Energy Balance Manual Calculation














xviii






LIST OF TABLES



TABLE TITLE PAGES
1.1 The physical properties of propylene 3
1.2 The chemical properties propylene 4
1.3 The thermodynamic properties for propylene 6
1.4 The rate constant value for the reaction occur in the
production of propylene 7
1.5 The rate of reaction used for the main reaction in the
production of propylene 8
1.6 The application of propylenes product 10
1.7 Composition of butane stream 12
1.8 Comparison between KBR FCC technologies 28
1.9 The comparison of the process involved for the
production of propylene 34
1.10 The weightage for each process 35
1.11 Comparison between oxidative dehydrogenation and
catalytic dehydrogenation 40
1.12 The weightage for each of the catalyst 41
1.13 Properties of Chromium Oxide, Cr
2
O
3
and
Platinum (Tin)/Alumina, Pt (Sn)/Al
2
O
3
45
1.14 The Advantages and Disadvantages of PDH
Process 51
2.1 Investment Cost on Different Companies 70
2.2 Estimation of Equipment Cost 71
2.3 Fixed Capital Investment of Propylene Plant 72
2.4 Cost of Land per Area 74
2.5 Cost of Raw Material 75
2.6 Catalyst Annual Cost 75
xix



2.7 Quantity of Equipment 76
2.8 Total Admin & Labor Cost 77
2.9 Estimation of Utilities Cost 79
2.10 Total Sales of Product 80
2.11 Break Even Analysis 82
3.1 The Availability of Labor in China 104
3.2 Labor Cost in China from 2012-2013 104
3.3 Advantages and Disadvantages for China Country 110
3.4 AvailablePropaneSupplier in Alberta 114
3.5 General Minimum Wage 2011 118
3.6 EducationalAttainmentofLaborForce
(25 yearsandolder), AnnualAverages 2010 119
3.7 Net Rent Per SquareFoot (December 2010) 126
3.8 LandParticulars 126
3.9 MajorProvincialTaxRate in 2011 128
3.10 Advantages and Disadvantages for Canada 129
3.11 Free Trade Zone in United Arab Emirates 133
3.12 Gross Domestic Product by Emirate (In Millions
of U.A.E Dirham) 134
3.13 The Sale Prices for LPG in Cylinders Effective
10-2-2012 135
3.14 The transport and logistics sector encompasses a
wide range of activities 136
3.15 Employment According to Sector 138
3.16 The Selection of the Right Free Zone 140
3.17 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Free Zone
Area 141
3.18 Settling in Free Zone Area Consideration 143
3.19 Advantages and Disadvantages for UAE Country 144
3.20 Summarize All Criteria that been Considered for
the Selected Countries 145
3.21 WeightageforFinalizedSelectedoftheseThree
Countries 146
3.22 The Distance and Time of the Supplier to the
xx



Recommended Plant Location 152
3.23 The Number of Companies That Available SAIF Zone 154
3.24 The Seaport and Airport Description in SAIF Zone 156
3.25 The Rates of Electricity and Water Supplier 157
3.26 The Permissible Limit for Air and Water Pollutants 157
3.27 The List of Company Requests the Propylene as
Their Feedstock in Sharjah Area 159
3.28 The Price of Land and Facility in J AFZA 161
3.29 The Description about the Land in J AFZA (Chase
Morgan UAE, 2013) 161
3.30 The Licenses Types and Cost 162
3.31 The License Type and Cost (PKF, 2013) 162
3.32 The Tariff of Water and Electricity in J AZFA (Chase
Morgan, 2013) 163
3.33 Features that J AZFA have for Their Customers 163
3.34 The List of Company Needs The Propylene as Their
Feedstock in J ebel Ali Area 164
3.35 Type of License Fees that Available in Ajman Free
Zone 166
3.36 The Distance and Facilities in AFZA 167
3.37 The Fees Amount of Water and Electricity 168
3.38 The Tariff of Electricity in AFZA 168
3.39 The Tariff of Water in AFZA 168
3.40 The List of Company Needs The Propylene as Their
Feedstock in Ajman Area 169
3.41 The Salary Ranges and Benefits Structure For
Levels of Employees 171
3.42 The Summary for the Site Location 172
3.43 The Finalized of Free Zones in UAE 175
4.1 Hazard identification, risk assessment, and
risk control for major equipment in process plant 182
4.2 HIRARC for potential incident inside plant 184
4.3 Likelihood for any occurrence 186
4.4 Severity of Hazard 186
xxi



4.5 Risk Assessment 187
4.6 Example of HAZOP worksheet 188
4.7 Guide word used in HAZOP analysis 189
4.8 Characteristic and major hazard from chemical
Component 190
4.9 Potential health effect and first aid measure for
Propane 192
4.10 Potential health effect and first aid measure for
Oxygen 193
4.11 Potential health effect and first aid measure for
Propylene 194
4.12 Summary of hazardous material chemical and
physical properties 209
4.13 Waste Water 213
4.14 Waste Air 234
4.15 Standard of discharge of waste water to open sea 215
5.1 Molar and mass flow rate of respective components 231
5.2 Mass flow rate of components in reformer 232
(Inlet and outlet)
5.3 Molar and Mass Flow Rate at Stream 7 235
5.4 Mass Flow Rate at Output Stream 7 236
5.5 Mass and Molar Flow Rate at Stream 10, 11 and 12 239
5.6 Mass flow rate of stream 10, 11 and 12 239
(Goal Seek Analyses)
5.7 Mass and Molar flow in and out at DC 2 241
5.8 Mass flow rate of components in DC 2 242
(Goal Seek Analyses)
5.9 Mass flow rate of propylene and propane in DC 3 244
5.10 Mass and molar flow in and out at DC 3 245
(Goal Seek Analyses)
5.11 Mass flow rate of respective streams 246
5.12 Comparison of values from mass balance 247
and HYSYS
xxii



6.1 The Phase, Temperature and Pressure Change
for i Component in Each Stream. 251
6.2 The Equation that Used for Calculating Specific Heat. 251
6.3 Properties of the streams for Reactor R-101 253
6.4 Summary for R-101. 261
6.5 Summary for R-102. 263
6.6 Summary for EA-201. 265
6.7 Summary for EA-202. 267
6.8 Summary for H -101 268
6.9 Summary for C -201 269
6.10 Summary for Condenser 1 at D-301. 271
6.11 Summary for Boiler 1 at D-301. 272
6.12 Summary for Condenser 2 at D-302. 274
6.13 Summary for Boiler 2 at D-302. 275
6.14 Summary for Condenser 3 at D-303. 277
6.15 Summary for Boiler 3 at D-303. 278
6.16 Summary for Pump-P301. 279
6.17 Summary for H -301. 280
6.18 Comparison of Energy Balance between Manual
and HYSYS Data. 281
7.1 Reaction of Propylene in oxidative process 284
7.2 K-value for reaction involves 285
7.3 Material stream in HYSYS simulation 290
7.4 Composition stream in HYSYS simulation 291
7.5 Energy Stream in HYSYS Simulation 292
7.6 Comparison of Mass Balance 293
7.7 Comparison of energy balance 294







xxiii






LIST OF FIGURES



FIGURE TITLE PAGES
1.1 The chemical structure of propylene 2
1.2 The propylene end-use consumption for 2011-2012 9
1.3 Metathesis process flow diagram 14
1.4 The new process flow diagram for metathesis 15
1.5 The main reactions involved in steam cracking 18
1.6 The production of propylene from methanol 20
1.7 Reaction involved in KBR FCC process 22
1.8 (a) The FCC design in 1942 24
1.8 (b) The FCC design after 70 years 24
1.9 Ortho-flow reactor flow scheme 26
1.10 KBR FCC flow scheme 27
1.11 The trend of US natural gas production-History and
Forecast 30
1.12 Process flow diagram for propane dehydrogenation 32
1.13 Thermodynamic equilibrium data 38
1.14 a) Chromium Oxide 43
1.14 b) Platinum tin alumina 43
1.15 Modified Process Flow Diagram 50
2.1 World Demand of Propylene 2011 60
2.2 Percentages Producer of Propylene by Country 62
2.3 Producer of Propane by Country 63
2.4 World Consumption of Propane 64
2.5 Countries Producing Catalyst 65
2.6 Propane Monthly Prices 67
2.7 Price of Propane by Region 68
2.8 Break Even Analysis Diagram 83
xxiv



3.1 Map of China. 98
3.2 Map of Tianjin. 99
3.3 The route for Tianjin Binhai International
Airport to Tianjin City. 101
3.4 Map of Tianjin Port. 102
3.5 (a) The Trend of Employed Person in
China in Year 2012 to 2013;
(b) The Trend of Unemployed Person in
China in Year 2012 to 2013;
(c) The trend of J ob Vacancies in China
in Year 2013 to 2013. 105
3.6 The Labor Cost in China. 107
3.7 NorthAmerican Natural Gas Basin. 111
3.8 WesternCanadianPropaneStocksAreHigh. 113
3.9 Alberta NGL Facilities. 116
3.10 EmploymentRates in 2010. 118
3.11 ElectricityGeneration in CanadabyFuelType, 2012. 120
3.12 ElectricityDemand in CanadabySector, 2011. 121
3.13 AverageResidentialElectricityPrice in Canada, 1998-2012 122
3.14 SelectedWorldResidentialElectricityPrices, 2010. 123
3.15 Middle East Map. 131
3.16 Map of United Arab Emirates. 132
3.17 (a), (b),(c): The route to EMGAS in Al Qusais Industrial Area 149
3.18 The Sharjah Airport Free Zone Authority. 154
3.19 The J AFZA Area for Industrial Activities. 160
3.20 The Area of AFZA in the Ajman. 166
4.1 HAZOP procedure 188
4.2 Explosion in William Olefins plant, 2013 196
4.3 Fire at PRAXAIR St. Louis, 2005 198
4.4 Formosa plastics propylene explosion, 2005 199
4.5 Waste water treatment process 216
4.6 Light gases recycle 220
5.1 Streams flow in and out of Reformer 231
5.2 Streams flow in and out of the oxy-reactor 233
xxv



5.3 Streams flow in and out of Distillation Column 1 237
5.4 Streams flow in and out of Distillation Column 2 240
5.5 Stream flow in and out of Distillation Column 3 243
5.6 Streams flow in and out of Mixer 245
6.1 Reactor R-101 253
6.2 Oxyreactor R-102 262
6.3 Heat Exchanger EA-201 264
6.4 Heat Exchanger EA-202 266
6.5 Heater H -101 268
6.6 Cooler C -201 269
6.7 Condenser -D301 270
6.8 Boiler-D301 272
6.9 Condenser -D302 273
6.10 Boiler-D302 275
6.11 Condenser -D303 276
6.12 Boiler-D303 277
6.13 Pump-P301 278
6.14 Heater H -301 279
7.1 Reaction of Propylene in oxidative process 289














xxvi





LIST OF SYMBOLS



Symbols
Revolution per minute rpm
Density
Specific heat capacity c
p

Enthalpy h
Rate constant k
Kinetic constant k
Rate of reaction r
Atmospheric pressure atm
Vapor phase y
i

Liquid phase x
i
Number of operating labor per shift N
OL

Particulate of operating labor per shift P
2

Non-particulate processing step N
mp

Extent of reaction
Change of enthalpy H
Change enthalpy of vapour H
v

Change enthalpy of reaction H
r
Change enthalpy of product H
outlet

Change enthalpy of reactant H
inlet

Total change of enthalpy H
total
Molar flow rate n
i

Temperature reference T
ref
Temperature of boiling point T
bp

Volume flow rate
Gas constant R
Specific volume flow rate
Mass flow rate m
xxvii






LIST OF ABREVIATIONS



Abbreviations
Fluid catalytic cracking FCC
Propane dehydrogenation PDH
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry IUPAC
Polypropylene PP
Chemicals Petrochemicals Manufacturers Association CPMA
Kellogg Brown & Root KBR
Engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning and
start-up EPC-CS
Advanced Catalytic Olefins ACO
Liquefied petroleum gas LPG
Methanol-to-Olefins/Methanol-to-Propylene MTO/MTP
Pressure Swing Adsorption PSA
Oxidative Dehydrogenation ODH
Catalytic Dehydrogenation CDH
United Arab Emirates UAE
Natural gas NG
Renminbi RMB
Canada, America, Mexico CANAMEX
Canadian Pacific Railway CPR
Calgary International Airport CIA
Edmunton International Airport EIA
British Columbia BC
Ontario ON
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD
Dubai Foreign Direct Investment FDI
Dirham Dh
xxviii



Gross Domestic Product GDP
Emirates Gas L.L.C. EMGAS
STAR Energy Oil-tanking SEOT
Dubai Natural Gas Limited DUGAS
Liquefied Petroleum Gas LPG
Emirates National Oil Co. ENOC
International Monetary Fund IMF
Middle East and North Africa MENA
Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority ADWEA
Dubai Electricity and Water Authority DEWA
Sharjah Electricity and Water Authority SEWA
Federal Electricity and Water Authority FEWA
World Federation of Free Zone FEMOZA
Ras al-Khaimah RAK
Sharjah Airport International Free Zone SAIFZA
J ebel Ali Free Zone Authority J AFZA
Ajman Free Zone AFZA
Capital expenditure CAPEX
Operation expenditure OPEX
United States of America USA/US
Arab Emirates Dirham AED
Distillation column DC
Stream S


1






CHAPTER 1



PROCESS BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS



1.1 Introduction

In order to classify and built a new plant of petrochemical industry which focus on
propylene as the main product, a critical analysis of process background is a crucial
step to initiate the process. A feasibility study is carried out to gather the related
information in producing the high quality of propylene at the minimal cost via safely
designated process plant.

Generally, propylene also known as propene consists of three carbon atoms
which are come from alkene groups. Propylene is a second by-product in
petrochemical industry after ethylene that being use in order to produce other major
variety raw material of product. Propylene was invented in 1950 by Fontana and is
characterized by disorderly structure with an elevated molecular weight (CPMA,
2012).

Propylene is a volatile chemical that having flammability and combustible
characteristics due to its low boiling point 225.4K. At low concentration it forms an
explosive and flammable mixture with air. Meanwhile at high concentrations it can
cause asphyxiation and skin burns (Vesovic, 2011). Propylene can be obtained
through a few processes such as fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), propane
dehydrogenation (PDH), steam cracking and olefin metathesis.

2



Global propylene capacity was 97.7 metric tonne per year in 2011 against a
demand of 80 metric tonne per year. The capacity of propylene is expected to
increase to 119 metric tonne per year in 2015 with demand reaching 98 metric tonne
per year. Meanwhile, propylene prices have increasing from USD 500 /tonne (Spot
CFR NE Asia) in April 2002 to USD 1500 /tonne in recently in March 2012.
Currently the global price of propylene is USD 1150 /tonne in J une 2012 (CPMA,
2012).

The selection of suitable process is done to produce the desired amountof
propylene. Each of the process has been investigated prior to screening process. The
modification on the current process is done to suit theproduction capacity.

1.2 Chemical Identification

The chemical identification of propylene is identified and studied. The structure
formula of propylene is C
3
H
6
. The IUPAC name of propylene is 1-propene or
propene. In addition, propylene is classified as one of the alkenes group members.
Besides that, propylene is also called as methylethene, methylethylene and 1-
propylene. The chemical formula for propylene is shown in Figure 1.1.







Figure 1.1: The chemical structure of propylene. Source: (Wikipedia, 2013)







3



1.3Physical and Chemical Properties of Propylene

The physical properties of propylene is studied and tabulated as in Table 1.2 below:

Table 1.1: The physical properties of propylene. Source: (American Chemistry
Council, 2007).
Property Value
Physical state Gas, liquid under pressure
Colour Colourless
Odour Gassy/aromatic
Molecular weight, g/mol 42.08
Gas weight (at 25C and 760mm) 1.717
Solubility in water Insoluble (soluble in alcohol and ether)
Flammability Flammable
Combustibility Combustible

From Table 1.1, it shows that propylene is a colourless gas phase in atmospheric
pressure. Itisa flammable gas with molecular weight is 42.08 g/mol. Besides that, it is
an insoluble gas but soluble in alcohol and ether.

Additionally, chemical properties of propylene are also identified and study
for this project. Table1.2 shows that the chemical properties of propylene:











4



Table 1.2: The chemical properties of propylene. Source: (American Chemistry
Council, 2007).
Properties Value
Normal boiling point at 1 atm, T (C) -47.69
Melting point, T (C) -185.26
Critical temperature,T(C) 91.75
Critical pressure,P(kPa) 4600.04
Critical volume, m
3
/kg 0.0043962
Critical compressibility factor 0.281
Liquid density, @ critical temperature 91.75C, kg/m
3
233.23
Gas density @ air=1 1.46
Vapor pressure, P @ 18.85C (kPa) 993.26
Ideal gas heat capacity @ 21.11C, kJ /kg.C 1.6069
Solidifies, T (C) -185
Liquifies, T (C) -48
Viscosity (vapor)@21.11C, Pa.s 0.0000085
Ideal gas of heat formation, kJ /kg 468.36
Flash point, T (C) -107.78
Heat of fusion, kJ /mol 3.0024
Auto ignition temperature, T (C) 455
Explosive limit in air, vol %@25 C, 1 atm
Upper
Lower

11.0
2.0
Odor threshold in air
Detection, ppm
Recognition, ppm

270-600
418
Reactivity React vigorously
with oxidizing
material

5



Table 1.2shows that the boiling and melting point for propylene are -47.69C and-
185.26C respectively. In addition, the critical temperature of propylene is identified
which is 91.75C. The critical pressure for propylene is 4600.04 kPa. At temperature
of 91.75C, the density, of propylene is 233.22 kg/m
3
. Besides that, propylene is
reacting vigorously with oxidizing materials.

1.4 Thermodynamics Properties

The thermodynamic properties of propylene are also identified for this study. The
thermodynamic properties of propylene at different temperature and pressure are
shown in Table 1.3.

At different temperature and pressure, propylene has different thermodynamic
properties such as density, specific heat capacity (c
p
), enthalpy (h) and many more.
The different temperature and pressure affect the thermodynamic properties of
propylene. The thermodynamic properties are important to know the condition of the
propylene will change the phase. Besides that, the thermodynamic properties are
needed in designing any device or equipment involving the interchange of heat and
work or the conversion of material in order to produce heat (Thermodynamics,
2013).
6



Table 1.3: The thermodynamic properties for propylene. Source: (Velisa, 2011).
T
sat
,K 225.5 255 270 285 300 315 330 345 360
P
sat
,kPa 102 327 533 822 1212 1722 2375 3196 4220

l
,kg/m
3
609.0 570.6 549.3 526.4 501.2 473.0 440.0 398.2 329.2

g
,kg/m
3
2.36 7.06 11.26 17.24 25.62 37.39 54.41 80.85 133.8
h
l
,kJ/kg -543.0 -476.6 -440.9 -403.7 -364.6 -323.0 -278.0 -227.6 -162.0
h
g
,kJ/kg -103.9 -72.9 -58.4 -45.0 -33.4 -24.2 -18.8 -20.1 -40.2
h
g,l
, kJ/kg 439.1 403.6 382.6 358.7 331.2 298.8 259.3 207.4 121.9
c
p,l
,kJ/(kg.K) 2.18 2.32 2.42 2.54 2.69 2.91 3.27 4.08 9.41
c
p,g
,kJ/(kg.K) 1.32 1.50 1.62 1.77 1.96 2.25 2.72 3.78 10.06

l
,Ns/m
2
150.9 108.0 101.1 99.2 90.3 80.9 78.7 61.1 37.4

g
,Ns/m
2
6.62 7.53 8.04 8.74 9.26 10.1 11.4 12.7 27.2

l
,mW/(K.m) 119.1 104.0 98.6 93.6 90.9 88.0 83.3 76.1 56.0

g
,mW/(K.m) 9.53 13.0 14.9 17.1 19.4 22.2 25.4 29.6 44.4
Pr
l
2.76 2.41 2.48 2.69 2.67 2.67 3.09 3.28 6.28
Pr
g
0.92 0.87 0.87 0.90 0.94 1.02 1.22 1.62 6.16
,mN/m 16.5 12.6 10.5 8.7 6.5 5.1 3.4 2.0 0.63

e,l
, kK
-1
2.05 2.44 2.74 3.15 3.75 4.70 6.46 11.0 45.0
7



1.4.1 K-Value of the Reaction

Phase can be defined as part of a system which is homogeneous in compositionand
uniform in chemical and physical properties. Besides that, it is also separated by a
definite boundary surface from other coexisting phases (Fattah, 2012). K-value or
equilibrium ratio is can be related or described as the ratio of vapour-phase (y
i
) to
liquid phase (x
i
) of the mole fractions of a constituent at given pressure and
temperature in a mixture (Ghafoori et al., 2012). K-values are affected or dependent
on temperature, pressure and the composition of the mixture (Fattah, 2012). Table
1.4 shows that the k-values of the reaction used for the production of propylene.

Table 1.4: The rate constant value for the reaction occurs in the production of
propylene. Source: (Farjoo et al., 2011).
Rate constant,k K-value
k
1

1.14exp(
6488

)
k
2

1.34 10
7
exp(
27393

)
k
3

3.36 10
4
exp(
14723

)
k
4

1.53 10
9
exp(
1598.23

)

In addition, the kinetic constant,k is also used for the reaction. The proposed kinetic
constant is based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate expressions. The kinetic constant,
k is 3.17 x 10
3
exp (-61.79/RT).

1.4.2 Rate of Reaction

The rate of reaction is needed in order to find the rate of adsorption, surface reaction
and desorption process of the reactant to produce product. In the production of
propylene, the four rate of reaction needed for four reactions. The rate of reaction for
the reaction involved can be tabulated as Table 1.5.

8



Table 1.5: The rate of reaction, r used for the main reaction in the production of
propylene. Source: (Farjoo et al., 2011)
Reactions Kinetic Equation,r
Catalytic cracking k
1
P
C3H8

Propylene hydrogenation k
2
P
C2H4
P
H2

Hydrogenolysis k
2
P
C3H8
P
H2

Thermal cracking k
4
P
C3H8



























9



1.5 Application and Uses of Propylene

Propylene is a co-product from petrochemical industries. It is usually used as a raw
material or intermediate material to produce other chemical raw material. The entire
chemical product is widely used in manufacture of variety product for large industry
such as plastics. The chart in Figure 1.2 showsthat the global propylene consumption
in order to produce other product:

Figure 1.2: The propylene end-use consumption for 2011-2012. Source: (CPMA,
2012).
From propylene there arevarious chemical raw materials that can be produce that
consist high demand in global such as polypropylene (PP), 2EH/oxo-Alcohol,
phenol, acrylonitrile and propylene oxide. Based on Figure 1.2, it shows that
propylene is commonly used as the raw material for poly propylene.

The chart release by Chemicals Petrochemicals Manufacturers Association
(CPMA) in 2012 indicates that 95% of propylene demand is used to as a feedstock in
polymerization process to produce polypropylene. In the other 5% is used as the
feedstock to produce phenol, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, n-butanol and
epicchlorohydrin respectively.
10



Since, nowadays the world consumption of the plastic product is rapidly
increasing,the demand of propylene is also increasing. Polypropylene is the major
product produced from the propylene. Polypropylene mainly used in order to
produce the plastic products such as plastic bags, bottles, tires, and pipe. Each of the
plastic products has their own application and uses. The Table 1.6 shows the
application for each of products that which used propylene as its raw material:

Table 1.6: The application of propylenes product.
Propylene product Application of the product

Polypropylene (PP)

Plastic product such as bottle, pipe and plastic
bag.
PP resin injection molded and extruded into fiber,
film and sheet to produce other variety of product.

2EH/oxo-Alcohol
Make n-Butyraldehyde.
Converted into phthalate ester for plasticization of
flexible PVC.
Make resin for acrylic surface coating.

Phenol
As antiseptic.
Involve its conversion to precursors to produce
plastic.
Produce phenolic resin.


Acrylonitrile
Consume in polymer production.
Used in water treatment, pulp and paper
production and oil recovery.
Make polymer polyols.
Acrylic fiber, ABS/SAN resin, adiponitrile and
nitrile elastomer.


Propylene oxides
Used as chemical intermediate in production of
polyurethane polyols and propylene gycol.
As a solvent and oil sterilant.
Make a surfactant, lubricant, glycol ether and
industrial polyglycols.

11



1.6 Process Background

There are a few processes that can be used to produce propylene in industry. In this
project, fourtypes of processes that are usually used in the production of propylene is
identified and studied. The fourtypes of the processes involved are Propane
Dehydrogenation (PDH), Steam Cracking, Metathesis and Fluid Catalytic Cracking
(FCC). Details for each process are discussed in the next subtopic.

1.6.1 Metathesis

Metathesis is a process technology to produce propylene.This term is came from the
Greek Meta ( change ) and Tithemi ( place ) which referring to the changing of
positions of the alkyl group during the reaction of two double bond component
(Gartside and Greene, 2006). The first technology is developed in 1960s by Phillips,
but nowadays the new technology was licensed is Olefins Conversion Technology
(OCT).

One of the on purpose processes is olefin metathesis technology which two
raw material of olefin are reacted to form new olefin product (Gartside and Greene,
2006). Nowadays, global demand of propylene is higher than ethylene which
increases 6 to 8% of propylene compared to 4 to 6% of ethylene (Venner and
Kantorowicz, 2001). This statement proved that on purpose process is needed to
produce propylene as the major product rather than other process which propylene
only by product of the process. Ethylene and 2-butene are the raw material used in
this technology. Both reactions will yield maximum conversion of propylene.

However, it is difficult to set the pure 2-butenes as raw materials. Therefore,
a recovery unit for C
4
stream need to be installed to increase the conversion yield of
the main product. This recovery equipment functions as an isobutene and 1-butene
removal. There is no other way to feed the pure raw material except removal of
unwanted composition. The main reaction of this process is shown in Equation 14.
Besides, the side reaction for the production of propylene through metathesis process
is included. The side reaction involved is six side reactions as shown in Equation 15
to 20.
12


4
+2
4

8
2
3

6
(1.1)

4

8
+2
4

8

3

6
+2
5

10
(1.2)

8
+
4

8

2

4
+3
6

12
(1.3)

8
+2
4

8

3

6
+2 2
4

8
(1.4)

4
+
4

8
(1.5)

4
+
4

8
(1.6)

8
+2
4

8
(1.7)

The side reaction for the production of propylene through metathesis process are
included and shown as above. The side reaction involved is six side reactions. Table
1.7 shows that the composition of butene stream or C
4
feed.

Table 1.7: Composition of butene stream. Source:(Gartside and Greene, 2006).
Composition of butene stream
Component Thermal cracking Refinery based
n-butane
i-butane
Total paraffins
1-butene
2-butene
i-butene
butadiene
9
1
10
14
10
26
40
10
13
26
14
42
20
1
Total 100 100


Table 1.7 shows that the composition for 2-butenes is less in both thermal
cracking and refinery based of raw materials. Therefore, high feed needed causing
higher cost needed. This process reactor required specific catalyst which is either
tungsten oxide catalyst. Besides, the process condition is at temperature 304
o
C and
pressure at 30 Bara. The reactor used is fixed bed reactor and the total yield is only
54% (Technology Economic, 2013). Besides, the per-conversion of butylenes is 60%
while overall selectivity of propylene is 90% (Venner and Kantorowicz, 2001). Even
the metathesis process requires high feedstock and high cost on the raw material, this
13



process is a low capital investment process, excellent energy efficiency and can also
can improved gross margins (Wan, 2011).

However, the technology has been improved. Two of different process flow
diagram is compared and used as reference. Figure 1.3 shows that the example of
process flow diagrams for the production of metathesis. The feed stream on the
Figure 1.3shows that ethylene is fed to the system. Ethylene and 2-butene alkenes are
used as the raw material to produce propylene through metathesis process.

The new metathesis process as shown in Figure 1.4is improved by adding CD
Hydro Deisobutenizer system in the process flow diagram of metathesis process. The
improvement is made by adding hydrogen gas (H
2
) to the reactor.

Basically, the processes are the same for both processes but different in
technology used. The distillation column unit is added to recover the component iso-
butene component. The recovery system for the new technology used is CD Hydro
Deisobutenizer which to remove isobutene composition (Gartside and Greene, 2006
and Venner and Kantorowicz, 2001). Therefore, highly pure 2-butene will enter the
process stream that will increase the reaction and conversion of the process of
propylene.
14




















Figure 1.3: Metathesis process flow diagram. Source: (Venner and Kantorowicz, 2001).


15






















Figure 1.4: The new process flow diagram for metathesis process. Source:(Gartside and Greene, 2006).
16



1.6.2 Steam Cracking

For more than half century, steam cracking is one of the most processes used
for light olefins and diolefins such as ethylene, propylene and butadiene in
production of chemical industry (Rahimi and Karimzadeh, 2011 and Karaba et al.,
2012). This process is one of the feedstock-flexible processes in industry in order to
produce propylene (Karaba et al., 2012). The feed characteristic of the cracking
affect the cracking products of the cracking process (Liu et al., 2009). For this
process, heptane, ethane and methanol are one of the feedstock that usually used for
the production of propylene. The different of the properties of the feedstock gives the
different amount of product and side reactions. The reactions occur have highly
endothermic reaction (Karimzadeh et al., 2009).

The most energy consuming process in chemical industry is steam cracking
process (Ren et al., 2006). The increasing demand of propylene has received a lot of
attention in recent years through steam cracking of naphtha (Baba et al., 2007). The
selectivity of the olefins can be increase and the formation rate of coke can be reduce
by mix and dilute the feed with water and introduced into tubular reactor with high
temperature and short residence time (Abghari and Sadi, 2013). The tubular reactor
is used in naphtha cracking (Haghighi et al., 2013). The formation of carbon
monoxide during the steam cracking process gives the high impact to the product
yield, run length and energy consumption (Rahimi et al., 2013).

One of the examples that be related to the production of propylene is the use
of ethane as the raw material through steam cracking (Zhu et al., 2005). The
production of ethane in 2010 is around 140 x 10
6
tons and estimated increase to be
5.3% in the future (Pyl. et al., 2012). Steam cracking for the production of propylene
needs the high reaction temperatures for large amount of propylene (Corma et al.,
2012). The temperature of the high reaction required for the production of propylene
for this steam cracking process is 800 to 880C with 40% of the total energy
consuming results the high carbon dioxide emission (Rahimi and Karimzadeh, 2011).

For the production of propylene, the steam cracking of naphtha is used in
order to produce enough amount of propylene (Baba et al., 2007). After the primary
17



cracking of naphtha occurred, propane and butene produced is reacted and produced
propylene as the heptane is the raw material used (Moulijn et al., 2013). The
chemical reaction occurs in endothermic reaction (Ren et al., 2006). Heptane is used
for the production of propylene for this process. The chemical reaction for
production of propylene is shown as below (Goethem et al., 2010):

8
+
4

8

3

6
(1.8)

Besides that, the cracking process occurred is also produced the by-product reactions.
The by-product reaction is shown as below (Goethem et al., 2010):

16

7

14
+
2
(1.9)

8
+
4

8

4

6
(1.10)

8

4
+
2

4
(1.11)

8
2
2

4
(1.12)
2
2

4
2
2

2
+2
2
(1.13)

6

3

4
+
2
(1.14)

The reaction above shows that the side reaction for production of propylene. The
heptanes is undergo dehydrogenation process and produce heptene.

The side reactions occur after primary cracking of heptanes. After that, the
reaction will produce propane and butene. The reaction is also produce another side
reaction which is produce butadiene. Besides that, the propane will produce methane
and ethene as side reaction. After that, butane will be crack into ethene. Next, the
ethene will be going through dehydrogenation and produce acetylene. Then, the
propylene produce also have side reaction that can produce cyclobutadiene through
dehydrogenations. The complete reaction of steam cracking for heptanes is shown
below (Goethem et al., 2010):





18


















Figure 1.5: The main reactions involved in steam cracking(Goethem et al., 2010).

Figure 1.5 shows the main reactions involved in the production of propylene using
steam cracking process. The formation of coke will reduce the performance of the
production.

Coking will increase the pressure drop, reduce the selectivity, reduction of
heat transfer and cause corrosion (Haghighi et al., 2013). Thus, anti-coking chemical
additives are needed for this production such as dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl
disulphide and hydrogen sulphide (H
2
S) (Rahimi et al., 2013). Usually, the yield of
propylene is around 1.5 to 18% depending on the type of feedstock and operating
condition (Rahimi and Karimzadeh, 2011). The improvement of propylene yields can
be increased by increasing the temperature and reduce the residence time of cracking
(Goethem et al., 2010).

Nevertheless, steam cracking of naphtha is unfavourable environmentally and
economically (Hu et al., 2011). Thus, the catalytic steam cracking is recommended
since it used low cracking temperature in order to replace steam cracking process
(Liu et al., 2009). Catalytic steam cracking can be used to overcome the limitations
19



of steam cracking which is emits high quantities of carbon dioxide (CO
2
) and unable
to satisfy the current demand of propylene since it acts as by-product in the steam
cracking process (Hu et al., 2011). The catalyst used for steam catalytic cracking is
ZSM-5 zeolites (Sedighi et al., 2013). This catalyst is able to counter the limitations
of steam cracking and produce more propylene. There are some advantages of steam
cracking for the production of propylene in petrochemical industry. These include
short residence times for the olefin production and decrease partial pressure by
adding steam.

However, the steam cracking is limited control over propylene to ethylene
ratios and the process cause high amount of carbon dioxide emission (Rahimi and
Karimzadeh, 2011). The propylene production has a lot of raw material that can be
used. As mentioned before, one of the raw materials is methanol. Figure 1.6shows
that the process flow diagram for propylene production form methanol which used
steam cracking as the main process.

The production of propylene in this project is through heptane which is
classified as naphtha. The methanol is used as the feedstock for the production of
propylene. The crude methanol is fed into the reactor to have reactions. In the
reactor, the ethylene and propylene is produced from the conversion of methanol.
Water is also produced as a by-product.

Then, the ethylene, propylene and water are separated through the phase
separator. After that, the water is removed from the system. Besides water, carbon
dioxide is also produce as by-product. The carbon dioxide is removed from the
system after compression process. Then, the entire product is going through the dryer
to increase the temperature. After that, the product will enter the distillation column
for depropanizer process.


20























Figure 1.6: The production of propylene from methanol. Source: (NETL,2013)
21



The entire light compound will exit at the top of the distillation column
whereas the heavy compound will exit at the bottom of the distillation column. For
this case, the light compound is ethylene and the heavy compound is propylene.
Through the deethanizer process, the ethylene and ethane is produce. Meanwhile, in
the depropanizer, the propylene and propane are also produce.

Besides that, all the olefins with four carbons are also produce in the
deporpanizer. Same as the olefins with three carbons is produce in the deethanizer
process. From the formation of natural gas, all the synthesis gas is produced. Besides
that, naphtha as the synthesis gas can produce by the steam-induced reformation of
petroleum products (Technology Economics, 2013).
1.6.3 Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC)

Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is a process of an oil refining process that
widely used in order to obtain the gasoline and other product by converting the
hydrocarbons of petroleum crude oils (Spurlin, 2011). As shows in Figure 1.7, the
reaction involve in FCC process are varies. It means that, there are a lot of methods
can be achieved by using different raw material as the feedstock.

Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) is the world largest and most varied provider
of engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning and start-up (EPC-CS)
services, process technology, consulting and industrial services to the energy,
petrochemical and chemical industries. KBR has been operates for more than 90
years and experienced in worked side by side with clients in the world over to meet
project.


22






















Figure 1.7: Reaction Involve in KBR FCC Process. Source: (Miller, 1998).
23



1.6.3.1 Types of Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Process

KBR FCC has three technologies that suitable in order to achieve their target
propylene as a primary product. The choices for the technologies are dependent on
the type of feed available. The three technologies that KBR FCC made are
SUPERFLEX
TM
, MAXOFIN
TM
and ACO
TM
.

i. The first technology, SUPERFLEX
TM
is a commercialized process that
originally developed by Lyondell Basell. In this technology aims to increase
the propylene production from olefins by-product streams from steam
crackers or refinery processes. Secondly, Advanced Catalytic Olefins
(ACO
TM
) process is for enabling increase the propylene production from
straight run paraffinic feeds (Eng, 2010). Lastly, MAXOFIN
TM
is a high-
severity FCC process for increase the propylene production from traditional
refinery sources such as gas oil (diesel) and resid.

SUPERFLEX process is a well-known FCC process. The products
obtained from the steam crackers and also refinery cracking processes by
cracking the feed streams consist of rich of olefins. This is in order to produce
large quantities of propylene. This process can also produce large amounts of
ethylene and aromatic gasoline by-products. The production ratio of
Propylene/Ethylene (P/E) is either 2:1 or even higher (Niccum, 2010).

ii. ACO process converts fewer amounts of paraffinic feed streams, such as
naphtha is used straight to produce high value propylene and ethylene. The
ACO
TM
process yields a product with a P/E ratio of about 0.8 to 1.1,
extensively much higher than the usual steam cracking process (Tallman M.
J ., 2008).

iii. MAXOFIN
TM
technology can be used to increase propylene production from
the traditional refinery sources. Gas oils and resid are used as the feedstock in
this technology. The process is simple, but throughout current economic
conditions, in order to operate it need typical, and maximum gasoline
production mode (Tallman M. J ., 2008).
24





(a) (b)
Figure 1.8: The FCC (a) design in 1942 and (b) design after 70 years.

In Figure 1.8(Tallman M. J ., 2008), it shows the design of FCC technologies
in 1942 (Figure 1.8 (a)) and in 2012 (Figure 1.8 (b)). KBR has been experienced for
more than 70 years, which is in 2012 after 70 years of 1942. In 1942, KBR
participated in the world first commercial for FCC unit that located in Louisiana.
Since then, more than 125 FCC units worldwide were licensed under KBR. This
capability and along with decades of operational insight, it is ensures that KBR FCC
units are well designed, reliable and easy to operate.

In Figure 1.9, shows the typical reactor section. Reactor overheads are cooled
and washed to recover entrained catalyst. The entrained catalyst is recycled back to
the reactor. The product produced from net overhead is further cooled and then it is
routed to product recovery. Product recovery is either integrated with an olefins plant
or in a stand-alone recovery section. There is no feed pre-treatment required because
of the vigorous catalyst system is in use. Accessory systems for the reactor are
standard FCC systems and include catalyst storage, air supply, flue gas handling and
heat recovery.

As in Figure 1.10, it shows that the flow scheme for propylene production in
KBR FCC process. It is the same for all three technologies stated before. The
25



different for these three technologies is the raw materials used, as shows in Table 1.8.
The quenched gas is undergoes treating section. Then, enter the drying to remove gas
compound. In order to achieve the production of propylene, six separators are
needed. The six separators are depropanizer, demethanizer, deethanizer,
depentanizer, dehexanizer, C
2
and C
3
splitter. The process are simple to operate but
the equipment is complex and lot of expenses need to spend.

26






















Figure 1.9: Ortho-flow reactor flow scheme. Source:(Tallman, 2010).
27


















Figure 1.10: KBR FCC flow scheme. Source: (Tallman, 2010)
28



Table 1.8: Comparison between KBR FCC technologies. Source:(Miller, 1998;
Hernandez, 2001).
Trade Name of
KBR FCC
Technologies
SUPERFLEX
TM
ACO
TM
MAXOFIN
TM

Raw
Material
Type C
4
-C
8
Olefins Paraffinic
Naphtha
Gas oil or resid
Price,
USD/ metric
tonne
Low
128.80
High
2,248
High
968.75
Supplier
Availability
High High Low
Hazard Class
(United
Nation
Classification)
2.1 (C
4
)
3.1 ( >C
4
)
4.1 3
Catalyst Type ZSM-5
Process Cycle Depends on quantity used
Advantages - Convert the feedstock into 40% propylene
- Propene-on-Purpose production
- Widely used almost 20% of worldwide FCC capacity
- Less expensive
Disadvantages - Additive dilution effect
- Poor conversion activity
Process Reactor Ortho-flow Reactor (Regenerator or cyclone)
Operating
Temperature
Range,T
(
o
C)
71-300 600-700 538-593
Yields (%) 50-60 40 >20
29




1.6.4 Propane Dehydrogenation (PDH)

Propane Dehydrogenation is one of the new and novel lower cost chemical processes
for on-purpose propylene production technologies (Propylene via Propane
Dehydrogenation, 2013). Propane is the feedstock to a PDH process and usually, it
is recovered from propane-rich liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) streams from natural
gas processing plants.

From petroleum refinery operation, propane can be obtained in smaller
amount as a by-product (Propylene from Propane via Dehydrogenation, 2013).
Propane Dehydrogenation (PDH) plants are expected to increase due to rising
demand of propylene in Asia, rich propane supplies in US and declined output of
propylene from refineries and olefin crackers (Fielden, 2013). This process stands
out among the other processes which are Metathesis, Methanol-to-Olefins/Methanol-
to-Propylene (MTO/MTP), High Severity FCC and Olefins Cracking due to its low
cost of raw material technologies (Propylene via Propane Dehydrogenation, 2013).

Price of propane (as well as ethane) has drop due to rising exploitation of
shale gas that cause significant increase of natural gas offerings in the USA
(Propylene from Propane via Dehydrogenation,2013). Figure 1.11 shows the trend
of natural gas production in US which is predicted that the production of natural gas
associated with oil will keep rise until the year of 2035. This condition has cause
Ratio
of
P/E
2 : 1 1.1 : 0.8 -
Product Phase Liquid Liquid Liquid
Production
Rate
500 000 tonne
per year of
propylene
200 000 tonne
per year of
ethylene
1 500 000 tonne
per year of
ethylene and
propylene
300 000 tonne per
year of propylene
30



disadvantage to naphtha fed steam crackers as many of them shutting down or
revamping to use ethane as feedstock (Propylene via Propane Dehydrogenation,
2013).


Figure 1.11: The Trend of US Natural Gas Production History and Forecast.
Source: (Propylene from Propane via Dehydrogenation,2013)

Basically, dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons involves the breaking bond of
two C-H with the simultaneous formation of a hydrogen molecule and a molecule
containing a double C-C bond, which represent the desired product (Trifiro et al.,
2013). The main propane dehydrogenation reaction is shown in the following
chemical equation (Propylene from Propane via Dehydrogenation, 2013):




Clearly seen, the side product formed from the main reaction is hydrogen gas. The
equilibrium extent and rate of dehydrogenation can be improved by removing the
hydrogen but recycle of hydrogen helps to reduce the coke formation on the catalyst
(Chin et al., 2013).

(1.1)
31



During the reaction, coke is formed on the catalyst due to the reaction
requirement of high temperatures and low pressure condition (Blekkan et al., 2002).
In general, dehydrogenation reaction used in Lummus CATOFIN Technology (2013)
occurs in conditions such as temperature ranges between 580 and 650C and pressure
slightly below atmospheric to mitigate the cracking reactions. According to Blekkan
et al (2002) high reaction temperature is required for propane activation, where
500C is more favourable compared to 400C and the reaction favoured at lower
pressure because the volume of products exceeds volume of reactants (Chin et al.,
2011).

Based on CATOFIN technology, the overall selectivity of propane to
propylene is greater than 86 mol%. It also states that this process has the advantages
of high per pass conversion of 48 to 53% and high catalyst selectivity (CATOFIN
Dehydrogenation, 2013). There are also side reaction occurs which was the cracking
reaction and the equations are shown below (Chin et al., 2011):

8

3

6
+
2
(1.15)

8
+
2

2

6
+
4
(1.16)

4
+
2

2

6
(1.17)
2
3

6
+
2

6

14
(1.18)

6
+
4

10

3

5
+4
2
(1.19)

8

2

4
+
4
(1.20)

6
+
2

2

4
+
4
(1.21)

The most selective and active catalysts for the dehydrogenation of propane to
propylene includes Platinum-Tin Alumina support (Pt-Sn/Al
2
O
3
) as it has
demonstrated a promising yield for alkanes (Blekkan et al., 2002). There are also
processes that used Vanadium-Magnesium-Oxides (VMgO)as their catalyst. Due to
platinums high activity for activating C-H bond, coupled with an inferior activity for
the rupture of C-C bond, it became the primary component in many dehydrogenation
catalysts resulting in high selectivity toward dehydrogenation (Zangeneh et al.,
2010). Figure 1.12 shows that the recommended plant designs for the production of
propylene through propane dehydrogenation process.
32






Figure 1.12: Process flow diagram for propane dehydrogenation. Source: (Sascha, 2011).
33



Figure 1.12 shows process flow diagram for propane oxydehydrogenation (PDH)
practised by Uhde STAR. This process used two kinds of reactor which are reformer
(externally heated reactor) and oxyreactor (adiabatic reactor). The propane from
fresh feed and recycle stream are heated so that it can match up with the high
temperature in the reformer (500 to 600C). To heat the reformer, fuel gas and air
are introduced to promote combustion. This reaction is supplied with steam as it will
act to convert most of coke formed during the reaction into carbon dioxide. Coke is
formed on catalyst surface is quite little during the reaction because of high
temperature and pressure required by the reaction.

The product from this reactor then goes into oxyreactor so that oxygen can
react with hydrogen to produce water. The water produced is removed at the
condenser and the other components will pass to the gas separator to reject the light
ends. The feed to fractionation is entirely liquid as no gas phase is introduced to the
fractionation and from here, the propylene (desired product) will be extracted. The
remaining propane from fractionation is recycled back to the feed preparation tank.
The hydrogen rich gas will be channelled to Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) to be
purified (The Uhde STAR Process, 2013).
















34



1.7 Comparison of The Process

The comparison between all possible processes in production of propylene is
identified and studied in order the make the selection process. The Table 1.9 shows
that the comparison for each of the process:

Table 1.9: The comparison of the process involved for the production of propylene.

Meanwhile, table below shows the weightage for each factors, ranked based on the
best preferred. The Table 1.10is shown as below:





Process

Metathesis
(Process 1)
Steam
cracking
(Process 2)
Propane
Dehydrogenation
(Process 3)
FCC
(Process 4)
Yield (%) 54 1.5 18 85-90 50-60
Raw material Ethylene &
butene
Naphtha Propane Naphtha
Catalyst Tungsten
oxide catalyst
( ZSM 5 )
Zeolite
VmgO/ Pt ( ZSM 5 )
Zeolite
Temperature,
T(
o
C)
304 800 880 580 650 600-700
Pressure, P 30 Bara 1 atm 1 atm 1 atm
By product C
5
H
10
,
C
2
H
4
,C
6
H
12

Multiple H
2
, H
2
O,
CH
4
,C
2
H
4

Multiple
Classification Major Product By product Major Product By product
Reactor FBR Tubular Reformer Fluidized
catalytic
cracking
35




Rank
1 Worst
2 Moderate
3 Excellent

Table 1.10: The weightage for each process.
Process

Metathesis
(Process 1)
Steam
cracking
(Process 2)
Propane
dehydrogenation
(Process 3)
FCC
(Process 4)
Yield (%) 2 1 4 3
Raw material 3 2 4 2
Catalyst 1 3 3 3
Temperature,
T(
o
C)
4 1 3 2
Pressure 3 4 3 4
By product 3 2 3 2
Classification 4 3 4 3
Reactor 3 3 3 2
Total 23 19 27 21

Table 1.14 shows that for yield percentage, the higher the percentage, the more
preferable it is. In contrast, for operation temperature, operation pressure and
number of by-product, the lesser the better. From the Table 1.14 shows that propane
dehydrogenation is recommended since PDH got the highest weightage. All the
important parameter is consider for the process selection. Besides it has the highest
yield and the feedstock is easier to get from the supplier.

As preferred in all chemical process, propylene that was produced as main
product and the catalyst that able to reduce coke formation is more preferable. As
for the raw material, it is ranked based on the price and their availability. Meanwhile
for reactor, it is ranked based on the number of reactor used and its complexness. As
a result, the selection of the best process has become easier.
36




The Propane Dehydrogenation process is selected for this study. The yield
produce from the production is higher than others. Compared to metathesis process
which is got the second highest score the yield production is much lower. In addition,
the raw material must be gone through the other process before it is enter to the
metathesis process. Besides that, PDH are operating in endothermic condition with
lowpressure usedso that can reduce the side reaction. Furthermore PDH is also
operating at high temperature which can reduce the formation of coke in the catalyst.
For the metathesis process, it required higher cost compared to propane
dehydrogenation process. Additionally, the steam cracking operate at too high
temperature that produce many side reaction.

Then, the reaction is not limited by the thermodynamic equilibrium and the
deactivation of catalyst is not a problem since oxygen can efficiently remove coke
and its precursors. Besides that, the availability of raw material is high and the price
is lower in certain area. Additionally, from this process, the propylene is produced as
the main product which can get the higher yield. Meanwhile for FCC and steam
cracking, the propylene produced as the by product at the end of the process. Thus,
PDH is selected for the production of propylene in this project.















37



1.8 Types of Propane Dehydrogenation (PDH) Process

Propane dehydrogenation (PDH) process required two type of reactor for the
production of propylene which is reformer and oxyreactor. The reformer that act as
external heater reactor will be operated in 500 to 600Cin order to produce the
product which contains propylene and hydrogen as the major product. Then, the
product will be passing through the oxyreactor in order to have the reaction between
hydrogen and oxygen to produce water.

After that, the water will be removed at the condenser and the remaining will
be passing through to the gas separator so that the light component will be removed.
The heavy component will be extracted and the propylene will be obtained. In the
reformer system, the catalyst is used in order to increase the rate of reaction. Since
the PDH process is operating in the presence of steam, the coke formation will be
introduced which can low the performance of the catalyst. Thus, the formation of
coke must be considered in order to have the high performance of the reformer.

There are two types of propane dehydrogenation practiced in industry which
are catalytic PDH and oxidative PDH. Direct catalytic PDH is the current
commercial process that comes with several disadvantages. The disadvantages
includes strongly endothermic, equilibrium limited reaction and required severe
conditions which is high temperature and low pressures that lead to formation of
coke on the catalyst. These features influence the reactor design, which has to allow
the transfer of the heat as well as for frequent decoking and regeneration of the
catalyst (Blekkan et al., 2002).

Besides, the catalytic PDH required series of reactor for the process. The
conversion, temperature and pressure are three items that relate and depends with
each other. Theoretically, low pressure and high temperature will increase the
conversion of paraffin which in our case is propane. The direct catalyst PDH is
equilibrium limited reaction as the conversion is limited by the thermodynamics
equilibrium for a given pressure and temperature. As a result, velocity of reaction
decreases and activity of catalyst is not efficiently used when conversion approaches
equilibrium (The Uhde STAR process, 2013).
38



Oxidative PDH is an interesting alternative to the conventional
dehydrogenation of LPG which allow to the possibility of working at lower reaction
temperatures (Blekkan et al., 2002). The difference of oxidative PDH and catalytic
PDH is that ODH admit oxygen into the system. This will cause formation of water
(H
2
O) with part of hydrogen, the side product of the main reaction. Indirectly, this
will increase the conversion as the equilibrium of the dehydrogenation reaction will
be shifted (The Uhde STAR process, 2013).

Besides that, the oxidative PDH system has low energy consumption. The
operating temperature for oxidative PDH is lower compared to the operating
temperature for catalytic PDH. Thus, the heating process required lower than
catalytic PDH. Besides, the oxidative PDH is also can save the heating cost since the
heating temperature is low compared to catalytic PDH. In addition, since the
oxidative PDH operating temperature is low, the higher conversion will be achieved.

Figure 1.13: Thermodynamic equilibrium data. Source: (The Uhde STAR Process,
2013).

39



This reaction also is not limited by the thermodynamic equilibrium and since
oxygen can efficiently remove coke and its precursors, deactivation of catalyst is
usually not a problem (Blekkan et al., 2002). The influence of oxygen addition in
the PDH system is shown in Figure 1.13 whereas mentioned earlier, it shift the
equilibrium towards increased conversion of propane to propylene. The screening
process for each of the process is done in order to find which of the PDH process is
recommended. Table 1.11 shows the summary of comparison between oxidative
PDH and catalytic PDH.

After much consideration, oxidative PDH was better compared to catalytic
PDH as it has more advantages. Table 1.12 shows that the weightage table for
oxidative PDH and catalytic PDH.






















40



Table 1.11: Comparison between Oxydehdrogenation and Catalytic Dehydrogenation
Characteristics Catalytic PDH Oxidative PDH
Optimum
temperature, T
(C)
575-620 475-550
Catalyst V-Mg-O Pt (Sn)/ Al
2
O
3

Heat Endothermic Endothermic
Conversion
rate
High conversion High conversion at lower
temperature
Presence of
oxygen
Absent Presence
Advantages High selectivity and stability
in dehydrogenation of paraffin
to olefin.

Short contact time
(potential of being performed
in small size of reactor.
Reaction not limited by
thermodynamic equilibrium
Catalyst deactivation not a
problem because coke and its
precursor can be efficiently
removed by O
2
.
Low energy consumption
and saving heating cost
No catalyst regeneration
requirement.
Increase the temperature
will increase the selectivity
Disadvantages Strongly endothermic and
equilibrium at limited reaction.
Severe condition required
(high temperature, low pressure)
lead to coke formation on
catalyst.
Normal ODH is lack of
selectivity.


41




Rank
1 Worst
2 Moderate
3 Excellent

Table 1.12: The weightage for oxidative PDH and catalytic PDH.
Process

Oxidative PDH Catalytic PDH
Operating Temperature 4 4
Operating Pressure 2 3
Conversion Rate 4 3
Presence of Oxygen 3 1
Type of Catalyst 4 3
Cost Effectiveness 3 2
Energy Consumption 3 2
Selectivity 3 2
Total 26 20

From the scanning process shows that oxidative PDH is preferred. The
oxidative PDH can produce high conversion in low temperature thus can reduce the
heating cost and energy consumption. Other than that, oxidative PDH operate in high
temperature and pressure thus, the formation of coke can be reduced. Besides, the
oxidative PDH has the high conversion rate in lower temperature compared to
catalytic PDH which is operating in high temperature and low pressure. In addition,
oxidative PDH is also an environmental friendly process due to the presence of
oxygen which can react with hydrogen and produce water. Besides that, it is cost
effective and energy consumption process because operating in low temperature.
Then, the oxidative PDH process is also produced higher selectivity due to the high
temperature and pressure respectively.


42



1.9 Types of Catalyst

It is known that, the propane dehydrogenation (PDH) have two processes that can
produce propylene, which are oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) or catalytic
dehydrogenation (CDH). Catalyst activity in catalytic dehydrogenation will be
reduced within time and presence of side products such as carbon dioxide and carbon
monoxide. This will lead to formation of coke on the catalyst surfaces (Fattahi,
2013). Coke formation is one of the reasons of catalyst deactivation. This will
increase our budget to remove the coke on the catalyst surface, and otherwise need to
purchase a new catalyst. Most company prefers to make or prepare their own catalyst
due to it meets their requirement to improve their own product capacity (Al-Zahrani,
2003).

In order to counter this problem, we chose ODH process which it is believed
can reduce coking, increase the selectivity of propene and more efficient in energy
usage. In PDH, the catalyst that widely used are either supported or unsupported
Platinum (Pt); Palladium (Pd); Tin (Sn); Vanadium (V) - Magnesium (Mg) or
Molybdenum (Mo) with oxides based; and Cobalt (Co), Bismuth (Bi) or Antimony
(Sb) with oxides based. However, the problem occurs when the catalyst activity will
be reduced within the time reaction. Moreover, not all these catalysts can obtain high
conversion with high selectivity (Cherian, 2002). Through our screening, the catalyst
that we only focus here are Pt (Sn)/Al
2
O
3
and Cr
2
O
3
.

There are very limited literatures of alkanes ODH on Cr-based catalytic
systems. A chromium oxide-based catalyst is studied to be active in ODH of alkane.
This catalyst is found to be active and selective in propane oxidative
dehydrogenation at moderate reaction conditions. It will increase the propane
conversion and selectivity to propene. Chromium weight will be increase up to 10
percent and will be reduced afterward (Al-Zahrani, 2003).

Early days, Pt (Sn)/-Al
2
O
3
has shown their advantages in dehydrogenation of
alkane process. Also, this catalyst widely used in the petroleum refining and
petrochemical industries. The catalyst has bi-functional metal-acid mechanisms that
involve Sn promoted Pt as the metal function and Al
2
O
3
promoted with chloride and
43



SnO
2
as the acid function. The metal function is needed and the acidity of the Al
2
O
3

will neutralized by alkaline metals (Al) for this dehydrogenation process (Pieck,
2005).

According to Table 1.13, shows the properties and comparisons for both
catalysts in our ODH process. In a conclusion, the catalyst chosen is Pt-Sn support
with Al
2
O
3
. This catalyst can extend the life of the catalyst. Also, it can improve the
undesirable for catalytic reforming reaction such as minimize the operating pressure.
In addition, this catalyst could minimize the environment problem that could be
caused by this process.

Another characteristic of the TNSO catalyst metal content is high rated. The
cost for the catalyst loading is lowered. Catalyst TNSO was used in the continuous
reforming device of Liaoyang Petrochemical company poly-esterification in April
1994 replaced the UOP catalyst. It was used in reforming device of Lanzhou refiner
(Wang, 2013). Figure 1.14 shows that the pictures of chromium oxide, Cr
2
O
3
or
platinum (tin)/alumina, Pt (Sn)/Al
2
O
3
.








(a) (b)
Figure 1.14: The picture of (a) chromium oxide, Cr
2
O
3
. Source: (International E-
Commerce Platform, 2013), (b) platinum (tin)/alumina, Pt (Sn)/Al
2
O
3
. Source: (New
1/4" megtec bead catalyst-platinum, 2013).


44



In detail the benefits of this catalyst in our process are when Pt (Sn)-Al
2
O
3
reacts
with O
2
will increase the conversion of C-H dehydrogenation and increase the
fraction of coke eliminated. Thus, formation of coke in this process will reduce.
Coke is oxygenated step by step that will produce intermediates that are easier to
burn with O
2
. The elimination of coke with O
2
will starts on metal function (Sn)
surfaces of the catalyst. If Pt is not alloyed with Sn, the regeneration of coked
catalyst with O
2
at 450
o
C produces metal segregation and increase the concentration
of Pt and metal catalytic activity (Pieck, 2005).

Due to the lower dehydrogenation activity of bimetallic catalysts, the coke
deposition will be decrease by increase of the Sn concentration. Thus, the coke
combustion will be started in this condition at temperature 450C. Besides that, the
coke deposition occurs when the acidity decrease the support that produced by Sn
Oxides. According to Pieck et al. (2005), the Pt (Sn)Al
2
O
3
, that the burning of coke
occurs at low temperature will deposited on the metal and the fraction of coke
deposition on the metal is very small.

45



Table 1.13: Properties of Chromium Oxide, Cr
2
O
3
or Platinum (Tin)/Alumina, Pt (Sn)/Al
2
O
3
.
Type of Catalyst Chromium Oxide Platinum(Tin)/Alumina
Chemical Formula Cr
2
O
3
Pt(Sn)/Al
2
O
3

Other Name Chromium (lll) Oxide CCR catalyst
Model No. AR-Chromium Green TNSO or TNEO
Purity, % >98 >99
Company
Manufacturing
Henan Allrich Chemical Co., Ltd. Pingxiang Lihua Packing Co., Ltd.
Price USD/kg 0.500 0.750 1
Supply
Availability, tonne/tonne per
day
4.11 3


Minimum Order Availability,
kg
20 000 100
46



Packaging Container
o Net weight for each:
20 metric tonne/20 ft full container load)
Poly-propylene (PP) Bag
o Net weight for each:
25 kg or 1 000 kg)



Iron drums inner lining with double layer
plastic bags (or according to customer's
requirements).



Advantages Insoluble in water and acid
Soluble in the hot alkali metal bromated.
It is stable with light, air, high temperature or
gas (such as: SO
2
, and H
2
S).
It has high covering power and magnetic.
The surface stability has been improved
remarkably.
It can prolong the life of the catalyst.
Reduce the chloride introducing rate in the
period of using the catalyst.
Source: (Zhang M. A., Factory low price Chromium oxide catalyst, 2013; Zhang M. L., Henan Allrich Chemical Co., Ltd., 2013; Dierks, 2011;
Wang, 2013).
47



1.10 Process Description

The process began when the raw material is introduced to the first reactor,
reformer. The raw material for this reactor is propane (gas phase) where it needs to be
heated first to match with the temperature in the reactor (510C). The propane is heated
when it pass through the heat exchanger and heater.

Fuel gas and air will be introduced in the reformer to promote combustion in the
reactor as well as to heat the reformer up to desired temperature, 510C. The reaction
occurred with the presence of steam that will reduce the partial pressure of the reactants.
This condition is considered as favorable, as the endothermic conversion of propane to
propylene will increase (The Uhde STAR Process, 2013). The chemical reaction for the
dehydrogenation process was demonstrated as in Equation 1.21 (Propylene from
Propane via Dehydrogenation, 2013).

8

3

6
+
2
(1.21)

At the same time, there will be minor amount of coke deposited on the catalyst
(Platinum Tin Alumina) used to enhance the performance of dehydrogenation process.
There is only 80% of the catalyst required in the reformer and the remaining 20% filled
the oxy-reactor. The steam introduced earlier will convert most of the coke into carbon
dioxide. Very little coke is left to be burnt off during the oxidative regeneration, hence
allowing longer operation cycles and making the regeneration quick and simple (The
Uhde STAR Process, 2013). This reaction is shown in Equation 1.22 (Sascha, 2011).

+2
2
0 2
2
+2
2
(1.22)

In our process, the reaction takes place under the pressure of 5 to 6 bar and the output of
this reaction are propylene and hydrogen gas with the by-product of methane, ethane,
propane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide.

48



All of the output will start to enter the oxy-reactor (second reactor), where
oxygen will be introduced to react with part of the hydrogen to produce water which in
turn will shift the equilibrium of the dehydrogenation reaction to increased conversion as
shown in Equation 1.23 and 1.24 (Sascha, 2011). This reactor operates at the same
range of pressure with reformer while the output streams temperature is 580C. Here, it
is assumed that the oxygen gas react 90% with the hydrogen and the output of this
reactor is the same as in reformer but got one additional by-product, water.


3

8
+0.5
2

3

6
+
2
0(1.23)

2
+0.50
2

2
(1.24)

The process continues when the output from oxy-reactor enters heat exchanger
and condenser that functioned to cool down the process. Our desired product is
propylene in liquid phase with the reason for easy products transportation and also as
the polypropylene production used liquid propylene as their raw material. Since the
boiling point of propylene is -47.6C at 1 atm, the temperature of propylene needs to be
reduced lower than its boiling point (Gas Innovation, 2007).

The cooling process requires three stages of cooling as it is impossible to reduce
such a high temperature (580C), directly to negatives. Hence, the temperature is
reduced from 580C (from oxy-reactor) to 430C and 150C respectively after pass
through the first and second heat exchanger. The process is further cooled in the
condenser to 10C.

The products and by-products from the oxy-reactor then, enter the first
distillation columns (DC) in order to remove the water content results from the earlier
process as the bottom product. The water exits at 128.7C of temperature and pressure
of 2.6 bar. Meanwhile, the remaining components vaporize through the top of the DC
with resulting temperature of -30C and enter the second DC. Based on HYSYS, the
phase in this stream is still gas at the pressure of 2.6 bar.

49



The second DC functioned to remove other components (undesired product)
apart from propane and propylene at the top stream. So, at the temperature of -119.4C,
hydrogen, methane and ethane are rejected. The propane and propylene then, enters the
third DC in liquid phase with condition of -23.16C and 2.5 bar. Propylene will exit at
the top stream as it has lower boiling point and propane will exit at the bottom and will
be recycled to feed raw material. All of this description is illustrated in Figure 1.15.
50




R-101 : Reformer B-101 : Reboiler C-201 : Air Fin Cooler D- 303 : Depropanizer
R-101 : Oxyreactor EA-201 : Heat Exchanger D-301 : Distilation Column P- 301 : Pump
H-101 : Heater EA-202 : Heat Exchanger D-302 : Deethanizer H-301 : Heater
PRODUCTION OF 250,000
METRIC TONNES OF
PROPYLENE

Figure 1.15: Modified Process Flow Diagram.
51



1.11 Summary

The world demand of propylene is keep increasing and expecting rose in the future.
Propylene is used as the raw material for the production of polypropylene, propylene
oxide, acrylonitrile and phenol. Thus, the usage of propylene is increasing due to the
increasing demand of those chemical products in the world. The propylene plant is
planned to be construct and build in order to fulfil the demand of the propylene. The
suitable process is selected based on the certain criteria to fulfil the production of
propylene.

The suitable process is selected through the screening process. Based on the
screening process, propane dehydrogenation (PDH) is the most suitable process for
propylene plant in this project. PDH can be used in order to fulfil the production of
this project. Propane dehydrogenation (PDH) is widely used in industry especially
for the production of propylene due to the effectiveness of the conversion, cost and
energy consumption compared to metathesis, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and
steam cracking. Table 1.14 shows that the advantages and disadvantages of PDH
process.

Table 1.14: The advantages and disadvantages of PDH process.
Advantages Disadvantages
High yield is achieved. Lack of selectivity.
Can reduce coking production in
high temperature.
Endothermic reaction required a
lot of heat consumption.
Environmental friendly due to the
production of water from oxygen
and hydrogen.
The condition of high
temperature and low pressure will
be led to the production of coke
on catalyst.
Propylene is produced as the
major product.

Raw material is easy to excess.
52




Table 1.14 shows that PDH is the most suitable processes that can be used for
the production of propylene for this project since PDH can have higher conversion of
the product. Besides that, PDH is also the environmental friendly process that can be
used in the industry. The waste can be reducing by using oxidative PDH to produce
water. Other than that, the raw material which is propane is also easy to excess since
the demand of propylene is high. Thus, the production of propane that acts as raw
material is also increasing. Moreover, PDH is the process that has low energy
consumption. The low energy consumption can reduce the operating cost of the
plant. Furthermore, PDH process can slow down the decreasing performance of the
catalyst. PDH process can reduce the formation of coke so the performance of the
catalyst can be maintained. Thus, PDH is the process used for the production of
propylene.





















53



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Eng M. J . (2010). As an alternative to steam cracking. Naphthta Cracking for Light
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Hu X., Xu T., Li C. & Yang C. (2011). Catalytic cracking of n-heptane under
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steam-cracking model to improve steam-cracker operation. Procedia
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Phillip K., Niccum M. J . (2010). KBR Catalytic Olefins Technologies Provide
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K.M. (2011). Biomass to olefins: Cracking of renewable naphtha. Chemical
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Venner R. & Kantorowicz M. (2001). Metathesis: refinery and ethylene plant.
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Butene cracking to propene over P/HZSM-5: Effect of lanthanum. Journal of
Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 327, pg 1219

Zangeneh S. S. (2010). Dehydrogenation of Propane to Propylene Over Pt-Sn/Al
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O
3

Catalysts: The Influence of operating conditions on product selectivity .
Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering , 51.

Zhu X., Liu S., Song Y., Xie S. & Xu L. (2005). Catalytic cracking of 1-butene to
propene and ethane on MCM-22 zeolite. Applied Catalysis A: General, 290,
191-199








.






58






CHAPTER 2



MARKET ANALYSIS



2.1 Introduction

Petroleum products can be obtained from refineries, natural gas and petrochemicals.
Refineries oil prices in the world are also likely to continue with high volatility in the
market. According to the UAE Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, the UAE
maximum sustainable daily capacity of oil production is 2 million barrels a day. The
production capacity is over 3 million barrels per day. In a year 2000, that oil reserves in
the UAE are 98.8 billion barrels, the third largest oil reserves in the world after Saudi
Arabia, and Iraq.

It is proved that, in a year 2000, UAE is the fourth largest natural gas reserves in
the worldand the natural gas reserves is estimated around 6 trillion m
3
(Mohamed
Shihab,2008).Thus, UAE is expected to reserve natural gas more than 4 % of the world
natural gas. UAE is also one of the world wealthiest nations. In a year2011, a gross
domestic product (GDP) per capita for UAE is estimated at $48,158 and got eighth
ranking in the world. Beyond the hydrocarbon economy which continues to account
approximately 80 % of total government revenues (U.S Energy Information
Administration,2013).In the Middle East, UAE is to be one of the most important
financial centres in the world and a major trading centre. Therefore, propane industry
had to take the opportunity to strengthen existing market with low world oil prices.
59




To build propylene plant is a high capacity. A huge plan needs to be considered.
The most important things is the market analysis. The study on demand and supply of
propylene has to be carried out. There are some things that need to show in this market
analysis, such as demand, and costs to be used in the production together. Market
analysis also indicates whether our company will gain profit or not after analyze by
using the breakeven point method. This fact also indicates the probability of the plant to
gain profit after considered all the cost and through analysis on breakeven analysis. The
objective of financial analysis is to determine the number of products for sale at a given
price to cover costs. An important part of financial planning, it is done either by using
graph drawing to find the break-even

2.2 Market Study

Market analysis is find the information in detail about our propylene industries
project plant. In this chapter, we include the information on propylene industry, the
target market, competition and intention in order to develop our propylene plant. With
comprehensive data for this section, the most important is the statistics in analysing the
market.

2.2.1 World Demand of Propylene

From Figure 2.1, it shows the propylene world demand; Propylene is the second
largest olefin after ethylene, with propylene production increase around 4.2% from 2008
to 2014 in the world demand. In the long term, propylene demand does not show the
rapid development. This is because the Asia petrochemical companies receive a
competitive in production of ethylene from the Middle East which resulted in a large
approaching shortage of propylene in Asia. The year in between 2001 to 2005, global
propylene market is slightly increased if comparingin the future market.

60



Demand for propylene is also controlled by the production of polypropylene
around 64% of supply. Global demand growth of polypropylene has historically
increased yearly in range 5.0 to 6.0 %, and this trend will continue in future (Oil & Gas
J ournal,2004).Polypropylene is widely used in a variety of sectors such as packaging,
household appliances, automotive, construction, electrical, textile, agriculture and
medical.

Figure 2.1: World Demand for Propylene 2011(Dominant Technology for the Propylene
Production,2011)

The global economic crisis that occurred in 2008 actually began in the United
States (US) then spread to the other countries around the world.In the year 2008, the
world financial crisis occurs. This resulted in declining purchasing from US society that
has been identified as the largest consumer of products from various countries around
the world. It is shown in figure 2.1. During this year, it gives crisis impact on the
propylene sale. However, the economy of the propylene demand began to grow at the
beginning of 2009 and continue increasing until 2013. It can show that the propylene
demand will continue to increase in the coming year.
61



Our assumption is also based on recent economic developments in the rapid
industrialization of all to compete globally.Asia holds the largest share at 51.9%,
followed by Europe with 22.3% (Angelis,2013). Asia-Pacific dominate the global
market demand growth, while the highest growth rate shown by the Middle East and
Africa, where demand for propylene increased rapidly between 2000 and 2011.
According to Angelis, North America was the only region where demand polypropylene
net decline. Demands in Asia are lead by China and India. This is because China and
India are the fastest growing economies of the world in terms of Gross Domestic
Product (GDP). Both of these countries have large populations. The per capita propylene
consumption in India is very low but their GDP is growing very fast. For China, the per
capita propylene consumption is high but their GDP is also increasing to satisfy their
customer. The share of Asia in the global polypropylene demand is expected to increase
until 2020 (Angelis,2013).

2.2.2 World Propylene Production

Propylene is widely consumed mostly in industrial applications because of its physical
properties, chemical and low toxicity. It is also used in production of various chemical
intermediates and polymers. Propylene itself are a primarily as a co-product of ethylene
that produced in steam crackers process and gasoline production in oil refinery
operations, therefore increasing the use of propylene.

According to Figure 2.2, the pie chat show percentages world production of
propylene at 2013.If by country, USA is the major user of propylene in the industry and
followed closely by China.USA has resulted in 26.8% and 21.9% of propylene China to
the world. 25.9% is from other countries especially from Middle East ,Asia and North
America.Netherlands, Germany, and J apan also accounted for 25.3% of world
market.With the advent of our company in the Middle East, it can increase propylene
production to world markets, particularly the Middle East.

62




Figure 2.2: Percentages Producer of Propylene by Country in Year of 2013 (Merchant
Research and Consulting Ltd,2013)

2.2.3 World Suppliers of Propane

In 2013, propane has become a major supplier of industrial propylene. If based
on Figure 2.3, countries in the Middle East have dominated about 60% propane to the
world. The main producer of propane is Saudi Arabia as much as 270 billion barrels. It
was followed by the country of Venezuela and Canada each produces 210 and 175
billion barrels.While countries like Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates (UAE)
are a moderate level with over 100 billion barrels. Few countries produce propane is
Libya and Nigeria which is below the 100 billion barrels.

Basically, we want to build a factory in the Middle East, or more specifically in
the UAE. The detail explanation will be discussed in the next chapter. As the Middle
East also produce propane around 58% to the world as shown in Figure 2.3 , so it is
possible for us to build a factory and get raw materials from this country. Among the
company which produces and sells propane in the UAE is Emirates Gas.
63




Figure 2.3: Producer of propane by country (U.S Energy Information
Administration,2013)

2.2.4 World Consumption of Propane

Propane is an important energy source for residential and commercial buildings
sector by offering competitive price for today's market. Propane is the second most
important product in the petrochemical industry began after ethane. It is the raw material
for a wide range of products in propylene producers.

According to SRI Consulting shown in Figure 2.4, Northeast Asia is the world's
largest propane consumption by 33% in 2008, followed by West Europe and North
America by 19%.Areas of Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Europe, South America, and
Indians just need propane below 10% only in the world. However, our company only
focus on the Middle East to build a plant to produce propylene. If we look at the Middle
East, there are many plant produce propane however propane consumption is slightly
only 7%. According to the Figure 2.3 and Figure 2.4, it can be concluded that the
production of propane in the Middle East more than the use of propane. This proves that
the Middle East is export propane to other countries. So, it is not a problem for us to buy
raw materials in the Middle East to produce propylene. Since propane could be access
easily in this region.
64






Figure 2.4: World consumption of propane in 2008 (Source: www.sriconsulting.com).

2.2.5 Suppliers of Main Catalyst

In chapter of process background Platinum Tin Alumina, Pt(Sn)-Al
2
O
3
is used
as the main catalyst. It has proved valuable for hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis,
dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions. During the reaction, the metal platinum is
formed which has been named as the active catalyst. World production and consumption
of platinum have been affected by the global market, as the demand for mineral
commodities, including platinum has increased.

Figure 2.5, shows the countries that produce Pt(Sn)-Al
2
O
3
in 2009. It is about
45% of the world's Pt(Sn)-Al
2
O
3
produced in South Africa. Kazakhstan, India, Russia,
and Turkey are considered major producers. While Finland, and Brazil produce smaller
amounts. Among the well-known company in the supply of Pt(Sn)-Al
2
O
3
are like Anglo
Platinum Ltd, Aquarius Platinum Ltd, Merafe Resources Ltd and Outokompu OYJ
9%
33%
5%
7%
3%
19%
5%
19%
Southeast Asia
Northeast Asia
Indian
Middle East
Europe
West Europe
South America
North America
65



(MiningWatch Canada,2011). However, we must find plant produce catalyst close to our
factory because it can save cost and time.


Figure 2.5: Countries Producing Pt(Sn)-Al
2
O
3
(Metal Matters The Smiths, 2009)

2.2.6 Suppliers of Pure Oxygen

In oxidation PDH process, oxygen is used to further the process of PDH. The main
function of oxygen is to react with the hydrogen to produce water and also to increase
the conversion of propane. Many oxidation reactions in the chemical industry using pure
oxygen instead of air to benefit from a higher reaction rate, product separation easier,
yield higher or smaller equipment size. Industrial application of oxygen is available and
mostly used it for combustion. Moreover, burning in pure oxygen can improve
combustion efficiency in our reactor. Also, it is believed that oxygen can reduce coking
formation in our process.


South Africa
45%
India
15%
Kazakhstan
17%
Turkey
8%
Russia
4%
Others
11%
66




Since we plan to build our propylene plant in UAE, large probability, we will
buy the oxygen directly from Emirates Gas (EG) because it is the leading manufacturer
for gas supply in UAE. With over three decades of experience industrial, EG provides a
comprehensive range of pure gases and gas mixtures, designed for the specific needs of
their customers. The gas can be supplies via piping line system or bulk regarding to the
customer needs. The strategic location of the our proposed location is Free Zone has
facilitated direct access to a large number of potential customers and existing ones
abroad in UAE, Gulf, Africa and Iran.

2.3 Price of Chemicals

A company will be exists as long as it makes money and it can only do so if they
deliver a quality product or service at the right price. This means that the key to any
conversation about raising prices is to emphasize that the increase will ensure the quality
of the product.

2.3.1 Price of Propane

The question that always been asked by the consumer is, "How much the price of
propane?. Propane is a substance that is filtered out of other materials and traded in
markets around the world, the price of propane can vary by a lot depending on the
economic, political unforeseen, and other factors.One of the main factors that influence
the price of propane is based on the demand. For example, if the temperature in the
North-Eastern United States is very cold, the demand and price for propane will rise.

Figure 2.6 shows the price of propane in UAE market from April to October
2013, there is a significant price change. This price is based on market prices in the
dirham currency to use. One Arab Emirates Dirham (AED) is equivalent to USD 0.27. If
we look at the current price for propane, it is between three to four AED/gallon. In
other words, if the currency is change to USD, it is about 1008 USD /tonne. This price
67



can be considered affordable and can provide huge profits in the production of
propylene.



Figure 2.6: Propane Monthly Prices (Index Mundi, 2013)

2.3.2 Price of Propylene

Referring to Figure 2.7, it shows the differences between the three areas that
require a lot of propylene. When looking at Asian markets and Europe, propylene prices
have shown a relatively low performance in the last 2010 years. But the price of
propylene in the U.S. can be said to be justified by the current state of the world that is
around 1800 USD/ ton. Among the causes of high propylene prices as possible the
standard of living and demand in the U.S. is much higher than other areas. However, this
is the price in the last 3 years. Therefore, we assume propylene prices will continue to
rise due to higher demand and consumption.

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13
U
A
E

D
i
r
h
a
m

p
e
r

G
a
l
l
o
n
68



The higher propylene prices in the world market, the more profit in processing
propylene in our company. Our first main focus is the US because the propylene price in
2012 is around 1800 USD / tonne (Andrew Horncastle, 2012). However, the price of
propylene will be increase. Thus, it is not preferable because we want to sell the
propylene with our target price 1800 USD/tonne.


Figure 2.7: Price of Propylene by Region (Alibaba.com,2010)

2.4 Production Rate

In 2013, the demand for propylene in worldwide is about 83 million metric
tonne. While, global production of propylene is 35 million tonnes (Hodges, 2012).
Based on these values, propylene demand has surpassed of the production. The world
needs 48 million tonnes of propylene to meet market needs. Our industry will be built in
the Middle East. We aim to increase the total production of propylene at US. In year
2012, the US has produced 22 million tonnes of propylene and contributing 27% of the
world market.

0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
Asia Europe US
U
S
D

p
e
r

t
o
n
69



Therefore, our plant plans to produce 250,000 metric tonnes per year to help US
demand. With a production of 250,000 tonnes per year of propylene, our plant will
contributed 0.3% of propylene to the world. Given our new plant to start a business, but
still can give a healthy competition with companies world-class.

2.5 Economic Analysis

Any Chemical plants are built for sure to make money/ profit. However, an initial
estimated investment is needed to see whether we can know their profitability of a
project. Therefore, all type cost of production is needed to be estimated. For this chapter
we only focusing in brief estimation cost taken from any sources related (Source:Turton
et al, 2013).

1. Fixed capital
2. Raw material
3. Utilities
4. Direct labor cost
5. Fixed cost
6. Start-up cost

2.5.1 Economic Benchmark

The construction for chemical plant industries generally a multimillion investment
project. Therefore for our production of 250,000 metric tonnes, our plant industry
required exact benchmark based on others propylene industry that has been well
established. We are referring our economic bench mark based on existing Propylene
industry to estimate the total cost investment for our plant. Table 2.1 shows the
Investment Cost on Different Propylene Plant.



70



Table 2.1: Investment Cost on Different Propylene Plant. (Wenzel, 2011) (Evoscience,
2008)
Company Description Total Investment
cost
( USD )
Egyptian Propylene
and Polypropylene
Company (EPP),
350,000 metric tonnes of
propylene
Port Said, Egypt

680 million

LURGI MTP
520,000 metrics tonnes of
propylene
China

565 million

2.5.2 Cost Estimating

Cost estimating is an approximation of the probability cost needed for any business
project. Any cost related to the project either expenses or revenue will be included in
cost estimation for example equipment cost, capital cost, land cost and other related cost.

2.5.3 Fixed Capital Cost

Fixed capital cost is the total of plant ready for start-up. The cost includes in this fixed
capital or investment cost are design, all equipment and installation, buildings, auxiliary
facilities and all piping, instrumentation and control system (Sinnott, 2005).





71





Table 2.2: Estimation of equipment cost (Source: www.matche.com, 2013)
Type of Equipment

Estimate No. Of
Equipment
Estimate Price USD
( 1 Unit )
Total Estimation
Price
USD
Reactor :
Reformer reactor
Oxyreactor

1
1

15,410,000
10,000,000

15,410,000
10,000,000
Heat Exchanger
2 500,000 1,000,000
Distillation column 3 10,000,000 30,000,000
Heater 2 1,010,000 2,020,000
Boiler 1 7,000,000 7,000,000
Pump 1 100,000 100,000
Cooler 1 300,000 300,000
Storage tank 4 1,000,000 4,000,000
Other Equipment 20,000,000 20,000,000
Total 89,830,000

72





Table 2.3: Fixed Capital Investment of Propylene Plant (Source: Sinnott, 2005)

Type Estimation Cost Total
Direct Cost
Total Equipment Costs - 89,830,000
Equipment Installation 40% of total Equip. costs 35,932,000
Piping system installation 70% of total Equip. costs 62,881,000
Instrumentation & control
system
20% of total Equip. costs 17,966,000
Electrical system installation 10% of total Equip. costs 8,983,000
Building, process, auxiliary - 40,000,000
Total 255,592,000
Indirect cost
Design & Engineering 30% of total Equip. costs 26,949,000
Contractor fee 10% of total Equip. costs 8,983,000
Contingencies 10% of total Equip. costs 8,983,000
Total 44,915,000
Fixed Capital Investment Direct costs +indirect cost
TOTAL

300,507,000

73





2.5.4 Start-up Cost
Start-up cost is a cost that needed for plant to start operating where this cost is cover for
process modification, start-up labor and loss in production. Normally, the estimation for
start-up cost from fixed capital cost is 10%.
Start-up cost =0.1 x Fixed capital cost
=0.1 x 300,507,000
=USD 30,050,700

2.5.5 Total Investment Cost

Total investment cost for this propylene production is;

Total investment cost =Operating capital investment cost +Start-up cost
=300,507,000+30,050,700
=USD 330,557,700











74





2.5.5.1 Land Price

As stated in site location chapter, the preferred land in UAE is only for rental. The
location that we choose is Ajman, UAE. The land cost is calculated base on per area.
Table 2.4 showed the cost of land per area in Ajman. We have decided to use 12 acres
for process plant. The calculated cost for land per acre is USD 21,800/ acre. Thus, the
total cost of land for our plant is USD 264,663.

12 acres equivalent to 48563 metre square
1 m
2
is equal to USD 5.45

Thus, 48562 m
2
is equal USD 264,663

Table 2.4: The cost of land per area (http://www.afza.gov.ae)






2.5.6 Estimating Total Operating cost

Operating costs are divided into two category variable costs and fixed costs.
Variable operating costs are costs that are dependent on the amount of product produced
and fixed operating costs are costs that not vary with production rate.




Name Area (m
2
) Annual Rent
Land Min 2000 USD 5.45 / m
2
(Annual)
75





2.5.6.1 Annual cost of Raw Materials Estimation

Table 2.5: Cost of raw material (Source: Index Mundi, 2013; MATRADE, 2013)
Raw Material Flowrate
(tonne/yr)
Cost
(USD/tonne)
Total Cost, USD/yr
Propane 320,633 1008 323,198,064
Oxygen 10,000 1873 18,730,000
Total 341,928,064

2.5.6.2 Catalyst annual cost

Our process chose the Platinum(Tin)/AluminaPt(Sn)-Al
2
O
3
catalyst .Table 2.6 shows the
catalyst annual cost.

Table 2.6: Catalyst annual cost (Source: Zhang M. A., 2013; Zhang M. L., 2013; Dierks,
2011; Wang, 2013)
Reactant Tonne per year Dollar per tonne Total cost USD/yr
Pt(Sn)-Al
2
O
3
15 13,607 USD 204,105




76





2.5.6.3 Operating Labor Cost Estimation

N
OL
=( 6.29 +31.7P
2
+0.23N
np
)
0.5

N
OL
: Number of operating labor per shift.
P
2
: Particulate of operating labor per shift
N
np :
Non- Particulate processing steps

Table 2.7: Quantity of Equipments (Source : Turton et al, 2013 )
Type of Equipment Quantity N
np

Reactor :
Reformer reactor
Oxyreactor

1
1

2
Heat Exchanger 2 2
Distillation column 3 3
Heater 2 2
Boiler 1 1
Condenser 1 1
Storage tank 4 -
Total 11

From the information by Turton et al, 2013, A single operator will work on average 49
weeks a year (3 weeks work off) with 8 hours per shift. For 24 hours plant operation
required 3 shifts to complete 24 hours per day.
77




So the calculation is written by:
(49 weeks/year) x (5 shift/week) =245 shifts/operator/year
(343 days/year) x (3 shift/day) =1029 operating shift per year
(1029 shifts/year) / (245 shifts/operator/year) =4.2

N
OL
=( 6.29 +31.7P
2
+0.23N
np
)
0.5
=( 6.29 +31.7(0)
2
+0.23(11 ))
0.5

N
OL
=2.97

No. of Operator Needed : 2.97x 4.2 =12.47 operator (13 operators per shifts)

Therefore, the total operator needed for 3shifts per day are 39 operators for running plant
per day.

Table 2.8: Total Admin and Operating Labor cost (Source: GULFTALENT J obs for
Professional,2013)
No of
workers
USD/
Workers/month
Total
USD/month
Total
USD/year
CEO 1 16,000 16,000 192,000
COO 1 10,000 10,000 120,000
HR 2 3,500 7,000 84,000
BDD :
Sales
Marketing

3
3

4,600
4,600

13,800
13,800

156,600
156,600
Finance 3 4,600 13,800 156,600
Operation :
78



a. Head of
Operation
b. Engineer
c. Safety
Head
Staff

d. Logistic
Head
staff
e. Maintenance
Head
Staff
f. LAB
Head
staff
g. QA/QC
Head
Staff
1

5

1
3


1
3

1
4

1
2

1
2
5,800

6,900

3,500
2,000


3,500
2,000

3,488
2,000

3,000
2,000

5,800
2,100
5800

34,500

3,500
6,000


3,500
6,000

3,488
8,000

3,000
4,000

5,800
4,200
69,600

414,000

42,000
72,000


42,000
72,000

41,856
96,000

36,000
48,000

69,600
50,400
1,919,256
Operator 40 1,500 60,000 720,000
Guard 3x3 shift 1200 10,800 129,600
Total ( USD ) 2,768,856






79




2.5.6.4 Estimation of utilities cost

Table 2.9: Estimation of utilities cost based on UAE (Regulation & Supervision Bureau,
2013)
Utilities Rate (Dollar) Quantity used Total (Dollar)
1. Water
Price of water;
Amount of water for
industrial used

2.64 USD/m
3


200m
3
/ day


181,104 USD/year
Total of water used
per year (Dollar)
68,600 m
3
/ year
2. Electricity
Price of electricity;


0.11 USD/KWh

5,000 KW/day

188,650 USD/year
Total of power
required per year
1,715,000 KW/year
Total utilities used (Dollar) 369,754 USD

Therefore, total of variable cost;
Total of variable cost =Raw material +Labor cost +Catalyst cost +Utilities cost +
Land
=341,928,064 +2,768,856 +204,105+369,754 +264,662
=USD 345,575,774
= USD 350 million



80




2.5.7 Total Revenue
The company will sell propylene USD 1,800 per tonne and we will get the profit from
the sale of propylene per year is USD 450 million.

Table 2.10: Total sales of product
Product Tonne per year Dollar per tonne Dollar per year
Propylene 250,000 USD 1,800 USD 450 million

2.6 Breakeven Analysis

Breakeven analysis is a common technique used by any business company in evaluating
economic feasibility. This analysis is to determine the estimated point at which revenue
received equals the costs invested or in a simple word a point at which the business
makes neither loss nor a profit. At the breakeven point, there is no gain or loss. Hence,
costs of expenses are equal to revenues. Break even analysis consists two types of costs
which are fixed cost and variable costs. Future more, the total cost is the sum of both
fixed and variable cost. (tutor2u*)
Breakeven Point =
Fixed Cost
Sales Variable Cost


=
US D330,507,000
USD (1800 1384) MT


= 794,487 Metric tonnes of Propylene
= 800,000 Metric tonnes of Propylene





81





Thus, Breakeven Sales =
Fixed Cost
1(Variable Cost /Sales )


=
USD 300,507,000
1(
1384
1800
)

=USD 1,430,078,365
= USD 1.4 billion
82



Table 2.11: Break Even Analysis
Unit Fixed Operating
Cost
Variable Cost Total Cost Revenue Profit
0 330,507,000 0 330,507,000 0 -330,507,000
250000 330,507,000 345,575,774 676,082,774 450,000,000 -226,082,774
500000 330,507,000 691,151,548 1,021,658,548 850,000,000 -171,658,548
750000 330,507,000 1,036,727,322 1,367,234,322 1,300,000,000 -67,234,322
1000000 330,507,000 1,382,303,096 1,712,810,096 1,750,000,000 37,189,904
1250000 330,507,000 1,727,878,870 2,058,385,870 2,200,000,000 141,614,130
1500000 330,507,000 2,073,454,644 2,403,961,644 2,650,000,000 246,038,356
1750000 330,507,000 2,419,030,418 2,749,537,418 3,100,000,000 350,462,582
2000000 330,507,000 2,764,606,192 3,095,113,192 3,550,000,000 454,886,808
2250000 330,507,000 3,110,181,966 3,440,688,966 4,000,000,000 559,311,034
2500000 330,507,000 3,455,757,740 3,786,264,740 4,450,000,000 663,735,260

83




Figure 2.8: Break Even Analysis Diagram











0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
P
r
i
c
e
,
X

1
0
6
U
S
D
units, x10
3
tonnes
Break Even Point Analysis
Total Cost
Revenue
Fixed Cost
variable cost
84



2.7 Conclusion

What we can observe in market analysis, the propylene demand is increasing
year by year and the current propylene produce does not able to meet the current
demand. This show that production of propylene is required and it can be a very
profitable business. We manage to set our investment of propylene plant benchmark
through exact investment from the establish propylene industries. The production of
250,000 tons per year of propylene will start at fourth year and the total investment for
start up the plant is 331 million USD. In addition, the land cost for the plant site is
calculated at 261,600 USD per year as we rent the land. The total purchased equipment
cost for this project is estimated at around 90 million USD. The main raw material for
the propylene production is propane which is supplied by Emirates Gas and it is more
than needed, thus the shortage of raw material is impossible to happen because there is
still other supplier around our proposed plant. Total production cost per year to produce
propylene is approximately 346 million USD. The Selling price for the produced
propylene is USD 450 million per year while the raw material cost is 1,800 USD per ton.
The breakeven point or the sales required to cover the total cost is 800,000 metric tonnes
of Propylene and the breakeven value is around 1.4 billion USD. Therefore, it is
estimated that the plant begin to gain profit at fourth year of production. Thus, our
proposed project of propylene will gain large profitability and will become a very
successful international business.







85




REFERENCES

(n.d.). Retrieved 19 11, 2013, from GULFTALENT J obs for
Professional:https://www.gulftalent.com/home/Logistics-Manager-Salaries-in-UAE-
77657.html
Alibaba.com. (1 4, 2010). Retrieved 19 11, 2013, from
http://news.alibaba.com/article/detail/chemical/100271313-1-propylene-outstrips-
ethylene-global-markets.html
Andrew Horncastle, A. S. (2012). Future of Chemicals Rebalancing Global Feedstock
Disruptions with On-Purpose Technologies. Booz & Company , 15.
Angelis, A. D. (2013). Polypropylene market to increase at a CAGR of 4.5% to 2020.
Companies and Markets.com .
CHIKAMATSU, N. (2011). Dominant Technology for the Propylene Production
DTP) Process , 4.
Devanney, M. T. (2009). CEH Marketing Research Report Abstract . Chemical
Industries Newsletter , 7.
Evoscience. (n.d.). Retrieved 17 12, 2013, from Propylene Manufacture:
http://www.evoscience.com/1354/
Hodges, P. (14 8, 2012). ICIS. Retrieved 19 11, 2013, from
http://www.icis.com/blogs/chemicals-and-the-economy/2012/08/on-purpose-propylene-
set-to-ch/
Index Mundi. (4, 2013). Retrieved 19 11, 2013, from
http://www.indexmundi.com/commodities/?commodity=propane&currency=aed
86



J oan Kuyek, D. (2011). Economic analysis of the Ring of Fire chromite mining play .
Mining Watch Canada Mines Alerte , 5-8.
MATRADE. (2013). World Trade Atlas.
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http://mcgroup.co.uk/researches/propylene-oxide-po
On-purpose propylene production will increase share of future global demand . (2004).
Oil & Gas Journal , 1.
On-purpose propylene production will increase share of future global demand. (2004).
Oil & Gas Journal , 1.
Regulation & Supervision Bureau. (2013). Retrieved 19 11, 2013, from
http://www.rsb.gov.ae/en/PrimaryMenu/index.aspx?LeftType=1&SubCatLeftMenu_Na
me=Customer%20Tariffs%20&%20Charges&SubCatLeftMenu_ID=152&SubCatMenu
_Name=Tariffs%20&%20charges&SubCatMenu_ID=151&CatMenu_ID=67&PriMenu
_ID=177&CatMenu_Name=&PriMenu_Name=Sector%20
Shihab, M. (2008). Economic Development in the UAE. 2.
Shihab, M. (2008). Economic Development in the UAE. 2.
Shihab, M. (2008). Economic Development in the UAE. 2.
Sinnott, R. K. (2005). Chemical Engineering Design. In R. K. Sinnott, Coulson &
Richardson's Chemical Engineering Series (pp. -). United Kingdom: Elsevier
Butterworth- Heinemann.
Smiths. (2009). Metal Matters. Retrieved 19 11, 2013, from
http://library.thinkquest.org/08aug/01930/commonmetals/Chromium.html
Turton et al, r. t. (2013). Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes.
Prentice Hall.
Turton et al, r. t. (third edition ). Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes.
Prentice Hall.
tutor2u*. (n.d.). Retrieved 24th( Thursday ) October, 2013, from
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/b/breakevenanalysis.asp
U.S Energy Information Administration. (2013). 1.
Wenzel, D. I. (2011). Uhde STAR process. Tianjin: ThyssenKrupp.
87



www.matche.com. (2013). Retrieved 30th october, 2013, from www.matche.com


88

CHAPTER 3



SITE LOCATION



3.1 INTRODUCTION

Geography plays the important role in the construction of chemical plant for the
production of propylene to have the success of a business in the future (Roig-Tierno et
al., 2013). The site location selection is the most important decision for this project.
Since the demand for propylene is keep increasing for the use of many productions, so
the strategic site location is required to distribute the product easily and effectively.

Besides that, the site location for the propylene plant must be close to the source
of propane and oxygen since both of them are the raw material used respectively. Thus,
the distribution of raw material will be easier and can reduce the cost of the
transportation. Moreover, the safety and environmental issues are also must be consider
for the selection of the site location. In addition, the propylene plant needs the site
location which is far away from the residential area for safety issues.

Furthermore, the propylene plant can be constructed near to the river or sea so
that the treated water from the plant can be discharge directly to the river or sea.
Additionally, the availability of utilities around the propylene plant is needed such as
water supply, power supply, road network and many more so that the plant can run
89

effectively. Besides that, the transportation facility is also required for the plant, thus the
raw materials can be distributed easily to the propylene plant.

The demand of the labor is higher in the industrial area. Moreover, the labor
availability also needs to study and identify for the constructions and operations of the
plant. The changes climate of the site location is studied to for this project. Thus, the
right site location selection must be made in order to have environmental friendly and
profitably propylene plant. The criteria for the site location selection are listed before the
selection is made.


3.2 CRITERIA OF THE SELECTION

The selection of site location is done by considering a lot of criteria. All the criteria must
be considered for the construction of the propylene plant so that the operations of the
propylene plant can be run smoothly and effectively in the future. The selection process
is done by considering some aspect. The selection criteria is listed and discussed. The
site selection criteria are discussed by Sinnott and Towler (2009) in Chemical
Engineering Design in the next subtopic.

3.2.1 Location With Respect to Marketing Area

The strategiclocation for propylene plant is required for this project. The location of the
plant must be placed close to the primary market. The primary market provides the low
cost of material that produced in bulk quantities such as fuels, cement, fertilizers and
mineral acids. Besides that, the transportation cost for raw material are also can be
reduce since the propylene plant close to the plant that produce the raw material. In
addition, the transportation for the product to the customer is also can reduce the
transportation cost since the propylene plant is located to the primary markets.


90

3.2.2 Raw Material Supply

The propylene plant also must be located close to the raw material supply. For this
production, the major raw material needed is propane and oxygen. Thus, the propylene
plant must be located near to the propane and oxygen supplier. The best location is the
place that offers the suitable and reasonable price for the raw material. Additionally, the
availability the raw material is also provided in the suitable location of the propylene
plant. The transportation cost can be reducing since the plant is located close to the
source of raw material.

3.2.3 Transportation

Transportation is the most important facilities for the operations and constructions of
propylene plant. The transportation is used to deliver the raw materials and product to
and from the plant. Without suitable transportation facilities, the raw material cannot be
deliver to the plant thus, the propylene plant cannot be operate effectively and the
product are also can be distributed to the customer. There are three types of transport
form that is usually used in the industry such as road, waterway, air and railway
transport.

Road transport is used for local distribution of the raw material and product and
waterway transport is usually used for the large amount of raw material and product
distribution. Besides that, the air transport is used for the movement of essential
equipment and personnel movement to be more efficient and appropriate. Additionally,
the railway transport is used to transport the raw material and product in the long
distance and cheaper.





91

3.2.4 Availability of Labor

The availability of labor is important for the construction and operations of the plant.
The workers for the construction is usually brought from the outside of the area must
have enough skill for the construction of the plant. In the other hand, the availability and
suitability of the local workers from that area are also important in order to run the plant.
The recruitment of local workers can reduce the operation cost of the plant instead of
recruiting the workers from the outside of that area. Besides that, the availability of local
workers that have enough skill in electricity, welding and piping is also available in that
area to operate the plant effectively and smoothly. By recruiting the local workers can
improve the economy of the local people in that area.

3.2.5 Suitable Utilities

The availability of suitable utilities is important in order to operate the propylene plant.
The utilities required in that area such as water, electricity and fuel supply. All of this
utility must available easily in that area so that the plant can operate easily. Besides that,
it also can reduce that operations cost of the plant since all of the utilities can be find
locally. The water supply is required for cooling system and general processes. The high
quality of the water supply is necessary for the process of the propylene plant. The water
supply is taken from river, sea or lake of that area to the plant that is used for the cooling
process.

In the other hand, the electricity supply is also needed to operate the plant. The
large amount of electricity required for the plant and it must have low cost of the
electricity supply. Additionally, the steam and power generation needs the enough fuel
supply. Thus, the cheap fuel supply must be available in order to reduce the operation
cost of the plant. Moreover, the road network is also important to connect the plant area
and the outside area so that the distribution of the raw material and product to or from
the plant can be done effectively.

92

3.2.6 Environmental Impact and Effluent Disposal

The environment is one thing that all the plant must consider in order to operate a plant.
The plant will be produce waste product during operation. Thus, the waste product must
be handling and dispose correctly so that the waste does not affect the environment
quality. The difficulties and cost of the waste management are also must be consider for
the operation of the propylene plant. All the disposal of the waste must be covered by
local regulations. The correct authorities must be hired and consulted to make sure that
the waste must be met the standard characteristics. Besides that, the environmental
impact assessment must be made for the construction and operation of the plant so that
the pollution can be minimize, reduce or avoid during operation.

3.2.7 Considerations of Local Community

The local community agreement for the construction and operation of the plant is
required in order to run the plant in that area. The safe location is important so that the
operation of the plant does not affect the safety of the local population and no additional
risk for them. The plant should not locate on the upwind of the residential area so that
the risk can be reducing towards the residential area. Furthermore, the adequate facilities
must be provided by the local community for the plant personnel and workers such as
banks, schools, housing, cultural facilities and recreational facilities. In addition, the
local community is also must consulted about the effect of the plant operations towards
the residential area. The local community must be consulted about water consumption
and water discharge from the plant so that they know all the consequences of a plant is
constructed in that area.






93

3.2.8 Availability of Land

The suitable land is required in order to construct a plant. The availability of sufficient
and suitable land is needed for a plant. The suitable land also provides the enough land
for future expansion. The land must locate at the strategic places and close to the raw
material sources. Besides that, the land must have the proper drain system, flat area and
can withstand the high force exerted towards it. The site evaluation must be done to
determine the characteristic of the land and the proper improvement can be made so that
the land can be used for the construction of a plant. Besides that, if the land is near to the
ocean, the special particular care of the land must be taken since the natural disaster can
be occur at any time such as earthquake, tsunami and many more.

3.2.9 Climate

The climate of plant constructed is also must be studied and identified before the
construction of the plant. The adverse climate conditions can cause increase of cost of
the plant operation. If the equipment cannot withstand at the high temperature weather,
the equipment will be broken and maybe malfunctioning. The additional insulation and
special heating component for equipment and piping system needed for very low
temperature condition. The structure of the equipment and building must be stronger to
withstand the high winds condition or earthquakes.

3.2.10 Political and Strategic Considerations

Government gives the tax concessions, capital grants and other inducement for the direct
investment of the plant located. The area of high unemployment is also included for the
direct investment. The overriding considerations in the site selection are due to the
availability of such grants. The area with preferential tariff agreement is recommended
for the construction of a new plant.


94

3.2.11 Major Selected Countries

Thus, there are three major countriesthat we have taken into consideration as listed
below:

1. China.
2. Canada.
3. United Arab Emirates (UAE).


3.3 ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS

The assumption for the site selection process is done in order to fulfil the requirement
for the best site location for propylene plant. All the assumption of site location is made
for all the three site location that has been chosen.
For UAE, the first assumption that has been made for site selection is the price
for utilities like electricity and water is assumed same in all over UAEs area. Usually
the utilities price is same for all places in that particular country. Besides, the labor price
in Middle East are identify based on the skill and experience of the person that to be
hired. Thus, the more experience and skill owned by the person, the higher he will be
paid. Additionally, the labor skilled paid per hour is also assumed the same in every
place in UAE for industrial area. In addition, the price of propylene sell in UAE is
assumed same as the global price. Moreover, the demand of propylene in UAE is
assumed by the demand of each of company that needs the propylene for their process.
The local community is also presumed to agree for the construction of the propylene
plant in Ajman, UAE.
In China, the assumption has been made for the land area for the propylene plant.
The land area is finding based on the land that available for the industrial activity.
Besides that, the prices of utilities are also assumed to be same in all over the Chinas
places. The tariff for the electricity and water is the same for each place in China for
95

industrial activities. Furthermore, the labor cost in Tianjin, China for industrial is
presumed the same in Tianjin area. Besides that, the approvals for the construction of
propylene plant in Tianjin, China is assumed agree by local community. Moreover, the
size of the land required for the propylene plant is assumed 12 acre including the
expansion of the plant in the future for all three site location that have been selected.
In Canada, Alberta is one of the selected as the site location for propylene plant
for this project. The price of propane as raw material for the production propylene in
Canada is assumed cheaper due to the abundant of propane production. The propane
production is expected to increase in future due to the demand in United States of
America (USA). The transportation of propylene from Canada is also to be presumed
easier and low cost since USA is besides of Canada. In addition, the water supply is
assumed lower due to the water abundant in Canada.
The limitation for the construction of propylene plant in the site location is
identified for this project. The limitations for the Middle East country such as in the
UAE is the foreigner investor does not have permission to buy the land for housing or
industry purposes. However, the land is available to buy according to the loyalty of the
investor to have the business purposes and invest their business in this country in certain
duration. Thus, they are only allowed to rent the land for their first time to invest and
they should follow the requirement of the country legally.
Besides that, the limitation in China occurs when the raw material, propane
supply is not available but the propane has to import from the outside of the country
such as USA and Middle East. In China, the propylene demand very high for the
production of other chemical such as propylene oxide and acrylonitrile. Thus, a huge
number of the propane supply is exported to China makes the price of propane high.
Besides that, the price of land in China is also too high and expensive compare to the
other site location. Addition, the climate in China is also can be assumed as the
limitation. China is four season country. In order to build the propylene plant, the
climate also has to be considered and it needed more cost for the equipment. Moreover,
the utilities cost in China is also high especially electricity and water.
96

The limitation of Canada can be identified by the labor cost. The labor cost in
Canada is quite high compared to UAE and slightly high compared to China. The
growth of the economy in Canada is drastically increasing makes the labor cost getting
higher. Besides that, the price of land is quite high. The demand of the land space for
industrial activities is high makes the land price high. Besides, the climate in Canada is
also can be considered as the limitation of this project. Canada is also four season
country. The chemical plant has to consider the operating system of the equipment
during the changes of the climate.


3.4 SELECTED COUNTRIES

The countries is selected based on the criteria of site selection with respect to the
marketing area, raw material supply, transportation, availability of labor, suitable
utilities, environmental impact and effluent disposal, considerations of local community,
availability of land, climate, political and strategic considerations. The criterion is
considered for the site location in order to build a new propylene plant so that the plant
can operate safely and effectively. For this project, the suitable location is studied in
order to find the most appropriate places for new propylene plant. The studied
countriesfor our project are China, Canada and United Arab Emirates (UAE). The
selectedcountries are based on the high demand of propylene. Then, the three countries
is screening in the next subtopic.

3.4.1 China

China have 1/5 population of the world and more than 1.3 billion people all around the
country has experienced rapid industrialization since the reform and open policy 1978
(Bao and Fang, 2013). The population of China is over 1.35 billion and the capital city
of China is Beijing (Wikipedia, 2013).

97

In the last thirty years, China has very impressive urbanization and
industrialization along with its economic reform (Lu et al., 2013). Chinas economy is
continuing fast growth and turned into a powerful force in the world economy (Beirne et
al., 2013). The Chinas energy consumption is reported to be 3.48 billion tons of
standard coal equivalents in 2011 which is 7.1% higher than in 2010 (Bao and Fang,
2013).

By the end of 2020, the consumption of natural gas (NG) will reach about 200
billion cubic meters per annum according to the China government planning (Lin-junand
Dong, 2013). The PetroChina Corporation, one of the largest oil and gas producers in
China posted 29.8 billion yuan (USD 4.88 billion) of a third-quarter net profit, up 19 %
from 2012 (Shanghai Daily, 2013).

China have very strategic situation in the world map. Additionally, the strategic
situation of China makes them to share maritime boundaries with J apan, South Korea,
Taiwan, Vietnam and Philippines. Thus, it will make China to be one of the most
important ports in the world since it is located in the strategic places. Figure 3.1 shows
that the map of China.
China is one of the countries that have very high demand on propylene.
Propylene is used for the production of polypropylene and acrylonitrile in industry. The
demand for propylene will grow at the equilibrium of 7.6 million tons with the annual
average of 5.5% in 2014 with 2010 as the basis year. The growth of expectedly increase
in China at the equivalent of 5.16 million tons of propylene with the annual average
7.1% in 2014 (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, 2009).
98


Figure 3.1: Map of China. Source: (China Provinces, 2013).

The situation of China is near to East China Sea and South China Sea makes
them to be the largest economies and consumers of resources in the world (Bao and
Fang, 2013). The incrementof the demand of energy makes China to be the most
influential in world energy markets (U.S. Energy Information, 2013).

3.4.1.1 Location With Respect to Marketing Area

In China, one of the locations suggested for propylene plant is Tianjin. Tianjin is located
in North China and geographically located between latitude 3834 and longitude
11643 (Ministry of Commerce of the People, 2013). The total area of Tianjin is more
than 11,800 km
2
with 11,090,314 populations (Ministry of Commerce of the People,
2013 and Wikipedia, 2013).


99

Tianjin is located around 120 km away from Beijing which is the capital city of China
(Ministry of Commerce of the People, 2013). Figure 3.2 shows that the Tianjin maps as
below:


Figure 3.2: Map of Tianjin. Source: (China Tourist Maps, 2013).

The demand of propylene in China is very high. As mentioned before, in China
propylene is used for the production of polypropylene and acrylonitrile (Ministry of
Economy, Trade and Industry, 2009). Most of plant for the production of polypropylene
is situated around the Tianjin area. Thus, the propylene plant must be located near to the
polypropylene plant. The chemical plants in China that produce polypropylene such as
Chinese Sinopec and Tianjin Petrochemical Corporation, Sinochem Quanzhou
Petrochemical Co., Ltd. andPucheng Clean Energy Chemical Co. (PCEC).
100

Thus, the propylene plants for this project that will be constructed have higher
potential to be the important supplier of propylene for the production of polypropylene.
In addition, the investment on propylene plant in China is a good project since no such
plant is building before in China. Besides that, China has become one of the largest
producers of polypropylene in the world which requires propylene as a main feedstock.

3.4.1.2 Raw Material

The raw material that is used for this production of propylene is propane. This process is
called oxidative propane dehydrogenation (PDH). Since PDH process is selected to be
the main process in producing propylene, a bulk of propane is required as a feedstock.
However, China did not produce its own propane but they are importing propane from
the outside. The propane is imported from United States of America or Middle East
(ICIS, 2013). The transport that is used to distribute the raw material to the traders is by
ship. Thus, port is needed in order to distribute the propane. Usually, there are around
44,000 metric tonne of propane is imported to China and one cargo will be sent for every
two months (ICIS, 2013).

3.4.1.3 Transportation

The transportation used in Tianjin area is by airport, port, road and railways. In Tianjin,
they have Tianjin Binhai International Airport. In North China, Tianjin Binhai
International Airport is the largest cargo air transportation center (Ministry of Commerce
of the Peoples, 2013). The airport is located in Dongli District, Tianjin. They have 65
domestic and international flight courses to 54 cities. The distance from the airport to the
Tianjin City is 24.9 km. The Figure 3.3 shows that the distance of airport to Tianjin City:


101

Figure 3.3: The route for Tianjin Binhai International Airport to Tianjin City. Source:
(Google Maps, 2013).

Furthermore, the waterway is used to supply the raw material and product
effectively and efficiently. Tianjin Port is the port used to distribute the raw material to
the traders so that the raw material can be supply to the propylene plant. The total area
of Tianjin Port is 100 km
2
. In Tianjin Port, they are dividing into four big port areas
which are Tianjin North Port, Tianjin East Port, Haihe River Port and Tianjin South
Port. For Tianjin South Port is built for bulk cargo and liquid cargo whereas Tianjin
North Port is mainly used for shipping container services.In addition, Haihe River Port is
used for cargo vessels below 5000 tons and Tianjin East Port is a new port international
cruise terminal (Tour Beijing, 2013)

Besides that, road transportation is used for local distribution of raw material and
product. In Tianjin, they have three ring roads which are inner, middle and outer ring
road. The Inner and Middle Ring Roads have some often traffic light intersections and
traffic-controlled roadways. J ingjintang Expressway is the highways connecting from
Beijing through Tianjin urban area to Tanggu District or TEDA. Tanggu District is
located in Tianjin Port (Wikipedia, 2013). In addition, the high-speed railway is used as
102

the facilities for transportation of their people. They have Beijing-J iulong Railway that is
passing through Tianjin (Ministry of Commerce of the Peoples, 2013).

Port is normally used as the main transport to distribute the propane supplied
mainly from us to the industrial area. The industrial area in China that has been chosen is
Tianjin. Tianjin is one of the cities that have their own port called Tianjin Port. In
Tianjin Port, they are divided into several port areas such as Hangu Port Area, Beitang
Port Area, Dongjiang Port Area, Beijing Port Area, Nanjang Port Area and Dagukou
Port Area. Figure 3.4 shows that the Tianjin Port area.


Figure 3.4 Map of Tianjin Port. Source: (Wikipedia, 2013).

Tianjin Port is the largest port in North China and also the main maritime
gateaway to Beijing. The distance from Tianjin Port to Beijing is 170 km and 60 km east
of Tianjin city. Besides that, Tianjin Port is also one of the largest ports in the world
(Wikipedia, 2013). The propane received will be distributed to the propylene plant from
the Tianjin Port by piping system.



103

3.4.1.4 Labor Availability

Availability of labor is important in order to run a plant efficiently. The labor is selected
based on skills in the operations of plant. According to the National Bureau of Statistics
of China estimates that the Chinas workforce is fell from 937 billion to 3.5 million in
2012. It was the first drop of labor count in China.

Gary Hufbauer said that it will affect the strong upward pressure on wages
(Radio Free Asia, 2013). The labor cost in China will be affected from decrease of
workforce. But according to Trading Economics (2013), the amount of workforce is
increasing due to the increasing of population in China in every year.

From Table 3.1 shows that the employed person is increasing from 76,420 to
76,704 persons. Besides that the job vacancies is also increase from 6,092,000 to
66,824,486 persons. But, the number of unemployed persons is slightly increasing from
923 to 926 persons.

The trend of the employed, unemployed person and the number of job vacancies
can be expressed in Figure 3.5(a), (b) and (c). Table 3.2 will shows that the labor cost in
China in index points units. The labor cost in China is fluctuating time by time. The
labor cost in China is also can be illustrated in Figure 3.5.






104

Table 3.1: The Availability of Labor in China.Source: (Trading Economics, 2013)
Labour Previous Last
Employed Persons, tens of thousands persons 76420.00 76,704.00
J ob Vacancies, persons 6,092,000 5,647,876.00
Labor Cost, index points 108.40 107.10
Unemployed Persons, thousand persons 923.00 921.00
Wages, CNY 42,452.00 46,769.00
Wages in Manufacturing, CNY 36,494.00 41,650.00
Unemployment Rate, percent 4.10 4.00


Table 3.2: Labor Cost in China from 2012-2013.Source: (Trading Economics, 2013).

COUNTRY CATEGORY DATES ACTUAL HIGHEST LOWEST UNIT FREQUENCY
CHINA LABOR
COSTS
2012 -
2013
107.10 110.40 107.10 INDEX
POINTS
QUARTERLY NSA,
CPPY=100
105

76250
76300
76350
76400
76450
76500
76550
76600
76650
76700
76750
2012 2013
N
o

o
f

E
m
p
l
o
y
e
d

P
e
r
s
o
n
Year
Employed Person
921.5
922
922.5
923
923.5
924
924.5
925
925.5
926
926.5
2012 2013
N
o
.

o
f

U
n
e
m
p
l
o
y
e
d

P
e
r
s
o
n
Year
Unemployed Person












(a)













(b)
106

0
10000000
20000000
30000000
40000000
50000000
60000000
70000000
80000000
2012 2013
N
o
.

o
f

j
o
b

V
a
c
a
n
c
i
e
s
Year
Job Vacancies












(c)
Figure 3.5: (a) The Trend of Employed Person in China in Year 2012 to 2013;
(b) The Trend of Unemployed Person in China in Year 2012 to 2013; (c) The trend of
J ob Vacancies in China in Year 2013 to 2013.

Based on studies reported by the National Bureau of Statistics of China shows
that the labor cost in China is decreased from 108.40 index points in the second quarter
of 2013 to 107.10 index points in the third quarter of 2013. The China Labor Costs
averaged from 108.9 index points increase to 110.4 index point in February 2012 and
decrease to 107.1 index points in August 2013.

107


Figure 3.6: The Labor Cost in China. Source: (Trading Economics, 2013).

The Figure 3.6 shows that the labor cost in China is decrease from J anuary 2012
with 110.4 index points until J uly 2012 with 109.1 index points. But, in October 2012
with 109.4 index points the labor cost is increasing and maintaining until J uly 2013 with
108.4 index points. Then, it fell until October 2013 in 107.1 index points.

From the Figure 3.5 (a) shows that the labor availability will help the propylene
plant to run effectively and efficiently since the number of employed person increasing
from year 2012 to 2013. In the Figure 3.5(b) are also shows that the unemployed person
is increasing but in the lower number. Eventhough the Chinas labor cost seems to fell,
the population of Chinas people increasing. Thus, all the job vacancies will be filled
time by time.







108

3.4.1.5 Suitable Utilities

The electricity supply in China is important in order to run a propylene plant. A huge
amount of electricity needed for a plant. The tariff for the electricity supply is needed in
order to construct a new chemical plant. In different country, they have different tariff of
electrical supply. In China, the tariff of electrical supply is 7.5 to 10.7 USD/kWh
(Wikipedia, 2013).

Besides that, the water supply is also important in order to run a chemical plant.
A lot of water supply needed for cooling system and general processes. The tariff for
water supply is also different in different country. The water supply tariff in China is
1.5RMB/m
3
or 0.20 USD/m
3
(Wikipedia, 2013). Since Tianjin is an industrial park, thus
the electrical and water supply for the propylene plant will be easier to get.

3.4.1.6 Environmental Effect and Effluent Disposal

Environmental effect is one of the most important things that must be considered to
construct a new chemical plant. The waste water treatment must be provided at the end
of the process in the propylene plant. China is one of the largest energy consumer and
carbon dioxide (CO
2
) emitting in the world. It is occur due to the high-speed economic
growth and rapid energy consumption. The CO
2
emission in China has reached 9 billion
tons with 28% of the world total CO
2
emissions.

For this project, the energy secure and environmental friendly propylene plant
needed in order to save environment. The renewable energy such as hydropower, solar
energy, biomass energy, wind power and many more can be used to avoid emission of
CO
2
to be increased. Besides that, those types of energy have a lot of advantages such as
cost efficient, environmental friendly and reliable. This is one of the efforts that can be
done to sustain the earths natural resources and to improve the users life (Bao and
Fang, 2013).
109

The waste water treatment process will be provided in order to run an
environmental friendly plant in China. The treatment water must meet the safe and
suitable standard before discharging to the sea, river or lakes. Besides that, the air
treatment process should be provided in the plant so that the all the solid particulate and
poison gases will be filtered before discharging the air.

3.4.1.7 Availability of Land

The land available for the propylene plant must be identified properly. The land
available must locate to all utilities and facilities so that the plant can run effectively and
efficiently. The availability of land in China especially in Tianjin is identified for this
project. The land needed for propylene plant in this project is 30 acre. The average price
for the land in China is RMB 520 or USD63 per square meter. Thus, the price of land for
30 acre is around USD7,650,000.

3.4.1.8 Climate

China is one of the countries that have four different seasons which is summer, spring,
autumn and winter. China has a different temperature and rainfall zones. During winter
time, the weather will become dry and cold whereas during summer, the weather will
become hot and rainy (China Weather, 2013). From J uly to August the temperature can
exceed 40C whereas in J anuary the temperature will be drop to -20C. The construction
and operation of the propylene plant has to consider all this season so that the plant can
operate effectively to produce high quality and quantity product.







110

3.4.1.9 Summary

The advantages and disadvantages of China as plant location for the production of
propylene are studied. Table 3.3shows that the advantages and disadvantages for
choosing China as our propylene plant.

Table 3.3: Advantages and Disadvantages for China Country.
Advantages Disadvantages
- Strategic place (near to East China
Sea and South China Sea)
- High demand on propylene
- Transportation is available
- Manpower is available
- The trend of labor cost is decreasing
- Utilities is available to be supply
- Environment and waste management
are considered
- Land is available
- Lack of propane supplier, mostly
import
- The price of electric and water
tariff are quite high
- High pollution in carbon dioxide
emission
- Four seasons
- Competitorsin propylene industry
is higher

Thus, the main reason in selecting the countryis byconsidering the availability of
propane supply as our raw material. It shows that, the propane supply is lack in China.
Also, we want to operate our industry that did not affected by the surrounding condition
such as pressure or temperature.The most affected seasons are summer and winter due to
hot and cold weather. Moreover, China has four seasons that could disturb our propylene
production, and lots of equipment that need to be considered in order to maintain the
temperature and pressure of the piping system of the plant. Besides that, China is the
worldwide in production of propylene and lot of propylene industry already exists,hence
will invite lots of competitors between them.Therefore, China is not suitable for our
propylene plant.


111

3.4.2 Canada

North America is one of the potential area that was selected to build our plant based on
several reasons. North Americans natural gas and crude oil production trends gave
significant impact on the propane supply. The odorized propane consumed in the U.S. is
produced from natural gas and crude oil produced in North America more than 80
percent (Autogas For America, 2013).

The important element in this selection process is due to high availability of raw
material of our process, propane in North America. Figure 3.7 shows the natural gas
basins in North America. They are 19.82 to 36.81 trillion cubic meter and is predicted
that it can supply for more than 100 years usage (Dunn, 2012). Therefore, the supply of
propane will not be a critical issue.

















Figure 3.7 : North American Natural Gas Basin. Source : (Dunn,2012)
112

The propane inventories especially in Midwest, Gulf Coast and Canada are very
high and have remained high through 2012(Goobie, 2012). Since the propane
production is abundant in North America, propane can be obtained at relatively cheap
compared to the rest of the world. According to Craig Blizzard, Vice President and
Industry Practice Director at Blizzard Consulting Group, Raw material costs represent a
larger percentage of selling price than they ever have because the price of propylene has
increase (Smock, 2013). These shows the importance of propanes price in
determining the price of propylene that will be produced.

Besides, the transportation of propane period, cost and payment can be reduced
as the supplier is nearby the possible site of our plant. Nowadays, the propylene is in
high demand but short supply. In addition, propylene plants are only a handful in North
America thus, it is an advantage to build on-purpose propylene dehydrogenation plant in
North America.

3.4.2.1 Location With Respect to Marketing Area

The scope of the location is narrowed to Canada as most of gas processing facilities in
operation is in Alberta, Canada. There are 475 of these plant that recover propane as a
constituent of an unfractionated mix which is trucked or moved by pipeline to
fractionation facilities. Eight straddle plants produced the largest volumes of propane
that reprocess gas volumes destined for export or for domestic consumption.

In Canadas land area, Alberta is the sixth largest and fourth largest in terms of
population. Its capital city is Edmunton and the largest city is Calgary. The major
industries in Alberta includes Agriculture, Petroleum Industries and Tourism (Canadas
provinces and territories, 2013). Choosing Alberta as the site location have the
advantages of low personal and business tax, high availability of manpower and also
varieties of transport facilities (Facts on Alberta, 2011).


113

3.4.2.2 Raw Material

The raw material of our process is propane and oxygen. As mentioned earlier, propane
can be obtained easily and is abundant in Canada. The propane production in Canada is
well developed and supplies excellently the domestic demand as well as the export
requirements. Figure 3.8 illustrates the high propane stocks in Canada at the year of
2009 to 2012.

Within Canada, there are not foreseeable delivery capacity issues that would
significantly adverse affect the supply or demand balance. Over the past five years,
there are average of 11.9 billion litres of propane supply in Canada with domestic
consumption of average 3.3 billion litres and exports of average 8.6 billion litres (Fuel
Price Stability, 2013).

Figure 3.8: Western Canadian Propane Stocks Are High. Source: (Goobie, 2012).

Even if domestic propane demand rises sharply, propane prices should continue
to prevail at level below that of gasoline (Fuel Price Stability, 2013). Between the years
of 2010 to 2012, the average price different between major market prices for gasoline
(New York Harbor gasoline price) and propane (Mt Belvieu propane price) has increase
114

by more than USD 0.76 per gallon (Michael Sloan, 2013). This rising positive outlook
for domestic propane supply is primarily because of the continuing development of shale
gas and unconventional oil resources.
The production of propane from natural gas has also accelerated due to the shift
in resource development activity from dry natural gas resources to wet gas and liquid
resources (2013 Propane Market Outlook, 2013). Table 3.4 shows the available supplier
of propane in Alberta.

Table 3.4 : Available Propane Supplier in Alberta. Source: (2013 Propane Market
Outlook, 2013).
Name of Supplier
5 Star Propane
Mutual Propane Ltd
Midwest Propane Inc


3.4.2.3 Transport Facilities

Transportation infrastructure in Alberta, Canada plays a critical role in the provinces
economy. This is also important for our plant as it is the best if the plant has easy access
to all transport medium for product transportation (domestic and international). The
highly efficient and competitive transportation and logistic system in Alberta has been
the strength of the province as a major exporter of primary commodities and
manufactures products to the global marketplace.Quick and efficient access to other
provinces in Canada and the southern US and Mexican market is available with direct
connections to two of North Americas largest highway trade corridors. They are
CANAMEX and the Trans-Canada Highway.

Throughout the province in Alberta, it has more than 30,800 km of provincial
highways that form an extensive network. More than 27,000 km are paved and 3,800
km are gravelled. Provincial highway network in Alberta connects Alberta to the North
115

American highway system and provincial highways in the province have good pavement
conditions. Alberta is improving its section of the Canada, America, Mexico
(CANAMEX) corridor, links the three countries and stretches about 60,000 km from
Anchorage, Alaska to Mexico City, Mexico.

There are two transcontinental railway company that serves Alberta. They are
Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR). Both of the company provide
highly efficient and competitive service in the movement of export commodities such as
petrochemicals, forest products, grain, coal, fertilixers and sulphur to major ports and
throughout the US and Mexico. A modern network of intermodal terminals is
strategically located at places such as Vancouver, Calgary, Saskatoon and many more
for movement of containered cargo to the united States and international markets.

There are 85 international, regional and paved community airports in Alberta.
Calgary International Airport (CIA) and Edmunton International Airport (EIA)
represents world class international airports providing Albera with some of the best
national and international connections in Canada. These airports provide 24-hour cargo
services, modern cargo terminals and US pre-clearance facilitties.

CIA serves as a hub for air traffic in the prairies as has the largest civil aviation
runway in Canada measuring 3,863 metres. It was Canadas fourth busiest airport by
passenger volume in 2010, handling 12.6 million passengers. Over the past five years,
CIAs passenger growth is 24% and it is the only Canadian airport located strategically
on the crossroads of the TransCanada (East-West) and CANAMEX (North-South)
Highways.

Meanwhile, the most northerly 24-hour international airport is the EIA. In 2010,
it is the fifth busiest airport in Canada with the movement of 6 million passengers.
EIAs passenger growth from 2005 to 2010 was 37% and it is the second largest airport
in Canada measured by landmass, comprising an area of over 7,000 acres. EIA is
116

strategically located and conveniently situated adjacent to the major highway linking
Edmunton and Calgary (Facts on Alberta, 2011).

In Canada, propane supply is dominated by Alberta gas plant production by
which it is moved by various transportation medium throughout the provinces and for
export to the United States. The natural gas processing industry in Alberta is well
developed infrastructure includes both field facilities and straddle plants (Goobie G. ,
2007). This is shown in Figure 3.9.

Figure 3.9 : Alberta NGL Facilities. Source: (Goobie, 2007).

117

On Alliance gas pipeline, natural gas liquids from British Columbia and
Northwest Alberta has been able to be transported. Typically, Alliance pipeline exports
about 16000 to 20000 barrels per day of propane with natural gas. The future
development of a straddle plant on the Alliance pipeline at fort Saskatchewan may
recover this volume in Canada.

3.4.2.4 Manpower Availability

An availability of manpower in Alberta was studied in order to know the capacity of
labour force in Alberta. From the research conducted, Alberta had the highest labour
force participation rate in 2010 among the provinces and it also had the highest
employment rate at 68.1%.

The unemployment rate in Alberta had declined as of September 2011 to 5.4%,
while its participation and emplyment rates had risen to 74.2% and 70.2% respectively.
The largest employment gains were manufacturing (up 23,600), professional, scientific
and technical services, other services and accomodation and food services. This is
illustrated as in Figure 3.10.

As shown in the Table 3.5, in 2011, Alberta has the general minimum wage rate
of USD 9.40, which is the third cheapest compared to other places. British Columbia
(BC) has the lowest wage rate (USD 8.75) and Ontario (ON) has the highest wage rate
(USD 10.25)

Around 63.7% of the Albertas labor force in 2010 aging from 25 years and older
was reported holding a university degree, post-secondary diploma or certificate. Table
3.5 shows the percentage which Alberta is slightly below the Canadian average of
65.6%.Wage and salary rates in Alberta are competitive with the rest of Canada. Alberta
and the rest of Canada provide a cost advantage because of publicly funded health care
relative to the US.

118

Table 3.5: General Minimum Wage Rate 2011. Source : (Facts on Alberta 2011)












Figure 3.10: Employment Rates in 2010. Source: (Facts on Alberta, 2011).



STATE USD
Calgary Alberta (AB) 9.40
Edmonton Alberta (AB) 9.40
Halifax Nova Scotia (NS) 965
Montreal Parti Quebec (PQ) 9.65
Ottawa Ontario (ON) 10.25
Regina Saskatchewan (SK) 9.50
Toronto Ontario (ON) 10.25
Vancouver British Columbia (BC) 8.75
119

Table 3.6: Educational Attainment of Labor Force (25 years and older), Annual Averages 2010. Source: (Facts on Alberta, 2011).
EducationalLevel NL
(%)
PE
(%)
NS
(%)
NB
(%)
PQ
(%)
ON
(%)
MB
(%)
SK
(%)
AB
(%)
BC
(%)
CA
(%)
0 8 Years 4.7 3.8 2.4 3.6 3.8 1.9 2.6 2.1 1.6 1.3 2.3

Some High School

8.8

9.7

8.6

8.7

8.2

5.9

9.6

9.2

8.0

6.4

7.1


High School Graduate

15.8

18.8

15.5

21.4

14.8

19.8

22.1

23.8

20.6

20.4

18.9

Some Post Secondary Education

5.0

6.8

6.6

6.4

4.9

5.5

7.6

7.0

6.2

8.6

6.0

Post Secondary Certificate Or
Diploma

48.6

37.3

40.8

39.2

42.4

35.3

33.3

37.3

38.5

34.1

37.6

University Degree

17.2

23.6

26.1

20.7

25.9

31.6

24.8

20.6

25.2

29.2

28.1

120

3.4.2.5 Utilities Availability

It it important to make sure that our plant is facilitate with electricity in order for the plant
to run smoothly. Based on the studies conducted on utilities in Canada, electric utilities
and industry in Canada generated 589 billion kilowatts hours in 2010. Canada is the the
country that produce hydroelectricity, which is the third largest in the world. For 59% of
the countrys electricity supply is accounted for hydroelectricity while the other sources
include coal, uranium, natural gas, petroleum and non-hydro renewable sources (About
Electricity, 2013). This is shown as in the Figure 3.11.


Figure 3.11 : Electricity Generation in Canada by Fuel Type, 2012.Source: (Canadas
Electricity Industry, 2013).

In Canada, the electricity sector is organized along provincial and territorial lines
as part of their jurisdiction over natural resources and all provinces and territories have
set up utilities boards and regulate transmission and distribution rates. The generation
business is competitive in Alberta while transmission and distribution are rate regulated.
The Canadian transmission networks are extend over 160,000 km and since most
population centers in Canada are concentrated in southern regions along the American
border, the grids generally follow north-south orientations.
121

The largest hydroelectic projects are usually located in scarcely inhabited areas to
the north (Electricity Sector in Canada , 2013). The largest share of electricity demand
accounted by the industrial sector fuelled by the presence of a number of energy-intensive
industrial activities. This is illustrated in Figure 3.12.


Figure 3.12 : Electricity Demand in Canada by Sector, 2011. Source: (Canada Electricity
Industry, 2013).

In Canada, the electricity is generated from a diversified mix of sources. The
primary energy is the electricity produced from renewable and nuclear sources as it is
captured directly from natural resources. The secondary energy is the electricity based on
fossil fuels as it is produced from primary energy commodities such as coal, natural gas
and oil (McKenna, 2012).

The consumers in Canada benefit from the lowest electricity prices in the
developed world and it is especially low in the povinces where the electricity sold to
consumers originates from hydroelectric dams. The prices of elecricity in Canada differ
due to several factors which is the most significant of them are the market structure and
122

the type of available generation. The important element of electricity pricing is the cost
of generating electricity that reflects the type of available generation.

It differs by province or territory depending on the sources used to produce
electricity. Currently, hydroelectric stations provide some of the lowest-cost electricity in
Canada (Electricity Sector in Canada , 2013). However, hydroelecticity is not very
efficient heat source though it is a wonderful and clean source of energy. In contrast,
natural gas is a great source of heat but an inefficient way to make electricity (McKenna,
2012). Figure 3.13 shows the electricity price trend from 1998 to 2012. Meanwhile,
Figure 3.14 shows Canada has the lowest electricity price compared to other selected
countries.

Figure 3.13: Average Residential Electricity Price in Canada, 1998-2012 (cents/kWh).
Source: (Canadas Electricity Industry, 2013).
123


Figure 3.14 : Selected World Residential Electricity Prices, 2010. Source:
(Canadas Electricity Industry, 2013).

In Canada, water supply and sanitation is nearly universal and generally of good
quality. Since the water tariffs are low, water use in Canada is high compared to Europe
and 44% of the users are not metered. Access to supply of water in Canada is nearly
universal. Nearly 75% of Canadians are services by municipal sewer system, concerning
sanitation and the the remaining 25% is served by septic disposal systems. The supply of
drinking water in Canada is continuouos and generally are excellent quality.

Residential consumers in Canada consumed 343 litres per person per day or
roughly twice as much as in other industrialized countries. The following sectors account
for the following shares of municipal water use according to the Environment Canada
(Water Supply and Sanitation in Canada, 2012).

The price of water for the Canadians differs significantly across the country. In
addition, the price of water is cheap in Canada and it has some of the lowest tariffs
among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries.
This is because of the water abundant in Canada.
124

This country has the greatest volume of water resources, both in total and
renewable terms. Canadas rivers discharged 7% (105,000 m
3
/s) of the worlds
renewable water supply on an annual basis. Most of Canadas people pay less than USD
0.20 per litre for water and wastewater services (Economic Instruments for Water
Management in Canada, 2011).

In the capital of Alberta, Edmonton, the Canadians pay USD 1.7469 for the first
10 m
3
, for 10 m
3
to 35 m
3
is USD 1.9084 and USD 2.4117 for 35m
3
and above (Water
Rate Comparison, 2013). Conclusionally, it is an advantage to built our plant in Canada
as we can enjoy the low tariff of electricity and water which can cut the cost of expenses.

3.4.2.6 Environmental And Safety

Ecosystem health can be affected by industrial waste discharges through direct and
indirect toxic insult, nutrient enrichment, and physical habitat alteration. These lead to
changes n ecosystem structure and function and overall aquatic biodiversity. Thus, it is
important to make sure our plants effluent is discharge according to the procedure as it
may give a threat to water quality with implication to human health and also aquatics
(Threat-Drinking Water, 2013).

By far, industries are the largest sources of hazardous wastes which is 8 million
tonnes. The leading provider of comprehensive waste management services is Waste
Management of Canada where they also provide advanced residential, commercial and
industrial collection, recycling and disposal services throughout Canada. In fact, they
also lead in the development and implementation of innovative programs and procedures
needed to ensure environmental protection. They had 116 operating locations in 9
provinces that serve for 4.5 million residential customers and 170,000 industrial and
commercial customers (Waste Management of Canada, 2013). Waste Management
Canada practices the concept of being proactive in protecting human health, natural
resources and the environment.

125

3.4.2.7 Local Community Considerations

It is very important for us to have the approval or acceptance of the community in the site
that we were planning to built our plant. This precautionary steps is taken to avoid the
problems that may arise in future with the local community that may affect and disturb
the performance of our plant. According to Kevin Ma, the county Mayor Don Rigney
strongly support Williams plan to built a propane dehydrogenation plant in Redwater,
Alberta as it can indirectly added more value to the development in Alberta and help
diversify albertas economy. The Mayor also optimistically predict that the plant would
go ahead and has estimated that this proposed project able to bring about 400
construction and 70 permanent jobs to the county (Ma, 2012).

3.4.2.8 Land Availability

In Alberta, a well serviced industrial real estate is offerred and it also meets variety of
needs. Municipalities that are smaller such as Lethbridge and Red Deer, have the
facilities and land with rates that are competitive with larger centres. For our plant, we
planned to locate it nearby the source of our raw material and also the site that has easy
access to transportation medium. Thus, in Table 3.7, shows the net rent in Canada on the
month of December 2010.











126

Table 3.7: Net Rent Per Square Foot (December 2010).Source: (Facts on Alberta, 2011).
Countries Warehouse
/ Distribution
Space
Bulk Space
(USD/psf)
Flex / Service
Space
(USD/psf)
Tech / R&D
Space
(USD/psf)
Canada 6.86 6.07 9.21 10.70
Calgary, AB 7.75 6.50 9.50 10.50
Edmonton, AB 6.80 6.15 8.15 8.40
Halifax, NS 7.00 5.50 8.95 13.95
Montreal, PQ 4.00 4.00 6.50 8.50
Ottawa, ON 7.25 6.25 8.25 11.00
Regina, SK 8.50 6.50 12.00 14.00
Toronto, ON 4.98 4.56 7.15 7.75
Vancouver, BC 6.50 5.75 8.50 9.25

Currently, there is one available land for sale in Redwater, Alberta starting from
16 October 2013 that has been advertised in LoopNet website. The particulars of the
lands are as shown in Table 3.8.

Table 3.8: Land Particulars
Name of Land Redwater Commercial Land
Address Highway 38, Redwater, AB T0A2W0, Canada
Price USD 3,248,802
Lot size 71.17 AC
Features Electricity, Water, Telephone, Cable, Gas/Propane

3.4.2.9 Climate

Canada is four seasons country. Therefore, it is very crucial for us to come up with a
plan to overcome the problems arise due to different condition of the seasons. As any
other four-season countries, the seasons includes spring, summer, fall and also winter.
127

By April, the weather in Canada is expected to start getting warmer alhough some areas
experience spring even sooner. The average spring temperature in Nova Scotia range
from 1C in late March to 17C by early J une.

In summer, the country is brought with heat especially in the central and mid-
western provinces that occurs between J une and August. Usually, the temperature in
summer range from 14to 28C and the hottest temperature recorded is 37.2C in Halifax
and 36.7C in Sydney. As for the season of fall, the temperature usually range between
5and 20C. In contrast, the temperature in winter fall to -20 to 5C (Climate of Canada,
2013).

3.4.2.10 Taxes

In Canada, Alberta have the lowest overall personal taxes that results from the low single
rate tax system. These includes the highest basic and spousal exemptions in the country,
no general sales tax, the lowest gasoline tax rate and no health care premium. Alberta also
have the lowest business taxes. This is because of the low corporate income tax rates, no
capital tax, no general sales tax, no payroll tax and the lowest gasoline tax among the
provinces. All these information are illustrated in Table 3.9.

Due to the low personal income tax in Alberta, people were allowed to spend or
invest more of their own money according to their wishes. In J uly 2006, the annual
indexing of the Alberta Family Employment Tax Credit has begun. As of J uly 2011, the
maximum benefits for one child is USD 702, USD 1,341 for two children, USD 1,724 for
three children and USD 1,852 for four or more children.

A net income of USD 67,805 in the previous calender year before paying
provincial income taxes. For business, Alberta has provide an attractive tax environment.
Low taxes on capital investment in Alberta is a key factor in encouraging business to
invest in new technologies and manchinery and indirectly increased the innovation and
boosting productivity. Besides, Alberta also has no provincial capital or payroll taxes.
128

Table 3.9 : Major Provincial Tax Rate in 2011. Source : (Facts on Alberta, 2011).
BC AB SK MB ON PQ NB NS PB NL
Corporate Income Tax
General Rate (%) 10.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 11.5 11.9 10.0 16.0 16.0 14.0
Mfg. & Proc. Rate (%) 10.0 10.0 10.0 12.0 10.0 11.9 10.0 16.0 16.0 5.0
Small Business
Rate (%) 2.5 3.0 4.5 0.0 4.5 8.0 5.0 4.5 1.0 4.0
Threshold (USD000) 500 500 500 400 500 500 500 400 500 500
Capital Tax
General (max %) - - - 0.05 - -
Financial Institutions (max %) - 3.25 3.00 0.25 3.00 4.00 5.00 4.00
Health Care Premiums
Individu/family (max) (USD) 60.50 - - - 300 100 - - - -
Employer Payroll Tax (max %) - - - 2.15 1.95 4.26 - - - 2.00
General States Tax (%) 12.0 - 5.0 7.0 13.0 8.5 13.0 15.0 10.0 13.0
Fuel Tax
Gasoline (USD/litre) 20.1 3.0 15.0 11.5 14.7 17.2 10.7 15.5 15.8 16.5
Tobacco Tax (USD/cln) 37.00 40.00 42.00 41.00 24.70 21.20 23.50 43.04 44.90 38.00
Hotel Room Tax (%) 8.0 4.0 - - 3.0 3.0 - - - -
129

3.4.2.11 Summary

The Table 3.10 shows the advantages and disadvantages for choosing Canada as our
propylene plant.

Table 3.10: Advantages and Disadvantages for Canada.
Advantages Disadvantages
- Strategic place which is near to USA.
- Since the high demand of propylene
in USA thus, can be the major export
of propylene
- Transportation is available.
- Manpower is available
- Utilities are available to be supply.
- Utilties is cheaper.
- Environment and waste management
are considered
- Land is available.
- The price of raw material is cheaper.
- The raw materialis easy to excess.
- The price of propylene is highest in
the world
- High labor cost.
- No suitable port that can be used
to export the propylene to the
other country.
- Four seasons

Thus, the main reason in selecting the country is by considering the availability of
propane supply as our raw material. It shows that, the propane supply is easy to excess
since North America is one of the largest suppliers of propane in the world. Moreover,
the raw material is also cheaper since easy to excess. Other than that, the price of
propylene which is our product is the highest in the world. Thus, the profit can be
obtained when the operating of the propyleneplant. Furthermore, Canada is also having
the strategic place since near to USA which is the sell the propylene in higher price and
the production of raw material is high.
130

However, the labor cost in Canada is much higher compared to China and UAE.
The labor cost is almost reaching USD 10 per hour. Besides, we want to operate our
industry that did not affected by the surrounding condition such as pressure or
temperature. The most affected seasons are summer and winter due to hot and cold
weather. Moreover, Canada has four seasons that could disturb our propylene
production, and lots of equipment that need to be considered in order to maintain the
temperature and pressure of the piping system of the plant. Besides that, there is no
suitable port that can be used to transport the propylene outside of Canada and USA.
Canada cannot export the propylene to worldwide. Hence, Canada is not suitable for our
propylene plant.





















131

3.4.3 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE)

Most of the propane dehydrogenation activity is focused in the Middle East
where the price of the propane extremely favorable compared to worldwide market
prices. From Figure 3.15, the Middle East region actually consists of countries like
Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, J ordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Northern Cyprus,
Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and
Yemen.


Figure 3.15: Middle East Map.Source: (Google Map, 2013).

Middle East is lacking in development of industries and less new investors
especially foreigners in propylene production. This is not because of political view or
geographic condition. It is believed that, the other foreign investor did not realize the
potential business in the Middle East in thefuture. Thus with these reasons, we choose
UAE to build our new Propane Dehydrogenation (PDH) plant.

According to Fada Al-Gergawi, CEO of Dubai Foreign Direct Investment (FDI),
the free zone will bridge the gap in global markets between Asia and Europe due to the
strategic location of the UAE. The currency for UAE is Dirham (Dh) or Arab Emirates
Dirham (AED). In the Figure 3.16, shows the Emirates of the UAE. Where, Emirates is
the city of UAE.



132



Figure 3.16: Map of United Arab Emirates. Source: (Google Map, 2013).

Table 3.11, shows the list of Free Trade Zone that available in each Emirates of
United Arab Emirates. Each of the Free Zone area has its own specific or preferable
activity that can be proposed there. Not all free zone area is suitable for our propylene
plant. Thus, we need to consider for each Free Zone by their allowed activities and place
that nearer to our main supplier, EMGAS.






133

Table 3.11: Free Trade Zone in United Arab Emirates
Emirates Area
(km
2
)
UAE
Free Zone
Activities Allowed Name of the Free Zone Available
Abu
Dhabi
67,340 Abu Dhabi
Free Zone

Selected and commercial activities and private sector
investment.
- Abu Dhabi Airport Free Zone
- Masdar City
- Abu Dhabi Ports Company
- Twofour54
Dubai 3,885 Dubai Free
Zone
Trade activities, processing, manufacturing,
packaging and assembly activities, storage.
- J ebel Ali Free Zone Authority
- Dubai Airport International
- Dubai Silicon Oasis
Sharjah 2,590 Sharjah
Free Zone
Trade activities, processing, manufacturing,
packaging and assembly activities, selected services.
- Sharjah Airport International Free Zone
- Hamriyah Free Zone
Rais Al-
Khaiman
(RAK)
1,684 RAK Free
Zone
Storage, manufacturing, packaging, processing and
assembly activities, consulting activities, services
activities, and trade activities.
- Rais Al Khaiman Free Zone
- Rais Al Khaiman Investment Authority
Fujairah 1,165 Fujairah
Free Zone
Commercial activity. - Fujairah Free Zone
Umm Al-
Quwain
(UAQ)
777 UAQ Free
Zone
Trading, management and consultancy. - Ahmed Bin Rashid
Ajman 259 Ajman Free
Zone
Trade activities, processing, manufacturing,
packaging and assembly activities, selected services.
- Ajman Free Zone
134

3.4.3.1 Location With Respect to Marketing Area

In 2012, based on United Arab Emirates Yearbook 2013 state that almost Dh 13 billion
(USD 3.5 billion) in the first nine months, including Dh 6.2 billion in imports, Dh 1
billion in exports and Dh 5.5 billion in re-exports. Thus, it means that UAEs Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) is increasing yearly. Table 3.12, shows the Gross Domestic
Product from 2005 until 2007.

Table 3.12: Gross Domestic Product by Emirate (In Millions of U.A.E Dirham).
(Source: www.ey.com/me).
Emirates 2005 2006 2007
Abu Dhabi 290,323 341,286 400,047
Dubai 150,622 193,236 226,612
Sharjah 47,736 60,422 68,383
Ajman 6,316 7,918 9,525
Umm Al-Quwain 2,159 2,544 3,103
Ras Al-Khaimah 9,777 11,895 13,555
Fujairah 6,156 7,322 8,507
Total 513,089 624,623 729,732

3.4.3.2 Raw Material
Our main supplier of propane is Emirates Gas L.L.C (EMGAS). It is located at Al
Qusais, the main distributor of our propane gas. The propane gas is available in gas
cylinder and also in bulk. The average price of propane is AED 5.68/kg. The higher the
enquiries of propane, the cheaper the price will get. Thus, 35,000 metric tonnes are
needed for propane gas as our feedstock. In case if EMGAS has a propane shortage or
lacking in high capacity needed, there are other gas suppliers that can replace EMGAS
such as Saudi Aramco, STAR Energy Oil-tanking (SEOT), Dubai Natural Gas Limited
(DUGAS) and many others.

135


Transportation cost will be minimized if the plant is nearer to the source.
EMGAS recommends selling their Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) by according to
cylinder weight tank. EMGAS is entirely owned subsidiary of Emirates National Oil Co.
(ENOC). ENOC is the leading gas supplier in the UAE.Table 3.13 above shows
recommended consumer sale prices by EMGAS sold their Liquefied Propane Gas (LPG)
in cylinders that start effectively on 10
th
February 2012.

Table 3.13: The Sale Prices for LPG in Cylinders Effective 10-2-2012(Source: Emirates
Gas, 2013).
Type of Cylinder (kg) Recommended Consumer Sale Prices
MYR AED USD
11 64.5 75 20.25
22 103.2 120 32.40
44 215 250 67.50

3.4.3.3 Transportation and Logistic Infrastrucutre

Table 3.14 shows the types of services that provided. In 2006, all of these three sub-
sectors, transport services accounted more profit. Transport services gain 64% of total
revenues which is USD 2,179 billion. Transport infrastructure and logistics services each
generate less profit which is USD 600 billion for each (ISC, 2007).








136

Table 3.14: The transport and logistics sector encompasses a wide range of activities
(Source: ISC, 2007).
Broadly, there are three types of services provided by this sector:
(1) Transport services, including air freight, express delivery services, airlines, marine
transport, and road and rail transport
(2) Transport infrastructure services, including airports, marine ports, highways and
railways
(3) Logistical services, including freight forwarders, freight brokers, and 3rd-party
logistics providers.

Based on the United Arab Emirates Yearbook 2013, the government has
increasingly focused on the expansion of the transport and logistics infrastructure due to
increases in air passenger numbers and cargo volumes. The capacity of public transport
is a priority with targets that set by both Abu Dhabi and Dubai is to reduce commuters,
rely more on private vehicles and increase the set of public transport.

In February 2012, the Department of Transport invited tenders for the
construction of a new Dh 2 billion highway between Dubai and Abu Dhabi. This means
of relieving pressure on the main E11 highway between the two emirates. E11 is the
longest road or highway in the United Arab Emirateswhere the distance is starting from
Al Silah, Abu Dhabi and ends in Ras Al Khaimah,Oman.

In December 012, UAE focused on building 4.2 km of road that connecting the
Sheikh Zayed Tunnel in downtown Abu Dhabi. The tunnel is the longest traffic tunnel in
the region in order to enable vehicles to travel from Sheikh Zayed Bridge to Mina Road
and the Corniche without unplanned traffic lights, helping to tackle traffic congestion
heading to the downtown core of the city.

137

The first phase of the project with the first shipment of wagons is arrived in
December 2012, which is forecast to be operational by the end of 2013. The first phase
stretches 264 km of railway connecting with oil and gas facilities at Shah and Habshan
to the port of Ruwais. The second phase of the project is the company launched tenders
in J uly 2012. The second phase stretches 628 km stretch of railway that connects the
firsts phase to Mussafah Port and Khalifa Port in Abu Dhabi and to J ebel Ali Port in
Dubai.

J ebel Ali Port is the heart of Dubai trade and logistics sector. J ebel Ali Port is
also the largest port in the Middle East. In addition, it is the largest situated between
Europe and the main Asia markets. One of infrastructure highlights of Abu Dhabi was
the official opening of Khalifa Port. Fujairah Port is the second-largest oil-bunkering
center in the world and located outside the Strait of Hormuz. The advantages of the port
that available in the UAE are nearer to each free zone region. Thus, it will consume less
money to spend on transportation. Meanwhile, our propylene product needs to sell in
liquid phase and in bulk packaging. These means need large wagons to distribute our
propylene such as ship more preferable (UAE Year Book, 2013).

3.4.3.4 Labor Availability

According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), foreigners cover 96 % of the
UAE workforce. The largest communities are coming from South Asia. The presence
communities are mostly from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.

In order to ensure the imbalance of UAE citizens in the private sector is
addressed with active Emiratisation efforts underway, the Government of UAE is work
harder. The UAE National Human Resource Development and Employment Authority
(Tanmia) are working hard to develop the skills and competitiveness of UAE citizens.
The broad aim of policy is to ensure that Emiratis entering the labor market are able to
compete more effectively with expatriate labor. Initiatives are designed to create a level
playing field through the targeted use of incentives and penalties.
138

Table 3.15 below shows the employment that mostly people in UAE search for.
In 2010, the highest employment is construction with 1.55 million and the lowest is
fishing 5.52 thousand. Thus, by referring to the figure we can see that in recent years the
total or the value of the employment sector is increase.

Table 3.15: Employment According to Sector. Source:(United Arab Emirates Statistical
Yearbook, 2013).




139

3.4.3.5 Utilities Availability

There are four authorities handle the production and distribution of water and electricity
in the UAE. The Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) are responsible
for the Abu Dhabi region. ADWEA also supplies other emirates through the operation of
power and water plants outside Abu Dhabi by exporting spare power to another with
provides over the national grid.

The Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) and Sharjah Electricity and
Water Authority (SEWA) supply their respective emirates. Federal Electricity and Water
Authority (FEWA) supply to Ras Al-Khaimah, Ajman, Umm Al-Qaiwain and Fujairah.
FEWA manage to supply by the addition of power supplied from Abu Dhabi which
consist of power plants at Qidfa in Fujairah (UAE Year Book, 2013).

3.4.3.6 Environmental and Waste Management

The UAE has rightly earned the status of being one of the regional leaders in the
Arabian Gulf. According to United Arab Emirates Yearbook 2013, UAE remains to
promote the protection of its natural resources through legislation, education and
engagement with international conservation bodies as well as through scientific research,
carried out by both public and private organizations. The Ministry of Environment and
Water was proposed a proposal to protect the environment of the terrestrial and marine
which is secured by the federal legislation.

3.4.3.7 Land Availability

Free Zones are specially designated areas within the UAE established to attract foreign
investment by encouraging companies to set up businesses, and locate their operations in
the UAE. Each Free Zone has its own administration and licensing authority responsible
for issuing Free Zone licenses and registering companies.

140


According to World Federation of Free Zones (FEMOZA) definitions of Free
Zone is an area of isolated land with special tax, civilization and imports authority that
usually relating a status of extraterritoriality. Based on International Law,
extraterritoriality is not liable to certain diplomatic agencies and persons that work in a
foreign country from the jurisdiction of the host country. The effects of extraterritoriality
extend to a group of people will transit from one state to another, individuals on mission
premises or property, and other agencies (HLMC, 2013).

The main objective of UAE in establishing the Free Zone are for served as a
central business hub for companies willing to conduct business in the worldwide, not
only in UAE itself. Table 3.16 shows the selection of the right Free Zone depends on the
type of activity the company wants to engage and the infrastructure required.

Table 3.16: The Selection of the Right Free Zone Depends. Source: (Dubai Knowledge
Village, 2013).
Activity Company Needs Infrastructure
- Trading
- Internet and Software Development
- Automotive
- Heavy Industry
- Broadcasting
- Publishing
- Healthcare
- Warehousing facilities
- Airport access
- Seaport access
- Road Network


The Free Zone area is suitable for industrial activities and near to the raw
material supplier. There are a lot of advantages and disadvantages of free zone areas.
The Table 3.17 below discussed the advantages and disadvantages of free zone:


141

Table 3.17: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Free Zone Areas. Source: (Set
Business, 2013).
Advantages Disadvantages
The ownership is 100% of the
company.
The operations with the main land
companies and the authorities are
not permitted.
No government influence. The
free zone authority is directly
engaging the customer.
The visas and other business
infrastructure are limited.
Local sponsor as Main Land
companies is not required.
A mandatory of audit requirement
in free zone setup on each year
financial year.
A shop facility for processing all
the important documentation such
as registration, licensing and
immigration.
The mainland premises cannot be
rent by the company.
No restriction on capital
repatriation and no foreign
exchange controls or barriers to
entry the free zone
The activities like banking and
insurance cannot be carried out by
the company.
The freight rates and
environmental regulation is
preferable.
The employment visas are limited.
The exemption of total tax and
duty.
The office cannot be rent in other
area as legally except rented in
free zone only.

The location must suitable for the construction and operations of a plant especially for
the production of propylene. Thus, in UAE the location that suitable for our propylene
plant is available in Free Zone areas.
142

3.4.3.8 Climate

UAE climates are between hot summers and warm winters. The hottest months are J uly
and August. The average maximum temperatures could reach more than45 C (113.0 F)
on the coastal plain.The coldest months are J anuary and February. The average
minimum temperatures could reach between 10 and 14 C (50 and 57.2 F).

The average annual rainfall in the coastal area is less than 120 mm (4.7 in), but in
some mountainous areas annual rainfall often reaches 350 mm (13.8 in). Rain in the
coastal region falls in short, heavy bursts and sometimes floods occur during the summer
months. The area is likely to become violent dust storms, which can make visibility sight
reducing.

The J ebel J ais mountain cluster in Ras al-Khaimah has experienced snow only
twice since records began. According to the RAK Government, the snow had been
reported on J ebel J ais was on 28 December 2004, which is the first snowfall in living
memory for Ras al-Khaimah residents and on the night of 24 J anuary 2009.

3.4.3.9 Taxes

Table 3.18 shows the incentives and limitations that need to consider for a foreign
investor when choosing a free zone area. In order to establish a new company in that
area, it is important to understand the free zone incentives and concerns. This will help
to make a decision based on the information about the region in starting a company.
Establish a company in a free zone region means that we have to work with proper
civilization needs and other caution structures. Thus, we can be excused from the laws
of the region, which is very welcoming or pleasure for new companies and
organizations.

143

Table 3.18: Settling in Free Zone Area Consideration. Source: (UAE Free Zone, 2013).
Settling in Free Zone Area
Incentives Limitations
100% Foreign company ownership
100% Repatriation of capital and profits
100% Corporate, Personal Income Tax exemptions
Exemption from all import and export duties
Abundant and inexpensive energy
Inexpensive workforce and easy recruitment procedures
'One-stop-shop' Administration services
On-site customers inspection
Companies at Free Zone can operate 24 hours a day
A Free Zone Company is not allowed to trade directly with
UAE market
The Free Zone Company can undertake the local business
only through the locally appointed distributors
Custom Duty 5% is applicable for the local business








144

3.4.3.10 Summary

Table 3.19: Advantages and Disadvantages for UAE Country.
Advantages Disadvantages
Foreign investor is welcomed to
build a plant
Utilities is available
Land is available
Labor is available
Port is nearer
Less competitors
Propane supplier is available and
cheap
Piping line that transport gas
also available
Demand for propylene is less in
UAE
Rent the land in order to get
privilege to own the land based
on the government rule.

Based on the Table 3.19, shows the benefits to choose UAE as our plant location. One of
the risk conditions is less propylene demand. There will be difficulties in selling our
propylene to UAE itself, even though there are several companies require propylene
such as textile industry. However, we can sell our propylene to US. This is because US
is the currently highest propylene demand. Moreover, there are ports that available in
UAE which can export our propylene to US and others country. For foreigner investor,
there are rules that should beobeyed in build a new industry or plant. In addition, UAE
very pleasure to welcome foreigner to invest in their country to increase their economics
to the worldwide. Also, by this, it will help UAE government to reduce the percentage of
unemployed local community. Furthermore, one of the rule is the land is onlyavailable
to rent especially for foreigner investor. Thus, if the foreigner really wants to own the
land for themselves, they need to gain trust from the UAE government based on their
loyalty to the country that should be above 20 years.


145

3.4.4 Comparison of Selected Countries

Weightage is done to show that the grading of all criteria for the site location selection. Three selected sites is studied and tabulated as
shown in Table 3.20, which is China, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Canada.
Table 3.20: Summarize All Criteria that been Considered for the Selected Countries.
Country China UAE Canada
Location With Respect to Marketing Area Tianjin Free Zone Area Alberta
Raw material Not accessible Accessible Accessible
Seaport Facilities Accessible Accessible Not accessible
Piping System Not Accessible Accessible Accessible
Labor Price (USD/day) 8.00 1.67-3.33 9.40
Utilities :
- Water (USD/ kWh)
- Electric (USD/m3)

7.50 to 10.70

0.07 to 0.55

0.12
0.20 0.08 0.20
Environmental Consideration Yes Yes Yes
Land Price (USD/ acre) 231,775 10,800 98,449
Weather 4 seasons 2 seasons
(hot summer and mild winter)
4 seasons
Taxes Fees - Tax is exempted Tax is available
146


3.4.5 Finalized Selected Countries


Rank
1 Worst
2 Moderate
3 Excellent


Table 3.21: Weightage for Finalized Selected of these Three Countries.
Country Total China UAE Canada
Location With Respect to Marketing Area 3 2 3 3
Raw material 3 1 3 3
Seaport Facilities 3 3 3 1
Piping System 3 1 3 2
Labor Price (USD/day) 3 2 3 1
Utilities :
- Water (USD/ kWh)
- Electric (USD/m
3
)

3

1

3

2
3 1 3 1
Environmental Consideration 3 3 3 3
Land Price (USD/ acre) 3 1 3 2
Weather 3 1 2 1
Total 30 16 29 19



147

Based on the Table 3.21, show that UAE get the highest marks compare to that with
China and Canada. UAE has a lot advantages and benefits with the criteria that have
been considered in the Table 3.21 for comparison to the other two countries. The strong
reason in choosing UAE is our raw material is cheap and also accessible to transport.
The piping system in UAE is good and the governments itself want to improve their
transportation mainly via pipeline. Moreover, in exporting our propylene product to
other country is preferable by using seaport. This is because most of thepropylene is sold
by bulk or large volume in tank that applicable transporting via ship.

In addition, the labor price is lower than in China and Canada. This is because,
UAE pay their worker according to their skilled and experienced. Where, it is fair for
both side between the company and the worker. If the worker is pay higherwith no
experienced and worsen the job, the company willnot gain any benefits on that and their
reputations will become lower in industrial sight. Besides, weather in UAE is more
preferable due to easy to maintain the operating temperature and pressure in operates the
industry since only summer and winter thatconsidered in UAE.Winter in UAE is rarely
falls and just certain area will experience snow such as J ebel J ais Mountain. Hence, if
winter is happening without any awareness, thus we will shut down for temporary period
and operates is back until the winter is settle down.
148

3.5 PROPOSED SITE LOCATION

United Arab Emirates is chosen as our country in building the plant. Thus, we still need
to specify the site location in UAE. There will be three location area in UAE that we
studied before finalized our proposed site location. All the detail information about the
site selection is explained in the next subtopic based on criteria as previous subtopic.

3.5.1 Target Raw Material Supplier

Emirates Gas L.L.C. or EMGAS is chosen as the major supplier for our raw material in
the production of 250,000 metric tonne of propylene. The propane and oxygen as the
main raw material for this production will be stored and distributed to the plant. The
propane distributed by the EMGAS is available in gas cylinder and bulk. The average
price of propane sell in UAE is AED 5.68/kg (Emirates Gas, 2013). Moreover, the
oxygen is selling globally in AED 0.40/kg (RNAS, 2013).

EMGAS is located at the main distribution centre of the raw material which is Al
Qusais Industrial Area. The Figure 3.17 (a), (b), (c) shows that the route to Emirates Gas
L.L.C. in Al Qusais Industrial Area. EMGAS is chosen as the main supplier for our
production of propylene in UAE since they are provides all the feedstock for the
propylene production. For our project, 35,000 metric tonne of propane is required as the
feedstock to produce propylene. When the enquiries of propane as the raw material
increased, the price from the supplier will be cheaper.
149



















(a)
EMGAS
150




















(b)
EMGAS
151



















(c)
Figure 3.17(a),(b),(c): The route to EMGAS in Al Qusais Industrial Area.Source: (Emirates Gas, 2013 and Google Maps, 2013).
EMGAS
152

However, we have to prepare if they are faced the shortage of raw material for
the process. The plant has to find the other additional supplier that available in UAE in
order to fulfil the feedstock amount. There are solutions in case if EMGAS has propane
shortage or lacking in high volume. Some of the supplier that provides all the raw
material for the propylene production in UAE is found and the nearest supplier is
recommended.

The suitable site locations that can be considered are Sharjah Airport
International Free Zone, J ebel Ali Free Zone Authority, Ajman Free Zone, Hamriyah
Free Zone and Rais Al Khaiman. The Table 3.22 shows that the distance and time of the
supplier and the recommended plant location.

Table 3.22: The Distance and Time of the Supplier to the Recommended Plant Location.
Plant Location Distance, km Time, min
Sharjah Airport International
Free Zone
16.8 19
Jebel Ali Free Zone Authority 11.2 16
Ajman Free Zone 20.8 26
Hamriyah Free Zone 27.5 34
Rais Al Khaiman 75 52

Based on Table 3.18, the three locations have been determined and studied in
order to find the suitable location for propylene plant. The three locations that have been
chosen are Sharjah Airport International Free Zone (SAIFZA), J ebel Ali Free Zone
Authority (J AFZA) and Ajman Free Zone (AFZA) since three of them are the nearest
153

with our target supplier. There are some factors that have to be considered for the site
selection which are land price, tax, transportation, utilities and facilities, labor
availability, incentives and environmental factors.

3.5.2 Sharjah Airport International Free Zone (SAIF)

SAIF is one of the free zone areas in UAE. They are running the trade activities,
processing manufacturing, packaging, assembly activities and selected services. Besides
that, SAIF is a free zone that easily accessible to seaports on the Gulf of Oman (Port
Khor Fakkan) and the Arabian Gulf (Port Khalid). In addition, SAIF-Zone is built
adjacent to the Sharjah International Airport. With these unique features, it is little
wonder that, SAIF-Zone has registered phenomenal growth. An extremely attractive
incentives offered by SAIF-Zone to its patrons. Furthermore, SAIF is also
geographically well and strategic positioned with outstanding land, sea and air links to
the rest of the world. SAIF-Zone can be a dream comes true for the businessman. A lot
of modern premises equipped with the latest facilities and a secure environment to
ensure that the maximum returns for the investor.

3.5.2.1 Land Price

The land area of SAIF that used for industry is 2,590 km
2
. Over 4,200 companies
operate in that area. For the minimum lot size of the land is 2,500 m
2
with the price USD
13.61-27.23/m
2
. Thus, the land price per acre in SAIF Zone is USD 108,920/ acre by
taking the max price of the land. Figure 3.18 shows that the Sharjah Airport Free Zone
Authority area for industrial activities.

154


Figure 3.18: The Sharjah Airport Free Zone Authority.

3.5.2.2 License

In SAIF Zone, more than 451 companies are attracted to have the industrial activities in
UAE. Over 1,359 of companies involved in different types of service while nearly 3,043
are involved in trading. Besides that, SAIF Zone are also provides the aviation and
manufacturing activities by the companies. Around 292 of companies involved in
aviation whereas for the industrial activities, around 451 companies involved. The Table
3.23below shows that the number of companies involved in SAIF Zone:

Table 3.23: The Number of Companies That Available SAIF Zone.
Licences Number of Companies Involved
Services 1,359
Trade 3,043
Aviation 292
Industrial 451

155

3.5.2.3 Transportation

For the transportation aspects, SAIF Zone is providing the very conducive facilities. All
the companies can used all the facilities provided in order to import and export their
products and raw materials. SAIF Zone provides no restrictions for importing and
exporting of goods as long as the activities are done accordance with the license. There
are no duties are imposed on goods imported and exported within the Free Zone.

Other than that, when goods are sold locally in the UAE market, the applicable
custom duty will be payable. In addition, SAIF Zone is also providing a shuttle bus
services. The shuttle bus is provided five times a day at nominal charges from the Zone
to the city centre. Besides that, they are also providing the other facilities such as
seaport and airport for the use of businesses and for UAE people. The Table 3.24 shows
that the information of the SAIF Zones seaport and airport.

















156

Table 3.24: The Seaport and Airport Description in SAIF Zone. Source: (SAIF,2013).
Seaport Airport
Manage Sharjah Port Khalid, Hamriyah
Port ad Khor Fakkan Port.
Becoming the UAEs aviation hubs and
enable the emirates aerospace sector to
become a part of UAEs economy.
Leading the trade gateway to the UAE
and able the handle all kinds of ships
and cargoes.
Have five air cargo buildings that cover
32,000 square meters.
The total berth from the three port are
33 berths and able to handle:
In excess 10 million tons of bulk
and general cargo,
Over 6,500 vessels in a year.
Over 2.5 million TEUs of
containerised cargo.
Air Arabia in Sharjah becomes the first
low cost carrier in the Middle East.

3.5.2.4 Utilities Availability

The company are charged to the investor for the leased plots of land and for factories,
warehouses and standard office units and paid as per consumption. Nevertheless, for
electricity, water and air conditioning, the investors renting executive offices will not
pay as these charges are included in the annual office rent. Table 3.25 shows that the
electricity and water supplier and the rates.



157

Table 3.25: The Rates of Electricity and Water Supplier.
Electricity Water
Provided by Sharjah Electricity
and Water Authority (SEWA).
Provided by Sharjah Electricity
and Water Authority (SEWA).
USD 0.06 per kWA USD 0.01 per a gallon

3.5.2.5 Environment Considerations

The liquid waste from the industrial area can be disposed of through soak away wells
and septic tanks. But, for special industries, the pre-treatment unit may be required in
order to protect the environment. The capacity of the tanker to suck up the liquid waste
is up to a capacity of 5000 gallons. There are the parameter that to have consider in
order to find the level of the pollutant air and water. The Table 3.26 shows that the
permissible limit for air and water pollutants.

Table 3.26: The Permissible Limit for Air and Water Pollutants.
Parameter Maximum Allowed
Concentration(ppm)
Nitrogen Dioxide 1
Sulfur Dioxide 2
Hydrogen Sulfide 5
Ammonia 5
Total suspended particulate(ug/m
3
) 260


158

For the heavy industry, the construction of chimney in the plant should be at a
height of 2.5 to 3 meters above the roof of the neighbouring. Besides that, the workers
have to wear the proper personal protective equipment such as head cover, overalls,
gloves, boots, masks, coverall and many more. In addition, SAIF Zone has been
constructing their strategy for waste management such as:

a. The elimination and disposal of all waste from the industry area must be done
safely and stored in special and proper places.
b. All the waste should be classified before going through the disposing process
(e.g., iron, wood, cartons).
c. For the control of transfer of waste outside UAE, the Basil Convention should be
followed.

The Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) standards has already implemented
in SAIF Zone as the safety measures against environment pollutants such as air, noise,
water pollutions and many more.

3.5.2.6 Propylene Demand

Propylene can be used as the feedstock for the production of polypropylene,
acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, epichlorohydrin and isopropanol. Generally, most of the
propylene is used for the production of polypropylene. But in Sharjah, propylene is
generally used for the production of acrylonitrile. There are a lot of companies used the
propylene as their feedstock for their production.

From this information shows that the demand of propylene is high since it have
many usages. According to GPCA (2012), the demand of propylene for the production
of poly propylene is 1.1 million tonnes per year. In addition, propylene is sold globally
with the price AED 4,921.82 per metric tonne (Platts, 2013). The Table 3.27 below
shows that the list of company needs the propylene as their feedstock in Sharjah area.

159

Table 3.27: The List of Company Requests the Propylene as Their Feedstock in Sharjah
Area. Source: (Yellow Pages, 2013).
Chemicals No. of Companies
Polypropylene 5
Acrylonitrile 30
Propylene oxide 5
Epichlorohydrin 5
Isopropanol 8
Total 53



















160

3.5.3 Jebel Ali Free Zone Authority (JAFZA)

J ebel Ali Zone Authority (J AFZA) is also one of the best free zone in UAE. J AFZA is
one of the major business communities in the UAE region. Over 7,100 companies run in
creating, manufacturing, trading, processing, packaging, storage, serving local and
global markets. For every business, J AFZA supports the advancement in its community
and facilitates the connections of the company with others in the industry. Besides that,
they are also concentrating in investment and time on the infrastructure required to
support the individual parts.

3.5.3.1 Land Price

The total area of J AFZA for industrial activities is 47 km
2
. The land cost for industrial
activities in the J AFZA in USD per annum is around USD 5.45 21.78 per m
2
. Thus,
the maximum price of the land in J AFZA is USD 87,120 per acre. The Figure 3.19below
shows that the J AFZA area for industrial activities.


Figure 3.19: The J AFZA Area for Industrial Activities. Source: (Google Maps, 2013).


161

The J AFZA is located in the J ebel Ali, UAE which is the free zone area. Thus,
the reasonable price for the land in that free zone area is needed. The land price and
facilitythat available in J AFZA in AED currency as shown in Table 3.28.

Table 3.28: The Price of Land and Facility in J AFZA.
Facility Size (m
2
) Cost (AED per m
2
)
Land 5,000 20-80
Pre-Built Factory and
Warehouse
313-556 120,00-220,000
Office 50 1,800-2,200

For lease the plot of land with several of sizes are available at J AFZA. The entire
site is suitable for the company if they want built their own facility, warehouse or
factory requirement for at least 2,500 m
2
. The Table 3.29 below shows that the
description about the land.

Table 3.29: The Description about the Land in J AFZA. Source: (Chase Morgan UAE,
2013).
Area of Plot 2,500 m
2

Rental Rate USD 5.45-21.78 per m
2
, depends on the location
Public Health
Levy (PHL)
Service
2 % of annual rental and maximum of USD 2,725 per year
Industrial
Effluent
Disposal
USD 6,812 for the first connection
USD 1.4 per 1,000 imperial gallons, for discharge lines


162

3.5.3.2 License
There are license fee that need to pay when any investor to build a plant in J ebel Ali.
Therefore, table 3.30 and 3.31 below shows the license that available in J AFZA.

Table 3.30: The Licenses Types and Cost.
Type of Licenses Cost (AED)
FZE Registration Fee 10,000
FZCO Registration Fee 15,000
Branch Registration Fee 5,000

Table 3.31: The License Type and Cost.Source: (PKF, 2013).
Type of license Cost in AED per annum
Industrial 5,500
Trading 5,500-12,500
Service 5,500
National Industrial 5,500
General Trading 30,000

3.5.3.3 Transportation

J ebel Ali Port is the sixth world largest seaport. Since J AFZA is situated between J ebel
Ali Port and the Al Maktoum International Airport, J AFZA is the only free zone in the
world to be located between the two major logistic and become one of the best seaport in
the world.

163

J AZFA is facilitating with a six lane highway for the transportation of goods
from sea to air in just 20 minutes. J AFZA is a strategic location to enable its partners
and customers got the fastest possible access to a market of over 2 billion people in
South and West Asia, the CIS and Africa.

3.5.3.4 Utilities Availability

The usage fee for land sites and light industrial units is depends on the tenants own
expenses.In the annual rent for office units, multi-story office buildings- electricity,
water and air-conditioning is paid directly to J AFZA. All the water and electricity
consumption are billed directly to the tenant. The Table 3.32 shows that the tariff for the
water and electricity in J AZFA.

Table 3.32: Tariff of Water and Electricity in J AZFA. Source: (Chase Morgan, 2013).

The water tariff in J AZFA is including the connection charges. The features of
the utilities provided in J AZFA are very important to be considered since the company
wants to construct the new organization. The Table 3.29 shows that the features that
J AZFA have for their customers.

Table 3.33: Features that J AZFA have for Their Customers(Chase Morgan, 2013).
Utilities Apply directly to DEWA for connection.
Location According to type of industry as per zoning
Payment
Terms
Annually in advance.
The rental amount depends on installments paid.
General
Services
Tenant must be installing and paid the telephone, fax and internet bill.
J AFZA will coordinate directly with the relevant department for other
services like security, fire and costumes.

Electricity (USD/100kWh) Water (USD/1000 gallons)
5.4 8.2
164

3.5.3.5 Propylene Demand

In J AFZA, propylene is also being used as the feedstock for the production of
isopropanol respectively. The usage of propylene for the production of polypropylene as
feedstock is 1.1 million tonnes per year (GPCA, 2012). Propylene is still sold globally
with the price AED 4,921.82 per metric tonne (Platts, 2013). Thus, in J AFZA, the
propylene is also sold in the same rate as global price. The Table 3.33 below shows that
the list of company needs the propylene as their feedstock in J ebel Ali area.

Table 3.34: The List of Company Needs The Propylene as Their Feedstock in J ebel Ali
Area. Source: (Yellow Pages, 2013).
Chemicals No. of Companies
Isopropanol 9
Total 9




165

3.5.4 Ajman Free Zone (AFZA)

Ajman is strategically located at the entrance of the Arabian Gulf. Besides that, Ajman is
also a good placed to serve the Western and Eastern markets. Ajman got the easy
accessibility to the two international airports and four seaports since Ajmans proximity
to Sharjah and Dubai.

In Ajman, they have Ajman Free Zone (AFZA) which is one of the cost effective
free zones in UAE that suitable for start-up businesses for traders. AFZA is running the
trading activities, processing, manufacturing, packaging, assembly activities and
selected services. According to Ajman Free Zone Authority, over 6,000 companies
ranging from multinationals, start-up companies and South Middle East companies and
over 1,000 offices have already opened their business in AFZA (AFZA, 2013).

3.5.4.1 Land

The average area of Ajman Free Zone Authority is 260km
2
. For the land plots of
minimum size 2000 m
2
are offered by AFZA. The term of the lease is annual. In the
Ajman Port Free Zone is located all the plots. The annual rent for the rent is USD
5.48/m
2
. For the land price in acre is USD 21,800/acre (AFZA, 2013). The Figure 3.20
shows that the area of AFZA in the Ajman.

166

Figure 3.20: The Area of AFZA in the Ajman.


3.5.4.2 License

The license that shows in that available in Ajman, UAE is suitable for any kind of
business, profession and industry. Table 3.35, shows the type of license that available
with each cost.

Table 3.35: Type of License Fees that Available in Ajman Free Zone. Source:
(http://www.freezonesuae.com/images/flayer.pdf)
Type of License Fees Cost (USD)
Normal Trading 817
Trading Two Activity 1,090
Three Activity or Services 1,362
General Trading and Industrial 1,907


167

3.5.4.3 Transportation

The proper transportation facilities is one of the most factor that have to be considered to
start the business in the free zone. The common transportation that is usually used in the
industry in the free zone area is through air, sea and also road. The Table 3.36 below
shows that the distance of AFZA and its facilities.

Table 3.36: The Distance* and Facilities in AFZA.
Air Sea Road
Within 25 minutes from
AFZA to Dubai
International Airport and
Sharjah Airport.
Within 35 minutes from
AFZA to Ajman Port,
Sharjah, Khor Fakkan Port
and Khalid Port.
Extremely efficient
international road network
connections from AFZA
to Oman, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia, Bahrain, Iran,
Kuwait and Europe.
*The distance is determined via Google Map, 2013.

3.5.4.4 Utilities

The free zone company must try to approach the AFZA for electricity with the
requirements. AFZA and Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA) will help the
client in acquired amounts for their industrial usage of water and electricity. One-time
fees charges for electricity installation, but, bills are paid according to actual
consumption on an on-going basis. Table 3.37 shows that the fees amount of water and
electricity. Table 3.38 and Table 3.39 shows that the tariff of water and electricity in
AFZA.





168

Table 3.37: The fees amount of water and electricity. Source:(Chase Morgan, 2013).
Utility Fees (USD) Type of Payment Details
Water 0.41 Per gallon Determination of
cost of power.
Electricity 0.05 Per kilo units Dependent on
consumption.


Table 3.38: The Tariff of Electricity in AFZA.
Industry Electricity
Range Price (AED)
Commercial 1-2,000 0.2
2,001-4,000 0.24
4,001-6,000 0.28
6,001 above 0.33
Industrial - 0.40

Table 3.39: The Tariff of Water in AFZA.
Industry Water
Range Price, AED
Industrial and
Commercial
1-10,000 0.030
10,001-20,000 0.035
20,000 above 0.040




169

3.5.4.5 Propylene Demand

Propylene is being used for the production of poly propylene is 1.1 million tonnes per
year, according to GPCA (2012). In AFZA, propylene is being used as the feedstock for
the production of polypropylene, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide and epichlorohydrin.

The price of propylene is AED 4,921.82 per metric tonne (Platts, 2013).
Generally, most of the propylene is used for the production of polypropylene. However,
in Ajman most of propylene is used as the feedstock for the production of acrylonitrile.

There are 10 companies used propylene as their feedstock. It shows that the
demand of propylene is still needed in Ajman. The Table 3.40 below shows that the list
of company needs the propylene as their feedstock in Ajman area.

Table 3.40: The list of company needs the propylene as their feedstock in Ajman
area.Source: (Yellow Pages, 2013).
Chemicals No. of Companies
Polypropylene 1
Acrylonitrile 7
Propylene oxide 1
Epichlorohydrin 1
Total 10






170

3.5.4.6 Labor Cost

The wage structure for employees that work at the free zone in AFZA is prepared. For a
senior supervisor, they will receive a basic salary including housing allowance between
USD 872-1600 whereas for salary with including medical benefits are USD 440-656
respectively with the current currency of money is AED 1 is equal to USD 0.27. Besides
that, they will have 48 hours working time, six day working week would receive up to
42 days annual paid leave and would not be paid for overtime.

In addition, they would receive a basic salary of between USD 216-432 with 30
days annual paid leave for skilled employees. They are also working six days a week.
Nevertheless, the housing allowance and overtime payment is depends on the AFZA.
The salary is approximate and negotiable with AFZA.

With the approval of AFZA, the individual companies do have room to alter the
salary and benefits structure for their employees as per this own needs and
capabilities. Table 3.41 shows that the salary ranges and benefits structure for 8 levels of
employees: managers; senior super visor; foremen; secretarial staff; clerical and skilled;
semi-skilled; and unskilled workers.

171

Table 3.41: The Salary Ranges and Benefits Structure For 8 Levels of Employees: Managers; Senior Super Visor; Foremen; Secretarial
Staff; Clerical; Skilled; Semi-Skilled; and Unskilled Workers. Source:(Chasemorgan, 2013).
Job Manager Senior
Supervisor
Foremen Secretarial Clerical Skilled Semi-
Skilled
Unskilled
Monthly
Salary
USD
(AED)
1280-2160
(4,703 -7936)
872-1600
(3,204- 5,878 )
392-650
(1452-2,407)
544-760
(1999- 2729)
280-392
(1407-1440 )
216-432
(794-1587)
128-216
(470-794)
104 175
(388-647)
Monthly
Housing
Allowance
USD
(AED)
656-1120
(2,410 -4,115)
440-656
(1617-2,410)
Accommodation Up The Discretion Of The Employer
172

3.5.5 Comparison of Site Location

Thus, after studied the three site location in free zone authorities, Table 3.42 shows the summary for all three countries for finalized the
location on the next subtopic.

Table 3.42: The Summary for the Site Location.
City Free Zone Authorities
Ajman Sharjah Jebel Ali
Area (Sq Km) 260 400 47
Land Price Per Acre (USD/Year) 21,800 108,920 87,120
Demand of Propylene (Companies) 10 53 9
Price of Propylene (USD/Tonne) 4,921.82 4,921.82 4,921.82
Supplier (km) 20 15 11
Transportation (km)
Airport o Dubai International Airport
o Sharjah Airport
o Sharjah International
Airport
o Al Maktoum
International Airport
Seaport o Ajman Port
o Sharjah Port Khorfakkan
o Port of Khalid
o Dubai Port Rashid
o Sharjah Port Khalid
o Port Khor Fakkan
o Port Hamriyah.

o J ebel Ali Port
173

Utilities
Electricity (USD) 0.11/kWA 0.06/kWA 0.05/kWh
Water (USD per Gallon) 0.01 0.01 0.0082
Average Labor Skilled per Hour
(USD/h)
1.69 - -
Nearby Facilities Availability o Oil and Gas Stations:
EPPCO Station
Emirates Gas Petrol Station
Emarat Gas Filling Station
o Medical Centre:
City Medical Centre
Kuwaiti Hospital
o Safety:
Al Madina Police Station
Civil Defence Ajman HQ 997
o Public Transport:
Itihad Street Ajman
Sheikh Rashid Bin Humaid
Street Sharjah
Musalla Station
o Oil and Gas Stations:
Shalco Plant
Emarat Compressor
Station
Emarat Gas Station
o Medical Centre:
Medical city
o Safety:
Sharjah Ploice Academy
o Public Transport:
Al-Ittihad Terminal
Al-J ubail Terminal
Al-Taawun Terminal
Al-Sharq Terminal
Sharjah International
o Oil and Gas Stations:
STAR Energy
Oiltanking
ENOC Processing
Company LLC
Dubai Natural Gas
Company Limited
(DUGAS)
Emirates Gas
Limited
o Medical Centre:
Medhealth Clinic
Medhealth Medical
Centre

174

Al-Bustan Station
o Other(s):
Ajman Power Station &
Desalination Plant
Kempinski Hotel
Residential
Airport Terminal
o Other(s):
NITCO International
Falah Farms
Residential

o Safety:
Fire Station J AFZA
North
o Transportation:
J ebel Ali Depot
Metro Rail
o Other(s):
Residential
175

3.5.6 Finalized Site Location


Rank
1 Worst
2 Moderate
3 Excellent

Table 3.43 shows that the mark for specific three locations in UAE and the highest mark
which show the suitable location according to the consideration on the listed criteria.

Table 3.43: The Finalized of Free Zones in UAE.

City

Total
Free Zone Authority
Ajman Sharjah Jebel Ali
Area (sq km) 3 2 3 1
Land price (USD/year) 3 3 1 2
Distance from Supplier (km) 3 1 2 3
Propylene Demand Price 3 2 3 1
Transportation (km)
o Airport
o Seaport

3 3 2 2
3 3 2 1
Utilities
o Electricity
o Water (per gallon)

3 1 2 3
3 2 2 3
Nearby Facilities Availability
o Oil and Gas Station
o Medical Centre
o Safety
o Public Transport

3 1 1 3
3 3 2 3
3 3 2 2
3 3 3 1
Total 36 27 25 25


176

Based on the Table 3.43, it shows that the difference forhighest and lowest mark is only
2. The mark obtained from Ajmanis 27 which are the highest and for the other two
countries.Sharjah and J ebel Ali is the lowest which is 25. This is because the land price
in Ajman is cheaper. Besides that, the transportation in Ajman is more preferable to
export our propylene product. In addition to the standard free zone incentives, AFZA
also promises (Chase Morganuae, 2013):

1. No registration fee for any free zone entity set up in the AFZA
2. Cheap energy
3. The most economical wage structure and easy access to a vast work force
4. Total exemption from all import and export duties
5. Total elimination of all service charges and hidden fees
6. Exceptionally low handling charges
7. 20 year land contract is renewable for another 20 year guaranteeing 40 years tax
and customs exception
8. Low lease price
9. World class infrastructure
10. Lowest tariffs in the region

177

3.6 CONCLUSION

The conclusion for the site that will be selected based on several factors discussed above
such as location, geography, infrastructure, utilities, marketing, labor availability and
facilities. After comparingthe three countries,the interested country of our propylene
plant for this project is UAE. Thus, it leads us to specify more detail on the location that
available in the chosen country, we decided to choose Ajman Free Zone Authority
(AFZA) in United Arab Emirate. Since the total mark for Ajman and UAE is the highest,
as shown in weightage table based on Table 3.43 and Table 3.21 respectively. Hence,
the reasons are as follows:

i. Propane is accessible in UAE and the price is cheaper.
ii. UAE rarely experienced the winter weather but only certain area like J ebel Rais.
iii. Foreigner investor is welcomed to open business in UAE.
iv. Tax is exempted in UAE.
v. The location of AFZA Zone is very strategic in which it comprises of excellent
transportation amenities.
vi. Lots of manpower supply from various sources especially residential areathat can
produce competent workers.
vii. The cost of land price is cheaper.
viii. The location of Ajman is closed to seaports and airport.
ix. Attractive incentives offered by the Government of Ajman.

Therefore, the conclusion can be made for the site selection. Ajman, UAE is the
most suitable location in operating for industrial activities.There are alot of factors that
affect the AFZA business which are the strategically situated and have the complete
facilities for their clients. Even thoughthe climate in UAE is summer and winter, the
propylene plant can operate without considering operatingtemperature climate such as
winter and spring. This is one of the factors that will affect the production of propylene,
but still we can cover the problem since the winter is not in long term and only twice
record winter that occur in J ebel J ais, UAE.
178

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Williams approves PDH plant construction in Alberta. (2013). i-Hydrocarbon
Processing.




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CHAPTER 4



SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATION



4.1 Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment And Risk Control

4.1.1 Objectives

This chapter will discuss about plant safety and environmental consideration for
production of propylene. The main purposes for these studies are to prevent the major
accident from occur in the chemical plant and to ensure the safety of the employee or
employer and public community such as visitor or customer around the plant area. This
study is very important part since it is related to the human life. In chemical plant, there
have high percentage of major accident happened such as explosion, leakage,
malfunction of equipment that can cause accident, and fires. This is because the
chemical plants consist of many hazardous components such as volatile chemical,
corrosive chemical and toxic chemical that easily can cause accident whether major or
minor accident if not manage properly.

From the previous study was proved that the effective solutions in order to
decreasing the accident occurs in chemical plant by reducing or prevent any possibility
causes that can initiate any accident. In order to make sure the safety in the chemical
plant, any hazard inside the plant need to identify and find the solution to control that
hazard to prevent any accident occur. All of the hazard need to continuously control.

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4.1.2 Hazard identification

In industry, especially chemical plant, every hazard needed to identify in order to
prevent any dangerous things or incident happened such as explosion, fire or any
accident that can involve worker, employer and public life. Hazard identification is
important procedure that needs to be done in our plant since we are producing propylene
that using propane as raw material where both of the material is flammable material. If
any mistakes occur in this plant, it can cause a big explosion happen. That is the reason
why this hazard identification needed in this plant as a precaution to prevent major
accident occur. Therefore, we come up with the hazard analysis for our plant.
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Table 4.1: Hazard identification, risk assessment, and risk control for major equipment in process plant


NO
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION RISK ASSESSMENT RISK CONTROL

Equipment

Hazard
identified

Potential
Accident

Types of
Injury

Likelihood
(1-5)
(refer Table1)

Severity
(1-5)
(refer Table2)
Risk
rating
(Likelihood
x severity)
SeeTable3
Suggested Control Person in
charge
1 Reformer
(R-101)
-Leaking
-Cracking
Explosion Fatal 4 4 16 - Regular
inspection
Mechanical
team
2 Oxy-Reactor
(R-102)
-Leaking

Explosion Fatal 4 4 16 - Use high rate of
material of piping
inside the oxy-
reactor
Designer
team
-Cracking Explosion Fatal 4 4 16 - Use high rate of
material of reactor.
3 Heat
exchanger
(EA-201/EA-
202)
Mechanical
Failure/ Fail
to control
temperature
Fire and
damage to
heat
exchanger

Injured 3 3 9 -Regular
maintenance
- Boardman in DCS
is well train

Operator
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4
Furnace
(H-101)
Cracking Explosion Injured 3 3 9 -Regular
maintenance
-Control the
temperature and
pressure efficiently
Mechanical
team
Miss
handling
Explosion Fatal 4 4 16 - Give proper
training to the
person in charge.
Operator
5 Distillation
column (D-
301/302/303)
Reboiler
malfunction
Fire Injured 3 3 9 -Regular
maintenance
Boiler man

Overpressure Fire Injured 3 3 9 - Control the heat
supply into the
reboiler properly
Leaking Fire Fatal 4 4 16 - Use high rate of
material for
distillation column
Designer
team
6 Cooler
(C-201)
Mechanical
failure/ not
be able
control the
temperature
Explosion Injured 2 1 2 -Regular
maintenance
Operator
7 Pump
(P-301)
Mechanical
failure/ high
pressure
Explosion Injured 2 2 4 -Regular
maintenance
Operator
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No
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION RISK ASSESSMENT RISK CONTROL
Hazard
identified
Potential
Accident
Which can
cause/
effect
Likelihood
(1-5)
(seeTable1)
Severity
(1-5)
(seeTable2)
Risk rating
(Likelihood
x severity)
See Table 3
Suggested Control Person in
charge
1 Slippery
floor
Fall Injured 3 2 6 - Make sure the floor is always
dry and put a precaution sign.
Cleaner
2




Piping
Leakage Explode 4 4 16 - Use alternative pipeline path Mechanical
team
Blockage Pipe burst 4 4 16 - Install sensory alarm system
that stimulate emergency
response valve
Mechanical
team
Ruptured

Explode 3 4 12 - Use strong material that can
withstand high loads.
Mechanical
team
3 Welding
inside
process area
Spark
/flames
Fire 3 3 9 - Avoid source of ignition and
provide alarm system that
stimulate emergency response.
Mechanical
team
Table 4.2: HIRARC for potential incident inside plant
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4 Electric
circuit
Short
circuit
Electric
shock
3 4 12 - Install insulator in each of the
wiring system.
- Manage wiring system
properly.
Electrical
designer team
5 Chemical
material
(Product)
Spillage Injured 4 3 12 - Securely seal material.
- Install alarm control system in
the storage tank.
- Properly storage.
Chemical
engineer/ Safety
and health
officer
6 Pressure at
process
equipment
Explosion Fatal 4 4 16 - Install alarm system in the
equipment and pipeline system.
Control team
7 Stairs Fall Injured 3 2 6 - Provide proper Personal
protective equipment, PPE
Safety officer
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Table 4.3: Likelihood for any occurrence
Likelihood Example Rating
Most likely The most likely result of the hazard 5
Possible Has a good chance of occurring sometime in
future
4
Conceivable Might be occur sometime in future 3
Remote Has not been known to occur in many years 2
Inconceivable Impossible to occur 1

Table 4.4: Severity of Hazard
Severity Example Rating
Catastrophic Numerous fatalities, irrecoverable property
damage and productivity
5
Fatal Approximately one single fatality major
property damage if hazard is realized
4
Serious Non fatal injury, permanent disability 3
Minor Disabling but not permanent injury 2
Negligible Minor abrasion, first aid injury, cut 1




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Table 4.5: Risk Assessment
Risk Description Action
15-25 High High risks need immediate action to control the
hazard. Action taken must be including in risk
assessment form with the date of completion.
5-14 Medium Medium risks need a plan approach to
controlling the hazard and if requires do
temporary action that can control the hazard. All
action must be including in the risk assessment
form with the date of completion.
1-4 Low Low risks can be considered as acceptable and
further reduction may not necessary but if the
hazard can be control quickly and efficiency,
control measure need to be implement and
recorded

All hazard need to be identify in order to prevent any incident or accident occur
in the plant. In this plant, by using HAZOP methodology from Lihou (2013), every
potential hazard in the plant could be identified. From Figure 4.1, there are seven (7)
steps of HAZOP procedures. First step that need to do is select any section that have
potential of occurrence of hazard. Then, prepare guide word that suitable for that
section. After preparing guide word, identify any causes that causing the hazard. Next
step is associate consequences from the selected section and make a risk ranking for all
section. After that, prepare action that need to do for that section in order to prevent any
accident occur in the plant.
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Figure 4.1: HAZOP procedure(Source: Lihou, 2013)
Lastly, any action taken to prevent the occurrence of hazard will be monitor
continuously. The last step is very important in order to maintain the safety in the plant.
The Table 4.6 shows the example of HAZOP worksheet.
Table 4.6: Example of HAZOP worksheet (Source: Enggcyclopedia, 2012)
HAZOP WORKSHEET
Area
Unit
Node
Drawing
Design
Intent

No Guideword deviation causes consequences safeguards recommendation Action
by

189



In this plant, we are using guide word below to descript the characteristic of the selected
section for HAZOP analysis. Table 4.6 shows the guide word used in HAZOP analysis.

Table 4.7: Guide word used in HAZOP analysis (Lihou, 2013)
Guide word Meaning
NO The design intent does not occur (eg: Flow/No) or the
operational aspect is not achievable (eg: Isolate/No)
LESS A quantitative decrease in the design intent occur (eg:
Pressure/Less)
MORE A quantitative increase in the design intent occur (eg:
Temperature/More)
REVERSE The opposite of the design intent occur. (eg: Flow/Reverse)
ALSO The design intent is completely fulfilled, but in addition some
other related activity occurs.
OTHER The activity occurs but not in the way intended.
FLUCTUATION The design intention is achieved only part of the time. (eg: an
air lock in a pipeline might result in Flow/Fluctuation)
EARLY Usually used when studying sequential operations, this would
indicate that a step is started at the wrong time or done out the
sequence.
LATE As for early






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4.2 Potential incident hazard

4.2.1 Potential incident major hazard

This plant is a plant that producing propylene as the main product in liquid form but
there still has by product from this process in gas form such as methane, ethane,
ethylene, hydrogen, and propane that produce from the third distillation column. Table
4.8 shows that the characteristic and major hazard from chemical component. All of this
by product has their characteristics that can cause incident in this plant. From Table 4.8,
it is shows that all of the by-product from the plant is flammable gas where it can easily
cause fire and explosion incident. From this entire characteristic of the chemical used
and produced, the hazard identification is very important in this plant in order to reduce
the hazard.

Table 4.8: Characteristic and major hazard from chemical component (Airliquide, 2013)
Chemical Characteristic Major hazard Action taken
Methane - Flammable gas
- Flammability limit in
air: 5-15 vol%
- No odour
- Fire and high
pressure
- Toxicity:
Simple
asphyxiant.
-Provide adequate natural or
explosion-proof ventilation
to prevent accumulation of
gas concentrations above
1.0% Methane (20% of
LEL).
- Do not enter areas where
Methane concentration is
greater than 1.0% (20% of
the LEL).
-Always wearing PPE during
handling this chemical.

Ethane - Flammable gas
- Flammability limit in
air: 3-16 vol%
- No odour
- Fire
- Toxicity:
Simple
asphyxiant.
- Keep away from heat,
sparks and flame.
- Do not puncture or
incinerate container.
- Use only with adequate
ventilation.
- Keep container closed.
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Ethylene - Flammable gas
- Flammability limit in
air (STP condition):
2.7-34 vol%
- No odour
- Fire and high
pressure
- Toxicity:
Simple
asphyxiant.
- Keep away from heat,
sparks and flame.
- Do not puncture or
incinerate container.
- Use only with adequate
ventilation.
- Keep container closed.
Hydrogen - Flammable gas
- Flammability limit in
air (STP condition): 4-
75 vol%
- No odour
- Fire and high
pressure
- Toxicity:
Simple
asphyxiant.
- Do not puncture or
incinerate container.
- Use only with adequate
ventilation.
Propane - Flammable gas
- Flammability limit in
air: 2.2-9.5 vol%
- Odour: Faintly
disagreeable
- Fire
- Toxicity:
2500 ppm
- Keep away from
heat/sparks/open flames/hot
surfaces.
-No smoking
- Do not breathe
fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
-Wash thoroughly after
handling.
- Do not eat, drink or smoke
when using this product.
- Leaking gas fire: Do not
extinguish, unless leak can
be stopped safely. Eliminate
all ignition sources if safe to
do so.
- Protect from sunlight. Store
in a well-ventilated place.

Propylene - Flammable gas
- Flammability limit in
air: 2-11 vol%
- Odour: Faintly sweet
- Fire
- Toxicity:
Simple
asphyxiant.
- Keep away from heat,
sparks and flame.
- Do not puncture or
incinerate container.
-Use only with adequate
ventilation.
-Keep container closed.



192



4.2.2 Potential health effect and first aid measure

4.2.2.1 Raw material

Every chemical has potential health effect to human. In our plant, we are using propane
and oxygen as raw material in order to produce the propylene. Table 4.9 and Table 4.10
show the potential health effect and its first aid measure for raw material in our plant.

Table 4.9: Potential health effect and first aid measure for propane
Propane





Hazard
identification





Potential
health effect
Skin corrosion property: Direct contact with the skin
may cause the skin freeze burn and skin become
inflamed and painful.
Eye critical damage: Direct contact with the liquid or
cold vapor may cause frostbite, freeze burns and
permanent eye damage.
Ingestion: Contact with mucous membrane may cause
frostbite freeze burn.
Inhalation: Inhalation at high concentration may cause
central nervous system depression such as dizziness.






First aid
measure

Skin
- Remove contaminated clothing. If frostbite, need
immediate medical treatment.



Eye
- Hold eyelids open to allow liquid to evaporate.
Cover eye from contact with the light. Need
immediate medical treatment.


Ingestion
- Risk for ingestion is low but if oral exposure occurs
need immediate treatment.
Inhalation - Remove person to fresh air. If person is not
193



breathing, provide artificial respiration. If necessary,
provide additional oxygen once breathing is restored if
trained to do so. Seek medical attention immediately.

Oxygen






Hazard
identification






Potential
health effect
Skin: May cause skin irritation. Contact with rapidly
expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite. Contact
with cryogenic liquid can cause frostbite and
cryogenic burns.
Eye: May cause eye irritation. Contact with rapidly
expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite. Contact
with cryogenic liquid can cause frostbite and
cryogenic burns.
Ingestion: Ingestion is not a normal route of exposure
for gases. Contact with cryogenic liquid can cause
frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Inhalation: Respiratory system irritation after
overexposure to high oxygen concentrations.



First aid
measure
Skin - None expected.


Eye
- Check for and remove any contact lenses.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at
least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and
lower eyelids. Get medical attention immediately.

Ingestion
- Move exposed person to fresh air. If not breathing,
if breathing is irregular or if respiratory arrest occurs,
Table 4.10: Potential health effect and first aid measure for oxygen (AIRGAS INC.,
2013; CORPORATION, 2012)

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4.2.2.2 Product

Table 4.11 shows that the potential health effect of our product which is propylene to
human and its first aid measure if there have emergency situation occur during handling
with the chemical.

Table 4.11: Potential health effect and first aid measure for propylene (AIRGAS INC,
2013)
Propylene


Hazard
identification


Potential
health effect
Skin: Direct contact with the gas may cause the
frostbite/ burn.
Eye: Direct contact with the gas may cause the
frostbite/ burn.
Ingestion: Ingestion is not a normal route of exposure
for gases.
Inhalation: Acts as a simple asphyxiant.


provide artificial respiration or oxygen by trained
personnel.
Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or
waistband. Get medical attention immediately.


Inhalation
- Move exposed person to fresh air. If not breathing,
if breathing is irregular or if respiratory arrest occurs,
provide artificial respiration or oxygen by trained
personnel.
Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or
waistband. Get medical attention immediately.
195










First aid
measure



Skin
- In case of contact, immediately flush skin with
plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing
contaminated clothing and shoes. To avoid the risk of
static discharges and gas ignition, soak contaminated
clothing thoroughly with water before removing it.
Wash clothing before reuse. Clean shoes thoroughly
before reuse. Get medical attention immediately.


Eye
- Check for and remove any contact lenses.
Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at
least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and
lower eyelids. Get medical attention immediately.

Ingestion
- As this product is a gas, refer to the inhalation
section.


Inhalation
- Move exposed person to fresh air. If not breathing, if
breathing is irregular or if respiratory arrest occurs,
provide artificial respiration or oxygen by trained
personnel.
Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or
waistband. Get medical attention immediately.









196



4.2.3 Summary of previous accident

Case 1:
Explosion at Louisiana Chemical Plant, 13 June 2013

This explosion happened on 13
th
J une 2013 that located in Ascension Paris Town
Geismar, Louisiana as shown in Figure 4.2. The company involved is Williams
Olefins plant that producing annual capacity of 1.3 billion pounds of ethylene
and 90 million pounds of propylene. Both chemical are flammable. This
company is a company that using extreme high heat and high pressure to extract
oil and natural gas where they are using steam cracker process. This is third
times the incident happened in this company which are the other incident
happened in 2009 and 2012 (CAULFIELD, 2013).


Figure 4.2: Explosion in William Olefins plant, 2013 (CAULFIELD, 2013)





197



Causes of explosion

In early report state that the reason of explosion in 2013 reported was leakage occurring
at piping system but on 14
th
J uly 2013 the federal investigator with US chemical safety
board state that the reason of this explosion is the heat exchanger was failed was in an
area of the facility known as the propylene fractionation. Then, the latest information
from the federal and state authorities state that it is due to ruptured stand by boiler that
releases a vapor cloud into the air and the vapor cloud then ignited by unknown source.
After that, the incident happened in 2012 was cause due to the improper procedures
during handling the furnace while for incident occur in 2009 is because mechanical
failure in a cracking furnace (Fitts Zehl, 2013).

Action taken by the company

Since there have three times incident occur in this company, the director of the company
state that they will adding more precaution and prevention procedure to make sure that
this incident will not occur anymore.

Case 2:
Fire at PRAXAIR ST.Louis, 2005

This fire at PRAXAIR St.Louis happened in 2005. The St. Louis Praxair Distribution
site fills and distributes liquefied and compressed gas cylinders, rents welding
machinery, and sells welding supplies. At the St. Louis facility, Praxair has about 30,000
compressed gas cylinders containing oxygen, nitrogen, propane, propylene, acetylene,
carbon dioxide, helium, and other specialty gases onsite. The facility employs about 70
and is located in a commercial and residential area near Lafayette Square (CSB GOV,
2013).
198




Figure 4.3: Fire at PRAXAIR St. Louis, 2005(CSB GOV, 2013)

Cause of fire

From CSB investigation report stated that the reason of this fire incident occur because
of propylene cylinder that contain propylene liquid was exposed to the heat of sunlight
on that day where the temperature is 36C. When exposed to the high temperature,
propylene cylinder can spontaneously vent through their relief devices, in turn releasing
propylene, which when ignited, can heat surrounding cylinders and cause them to vent,
creating a domino effect that spreads the fire. Similar cases with this incident; Air
Liquide, Phoenix, Arizona J une 1997; Airgas, Tulsa, Oklahoma August 2003; and
Praxair, Fresno, California J uly 2005.

Actions was taken

Provide general guidelines for storing cylinders outdoors:
- Ensure the pressure relief valve is in direct communication with the vapor space;
- Use a well-ventilated area away from oxidizers, open flames, sparks, etc.;
- Post No-Smoking signs;
- Post hazard class or name of gases on containers;
- Group by hazard class;
199



- Protect from objects that will damage the metal surface such as not near elevators,
walkways, platform edges, or below heavy moving objects that may fall;
- Protect from tampering;
- Avoid prolonged exposure to a damp environment (graded surface prevents water
accumulation); and
- Do not obstruct exit routes.

Case 3:
Formosa plastics propylene explosion, 2005


Figure 4.4: Formosa plastics propylene explosion, 2005
Source: (Free encylopedia, 2013)

Formosa plastics propylene that located in United States is a plant that used Olefins II
unit process in their plant to produce variety of petroleum and plastics product. The
explosion happened on October 6, 2005. They used 17 operating unit including furnace,
distillation column, heat exchanger and separator. All entire units were controlled by
pressure relief valves in order to prevent overpressure problem. Pressure relief valves
will send gases into a flare system where the excess gases are burned at a distance from
the Unit. These valves usually control automatically but on the explosion day the valve
was controlled manually (Free encylopedia, 2013).



200



Cause of explosion

On October 6, 2005, the pressure valve was manually operated and could not be reached
by workers in time to prevent the explosions. On that day, a trailer was pulled by a
forklift that caught on a valve in the propylene piping system near the Olefins II Unit,
pulling the valve and part of the piping loose, leaving a 1.9 inch (3.5 cm) hole.
Pressurized liquid propylene poured out of the opening, partially vaporizing, leaving a
pool of liquid propylene and creating a flammable vapor cloud. The forklift driver and
other nearby contractors saw the cloud and immediately evacuated the area. A plant
operator heard the escaping propylene and the expanding vapor cloud.

He notified the plant's control room of the problem. The control room operators
saw the leak on a closed circuit television and began to shut down the plant. However,
valves that would have prevented further release of chemicals had to be shut off
manually. Operators in the vicinity of the leak attempted to reach manual shutoff valves
but were driven back by the vapor cloud. As a result, the explosions continued and the
fires grew.

From the investigation, it was also determined that the piping was not properly
protected from potential impact as stated in regulations for such facilities. Then, the
columns that supported the pressure relief valves and emergency vent piping had no
fireproofing at all.

Actions was taken

The Formosa Plastics was recommended to revise policies for their hazard analysis to
have a better evaluation of vehicle impact hazards, fireproofing and prevention or
minimization of hazardous material releases. Then, the company also was recommended
to have fire resistant clothing for workers in any units at the Point Comfort complex that
had a risk of flash fires.

201



4.3 Control and preventive measure

4.3.1 Basic preventative and protective measure

a. Chemical storage tank
Chemical storage is very important since the amount of product that will be produce per
day is huge amount. In this plant, we are suggested that propylene as a main product
will be stored liquid propylene at the condition below its boiling point (-47C) at
underground. Tank and pipes are made from stainless steel with suitable insulation. All
of the storage tank will be located in a buffer zone in order to avoid any fire hazard or
accident occurs.

b. Sign and label

Label and sign inside this plant is very important. This is because without proper label
for the equipment, the tendency of hazard occurs is high. Every area and equipment
inside this plant will be labeled. This is to make sure that to avoid any mistake happened
during handling any operation inside this plant. In this plant, the labeling are include;

1. Labeling for area
2. Labeling for equipment
3. Labeling for instrument
4. Labeling for transportation
5. Labeling for chemical
6. Labeling for safety behavior





202



c. Transportation

Transportation is a process to transfer the product or equipment inside the plant. The
person in charge in handling this transportation process must know all the safety
behavior that can avoid hazard. In order to achieve this objective, the person involved
will send to the training program before can handling this process.

d. Leaking

Leaking is a biggest hazard in industries. Most of the propylene plant is exploded
causing from the leaking occur at pipe system or any equipment in the plant. For prevent
any hazard happened, suitable material for the equipment design is very important.
Here, we are suggested that every equipment in this plant will be monitoring
continuously and do the maintenance for every month. During maintenance process, all
related equipment such as storage tank will kept at a condition of low pressure. For the
product, during transfer process of the product to the storage tank, proper procedure is
needed in order to make sure that leaks, spills or overfilling not happened. This method
is important since the characteristic of propylene is low flammability limit

4.3.2 Fire detector and fire alarm

Fire alarm is a device that can detect the occurrence of fire inside the plant by
monitoring the environmental changing due to combustion. When it detected the
occurrence of fire, it will automatically produce a noise like siren. In this plant, we are
suggesting that the devices of the fire detector are using combination detector such as
thermocouple flame detector, ionisation flame detector, heat detection and optical sensor
flame detector. This is because some of the fire is invisible where it cannot be detected
by using common fire detector.


203



The reason we are choosing the combination detector because this type of fire
detector it can give quick response if there have fire occur. Thermocouple flame detector
is a device that monitoring the presence of the fire through the combustion heating
system. This device will cut off the supply of fuel if flame fails (Wikipedia, 2013) while
for ionization flame detector will detect the small particle of a wide range and it is very
sensitive to the hot fast burning.

Then, for heat detection, it is devices that respond when there have sudden rise
of the temperature in the surrounding and lastly for optical sensor we are choosing
ultraviolet and infrared sensor to detect the fire. This is because by using ultraviolet it
can detect within wavelength around 300nm while for every single frequency of infrared
sensor can detect within 3.3 micrometer in range where with this advantages it can
reduce the occurrence of false alarm inside the plant (Wikipedia, 2013). If the detectors
detect the presence of the fire, the plant will set as automatically shut down.

4.3.3 Personal protective equipment, PPE

Personal protective equipment is basic safety equipment for individual inside the plant.
Then, this PPE also is to fulfill the requirement safety standard of regulation at working
place. PPE are including safety helmet, protective clothing, goggles and other safety
equipment where all of this equipment is to protect the individual worker from any
potential hazard. This PPE will be provided to all workers and MUST wear all this
safety equipment during inside the plant especially during handling the operation such
as maintenance. In this plant, all of the people that enter the plant will be required to
wear PPE including the visitor, employer, employee or public. By using this PPE, the
potential hazard can be controlled.





204



4.3.4 Material safety data sheet, MSDS and health

Material safety data sheet or its short name MSDS is a safety data related to the all
chemical used in the plant. MSDS including the information of chemical, characteristic
of the chemical, potential hazard, safety procedure during handling the chemical, effect
to environment and health, emergency response, etc. In this chemical plant, all chemical
involve such as propane, propylene, methane, ethane, ethylene, oxygen and hydrogen
will be prepared in order to give all the data related to the chemical to the person in
charge in the plant. MSDS act as reference tool to the worker and individual involved.

Other than that, the MSDS of chemical product (propylene) will be given to the
customers who buy the product from the plant. This is to make sure that the customers
know all of the information related to the product If something happened, the people
who deal with that chemical will know what they should do in that situation. This
MSDS is very important especially for the safety purpose. This is also the reason why
the appropriate labeling procedure of the chemical is important to avoid any mistake
happened.

4.3.5 Emergency evacuation

This is the procedure that needed to follow when occurrence of fire inside the plant
during working hours;
a. When the siren is sound, all people inside the plant must not panic during that
situation.
b. All people need to clear the plant by using safety exit in the plant and stay at low
position to avoid inhalation of smoke; the usage of lift is not allowed.
c. Then, all people will meet in designated area.
d. All people will be advice to not leave the assign area until they are told to leave.



205



4.3.6 Maintenance of equipment

Equipment and any tool that involve in the process need to maintain at good condition.
Any safety aids for the equipment must function all the times. Equipment that not
through the maintenance need to taken out from the process. This is to make sure that all
equipment used is at good working order and automatically avoid the hazard from occur.
Then, the maintenance schedule must be up to date and equipment accessories also need
to be at good condition since it also part of the equipment.

4.3.7 Firefighting

Since we are proposed to set up the chemical plant where most of the chemical material
used and produce is flammable and volatile component, we need to prepare the
firefighting system in our plant for safety of the plant. Other than that, in this plant the
process used in order to produce the propylene is operate at high temperature and the
possibility of the fire hazard occur is high if the process not being control carefully.

Firefighting equipment is use to extinguish the fire inside the plant or building
where this firefighting equipment are including fire extinguisher, couplings, hose, hose
reels, monitors, nozzles, PPV fans & blowers and trailers (Marcus Media Ltd, 2013).
This entire item is very important that must have in our plant as safety proposes in order
to extinguish the fire before that fire become bigger and give damage to all the property
in the plant.

This firefighting equipment will be locate inside the plant at strategic location
where it easy to reach if there have suddenly emergency occur in the plant.





206



4.4 OSH LEGISLATION AND REGULATION

In UAE, the scope of occupational safety and health is major aspects that need to adhere
by any company during the operation. This regulation consist of the protection of the
employee, duties of the employee, safe working condition, safety policy and
management, occupational H&S risk and precaution, occupational health aspect,
warning sign, occupational safety aspect, installation equipment aspect and etc. Most of
the content inside this regulation is to care the safety and health of the worker whether
on site or off site during working hour.

4.4.1 Health and Safety legislation and regulation in UAE

All of the health and safety legal that applied in the UAE is derived from this
law(Rebecca Kelly, 2013);
I. Labour Law [Federal Law No. (8) of 1980 as amended];
II. Ministerial Decision No. (32) of 1982 concerning preventive methods to protect
employees;
III. Ministerial Decision No. (37/2) of 1982 concerning standards of medical care
provided for Employees;
IV. Ministerial Decision No. (4/1) of 1981 concerning hazardous works;
V. Ministerial Decision No. (27/1) of 1981 concerning remote areas and locations.

All of this legislation must not be ignored. All the industrial must follow the
requirement from this legislation.







207



I. Labour Law [Federal Law No. (8) of 1980 as amended]

- This law consists of 12 chapters where the regulation related to the safety and health of
the worker state in chapter five which are in the title of SAFETY, PROTECTION, AND
THEIR HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE OF THE EMPLOYEES. In this chapter there
have 11 articles starting from article 91 until article 101. The entire articles are about
safety of the worker during duties which are the worker need to wear safety equipment
and prevent any fire occur and about medical care of the worker inside the plant.

II. Ministerial Decision No. (32) of 1982 concerning preventive methods to
protect employees

- This ministerial is about to protect the worker from the potential hazards that might be
occur in the plant. All of the worker must know any potential hazard and given training
on how to handle emergency situation. Conditions mentioned in Article (16) of the
Ministerial Decision 32 of 1982 on the prevention of preventive methods and measures
for the protection of labor from the risk of work to be fulfilled and acknowledged
(Environment, Health & Safety division, 2010).

III. Ministerial Decision No. (37/2) of 1982 concerning standards of medical care
provided for Employees

- Article 3 of Ministerial Decision No. 37/2 of 1982 on the medical care which should
be provided to workers by the employer, states that an employer, the number of whose
workers exceed 50 but are less than 200, must assign a doctor to examine the workers,
prescribe medicines and refer them if necessary to a specialist doctor. The charges for
the establishment's doctor and medicines must be borne by the employer but the charges
will be shared by the employer and worker if the case requires a specialist doctor.

208



- Article 4 of the decision states that if the workers are more than 200, the employer will
bear the charges for a worker's treatment in a hospital whether government, or private,
including charges for the stay in hospital and medicines (Osman, 2001).

IV. Ministerial Decision No. (4/1) of 1981 concerning hazardous works

- According to the ministerial resolution No. (4/1 of 1981), workers shall not be
employed in hazardous operation or unhealthy works and industries for more than seven
hours a day (Abu Dhabi Government, 2013).

V. Ministerial Decision No. (27/1) of 1981 concerning remote areas and
locations

- This law is related to the Federal Law No. (8) for 1980 A.D. in regards to organizing
the work relationships where there have 4 article in this law. Remote areas are areas far
from cities in the interpretation of Article 101 of Law No. (8) for 1980 A.D. as
mentioned and for the purpose of its implementation shall be first in Abu Dhabi and
second in northern Emirates. Remote areas are considered also any work area that is
twenty five kilometres away from the nearest city or village and cannot be reached by
public transport. Any employer who uses workers in the areas specified in the previous
article must provide them with the services of transportation, food, house, medical aid,
portable water, and sport facilities (Seif Ali Al-J rwan, 1981).







209



4.5 Summary of hazardous material chemical and physical properties

Table 4.12 shows that the summary of the hazardous material chemical and physical
properties. From this summary, all of this chemical consist of low boiling point where it
is shows that this chemical is flammable chemical. Any ignition sources that have
tendency to produce hazard need to keep a distance from this chemical in order to
prevent any potential hazard occur.

Table 4.12: Summary of hazardous material chemical and physical properties (MSDS
AIRGAS, 2013)
Chemical

Properties
Propylene Propane Methane Ethane Ethylene Hydrogen
Boiling point, C -47.7 -42 -161.5 -89 -104 -253
Melting point, C -185 -189.7 -182.5 -183 -169.2 -259.15
Molecular weight,
(g/mole)
42.09 44.11 16.04 30.08 28.06 2.02
Critical
temperature
91.9 96.6 -82.4 32.4 10 -240.15
Vapor pressure,
psig
136.6 109 NIL 543 NIL NIL
Vapor density 1.4 1.6 0.55 1.1 1 0.07
Molecular formula C
3
H
6
C
3
H
8
CH
4
C
2
H
6
C
2
H
4
H
2

Specific Volume
(ft3/lb)
9.0909 8.6206 23.6128 12.6582 13.8007 191.9386
Gas Density (lb/ft3) 0.11 0.116 0.042 0.079 0.07246 0.00521
Color Colorless Colorless Colorless Colorles
s
Colorless Colorless
210



4.6 Waste Treatment

4.6.1 Objectives of waste treatment process

Waste water from the propylene plant consists of water that effluent from the first
distillation column (D-301) while waste air is effluent from combusting process in
heating system. This waste water need to be treated before releases to the environment
due to their characteristics that contain chemical oxygen demand (COD) and
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and hydrocarbon traces exceed their standard
safety limit. Same goes to waste air where it need to be identify the characteristic of gas
whether it safe to release or not. All of the waste needs to be treated until it fulfills the
standard requirement quality before it can dispose to environment. The main objectives
for this process are to allow the industrial effluent to be disposed off without giving any
damage to environment or danger to human health after discharge from the plant where
for waste water is to produce an environmentally safe fluid that suitable to disposal or to
reuse again. For waste air, we need to make sure that gas release is safe. If these waste
do not treated, it will give bad side effect that can harmful to the environmental and
health. With this process, the public health hazard of waste can be minimized.










211



4.6.2 Relevant environmental act and regulations

4.6.2.1 Federal law No.24 of 1999 Protection and Development of the Environment

This is important law that our plant need to follow in this country that related to the
waste water disposal. Protection and Development of the Environment (1999) is a law
that applied in United Arab Emirates to protect and develop the environment. United
Arab Emirates is a country that really concern with the environment issues. This federal
law is an act that needed any industrial company to follow in this country where it is
covered all environment issue such as waste management, pollution, soil protection,
hazardous substance, etc. There have ten chapters in this law that related to all
environment issue where the objective for this law can be summarize as below All
objectives are to make sure the pollution issue can be reduce and controlled in UAE.

1. To protect and conserve the quality and natural balance of the environment.
2. To control all form of the pollution and avoid harmful immediate or long term
adverse effect resulting from economic, agricultural, industrial, development programs
aiming at improving standard living.
3. To develop natural resources and conserve biological diversity.
4. To protect society and the health of human beings from activities and acts that
imposes harm to the environment.
5. To protect the UAE environment from the harmful effect of activities undertaken
outside the state.
6. To comply with international and regional conventions ratified or signed by the UAE
in respect of the protection of the environment.






212



4.6.2.2 The Waste management act

In UAE, most of the law is applied in Abu Dhabi Emirates. Law no. (21) Of 2005 for
waste management in Abu Dhabi Emirates is one of the laws that applied for waste
management. There have eight chapters inside this law where is related to the waste
management. The waste involve in this law including the ordinary, medical, industrial,
hazardous and other types of waste. This act required any industrial manage their waste
accordingly to make sure that there have no pollution occur in this country.

4.6.2.3 Water Environment regulation

This regulation is a regulation under protection and development of environment,1999
that produce the standard limitation for waste water that want to discharge to the
environment. Every industrial is required to follow the standard level of parameter in
this regulation. The standard level is shown in Table 4.15.

4.6.3 Waste identification

Waste treatment is a process to treat any waste that can harmful to environment or
human health. In our plant, we produce waste water and waste air from the production
of propylene process. All wastes need to be treated before discharge to the environment.
The reason we are treating all of this waste is to make sure that this waste is safe and not
will harmful to the human health. This is the reason we are proposed waste treatment in
order to treat the waste, but before we are treating the waste, we need to identify type of
waste produce, from which equipment it is produced and the mass fraction for each
waste that has been produced.





213



4.6.3.1 Waste water

In our plant, the waste water that will be produce from the process is water only but we
are assume that waste water contain contamination and need a treatment before release
to the environment.

Table 4.13: Waste water (From simulation hysys)
Waste
water
Equipment Stream Mass
fraction
Mass flow
(kg/hr)
Molar
flow
(mole/hr)
Water Distillation column
(D-301)
12 1 5392 299.3

From Table 4.13, most of the waste water was produce from the distillation column (D-
301) in our process. This is because the function of distillation column was to separate
the main product and by-product. In distillation column (D-301), water being separately
100% from other chemical and effluent through stream 12. Then, this waste water will
send to the waste water treatment plant to undergo waste water treatment process.









214



4.6.3.2 Waste air

Table 4.14 shows that the type of waste air produced and its amount from the plant.
Most of the waste air is hydrocarbon form except for hydrogen.

Table 4.14: Waste air (From simulation hysys)
Waste air Equipment Stream Mass
fraction
Ethane
Distillation
column
(D-302)


13
0.0304
Methane 0.1089
Ethylene 0.0785
Hydrogen 0.7822

From Table 4.14, the waste air was produce from distillation column (D-302) in order to
separate the by-product and main product in that process.

4.6.4 Waste water treatment process

Waste water in this plant is an effluent from the distillation column (D-301) which is
from stream 12 of the process. This waste water will through a few steps in order to
fulfill the standard value that safe to be disposal into the environment without giving any
harmful to human or environment. In this chemical plant, that waste water will
discharge to the open sea through drainage. From the regulation of water environment
regulation under Federal law No.24 of 1999 Protection and Development of the
Environment, any plant that want to discharge their waste water to the open sea is
mandatory to follow the standard in Table 4.15.





215



Table 4.15: Standard of discharge of waste water to open sea (Environment department,
2010)
PARAMETER UNIT MAXIMUM DISCHARGE
LIMIT
Ammoniacal nitrogen Mg/l 5.0
Arsenic (As) mg/l 0.05
BOD5 mg/l 30
Cadmium (Cd) mg/l 0.05
Chlorine (total not less
than)
mg/l 1.0
Chromium (Cr) mg/l 0.50
Copper (Cu) mg/l 0.50
Cyanide (CN) mg/l 0.10
Fecal Coliform MPN/100ml (80% of
sample)
100
Fecal Streptococci MPN/100ml 100
Salmonella MPN/1L Non-detectable
Entero Viruses PFU/10L Non-detectable
Oil and grease mg/l 5.0
Iron (Fe) mg/l 2.0
Lead (Pb) mg/l 0.10
Mercury (Hg) mg/l 0.001
Nickel (Ni) mg/l 0.10
pH Between 6-9
Phenol mg/l 0.10
Seleneium (Se) mg/l 0.02
Silver (Ag) mg/l 0.005
Sulphide mg/l 0.10
Suspended solids mg/l 30
Turbidity NTU 75
Zinc (Zn) mg/l 0.10
Phosphate mg/l 0.10

In order to know what types of treatment that suitable for the waste water, we
need to identify the characteristic of the waste water in term of their BOD, COD,
physical, chemical and biological characteristic. In this chemical plant, we are proposed
that waste water will be treated with the process proposed as shown in Figure 4.5.
216




Figure 4.5: Proposed Waste water treatment process
Stream 12
217



Figure 4.5 shows the waste water process that we are proposed, the waste water from the
effluent of first distillation column which are water will be treat through this process.
For the first step, the waste water will send to the collection sump tank where in this
tank the there have two (2) waste water pump which are duty and standby pump.
Standby pump is a pump that use when the duty pump cannot be operate. The function
of the pump is to transfer the waste water into the reaction tank. This pump is equip with
the flow meter reading where we can see the flow rate of the waste water that being
transfer to the reaction tank. Inside this collection sump tank, the waste water will drain
via gravity force where big particle will settle down to the bottom of the tank.

Then, the waste water will send to the reaction tank by using pump from the
collection sump tank. In this reaction tank or we can called as aeration tank, we will
adding coagulant. Inside this tank, there have equipped with the agitator where the
function of this agitator is to break down the film at the surface of water. These methods
are to separate the component of water and to mix it and reaction will occur between
water and coagulant. Here, the flow of coagulant is controlled by using coagulant flow
meter. This is to make sure that correct dosage of coagulant into the reaction tank. If the
amount of coagulant is not right, the floc cannot be form.

Next, the waste water will send to the flocculation tank where in this tank we
will add polymer, caustic and acid to produce macro floc and adjust the pH of waste
water at the safe level. Macro floc will be settling down to the bottom of tank due to the
different of the density and the gravity force inside flocculation tank. After that, the
waste water will flow to the dissolved air flotation tank.

Dissolved air flotation tank are equipped with the blower to supply air micro
bubble at high pressure. This procedure is to float off the particulate matter into the
surface of water. When the particulate matter is on the surface of the water, so we can
easily skimmed off that particulate matter by using scrapper. After that, the clear waste
water will go to the intermediate tank.

218



Inside intermediate tank, the waste water sample will be collected and tested in
the laboratory to determine the chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD) and other chemical standard contain in waste water. If the sample of
water is not exceed the standard safety limit, we can discharge the waste water from the
plant but if the value of COD is exceed so we will send back to the collection sump tank
to treating again while if only BOD is exceed the standard safety limit we will treat the
waste water by using biological treatment process.

For the biological treatment process, we are proposing to use suspended growth
process because by using this method it can remove almost 90% of organic matter inside
the waste water. The waste water will flows to the sequence batch reactor where in this
tank the air is supply and provide living area of the microorganism to help the
microorganisms to grow and continuing treat the pollutant inside the waste water.

The microorganisms will continue eating the waste or dissolved organic material
inside the tank due to perfect environment with present of air. This process is called
activated sludge because the microbes those consume the waste at the present of rich
oxygen environment (aerobic environment) where it can give maximum consumption of
waste. When the microbes is dead, it will stick together with the clumps but since new
waste water will flow from the process the microbe will born and continue to break
down the waste. From this condition, it will give high value of BOD and COD.

After that, the waste water will send to the treated water tank before discharge to
the environment. Here, the sample of water once again will be investigate whether it
fulfill the standard safety limit. If the result is positive then the waste water can be
discharge to the environment. Lastly, sludge from the sequence batch reactor and
dissolved air flotation tank will send to the sludge holding tank for further treatment on
the sludge.



219



4.6.5 Light gases recycle

Light gas in our plant is produced from distillation columns (D-302) which are ethane,
methane, ethylene and hydrogen. Figure 4.6 shows the gas produced from D-302 plant
to be recycle back as the fuel gas to natural gas pipelines (refer PFD) for heating
process. The combusted gas will go to the stack before released to the environment.
From Figure 4.6, at the recycle point, we will install the valve to control the amount of
gas enter into the heating equipment which is furnace (H-101) and as a safety procedure.
We can use the light gas produced as a source of fuel gas by mixing it with natural gas
supply for steam generation in furnace. With this process, our plant can minimize the
cost for the fuel gas.
220























Figure 4.6: Light gases recycle

REACTION SECTION

D-302

HEAT RECOVERY SECTION

HEATING SECTION
( H-101 )

Stack
Natural Gas

Light Gas
Combusted Gas
To D-303
221



4.6.6 Waste management

In order to protect the environment and prevent unexpected things happened in plant such as
explosion, pollution and fire, all waste from the production, laboratory and office must have
proper management. In this plant, there have a few methods that need to be followed before
dispose the waste to the environment or public such as labeling the waste, collection and storage.
Then, waste that still can be used will be reuse in order to minimize the amount of waste to
disposal.

4.6.6.1 Labeling

Labeling is one of the important parts in waste management. Every waste which are production
waste, chemical waste and municipal waste that plant produce needed to be labeled, this
procedure need to follow in order to make sure there have no mistake occur during collection or
storage of the waste. Proper labeling method need to be done following the standard labeling
sheet data. Each of the waste labeled following their characteristic. Without proper labeling, the
chance of worker make a mistake is high where will increasing the percentage of hazard
happened in the plant but with proper labeling this percentage of hazard occur can be reduce.

4.6.6.2 Collection and storage

After labeling for all wastes procedure is done, the waste need to collect. The waste that already
collected will be put in storage. The storage for the waste will follow based on categories of
waste whether chemical laboratory waste, production waste or municipal waste. Each type of
waste storage will be located at different location to avoid any ignition of hazard. With this
systematic management, the probability problems occur during operation can be prevent.





222



4.6.6.3 Transportation

All waste from the plant that need to disposal will be transport to the disposal sites. Each of the
transportation also will label following the categories of waste. Each type of waste will have their
different transportation to easily waste management team identify type of waste will be dispose.
For disposal waste, we are suggesting to have a contract with Beeah Company where this
company will handling disposal of waste for our plant. Beeah Company is the best company that
handling waste management in Sharjah where on early 2013 they are given awards for the best
management of waste. These company also nearest with the location our plant which is Ajman.

4.6.6.4 Waste minimizing

In this plant, there have a few methods that need to be followed before dispose the waste to the
environment or public such as labeling the waste, collection and storage. Then, any waste such as
paper, plastic from office that still can be used will be reuse or recycle in order to minimize the
amount of waste to disposal. From this method, the plant can reduce the cost and save the cost for
other application.

4.6.6.5 Training

The person who will in charge with waste management needed to follow the training session
before involve with the waste management. This is to make sure that the person involved will not
do any mistake during running the operation. This training will train the person in charge from
every aspect including the knowledge about the waste, skill that required, and the ability needed
if something happened.






223



4.7 Conclusion

Safety inside the plant especially for our plant that involving flammable chemical component is
very important since it will involve human life whether employee, employer, stake holder and
public. In order to setup the plant, we must have proper preparation for any emergency situation
that could happen in plant. From the previous study has shown that the effective way to prevent
incident occur inside plant is by identify the probability hazard that could be occur and find the
solution to control that hazard. This is the important part of safety precaution. Next, as the
employer, we must prepare all safety equipment for the employee during working hour such as
personal protection equipment, PPE. Other than that, in production propylene plant, it will
produce waste water and waste air during the process production. All of this waste need to treated
and follow the safety standard before discharge to environment in order to make sure it will not
give harmful to human health and damage the environment. Lastly, safety is very important and
life is always come first if any emergency situations occur.















224



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fromAbudhabi.ae:https://business.abudhabi.ae/egovPoolPortal_WAR/appmanag
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AIRGAS INC. (2013). Material safety data sheet-Propylene. Radnor.
AIRGAS INC. (2013). Material safety data sheet- Oxygen. Radnor.
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DAILY NEWS: http://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/1-killed-70-hurt-la- plant-
explosion-article-1.1372573
CORPORATION, H. (2012). Material safety data sheet- Propane. Woodbridge.
CSB GOV. (2013). Investigation. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from CSB GOV US
chemical safety board: http://www.csb.gov/praxair-flammable-gas-cylinder-fire/
Enggcyclopedia. (2012). Hazop Study. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from
Enggcylopedia: http://www.enggcyclopedia.com/2012/05/hazop-study/
Environment department. (2010). Water Environment Regulation. Dubai.
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Fitts Zehl. (2013). Louisiana plant explosion. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from Fitts Zehl:
http://www.louisianaplantexplosion.com/
Free encylopedia. (2013). Formosa Plastics propylene explosion. Retrieved December 10,
2013, from Wikipedia:
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Marcus Media Ltd. (2013). Firefighting equipment. Retrieved December 5, 2013, from Fire
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Osman, M. (2001, J uly 27). Ask the law. Retrieved December 5, 2013, from Gulfnews.com:
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from Clyde and Co: http://www.clydeco.com/insight/articles/health-and- safety-in-the-uae
Seif Ali Al-J rwan. (1981). Occupational safety and health. UAE.


















226




CHAPTER 5



MASS BALANCE



5.1 Introduction

Material balance is an important element in a process design as it also called the heart of
process design. Equation 1 shows the general balance equation that will be used as the
root to start mass balance. The terms input means material that enters through the
system boundary and output is the material that exits the system boundary. Generation
can be defined as material that produced in the system. On the other hand, consumption
and accumulation are material that consumed and accumulated within the system.

Input +Generation Output Consumption =Accumulation (1)

The accumulation term in the equation can be cancelled out when the process is
continuous and at steady state. Equation 2 shows the general equation after been
simplified. The general equation will end up as shown in Equation 3 when the balance
is on a nonreactive species or in total mass because generation and consumption will be
equal to zero (Richard et al., 2005)

Input +Generation =Output +Consumption (2)
Input =Output (3)
227


5.2 Summary of Process Description

Our plant is designed to produce 250,000 metric ton per year. The process began when
propane is introduced to the reformer (first reactor) where it was heated first, to meet up
the temperature of reactor of 510C. There are fuel gas and air introduced to promote
combustion in the reformer as well as to heat the reformer. This reactor is where the
main reaction occurs which is the dehydrogenation of propane and this reaction is shown
as in equation (1). Meanwhile, equation (2) and (3) shows the side reaction occurred.
During the reaction, there will be minor amount of coke deposited on the catalyst
(Platinum Tin Alumina). However, most of the coke will be converted into carbon
dioxide.

The output from the reformer will then go to oxy-reactor (second reactor) in
which oxygen will be introduced to react with the hydrogen that comes from the
reformer. This reaction will convert hydrogen into water which in turn will shift the
equilibrium of dehydrogenation to higher conversion and selectivity (Sascha, 2011).
This reaction is represented as shown in Equation (4) and (5).

The product and side product from the oxy-reactor needs to be cooled down to
negative temperature as to make our product in the form of liquid. So, this is done by
passing through the components to the heat exchangers and condenser. Then, it will
enter the first distillation column (DC 1) where the main purpose is to remove the water
from the process. Meanwhile, the other components will remains at the top stream of
the DC.

The second DC functioned to remove other components (fuel gas) apart from
propane and propylene. They are removed at the top stream of the DC. The process
continues to enter the third DC where here we will get our product, propylene. Since,
propylene has lower boiling point, it goes to the top stream of the DC. In contrast,
propane will goes to the bottom stream to be recycled to the feed raw material. All of
228

this description is illustrated in the modified process flow diagram which is attached at
the Appendix A.

5.3 Sample of Calculation

5.3.1 Overall Mass Balance

Using the desired production rate, the mass and mol flow rate of propylene yield can be
obtained as mentioned earlier. The assumptions for this calculation are listed below;

1. Process is at steady state condition and continuous process
2. All component behave as an ideal component
3. No leakage on pipeline and vessel
4. The plant operates 344 days per year and 24 hours daily
5. Catalyst used in reactor does not contribute in mass

Mass flow rate of final propylene output;
250,000 ton 1 year 1 day 1000 kg
Year 344 days 24 hours 1 ton

=30281.01 kg/hr

Molar flow rate of final propylene output;
30281.01 kg 1 kmol
Hour 42 kg

=720.98 kmol/hr

From the calculation, we know that our desired mass flow rate of propylene per hour is
30281.01 kilogram per hour. To start the calculation, basis of 1000 kmol per hour is
used and the resulting propylene obtained in the end of calculation is 22325 kilogram
229

per hour. The detailed calculation can be seen in the consequent subtopic (mass balance
on major equipment). From the calculation, the theoretical raw material fed to produce
propylene according to the desired mass flow rate (30281 kg/hr) is calculated as shown
below.
1000

22325


30281.01

1356.37


59680.28



Then, the values obtained by calculation that use 1000 kmol per hour as the basis are
used in Goal Seek Analyses (one of What If Analyses in Microsoft Excel) to calculate
the actual amount of propane needed to meet our desired production rate.

5.3.2 Mass Balance on Reformer (R-101)

Mass balance on this equipment was performed using the method of extent of
reaction by assuming 1000 kmol per hour of raw material fed. The first extent, 1
will based on Equation 1 and the second, 2 will based on equation 2 mentioned
earlier.










Figure 5.1: Streams flow in and out of Reformer
Stream 4
1000 kmol/hr C
3
H
8

1 mol C
3
H
8
/mol
C
3
H
8

H
2

C
3
H
6

CH
4

C
2
H
6


Stream 6
230


Process: Place where the main reaction occur, dehydrogenation of propane to produce
propylene. Raw propane is fed into the reformer and dehydrogenates, thus,
produce propylene and side products as listed above.

Reaction occurred in this reactor are;

3

8

3

6
+
2
(1)

3

8
+
2

2

6
+
4
(2)

From the equation of reaction, we obtained equations of extent of reaction as follows;

1
(
3

8
/) = 1000
3

8
/ 1 2

2
(
2
/) = 1 2

3
(
3

6
/) = 1

4
(
4
/) = 2

5
(
2

6
/) = 2

Conversion of propane in the process is 60%. Hence, there is 40% of unreacted propane
in the output stream (Max et al., 2008). Using this information, mol of outlet propane,
n
1
can be calculated.

1
=
(1 0.6)
3

8


3

8

1000
3

8


n1 = 400 kmol/hr
400 = 1000 1 2
1 + 2 = 600 __________________________________________()

Next, mol of outlet propylene, n
3
can be calculated with yield of 0.53.
231

3
= 0.53 1000


= 530 / = 1
2 = 70

After substitute 1 and 2 into equations of extents reaction, Table 5.2 shows the
responding result for the components in the outlet of the reformer.

1
= 400

= 17600 /

2
= 530 70 = 460

2

= 917.66 /

3
= 530

3

= 22235.47 /

4
= 70

4

= 1129.34 /

5
= 70

2

= 2117.52 /
Table 5.1: Molar and mass flow rate of respective components at stream 6
COMPONENTS MOLAR FLOW RATE
(kmol/hr)
MASS FLOW RATE
(kg/hr)
PROPANE 400 17600
HYDROGEN 460 917.66
PROPYLENE 530 22235.47
METHANE 70 1129.34
ETHANE 70 2117.52



232

The value of 1 and 2 will be used in calculation of mass balance using Goal
Seek Analysis which is performed in Microsoft Excel. Goal Seek is an analysis that will
automatically calculate the required amount of propane to produce 30281 kilogram per
hour of propylene based on molar and mass flow rate calculated using 1000 kmol per
hour as basis.

Table 5.3 shows the result after values of 1 and 2 are substituted into the
equation of extent of reaction and after undergoes Goal Seek Analysis. The mass
balance on this equipment has obey the general rules of the mass balance where
materials in must equal to materials out.

Table 5.2: Mass flow rate of components in reformer (inlet and outlet) at stream 6


COMPONENTS
INPUT OUTPUT
MOLAR
FLOW
RATE
(kmol/hr)
MASS FLOW
RATE
(kg/hr)
MOLAR
FLOW RATE
(kmol/hr)
MASS FLOW
RATE
(kg/hr)
PROPANE 1372.51 60390.35 549.00 24156.14
HYDROGEN 0 0 629.75 1259.50
PROPYLENE 0 0 726.63 30518.36
METHANE 0 0 96.88 1550.03
ETHANE 0 0 96.88 2906.31
TOTAL 60390.35 60390.35


5.3.3 Mass Balance on Oxy-Reactor (R-102)
Similar as mass balance on reformer, extent of reaction also is applied in the mass
balance for this reactor based on the basis of 1000 kmol per hour.



233














Figure 5.2: Streams flow in and out of the oxy-reactor

Process: Convert hydrogen into water

Assumptions
1. Only hydrogen and propane will react in the reactor
2. Conversion of propane is 6%
3. Conversion of hydrogen is 60% (Source: Max et al., 2008)

Reactions occurred in this reactor are;

3

8
+0.5
2

3

6
+
2
(3)

2
+0.5
2

2
(4)

The extent of reaction considered in this section (3 and 4) is based on Equation 3 and
4. The following shows the equations of extent of reaction;

Stream 5
O
2

Stream 6
17600.00 kg C
3
H
8
/hr
917.67 kg H
2
/hr
22235.47 kg C
3
H
6
/hr
1129.34 kg CH
4
/hr
2117.52 kg C
2
H
6
/hr


C
3
H
8

H
2

C
3
H
6

1129.34 kg CH
4
/hr
2117.52 C
2
H
6
/hr
H
2
O
O
2





Stream 7
234

= 400.00

= 458.83

= 529.42

3

+ 3

10

= 3 + 4

11
(
2
/) = 0.53 0.54

Propane conversion in this reactor is 6%, thus, the unreacted propane left is 94%.
Meanwhile for hydrogen, the conversion is 60%. So, the unreacted hydrogen is 40%
(Max et al., 2008). Using this information, the amount of unreacted propane (
7
) and
hydrogen (
8
) can be calculated. So do the values of 3 and 4.

7
=
(1 0.06)
3

8


3

8

400
3

7
= 376 /
376 = 400
3

8
3
3 = 24

8
=
(1 0.6)
2


2

458.83
2

8
= 183.53 /
183.53 = 458.83
2
4
4 = 275.30

After substitute 3 and 4 into equations of extents reaction, Table 5.4 shows the
responding result for the components in the outlet of oxy-reactor.

7
= 376

3

= 16544 /

8
= 183.53

2

= 367.07 /
235

9
= 529.42 +24 = 553.42

3

= 23243.47 /

10
= 24 +275.3 = 299.30

2

= 5387.39 /

Table 5.3: Molar and Mass Flow Rate at Stream 7
COMPONENTS MOLAR FLOW RATE
(kmol/hr)
MASS FLOW RATE
(kmol/hr)
PROPANE 376 16544
HYDROGEN 183.53 367.07
PROPANE 553.42 23243.47
WATER 299.30 5387.39
TOTAL 48788.79

After the amount of components in stream 7 has been calculated, this information can be
used to find the amount of oxygen supplied to the reactor. To find the amount of oxygen
into the oxy-reactor, we used the general equation of mass balance as shown below.
=
6 + 5 = 7
5 ( ) = 7 6
5 ( ) = 48788.79 44000
5 = 4788.79


Converting mass flow rate into molar flow rate;
236

,
6
=
4788.79

32


= 149.65 /

11

= 149.65
2
0.53 0.54

11
= 0
Similar as explained in the earlier section, 3 and 4 obtained from this
calculation will be used in Goal Seek Analyses. Table 5.5 shows the result after 3 and
4 are substituted into the equations of extent of reaction and after undergoes Goal Seek
Analysis.


Table 5.4: Mass Flow Rate at Output Stream 7
UNKNOWNS MOLAR FLOW RATE
(kmol/hr)
MASS FLOW RATE
(kg/hr)
PROPANE 525.00 23100.14
HYDROGEN 354.45 708.90
PROPYLENE 750.63 31526.37
WATER 299.30 5387.39
STREAM 7 65179.14


5.3.4 Mass Balance on Distillation Column 1 (D-301)

Function of DC 1: To remove water completely from the system

Since there is no reaction in distillation column (DC), the inlet amount is the same as
the outlet. However, for DC 1, it is assumed that the efficiency of DC is 99%. We want
to eliminate 100% of the water out from DC 1. Supposedly, the temperature of the
237

process will get to negatives afterwards. This will cause the water to freeze (if any water
enters DC2) and may cause inconvenient incident.

For the calculation, 100% of water will be removed at the bottom stream (Stream 12)
together with 1% of the other gases. Meanwhile, the other 99% of the gases will go out
at the top stream of the DC.



















Figure 5.3: Streams flow in and out of Distillation Column 1


#Since water is removed 100% from the system, amount of water at stream 12 is
5387.39 kg/hr #



H
2
O C
3
H
6

C
3
H
8
C
2
H
6

H
2
CH
4




Stream 11
Stream 10
16544 kg C
3
H
8
/hr
367.07 kg H
2
/hr
23243.47kg C
3
H
6
/hr
1129.34 kg CH
4
/hr
2117.52 kg C
2
H
6
/hr
5387.39 kg H
2
O/hr

C
3
H
8
C
2
H
6

H
2
CH
4

C
3
H
6





Stream 12
238

At stream 11, 99% of the inlet gases will exit. So, for propylene;

,
3

6
= 99% 23243.47 = 23011.04


,
3

8
= 99% 16544 = 16378.56


,
2
= 99% 367.07 = 363.39


,
4
= 99% 1129.34 = 1118.05


,
2

6
= 99% 2117.52 = 2096.34



At stream 12, 1% of the inlet gases will exit. So, for propylene;
,
3

6
= 1% 23243.47 = 232.43 /
,
3

8
= 1% 16544 = 165.44


,
2
= 1% 367.07 = 3.67


,
4
= 1% 1129.34 = 11.29


,
2

6
= 1% 2117.52 = 21.18









239


Table 5.5: Mass and Molar Flow Rate at Stream 10, 11 and 12

COMPONENTS
STREAM 10
(IN)
STREAM 11
(TOP)
STREAM 12
(BOTTOM)
(kmol/hr) (kg/hr) (kmol/hr) (kg/hr) (kmol/hr) (kg/
PROPYLENE 553.42 23243.47 547.88 23011.04 5.53 232.43
PROPANE 376.00 16544.00 372.24 16378.56 3.76 165.44
HYDROGEN 183.53 367.07 181.70 363.39 1.84 3.67
METHANE 70.58 1129.34 69.88 1118.05 0.71 11.29
ETHANE 70.58 2117.52 69.88 2096.34 0.71 21.18
WATER 299.30 5387.39 0 0 299.30 5387.39
TOTAL
48788.79
42967.39 5821.40
48788.79

Meanwhile, Table 5.7 shows the results at stream 10, 11 and 12 after Goal Seek
Analysis.

Table 5.6: Mass flow rate of stream 10, 11 and 12 (Goal Seek Analyses)

COMPONENTS
STREAM 10
(IN)
STREAM 11
(TOP)
STREAM 12
(BOTTOM)
(kmol/hr) (kg/hr) (kmol/hr) (kg/hr) (kmol/hr) (kg/
PROPYLENE 750.63 31526.36 743.12 31211.10 7.51 315.26
PROPANE 525.00 23100.14 519.75 22869.14 5.25 231.00
HYDROGEN 354.45 708.90 350.91 701.81 3.55 7.09
METHANE 96.88 1550.03 95.91 1534.53 0.97 15.50
ETHANE 96.88 2906.31 95.91 2877.25 0.97 29.06
WATER 299.30 5387.39 0 0 299.30 5387.39
TOTAL
65179.14
59193.84 5985.30
65179.14
240


5.3.5 Mass Balance on Distillation Column 2 (D-302)
Function of DC 2: To remove hydrogen, methane and ethane gas from the system
For DC 2, we assumed the efficiency to be 98% with 100% removal of the fuel
gas at the top stream. 98% of the inlet components will go out at the bottom stream and
the other 2% go out at the top stream. The result of the calculation is tabulated in Table
5.8 and 5.9 and it also shows that materials in is equal to materials out.


















Figure 5.4: Streams flow in and out of Distillation Column 2

16378.56 kg/hr C
3
H
8

363.39 kg/hr H
2

23011.04 kg/hr C
3
H
6

1118.05 kg/hr CH
4

2096.34 kg/hr C
2
H
6

C
3
H
8

C
3
H
6




Stream 13
Stream 11
H
2

CH
4

C
2
H
6

C
3
H
8

C
3
H
6




Stream 14
241

#Since 100% amount of fuel gas is removed, amount of hydrogen, methane and ethane
gas at stream 13 are as the same as the amount at stream 11#
At stream 14, 98% of the inlet gases will exit. Thus;
,
3

6
= 98% 23011.04 = 22550.82


,
3

8
= 98% 16378.56 = 16050.99



At stream 13, 2% of the inlet gases will exit. So;
,
3

6
= 2% 23011.04 = 460.22 /
,
3

8
= 2% 16378.56 = 327.57


Table 5.8 and 5.9 shows the results before and after the values undergoes goal Seek
Analyses.

Table 5.7: Mass and Molar flow in and out at DC 2

COMPONENTS
STREAM 11
(IN)
STREAM 13
(TOP)
STREAM 14
(BOTTOM)
(kmol/hr) (kg/hr) (kmol/hr) (kg/hr) (kmol/hr) (kg/hr)
PROPYLENE 547.88 23011.04 10.96 460.22 536.92 22550.82
PROPANE 372.24 16378.56 7.44 327.57 364.80 16050.99
HYDROGEN 181.70 363.39 181.70 363.39 0 0
METHANE 69.88 1118.05 69.88 1118.05 0 0
ETHANE 69.88 2096.34 69.88 2096.34 0 0
TOTAL
42967.39
4365.58 38601.81
42967.39



242



Table 5.8: Mass flow rate of components in DC 2 (Goal Seek Analyses)
COMPONENTS STREAM 11
(IN)
STREAM 13
(TOP)
STREAM 14
(BOTTOM)
(kmol/hr) (kg/hr) (kmol/hr) (kg/hr) (kmol/hr) (kg/hr)
PROPYLENE 743.12 31211.10 14.86 624.22 728.26 30586.88
PROPANE 519.75 22869.14 10.40 457.38 509.36 22411.76
HYDROGEN 350.91 701.81 350.91 701.81 0 0
METHANE 95.91 1534.53 95.91 1534.53 0 0
ETHANE 95.91 2877.25 95.91 2877.25 0 0
TOTAL
59193.84
6195.20 52998.64
59193.84












243


5.3.6 Mass Balance on Distillation Column 3 (D-303)
Function of DC 3: To reject propane to obtain our pure product, propylene

Here, in DC 3, it is assumed the efficiency is 99% where 99% of propylene will
go out at the top stream and other 1% go out at the bottom stream. The same goes for
propane but it mainly go out at the bottom stream to be recycled. The results of the
calculation are shown in Table 5.10 and 5.11 which it obey the general equation of mass
balance where materials in equals to material out.
















Figure 5.5: Stream flow in and out of Distillation Column 3

At stream 15, 99% of propylene and 1% of propane will exit. Thus;

6
= 99% 22550.82 = 22325.31


Stream 15
15890.48 kg C
3
H
8
/hr
225.51 kg C
3
H
6
/hr



Stream 14
16050.99 kg C
3
H
8
/hr
22550.82 kg C
3
H
6
/hr

22325.31 kg C
3
H
6
/hr
160.51 kg C
3
H
8
/hr





Stream 16
244

8
= 1% 16050.99 = 160.51



At stream 16, 99% of propane and 1% of propylene will exit. Thus;

6
= 1% 22550.82 = 225.51

8
= 1% 16050.99 = 15890.48



Table 5.9: Mass flow rate of propylene and propane in DC 3

COMPONENTS STREAM 14
(IN)
STREAM 15
(TOP)
STREAM 16
(BOTTOM)
(kmol/hr) (kg/hr) (kmol/hr) (kg/hr) (kmol/hr) (kg/hr)
PROPYLENE 536.92 22550.82 531.56 22325.31 5.37 225.51
PROPANE 364.80 16050.99 3.65 160.51 361.15 15890.48
TOTAL
38601.81
22485.82 16115.99
38601.81

From Table 5.10, we can see that the mass flow rate of propylene per hour is
22325.31 kilogram (calculation using 1000 kmol per hour as basis). Based on this value,
the theoretical amount of propane is calculated as shown in section 5.4.1.






245

Table 5.10: Mass and molar flow in and out at DC 3 (Goal Seek Analyses)
COMPONENTS STREAM 14
(IN)
STREAM 15
(TOP)
STREAM 16
(BOTTOM)
(kmol/hr) (kg/hr) (kmol/hr) (kg/hr) (kmol/hr) (kg/hr)
PROPYLENE 728.26 30586.88 720.98 30281.01 7.28 305.87
PROPANE 509.36 22411.76 5.09 224.12 504.26 22187.64
TOTAL
52998.64
30505.13 22493.51
52998.64

From Table 5.11, it can be seen that we manage to obtain our desired mass flow
rate of propylene which is 30281 kilogram per hour which equal to 250,000 metric ton
per year.

5.3.7 Mass Balance on Mixer (M-101)








Figure 5.6: Streams flow in and out of Mixer


Process: The pure propane (S1) and propane from recycle stream (S19) are mixed before
enter reformer (S2). In actual calculation, there is still propylene left in stream
19. However, it is neglected as the amount of propylene is only 0.1% from
the desired value.


Stream 1
Stream 2
Stream 19
246

The amount of propane in stream 2 and 19 is obtained from the previous calculation
(after Goal Seek Analyses). The unknown left is the mass of propane in stream 1.



1 = 2 19
1 = 60390.35 22187.64 = 38202.71 /

Table 5.11: Mass flow rate of respective streams

STREAMS
MOLAR FLOW
RATE
(kmol/hr)
MASS FLOW RATE
(kg/hr)
1 (Pure Propane) 868.24 38202.71
19 (Propane recycled) 504.26 22187.64
2 (Propane fed to reformer) 1372.51 60390.35
















247


5.4 Conclusion

From the calculation, it can be concluded that it needs 60390.35 kilogram per hour of
propane to produce 30281 kilogram per hour of propylene (desired amount) that will
lead to 250,000 metric ton per year. However, the amount of raw material fed from the
overall mass balance (59680.28 kg/hr) vary with the one calculated in the equipments
mass balance. Below shows the percent error of the amount of raw material fed.

% =
60390.35 59680.28
60390.35
100% = 1.2%

From the results obtained in the mass balance, we also have calculated the deviation of
value between manual calculated and from HYSYS as shown in Table 5.5.1. The
results show that they deviate a little with each other.

Table 5.12: Comparison of values from mass balance and HYSYS
Stream Manual
calculation value
Hysys value Deviation, %
S1 35302.47 32600 7.66
S2=S3=S4 60390.35 60530 0.23
S5 4788.79 4789 0.002
S6 60390.35 60530 0.23
S7=S8=S9=S10 65179.14 65310 0.2
S11 59193.84 59920 1.23
S12 5985.30 5392 9.91
S13 3265.67 2988 8.5
S14 55928.17 56930 1.79
S15 30534.42 29060 4.83
S16=S17=S18=S19 25393.75 27880 9.79

248



REFERENCES


Max Heinritz Adrian, S. W. (2008). Oxydehydrogenation-based on-purpose propane
dehydrogenation can close the propylene supply-demand gap. Advanced Propane
Dehydrogenation .
Ray Sinnott, G. T. (2009). Chemical Engineering Design. United Kingdom: Butterworth-
Heinemann (Elsevier).
Richard M. Felder, R. W. (2005). Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes. United States of
America: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
S. Sahebdelfar, F. T. (2010). Dehydrogenation of Propane to Propylene Over Pt-Sn/Al2O3
Catalysts. Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering .
249


249





CHAPTER 6



ENERGY BALANCE



6.1 Introduction

The concept of energy conservation as stated by the energy balance equation
is a middle of chemical engineering calculations. J ust as mass balances are reviewed
before, the energy balance is essential to solve many problems.

6.2 Equations Used in Calculations

6.2.1 General Equations

Q W
s
= H + E
k
+ E
p
(6.1)

The system kinetic energy associated with motion is directed such as straight line
motion and rotation system. The potential energy of the system is due to the state of
the object of mass at a certain height. However, we can ignore the kinetic energy,
potential energy, and work for our system because it is static (E
k
=0), no change in
height (E
p
=0), and no work on our system (W
s
=0). Thus Equation 6.1 can be
further reduced to as Equation 6.2.

Q = H = H
out
- H
in
(6.2)


250



6.2.2 Equation for Reactive Process

H =
Outlet
n
i
(
i
+
f
) -
Inlet
n
i
(
i
+
f
) (6.3)

6.2.3 Equation for Process with Phase Changes


i
=
()

+
()

(6.4)

6.2.4 Equation for Non-Reactive

H
i
=n
i
[

] (6.5)
Or
H
i
=
()

+
()

(6.6)

6.2.5 Equation for Heat Capacity, C
p

= ( + +
2

+
3
+
4
) (6.7)

6.2.6 Total Heat for Energy Balance (non-reactive process)

H
Total
= (H
Outlet
- H
Inlet
) (6.8)

6.2.7 Total Heat for Energy Balance (reactive process)

H
Total
=
r
+ (H
Outlet
- H
Inlet
) (6.9)

6.2.8 Equation Heat of Reaction

251


r
= v
f
=
products
lvl
f
-
reactants
lvl
f
(6.10)
6.2.9 Equations Used in Calculation
Table 6.1 The Phase, Temperature and Pressure Change for i Component in Each
Stream.






Table 6.2: The Equation that Used for Calculating Specific Heat.

1a
= (19.87 +5.021 x 10 T +1.268 x 10 T
T (K)
Tref (K)
11x10 T)dT

2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T +
T (oC)
Tref (oC)
7.28x10 T)dT

3a
= (40.75 +11.47x10 T 6.891x10 T+
T (oC)
Tref (oC)
17.66x10 T)dT

4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
T (oC)
Tref (oC)
31.71x10 T)dT

5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T +
T (oC)
Tref (oC)
24.6x10 T)dT

6a
= (28.84 +0.00765 x 10 T +0.3288 x 10 T0.8698
T (oC)
Tref (oC)
x10 T)dT

7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
T (oC)
Tref (oC)
x10 T)dT

8a
= (29.1 +1.158 x10 T 0.6076 x10 T +
T (oC)
Tref (oC)
1.311 x10 T)dT



i

i

(phase, temperature, pressure) i (phase, temperature,
pressure)

ia

ib

i

(phase, temperature, pressure)
Reference
Need
Need
252

For calculating the changes in pressure such as below, Equation (6.11) :
P =
m
3
atm kg 1000 L R J /mol.K 1 kmol
kg kmol m
3
R L.atm/ mol.K 1000 mol
Where the value for mole constant , R are 8.314 J /mol.K and 0.082 L.atm/mol.K .

6.3 Assumption

Assumptions made are as below:
i. The process with no accumulation of material and energy at any point.
ii. The system is open system and steady state.
iii. Neglect kinetics and potential energies and only consider enthalpy
changes.
iv. No heat of mixing effect.
v. Neglect the work done to the system.



















253

6.4 Sample of Calculation

6.4.1 Reformer (R-101)









Figure 6.1: Reactor R-101.
(References: CH
4
(v), C
2
H
4
(v), C
2
H
6
(v), C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v) , O
2
(v) , H
2
O(v), H
2
(v) at
25 C and 1 atm)

Table 6.3: Properties of the Streams for Reactor R-101.
COMPOUNDS STREAM 4 STREAM 6
n (kmol/hr) H (kJ/hr) n (kmol/hr) H (kJ/hr)
CH
4
- - 52.3734 H
1

C
2
H
6
- - 14.6901 H
2

C
2
H
4
- - 37.6833 H
3

C
3
H
8
1423 H
4
700.2281 H
4

C
3
H
6
- - 669.3576 H
5

H
2
- - 654.6675 H
6

H
2
O - - - -
O
2
- - - -
*The H numbering is the same for each stream followed the order of compounds but
different value depends on the condition of temperature and pressure.
Stream 4
Stream 6
No Flow
T =510 C
P =5.21 atm
T =580 C
P =5.06 atm
254

6.4.1.1 Balance for Stream 4
Conditions: T= 510
o
C and P = 5.21 atm

Component C
3
H
8
:




4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
510
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=57043.36 J /mol
=57.0434 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
62755.7 kg/h
123.86 m /h

=506.67 kg/m
= 0.5067 g/ m
*Mass flowrate, m and volume flowrate, v values are from HYSYS

4b
=
1cm
0.5067g
x (5.21 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.037 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=57.0434 kJ /mol +0.037 kJ /mol
=57.0804 kJ /mol
= 57.0804 x 10 kJ/kmol

4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, 510 C, 5.21 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, 510C, 1 atm)
255

H
4
=1432 kmol/h x 57.0804 x 10 kJ /kmol
=81.2254 x 10
6
kJ/h

6.4.1.2 Balance for Stream 6
Conditions: T= 580
o
C and P= 5.06 atm

Component CH
4
:




2

1a
= (19.87 +5.021 x 10 T +1.268 x 10 T
853
298
11x10 T)dT
=28103.4 J /mol
=28.1034 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
840.3450 kg/h
2.8068 m /h

=299.396 kg/m
= 0.2994 g/ m
*Mass flowrate, m and volume flowrate, v values are from HYSYS

1b
=
1cm
0.2994g
x (5.06 1) atm x
16 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.022 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b

=28.1034 kJ /mol +0.022 kJ /mol
= 28.1254 x 10 kJ/mol

1

CH
4
(v, 298 K, 1 atm) CH
4
(v, 853 K, 5.06 atm)

1a

1b

CH
4
(v, 853K, 1 atm)
256

H
1
=52.3734 kmol/h x 28.1254 x 10 kJ /mol
=1.473 x 10
6
kJ/h

Component C
2
H
6
:



2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T +
580
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=47193.97 J /mol
=47.194 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
439.8967 kg/h
1.2368 m /h

=355.6733 kg/m
= 0.3557 g/ m
*Mass flowrate, m and volume flowrate, v values are from HYSYS

2b
=
1cm
0.3557g
x (5.06 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0347 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b

=47.194 kJ /mol +0.0347 kJ /mol
=47.2287 kJ /mol
= 47.2287 x 10 kJ/mol

2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

2a

2b

C
2
H
6
(v, 580C, 1 atm)
257

H
2
=14.6901 kmol/h x 47.2287 x 10 kJ /mol
=6.93794 x 10
5
kJ/h

Component C
2
H
4
:




3

3a
= (40.75 +11.47x10 T 6.891x10 T+
580
25
17.66x10 T)dT
=37891.2 J /mol
=37.891 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1059.0855 kg/h
2.7636 m /h

=383.2268 kg/m
= 0.3832 g/ m
*Mass flowrate, m and volume flowrate, v values are from HYSYS

3b
=
1cm
0.3832g
x (5.06 1) atm x
28 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0301 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b

=37.891 kJ /mol +0.0301 kJ /mol
=37.9211 kJ /mol
= 37.9211 x 10 kJ/mol

3

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

3a

3b

CH
4
(v, 580C, 1 atm)
258

H
3
=37.6833 kmol/h x 37.9211 x 10 kJ /mol
=1.429 x 10
6
kJ/h


Component C
3
H
8
:



4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
580
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=68054.95 J /mol
=68.055 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
30902.5238 kg/h
60.9905 m /h

=506.67 kg/m
= 0.5067 g/ m
*Mass flowrate, m and volume flowrate, v values are from HYSYS

4b
=
1cm
0.5067g
x (5.06 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0357 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=68.055 kJ /mol +0.0357 kJ /mol
=68.0907 kJ /mol
= 68.0907 x 10 kJ/mol

4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, 580C, 1 atm)
259

H
4
=700.2281 kmol/h x 68.0907 x 10 kJ /mol
=47.679 x 10
6
kJ/h

Component C
3
H
6
:





5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
580
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=56881.97 J /mol
=56.882 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28194.9028 kg/h
54.882 m /h

=520.95 kg/m
= 0.521 g/ m
*Mass flowrate, m and volume flowrate, v values are from HYSYS

5b
=
1cm
0.521g
x (5.06 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.03316 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=56.882 kJ /mol +0.03316 kJ /mol
=56.91516 kJ /mol
= 56.91516 x 10 kJ/mol

5

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
8
(v, 580C, 1 atm)
260

H
5
=669.3576 kmol/h x 56.91516 x 10 kJ /mol
=38.0966 x 10
6
kJ/h

Component H
2
:




6a
= (28.84 +0.00765 x 10 T +0.3288 x 10 T 0.8698
580
25
x10 T)dT
=16208.26 J /mol
=16.2083 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
546.9704 kg/h
7.8296 m /h

=69.8593 kg/m
= 0.0699 g/ m
*Mass flowrate, m and volume flowrate, v values are from HYSYS

6b
=
1cm
0.0699g
x (5.06 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0118 kJ/mol

6
=
6a
+
6b

=16.2083 kJ /mol +0.0118 kJ /mol
=16.2201 kJ /mol
= 16.2201 x 10 kJ/mol

6

H
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) H
2
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

6a

6b

H
2
(v, 580C, 1 atm)
261

H
6
=654.6675 kmol/h x 16.2201 x 10 kJ /mol
=10.6188 x 10
6
kJ/h
Table 6.4: Summary for R-101.
COMPOUNDS STREAM 4 STREAM 6
n (kmol/h) H (kJ/h) n (kmol/h) H (kJ/h)
CH
4
- - 52.3734 1.473 x 10
6

C
2
H
4
- - 37.6833 1.429 x 10
6

C
2
H
6
- - 14.6901 6.9379 x 10
5

C
3
H
6
- - 669.3576 38.0966 x 10
6

C
3
H
8
1423 81.2254 x 10
6
700.2281 47.679 x 10
6

O
2
- - - -
H
2
O - - - -
H
2
- - 654.6675 10.6188 x 10
6

Total H - 81.2254 x 10
6
- 99.9902 x 10
6

*Detail calculation isshown in Appendix A

Q
2
= H
r
+ ( H
stream3
- H
stream2
)
=(108.2583 x 10
6
kJ /h) +( 99.9902 x 10
6
- 81.2254 x 10
6
) kJ /h
=1.2699 x 10
8
kJ/h



262


6.4.2 Oxyreactor (R-102)











Figure 6.2: Oxyreactor R-102.

(References: CH
4
(v), C
2
H
4
(v), C
2
H
6
(v), C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v) , O
2
(v) , H
2
O(v), H
2
(v) at
25 C and 1 atm)








Stream 6
Stream 7
No Flow
Stream 5
T:-164 C
P:5.06 atm
T:580 C
P:5.06 atm
T: 580 C
P: 5.06 atm
263

Table 6.5: Summary for R-102.

















*Detail calculation is shown in Appendix A
COMPOUNDS
STREAM 5 STREAM 6 STREAM 7
n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n( mol/h) H (kJ/h)
CH
4
- - 52381 1.475 x10
6
50516 1.475 x10
6

C
2
H
6
- - 14629 6.909 x 10
5
14107 6.910 x10
5

C
2
H
4
- - 37752 1.432 x 10
6
36408 1.432 x10
6

C
3
H
8
- - 700790 4.772 x 10
7
645551 4.477 x10
7

C
3
H
6
- - 670020 3.813 x 10
7
676489 4.059 x10
7

H
2
- - 655330 1.063 x 10
7
362959 4.401 x10
6

H
2
0 - - - - 299299 8.599 x10
6

O
2
149650 -7.98 x10
5
- - - -
Total H

-7.98 x10
5


1.0 x 10
8


1.0196 x10
8

264

Q
3
= H
r
+ ( H
stream7
- H
stream6
- H
stream5
)
=(-163.561 x 10
6
kJ /h) +(1.0196 x10
8
- 1.0 x 10
8
+1.139 x 10
6
) kJ /h
=-1.61 x 10
8
kJ/h


6.4.3 Heat Exchanger for EA-201









Figure 6.3: Heat Exchanger for EA-201.

(References: CH
4
(v), C
2
H
4
(v), C
2
H
6
(v), C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v), H
2
O(v), H
2
(v) at 25 C
and 1 atm)











T:5C
P:5.45 atm
T: 250C
P: 5.33 atm
Stream 2
Stream 3
Stream 7 Stream 8
T:580 C
P: 4.93 atm
T: 430C
P: 3.96 atm
265

Table 6.6: Summary for EA-201.








*
*


*Detail calculation is shown in Appendix A
COMPOUNDS
STREAM 7 STREAM 8 STREAM 2 STREAM 3
n
(kmol/h)
H
(kJ/h)x10
3

n
(kmol/h)

H
(kJ/h)x10
3

n
(kmol/h)
H
(kJ/h)x10
3

n
(kmol/h)
H
(kJ/h)x10
3

CH
4
51 1.475 51 963.72 - - - -
C
2
H
6
14 69.09 14 442.9 - - - -
C
2
H
4
36 1.431 36 926.3 - - - -
C
3
H
8
646 44.77 646 29200 1372 -1906 1372 29758
C
3
H
6
676 40.59 676 25722 0.122 -0.147 0.122 2.255
H
2
363 4.400 363 4277 - - - -
H
2
0 299 8.598 299 4302 - - - -
TOTAL

102

65835

-1906

29760
266

Q
EA-201
= ( H
stream3
+ H
stream8
) - ( H
stream2
+ H
Stream7
)
=(29760 +65835) x10
3
kJ /h - (-1906 +102) x 10
3
kJ /h
=9.74 x 10
7
kJ/h


6.4.4 Heat Exchanger for EA-202









Figure 6.4: Heat Exchanger for EA-202.
(References: CH
4
(v), C
2
H
4
(v), C
2
H
6
(v), C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v) , O
2
(v) , H
2
O(v), H
2
(v) at
25 C and 1 atm)
Stream 9
T: 430C
P: 3.96 atm
Steam Out

Stream 8

T: 110C
P: 1.34 atm
T: 430C
P: 3.96 atm
T: 30C
P: 1.49 atm
Steam in
267

Table 6.7: Summary for EA-202.
*Detail calculation is shown in Appendix A

COMPOUNDS
Stream 8
(T:430C; P:3.96)

Steam In
(T:30C; P:1.49)

Stream 9
(T:430C; P:3.96)

Steam Out
(T:110C; P:1.34)

n
(kmol/h)
H
(kJ/h)x10
3

n
(kmol/h)

H
(kJ/h)x 10
3

n
(kmol/h)

H
(kJ/h)x10
3

n
(kmol/h)
H
(kJ/h)x10
3

CH
4
52 999 - - 52 257 - -
C
2
H
6
15 459 - - 15 111.9 - -
C
2
H
4
38 960 - - 38 237.4 - -
C
3
H
8
658 29743 - - 658 7134 - -
C
3
H
6
713 27119 - - 713 6626 - -
H
2
271 3197 - - 271 980.8 - -
H
2
0 427 6141 1095.6 140.8 427 1824 1095.6 3164
O
2
- - - - - - - -
TOTAL

68619

140.8

17171

3164
268

Q
EA-202
= ( H
stream8
+ H
steamout
) - ( H
stream9
+ H
steamin
)
=(68619 +140.8) x 10
3
kJ /h - (17171 +3164) x10
3
kJ /h
=5.14 x10
7
kJ/h

6.4.5 Heater (H -101)




Figure 6.5: Heater (H -101).
(References: CH
4
(v), C
2
H
4
(v), C
2
H
6
(v), C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v) , O
2
(v) , H
2
O(v), H
2
(v) at
25 C and 1 atm)

Table 6.8: Summary for H -101.
*Detail calculation isshown in Appendix A

Q
1
= ( H
stream2
- H
stream1
)
=81.233 x 10
6
kJ /h - 30.858 x 10
6
kJ /h
=5.04 x10
7
kJ/h
COMPOUNDS
Stream 3 Stream 4
n (kmol/h) H (kJ/h) n (kmol/h) H (kJ/h)
C
3
H
8
1423 30.857 x 10
6
1423 81.2254 x 10
6

C
3
H
6
0.059 1.086 x 10
3
0.059 2.822 x 10
3

TOTAL 30.858 x 10
6
81.233 x 10
6

Stream 3

Stream 4

T: 250C
P: 5.33 atm
T: 430C
P: 3.96 atm
269

6.4.6 Cooler (C -201)





Figure 6.6: Cooler (C -201).

(References: CH
4
(v), C
2
H
4
(v), C
2
H
6
(v), C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v) , O
2
(v) , H
2
O(v), H
2
(v) at
25 C and 1 atm)

Table 6.9: Summary for C -201.
*Detail calculation is shown in Appendix A.
COMPOUNDS

STREAM 9

STREAM 10
(vapor)
STREAM 10
(liquid)
n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n( mol/h) H (kJ/h)
CH
4
50516 247483 52381 -589 7.22 x10
-5
-5.32 x10
-13

C
2
H
6
14107 107881 14629 -106 2.66 x10
-7
-1.62 x10
-17

C
2
H
4
36408 228952 37375.2 -500 4.42 x10
-6
-3.55 x10
-15

C
3
H
8
645551 7004207 657560 -3.09 x10
5
4.79 x10
-8
9.64 x10
-19

C
3
H
6
676489 6284888 713250 -2.93 x10
5
5.51 x10
-7
1.38 x10
-16

H
2
362959 1312232 271310 -7000 1.29 x10
-1
-2.41 x10
-7

H
2
0 299299 1277873 7832 -3.89 4.20 x10
5
-1.62 x10
7

O
2
- - - - - -
Total H

1.646 x10
7


-6.101 x10
5


-1.62 x10
7

Stream 9

Stream 10

T: 150C
P: 2.97 atm
T: 10C
P: 2.67 atm
270

Q
4
= ( H
stream10(l)
+ H
stream10(v)
)

- H
stream9

=-1.62 x10
7
kJ /h - 6.101 x105kJ /h - 1.646 x10
7
kJ /h
=-3.32 x10
7
kJ/h


6.4.7 Distillation Column

Three unit of distillation column (DC) are used in our HYSYS simulation which are:
D-301
D-302
D-303
For each DC we need to consider condenser and reboiler in calculating heat energy
flow.

6.4.7.1 Condenser 1 at D-301









Figure 6.7: Condenser 1 at D-301.

(References: CH
4
(v), C
2
H
4
(v), C
2
H
6
(v), C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v) , O
2
(v) , H
2
O(v), H
2
(v) at
25 C and 1 atm)


T: 107C
P: 2.57 atm
T: 107C
P: 2.57 atm
T: -107C
P: 2.57 atm
Cond 1

Reflux 1

8@D-301

271

Table 6.10: Summary for Condenser 1 at D-301.
*Detail calculation is shown in Appendix A.
SUBSTANCE

COND 1 8@D-301 REFLUX 1
n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n( mol/h) H (kJ/h)
CH
4
50516 -26285 50516 -213712 - -
C
2
H
6
14107 67513 14107 -80873 - -
C
2
H
4
36408 143501 36408 -171959 - -
C
3
H
8
645551 4360126 645551 -4968842 - -
C
3
H
6
676489 3929664 676489 -4639567 - -
H
2
362959 859589 362959 -1382530 - -
H
2
0 1786010 4971072 1.25x10
-2
-5.46 x10
-2
1.79 x10
7
-7.72 x10
7

O
2
1.50 x10
-3
3.66 x10
-3
1.49x10
-3
-5.65 x10
-3
- -
Total H 1.717 x10
7
-11.46x10
6
-7.72 x10
7

272

Q
5
= ( H
reflux
+ H
stream11
)

- H
outlet unit

=-7.72 x10
7
kJ /h - 11.46 x10
6
kJ /h - 1.717 x10
7
kJ /h
=-1.03 x10
7
kJ/h

6.4.7.2 Boiler 1 at D-301





Figure 6.8: Boiler 1 at D-301.
(References: CH
4
(v), C
2
H
4
(v), C
2
H
6
(v), C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v) , O
2
(v) , H
2
O(v), H
2
(v) at
25 C and 1 atm)


Table 6.11: Summary for Boiler 1 at D-301.
*Detail calculation is shown in Appendix A


SUBSTANCE

BOILER 1 7.6@D-301 BOIL-UP 1
n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n( mol/h) H (kJ/h)
H
2
0 3223300 -11.966x10
7
299300 -1.11 x10
7
2.92 x10
6
1.03 x10
7

Total H -11.966x10
7
-1.11 x10
7
1.03 x10
7

Boil-up 1
T: 129C
P: 2.57 atm
Boiler 1
T: 129C
P: 2.57 atm
7.6@D-301
T: 129C
P: 2.57 atm
273

Q
6
= ( H
Boil-up
+ H
stream 12
)

- H
outlet unit

=1.03 x10
7
kJ /h 1.11 x10
7
kJ /h - 11.966 x10
7
kJ /h
=11.89 x10
7
kJ/h

6.4.7.3 Condenser 2 at D-302








Figure 6.9: Condenser 2 at D-302
(References: CH
4
(v), C
2
H
4
(v), C
2
H
6
(v), C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v) , O
2
(v) , H
2
O(v), H
2
(v) at
25 C and 1 atm)
T: -78C
P: 2.47 atm
T: 116C
P: 2.47 atm
T: -116C
P: 2.47 atm
Cond 2

Reflux 2

13@D-302

274

Table 6.12: Summary for Condenser 2 at D-302.











*Detail calculation isshown in Appendix A.
COMPOUNDS COND 2 13@D-302 REFLUX 2
n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n( mol/h) H (kJ/h)
CH
4
3.73 x10
5
-1.26 x10
6
50534.3 -2.26 x10
5
3.23 x10
5
-4.08 x10
6

C
2
H
6
8.66 x10
6
-4.05 x10
7
14113 -8.50 x10
4
8.65 x10
6
-1.79x10
8

C
2
H
4
8.03 x10
6
-3.10 x10
7
36421 -1.81 x10
5
7.99 x10
6
-1.48 x10
8

C
3
H
8
2.42 x10
-4
-1.53 x10
-3
- - 2.42 x10
-4
8.22 x10
-3

C
3
H
6
1.64 x10
-2
-9.22 x10
-2
- - 1.64 x10
-2
6.64 x10
-1

H
2
3.77 x10
5
-1.12 x10
6
363185 -1.48 x10
6
1.39x10
4
-6.92 x10
4

H
2
0 8.82 x10
-1
-3.02 1.38 x10
-2
-6.46 x10
-2
8.68 x10
-1
-3.78 x10
1

O
2
4.65 x10
-3
-1.38 x10
-2
1.497 x10
-3
-6.02 x10
-3
3.15 x10
-3
-3.42 x10
-2

Total H -7.39 x10
7
-1.97 x10
6
-3.31 x10
8

275

Q
7
= ( H
Reflux 2
+ H
13@D-302
)

- H
Cond 2

=-3.31 x10
8
kJ /h - 1.97 x10
6
kJ /h +7.39 x10
7
kJ /h
=-2.6 x10
8
kJ/h

6.4.7.4 Boiler 2 at D-302




Figure 6.10: Boiler 2 at D-302.
(References: C
2
H
4
(v), C
2
H
6
(v), C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v) at 25 C and 1 atm)

Table 6.13: Summary for Boiler 2 at D-302.
*Detail calculation is shown in Appendix A
COMPOUNDS

BOILER 2 14@D-302 BOIL-UP 2
n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n( mol/h) H (kJ/h)
C
2
H
6
1.89 x10
-5
-7.28 x10
-5
- - - -
C
2
H
4
2.4 x10
-9
-7.98 x10
-9
- - - -
C
3
H
8
6.96 x10
6
6.37 x10
6
6.46 x10
5
5.91 x10
5
6.32 x10
6
-2.07 x10
7

C
3
H
6
8.76 x10
6
1.65 x10
7
6.76 x10
5
1.89 x10
6
8.08 x10
6
-2.32 x10
7

Total H 2.29 x10
7
1.87 x10
6
-4.38 x10
7

Boil-up 2
T: -23.2C
P: 2.47 atm
Boiler 2
T: -23.47C
P: 2.47 atm
14@D-302
T: -23.2C
P: 2.47 atm
276

Q
8
= ( H
Boil-up 2
+ H
14@D-302
)

- H
Boiler 2

=-4.38 x10
7
kJ /h +1.87 x10
6
kJ /h - 2.29 x10
7
kJ /h
=-6.49 x10
7
kJ/h

6.4.7.5 Condenser 3 at D-303








Figure 6.11: Condenser 3 at D-303
(References: C
2
H
6
(v), C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v) at 25 C and 1 atm)









Reflux 3

T: -26.28C
P: 2.37 atm
T: -26.28C
P: 2.37 atm
T: -26.28C
P: 2.37 atm
Cond 3

151@D-303

277

Table 6.14: Summary for Condenser 3 at D-303.
*Detail calculation is shown in Appendix A.
Q
9
= ( H
Reflux 3
+ H
15@D-303
)

- H
Cond
3
=3.26 x10
11
kJ /h +3.17 x10
7
kJ /h - 2.16 x10
10
kJ /h
=3.48 x 10
11
kJ/h

6.4.7.6 Boiler 3 at D-303




Figure 6.12: Boiler 3 at D-303
(References: C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v) at 25 C and 1 atm)

COMPOUNDS COND 3 15@D-303 REFLUX 3
n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n( mol/h) H (kJ/h)
C
2
H
6
0.156 -0.391 1.51 x10
-5
-2.48 x10
-4
0.156 -2.56
C
3
H
8
1.39 x10
8
-4.81 x10
8
1.35 x10
4
5.44 x10
5
1.39 x10
8
5.60 x10
9

C
3
H
6
6.97 x10
9
-2.12 x10
10
6.76 x10
5
3.11 x10
7
6.97 x10
9
3.20 x10
11

Total H -2.16 x10
10
3.17 x10
7
3.26 x10
11

Boil-up 3
T: -19.34C
P: 2.47 atm
Boiler 3
T: -19.34C
P: 2.47 atm
17@D-303
T: -19.34C
P: 2.47 atm
278

Table 6.15: Summary for Boiler 3 at D-303.
*Detail calculation is shown in Appendix A.

Q
10
= ( H
Boil-up3
+ H
17@D-303
)

- H
Boiler 3

=-2.14 x10
10
kJ /h +2.47 x10
7
kJ /h - 2.75 x10
11
kJ /h
=-2.96 x10
11
kJ/h

6.4.8 Pump (P-301)




Figure 6.13: Pump (P-301).
(References: C
3
H
6
(l), C
3
H
8
(l) at 25 C and 1 atm)



COMPOUNDS
BOILER 3 17@D-303 BOIL-UP 3
n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n( mol/h) H (kJ/h)
C
3
H
8
7.04 x10
9
2.75 x10
11
6.32 x10
5
2.47 x10
7
7.04 x10
9
-2.13 x10
10

C
3
H
6
1.43 x10
6
6.44 x10
7
97.4 4.39 x10
3
1.43 x10
6
-2.80 x10
7

Total H

2.75 x10
11


2.47 x10
7


-2.14 x10
10

T: -19.34C
P: 2.47 atm
T: -19.10C
P: 5.5 atm
Stream 17
Stream 16
279

Table 6.16: Summary for P301.




*Detail calculation is shown in Appendix A.

Q
11
= H
stream17


- H
stream16

=-2.14 x10
10
kJ /h +2.47 x10
7
kJ /h - 2.75 x10
11
kJ /h
=-2.96 x10
11
kJ/h

6.4.9 Heater (H 301)





Figure 6.14: Heater (H -301).
(References: C
3
H
6
(v), C
3
H
8
(v) at 25 C and 1 atm)




COMPOUNDS

STREAM 16 STREAM 17
n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n(mol/h) H(kJ/h)
C
3
H
8
6.32 x10
5
2.47 x10
7
6.32 x10
5
2.47 x10
7

C
3
H
6
97.4 4.39 x10
3
97.4 4.39 x10
3

TOTAL H

2.47 x10
7


2.47 x10
7

Stream 17

Stream 18

T: -19C
P: 5.5 atm
T: 5C
P: 5.4 atm
280

Table 6.17: Summary for H -301.
*Detail calculation are shown in Appendix A
Q
12
= ( H
stream18
- H
stream17
)
=-8.7805 x10
5
kJ /h - 2.47 x10
7
kJ /h
= -2.5584 x10
7
kJ/h



















SUBSTANCE

STREAM 17

STREAM 18

n(mol/h) H(kJ/h) n(mol/h) H(kJ/h)
C
3
H
8
6.32 x10
5
2.47 x10
7
6.32 x10
5
-877932
C
3
H
6
97.4 4.39 x10
3
97.4 -117.64
Total H


2.47 x10
7



-8.7805 x10
5

281

6.5 Comparison of Energy Balance

The Table 6.18 shows the comparison of the energy balance between the manual
calculation value and HYSYS value.

Table 6.18: Comparison of Energy Balance between Manual and HYSYS Data.
EQUIPMENT

UNITS

MANUAL
CALCULATION
VALUE
(kJ/h)
HYSYS
VALUE
(kJ/h)
DEVIATION
ERROR
(%)
Q
1
H-101 4.86x10
7
4.84 x10
7
0.41
Q
2
R-101 1.27x10
8
1.01 x10
8
20.47
Q
3
R-102 -1.62x10
8
-6.65 x10
7
58.95
Q
EA-201
EA-201 9.74 x 10
7
3.32 x10
7
0.66
Q
EA-202
EA-202 5.14 x10
7
4.9 x10
7
0.05
Q
4
C-201 -3.32x10
7
-3.14 x10
7
5.42
Q
5
D-301 -1.01x10
8
-1.24 x10
8
22.77
Q
6
D-301 1.19x10
8
1.16 x10
8
2.52
Q
7
D-302 -2.68x10
8
2.7 x10
8
0.75
Q
8
D-302 -6.49x10
7
2.52 x10
8
150.00
Q
9
D-303 3.48x10
11
-1.25 x10
11
64.08
Q
10
D-303 -2.96x10
11
1.25 x10
11
142.23
Q
11
P-301 2.67x10
4
2.08 x10
4
22.10
Q
12
H-301 -2.60x10
7
1.20 x10
7
316.67
OVERALL Q
SYSTEM
5.18 x 10
10
-1.24 x10
11
339.00






282

6.6 Conclusion

Some of the energy values calculated manually resulting high deviation error
compared to the values calculated that obtained from the Aspen HYSYS. The
assumption made is no heat mixing due to no effect in our calculation. The deviation
error is probably caused by the difference method in calculating the heat energy. In
energy balance calculation, the value for the mass and mole flowrates are taken from
HYSYS data. This is because the mass flowrate that calculated manually by using
mass balance is used in simulate our reaction in HYSYS that can be seen in our
previous chapter, Chapter 5. Besides that, the value for calculating the density for
each compound is determined by using mass flowrate and volume flowrate that can
be obtained from HYSYS data. Thus, it eases our calculation and reduces unknown
value. Hence, our heat energy value should be the same as in HYSYS data. The
specific heat for each compound is obtained by using formula in Felder and Ressau
book. In HYSYS, Peng-Robinson (PR) was used for gas phase equation. Manual
calculation of energy did not consider in the heat mixing. Probably, the high
deviation error is due to the differences in calculating the specific heat that caused of
using difference reference or assumption made.











283


Reference

David M. Himmelblau, J . B. (2004). Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical
Engineering. United States: Prentice Hall Professional Technical References.


283






CHAPTER 7



PROCESS SIMULATION



7.1 Process Simulation

Process simulations are important in designing and test the engineering system that
involving chemical process for optimizes the system. Process simulation also used to
simulate the process flow in industry before the actual process starts (IBM, 2013).
The simulation will provide the various data for the process industries such as mass
flow, composition of each of components and heat flow for every stream.

7.2 Process Description

HYSYS 2006 software is used in completing the process simulation for our
propylene production process. In propylene process, there are main reactions and
side reactions. The raw material components involved for this process are propane,
(C
3
H
8
) and oxygen (O
2
). In this process, the main product is propylene and the side
products are methane (CH
4
), ethane (C
2
H
6
), ethylene (C
2
H
4
), hydrogen (H
2
), and
water (H
2
O). The first step in HYSYS simulation is by adding all the components
into the component lists that involve in our process. After that, Peng Robinson (PR)
is chosen as our fluid packages. This is because all the reaction is in gas phase,
suitable for the hydrocarbon treatment systems and applicable to vapour pressure
models. Furthermore, PR is suitable for large range in temperature, T and pressure, P
value (Selecting Chemical Property method, 2013). The characteristic stated are
related in our process. As we know, the entire component in propylene process is
hydrocarbon component like ethylene, ethane, propylene and propane. Besides that,
284



our process reaction occurs in high temperature which is 580
o
C. All the reactions
involved will be added into the set reaction. In propylene process, there are five
reactions that involves in the system. The table 7.1 shows the reaction on production
propylene process. All the set reaction also needs to be added to the fluid packages
before starting the process simulation system.

Table 7.1: the reaction of Propylene in oxidative process (Wenzel, 2011)
Reactor Reaction



Reformer
Main Reaction
C3H8 C3H6 + H2
Side Reaction :
C3H8 C2H4 + CH4
C3H8 +H2 C2H6 + CH4
C2H4 +H2 C2H6


Oxyreactor

C3H8 +O2 C3H6 +H20
H2 +O2 H20


7.2.1 Reaction Section

The basis feed is calculated manually by using backward calculation. Our target
propylene production is 250,000 metric tonnes per year. Therefore, our basis feed
value to the first reactor is 1373 kmole/hr of propane feed. Stream 1 contains pure
propane in a gas phase as the feed stream that entering the equilibrium reactor. The
condition for the pressure is set up at 5.5 bar and 100 % vapour phase fraction. 5
o
C
of temperature is calculated by simulation for stream 1.

In Chapter 5, we already explain about the process background for this
process. The condition of the reaction that occurs in the reactor is in vapour phase.
The value for the pressure and temperature are set at 5.28 bar and 580
o
C. This is due
to the inlet temperature of propane is 510
o
C before feed is fed into the reactor. This
285



is because the propane needs to be heated up. The heat exchanger (EA-201) and
heater (H-101) are installed in the simulation. The propane will flow through the heat
exchanger at 5
o
C and 5.5 bar and for the outlet is at 250
o
C and 5.38 bar, with
assumed that the pressure drop is 100 kPa. At the heater part, the propane will be
heated up until 510
o
C and at 5.28 bar with assumed that the pressure drop is 10 kPa.

Then, the first reactor will be operates at 580
o
C and 5.18 bar. According to
the PETRONAS Simulation engineer during Design Project Talk on 1
st
November
2013, our process technology needs to use equilibrium reactor to replace the
reformer and conversion reactor to replace the oxyreactor. The K-value taken from
journal as our reference was used in equilibrium reactor shown in Table 7.2.

Table 7.2: K-value for the reaction involves (Farjoo et al, 2010)
Reaction K-Value
1 K
1
=3.17 x 10
3
exp ( -61.79/RT )
2 K
2
=1.34 x 10
7
exp ( -27393/T )
3 K
3
=3.36 x 10
4
exp ( -14723/T )
4 K
4
=1.53 x 10
9
exp ( -1598.23/T )

Where, R is the molar gas constant and T is the operating temperature of the system.

The conversion of propane for the first reactor is 47% which it is in the range
of conversion in real industries. Then, all the product produce will enter the second
reactor for further reaction. Conversion reactor was chosen because our reactor is
adiabatic condition; and there is no information for K-value at that reaction; and easy
to set the conversion reaction that occurred in the real process. The second reactor
operates at 580
o
C and 5.13 bar. In R-102 reactor, there are two inlet and two outlet
streams. The two inlet streams are Stream 6 and Stream 5 and for the two outlet
streams are Stream 7 and bottom stream. Oxygen is injected to the conversion
reactor and act as a limiting reactant which is stream 5. The set conversion for
propane is 10% and oxygen is assumed reacts fully with the hydrogen. Therefore, no
more excess oxygen flow out from the reactor.

286



7.2.2 Heat Recovery Section

The next step for simulation process is to reduce the product temperature in order to
separate and change the phase of the product. The unit systems used in our HYSYS
are two heat exchangers and one cooler. The first heat exchanger will cool down the
product by using the raw material as the cooling agent. The stream 7 condition of the
heat exchanger at the inlet stream is at 580
o
C and 5.13 bar, while the outlet stream
which is stream 8 is at 430
o
C and 4.13 bar with assumed that the pressure drop is
100 kPa.

After that, the product from first heat exchanger will enter the second heat
exchanger. Water steam is used as the cooling agent used for this heat. The inlet flow
for water steam is at 30
o
C and 1.5 bar. The outlet flow in the tube is at 430
o
C and
4.2 bar. The outlet flow condition for product is at 150
o
C and 3.2 bar with 100 kPa
pressure drop. The outlet steam flow which is stream 9 is at 110
o
C and 1.35 bar with
assumed that the pressure drop is 15 kPa. The last stage for heat recovery section is
using cooler. The product will flow out through a cooler before enter distillation
column at 10
o
C and 2.83 bar which is stream 10. At this stage the waste water will
change it phase into liquid.

7.2.3 Separation section

At this section, in order to separate the water from all gases, distillation column units
are used in order to separate water from all gaseous, side products from major
product and raw material from pure product. The first distillation column (D-301) is
used to separate water from the gaseous. We chose distillation column rather than
separator because the separator is not totally separates the water compositions. This
condition will might affect the next distillation column. The water might be frozen in
the equipment because the temperature condition of the water is in negative value.
The inlet condition for D-301 is same as outlet condition in the cooler. The outlet
stream is separate into two streams which are bottom for waste water, stream 12 and
overhead for gaseous stream 11. At the overhead or 11 stream condition is at 32.23
o
C and 2.6 bar while at bottom or 12 stream condition is at 128.7
o
C and 2.6 bar.
Both streams are calculated automatically by the simulation software. Water
287



composition is totally separated from the mixture. After that, all the gaseous in the
overhead stream will enter the second distillation column (D-302). In order to
converge the system, reflux ratio and component recovery specifications are chosen.
However, the value for the spec is try and error.

The second distillation column is to separate the propane and propylene from
other gaseous. The pressure and spec were set in order to separate 100 % of
component for both streams. The pressure was set at 2.5 bar for stream 13 and
stream 14 while component recovery was used for both spec and total separation was
set in order to separate 100 % of component. The temperature for stream 13 and
stream 14 was automatically calculated by software which is -119
o
C and -23.16
o
C.

The third distillation column (D-303) is installed to separate the propane and
propylene. Both of the boiling points for these components are nearer. Therefore, it
is difficult to separate 100 % for each component. The temperature and pressure at
the stream 15 is at -26.3
o
C and 2.4 bar, while at stream 16 is at -19.34
o
C and 2.5 bar
respectively. The pressure is set manually and the temperature is calculated
automatically for both streams. For propylene stream, we got 98.02 % purity and for
propane stream we got 99.99 % purity that will recycle back to the feed raw material.
However, before the unconverted propane is recycle, pump and heater are
needed to change similar to propane feed condition. The pump will increase the
pressure of unconverted propane from 2.5 bar to 5.6 bar. We choose pump because
the unconverted propane is in liquid phase. While, the heater will heat up the
propane until it change into 100% vapour phase. The condition before enter the
heater is at -19.1
o
C and 5.5 bar, while the outlet stream which is stream 18 is set at 5
o
C and 5.5 bar with assume that the pressure drop is 10 kPa. The last step in mix the
propane feed with unconverted propane with mixer.







288



7.3 Error of deviation

Error of deviation is calculated to compare the value from manual calculation and
value from process simulation. The manual calculation is calculated by using
assumption and theoretical data. The HYSYS simulation is calculated automatically
from its database. Besides that, the HYSYS simulation is considered the condition of
the process such as temperature, pressure drop, pressure and others unlike the
manual calculation. Therefore, comparison for both techniques needs to consider.
We are considered the error for mass balance and energy balance result. The error of
deviation was calculated by using the following equation.

Error of Deviation (%) =
hysys manual
manual
x 100 (7.1)
289























Figure 7.1: The process flow diagram in Hysys Simulation
290



Table 7.3: The material stream table in Hysys Simulation


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Vapour Frac.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.8601 0.8099
Temperature
o
C 4.995 4.995 250 510 -164.1 580 580 429.6 150 10 -32.4
Pressure Bar 5.5 5.5 5.38 5.28 5.13 5.13 5.13 4.13 3.13 2.83 2.6
Molar Flow Mole/h 739.2 1373 1373 1373 149.7 2055 2085 2085 2085 2085 1786
Mass Flow Kg/h 6.05e4 6.05e4 6.5e4 6.05e4 4789 6.05e4 6.53e4 6.53e4 6.53e4 6.53e4 5.99e4
L.Vol. Flow M
3
/h 119.5 119.5 133.3 119.5 4.209 135.8 133.3 133.3 133.3 133.3 127.9
Heat Flow KJ /h -6.5e7 -7.9e7 -1.13e8 -6.5e7 -8.3e5 3.6e7 -3.13e7 -6.35e7 -1.13e8 -1.44e8 -6.85e7
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Steam in Steam out
Vapour Frac. 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
Temperature
o
C 128.7 -119.4 -23.16 -26.30 -19.34 -19.11 4.994 4.994 30 110
Pressure Bar 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.5 5.6 5.5 5.5 1.5 1.35
Molar Flow Mole/h 299.3 464 1322 689.9 632.2 632.2 632.2 633.3 1048 1048
Mass Flow Kg/h 5392 2988 5.69e4 2.91e4 2.79e4 2.79e4 2.79e4 2.793e4 1.89e4 1.89e4
L .Vol. Flow M
3
/h 5.403 17.04 110.8 55.81 55.02 55.02 55.02 55.12 18.92 18.92
Heat Flow KJ /h -8.32e7 -5.11e6 -8.1e7 -2.01e6 -7.91e7 -7.90e7 -6.71e7 -7.72e7 -2.51e8 -2.51e8
291



Table 7.4: The composition stream table in Hysys Simulation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Methane - - - - - 0.0246 0.0242 0.0242 0.0242 0.0242 0.0283
Ethane - - - - - 0.0069 0.0068 0.0068 0.0068 0.0068 0.0079
Propane 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 - 0.3289 0.3096 0.3096 0.3096 0.3096 0.3614
Propene - 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 - 0.3144 0.3244 0.3244 0.3244 0.3244 0.3788
Ethylene - - - - - 0.0177 0.0175 0.0175 0.0175 0.0175 0.0204
Hydrogen - - - - - 0.3075 0.1741 0.1741 0.1741 0.1741 0.2032
Oxygen - - - - 1.0000 - - - - - -
H20 - - - - - - 0.1435 0.1435 0.1435 0.1435 -
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Steam in Steam out
Methane - 0.1089 - - - - - - - - -
Ethane - 0.0304 - - - - - - - - -
Propane - - 0.4883 0.0195 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.0243 0.9999 -
Propene - - 0.5117 0.9805 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.9757 0.0001 -
Ethylene - 0.0785 - - - - - - - - -
Hydrogen - 0.7822 - - - - - - - - -
Oxygen - - - - - - - - - - -
H20 1.000 - - - - - - - - - -
292




Table 7.5: The Energy stream table in Hysys Simulation

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6

Heat Flow

KJ /h


4.839x10
7


1.01x10
8


-6.645x10
7


3.138x10
7


1.236x10
8


1.158x10
8

Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12

Heat flow

KJ /h


2.70x10
8


2.523x10
8


1.246x10
11


1.245x10
11


2.08x10
4


1.198x10
7

293



7.3.1 Mass balance

The table 7.6 shows the comparison of mass balance between manual calculation value and
hysys value. The error of deviation for both value are not too much different. The highest
error deviation is 9.91% while the lowest error deviation is 0.002%.

Table 7.6: Comparison of mass balance
Stream Manual calculation
value
Hysys value Deviation, %
S1 35302.47 32600 7.66
S2=S3=S4 60390.35 60530 0.23
S5 4788.79 4789 0.002
S6 60390.35 60530 0.23
S7=S8=S9=S10 65179.14 65310 0.2
S11 59193.84 59920 1.23
S12 5985.30 5392 9.91
S13 3265.67 2988 8.5
S14 55928.17 56930 1.79
S15 30534.42 29060 4.83
S16=S17=S18=S19 25393.75 27880 9.79













294



7.3.1 Energy Balance

The table 7.7 shows the comparison of the energy balance between the manual calculation
value and hysys value.

Table 7.7: Comparison of energy balance
Equipment Units Manual
calculation value
Hysys value Deviation (%)
Q1 H-101 4.86x10
7
4.84 x10
7
0.41
Q2 R-101 1.27x10
8
1.01 x10
8
20.47
Q3 R-102 -1.62x10
8
-6.65 x10
7
58.95
Q4 a) EA-201 -3.20x10
7
-3.32 x10
7
3.75
Q4 b) EA-201 3.28x10
7
3.32 x10
7
1.21
Q5 a) EA-202 -4.94x10
7
-4.9 x10
7
0.81
Q5 b) EA-202 4.75x10
7
4.90 x10
7
3.16
Q6 C-201 -3.32x10
7
-3.14 x10
7
5.42
Q7 D-301 -1.01x10
8
-1.24 x10
8
22.77
Q8 D-301 1.19x10
8
1.16 x10
8
2.52
Q9 D-302 -2.68x10
8
-2.7 x10
8
0.75
Q10 D-302 -6.49x10
8
2.5 x10
8
150
Q11 D-303 3.48x10
11
-1.25 x10
11
64.08
Q12 D-303 -2.96x10
11
1.25 x10
11
142.23
Q13 P-301 2.67x10
4
2.08 x10
4
22.10
Q14 H-301 -2.60x10
7
1.20 x10
7
316.67









295



7.4 Conclusion

The main objective of this chapter simulates the process of Propylene by using simulation
HYSYS software. From the simulation, we obtained 98% of purity of propylene with mass
flow rates of 29060 kg/hr. Besides that, the other objective is to make a comparison between
HYSYS simulation and the manual calculation. It can be seen that most of the comparison
having a percentage error either low or high. This is because there is different data between
fluid package which is calculated from its software and manual calculation which is
calculated from reference book data. However, estimation of real plant process of flow rate
might be relied on the hysys simulation rather than manual calculation.
























296



REFERENCES


Farjoo, A., Khorasheh, F., Niknaddaf, S., & Soltani, M. (201). Kinetic modeling of side
reactions in propane dehydrogenation over Pt-Sn/y-Al2O3 catalyst. Scientia Iranica , 458-
464.
IBM. (n.d.). Retrieved 12 16, 2013, from Process Simulations:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/dmndhelp/v6rxmx/index.jsp?topic=/com.ibm.btools
.help.modeler.doc/doc/concepts/simulation/simulation.html
Selecting Chemical Property method. (n.d.). Retrieved 12 16, 2013, from
related:www.engineering-
resource.com/Files/Selecting%20Chemical%20Property%20method.pptx fluid package
selection in hysys
Wenzel, D. I. (2011). Uhde STAR process. Tianjin: ThyssenKrupp.























APPENDICES
A
Summary of Process Description

Our plant is designed to produce 250,000 metric ton per year. The process
began when propane is introduced to the reformer (first reactor) where it was heated
first, to meet up the temperature of reactor of 510C. There are fuel gas and air
introduced to promote combustion in the reformer as well as to heat the reformer.
This reactor is where the main reaction occurs which is the dehydrogenation of
propane and this reaction is shown as in equation (1). Meanwhile, equation (2) and
(3) shows the side reaction occurred. During the reaction, there will be minor
amount of coke deposited on the catalyst (Platinum Tin Alumina). However, most of
the coke will be converted into carbon dioxide.

The output from the reformer will then go to oxy-reactor (second reactor) in
which oxygen will be introduced to react with the hydrogen that comes from the
reformer. This reaction will convert hydrogen into water which in turn will shift the
equilibrium of dehydrogenation to higher conversion and selectivity (Sascha, 2011).
This reaction is represented as shown in Equation (4) and (5).

The product and side product from the oxy-reactor needs to be cooled down
to negative temperature as to make our product in the form of liquid. So, this is done
by passing through the components to the heat exchangers and condenser. Then, it
will enter the first distillation column (DC 1) where the main purpose is to remove
the water from the process. Meanwhile, the other components will remains at the top
stream of the DC.

The second DC functioned to remove other components (fuel gas) apart from
propane and propylene. They are removed at the top stream of the DC. The process
continues to enter the third DC where here we will get our product, propylene.
Since, propylene has lower boiling point, it goes to the top stream of the DC. In
contrast, propane will goes to the bottom stream to be recycled to the feed raw
material. All of this description is illustrated in the modified process flow diagram
which is attached at the Appendix A.






3

8

3

6
+
2
(1)

8
+
2

2

6
+
4
(2)

8

4
+
2

4
(3)

8
+ 0.5
2

3

6
+
2
(4)

2
+ 0.5
2

2
(5)

R-101
R-102
I-13
I-12
I - 1 8
D-302
D-303
I-17
EA-201
oxygen
propane
Fuel Gas
Propene
B-101
I-11
I-14
Fuel gas
Air
Boiler feed
Water
C-201
EA-202
H-101
D-301
Waste
water
P-301 H-301
T : 10 C
P : 2.8 Bar
T : -32.4 C
P : 2.6 Bar
T : 150 C
P : 3.13 Bar
T : 5 C
P : 5.5 Bar
T : 250 C
P : 5.38 Bar
T : 5 C
P : 5.5 Bar
T : 580 C
P : 5.13 Bar
T : 580 C
P : 5.13 Bar
T : 510 C
P : 5.28 Bar
T : -19 C
P : 2.5 Bar
T : -119.4 C
P : 2.5 Bar
T : -26 C
P : 2.4 Bar
T : 128 C
P : 2.6 Bar
T : -19 C
P : 5.6 Bar
T : 5 C
P : 5.5 Bar
T : -23 C
P : 2.5 Bar
T : 430 C
P : 4.13 Bar
12
13
11
10
9
8 7
5
3
2
1
18 17
14
16
15
19
20
22
23
6
4
21
EQUIPMENT LIST
B 101 : BOILER R 101 : REFORMER REACTOR R 102 : OXYREACTOR H 101 : HEATER
EA 201 : HEAT EXCHANGER EA 202 : HEAT EXCHANGER C 201 : COOLER D 301 : DISTILATION COLUMN
D 302 : ETHANIZER D-303 : PROPANIZER P 301 : PUMP H 301 : HEATER
PRODUCTION OF 250,000
OF
PROPYLENE PLANT
Fri Dec 20 15:27:59 2013 Case: C:\USERS\KAMALZAKI\DESKTOP\TRIAL ENERGY BALANCE AFTER RECYCLE LIQUID .HSC Flowsheet: Case (Main)
1
R-
101
E
H-101
4
Q1
6
.
Q2
R-102
C
7
'
Q3
5
EA-201
8
3
EA-202
9
STEAM
IN
STEAM
OUT
10
q4
C-201
D-301
11
12
Q5
Q6
13
14
Q8
Q7
15
16
Q9
Q10
M-101
Recycle
R
2
P-301
17
Q11
H-301
18
Q12
19
T-100
T-101
THE MATERIAL STREAM OF PROPYLENE PROCESS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Vapour Frac.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.8601 0.8099
Temperature
o
C 4.995 4.995 250 510 -164.1 580 580 429.6 150 10 -32.4
Pressure Bar 5.5 5.5 5.38 5.28 5.13 5.13 5.13 4.13 3.13 2.83 2.6
Molar Flow Mole/h 739.2 1373 1373 1373 149.7 2055 2085 2085 2085 2085 1786
Mass Flow Kg/h 6.05e4 6.05e4 6.5e4 6.05e4 4789 6.05e4 6.53e4 6.53e4 6.53e4 6.53e4 5.99e4
L.Vol. Flow M
3
/h 119.5 119.5 133.3 119.5 4.209 135.8 133.3 133.3 133.3 133.3 127.9
Heat Flow KJ /h -6.5e7 -7.9e7 -1.13e8 -6.5e7 -8.3e5 3.6e7 -3.13e7 -6.35e7 -1.13e8 -1.44e8 -6.85e7
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Steam in Steam out
Vapour Frac. 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
Temperature
o
C 128.7 -119.4 -23.16 -26.30 -19.34 -19.11 4.994 4.994 30 110
Pressure Bar 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.5 5.6 5.5 5.5 1.5 1.35
Molar Flow Mole/h 299.3 464 1322 689.9 632.2 632.2 632.2 633.3 1048 1048
Mass Flow Kg/h 5392 2988 5.69e4 2.91e4 2.79e4 2.79e4 2.79e4 2.793e4 1.89e4 1.89e4
L .Vol. Flow M
3
/h 5.403 17.04 110.8 55.81 55.02 55.02 55.02 55.12 18.92 18.92
Heat Flow KJ /h -8.32e7 -5.11e6 -8.1e7 -2.01e6 -7.91e7 -7.90e7 -6.71e7 -7.72e7 -2.51e8 -2.51e8
THE COMPOSITION STREAM OF PROPYLENE PROCESS
1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11
Methane - - - - - 0.0246 0.0242 0.0242 0.0242 0.0242 0.0283
Ethane - - - - - 0.0069 0.0068 0.0068 0.0068 0.0068 0.0079
Propane 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 - 0.3289 0.3096 0.3096 0.3096 0.3096 0.3614
Propene - 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 - 0.3144 0.3244 0.3244 0.3244 0.3244 0.3788
Ethylene - - - - - 0.0177 0.0175 0.0175 0.0175 0.0175 0.0204
Hydrogen - - - - - 0.3075 0.1741 0.1741 0.1741 0.1741 0.2032
Oxygen - - - - 1.0000 - - - - - -
H20 - - - - - - 0.1435 0.1435 0.1435 0.1435 -
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Steam in Steam out
Methane - 0.1089 - - - - - - - - -
Ethane - 0.0304 - - - - - - - - -
Propane - - 0.4883 0.0195 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.0243 0.9999 -
Propene - - 0.5117 0.9805 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.9757 0.0001 -
Ethylene - 0.0785 - - - - - - - - -
Hydrogen - 0.7822 - - - - - - - - -
Oxygen - - - - - - - - - - -
H20 1.000 - - - - - - - - - -
THE ENERGY STREAM OF PROPYLENE PROCESS

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6

Heat Flow

KJ /h


4.839x10
7


1.01x10
8


-6.645x10
7


3.138x10
7


1.236x10
8


1.158x10
8

Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12

Heat flow

KJ /h


2.7x10
8


2.52x10
8


1.246x10
11


1.245x10
11


2.08x10
4


1.198x10
7

LEGENDS
Calgary, Alberta
CANADA
Case Name: C:\USERS\KAMALZAKI\DESKTOP\TRIAL ENERGY BALANCE AFTER R
Unit Set: NewUser
Date/Time: Fri Dec 20 19:37:19 2013
Workbook: Case (Main)
Energy Streams Fluid Pkg: All
Name
Heat Flow (kJ /h)
Q1
4.840e+007
Q2
1.010e+008
Q3
-6.645e+007
q4
3.139e+007
Q5
1.235e+008
Name
Heat Flow (kJ /h)
Q6
1.158e+008
Q8
2.523e+008
Q7
2.700e+008
Q9
1.246e+011
Q10
1.246e+011
Name
Heat Flow (kJ /h)
Q11
2.082e+004
Q12
1.199e+007
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Case Name: C:\USERS\KAMALZAKI\DESKTOP\HYSYS UPDATED BASIS PROPAN
Unit Set: NewUser
Date/Time: Fri Dec 20 19:40:48 2013
Workbook: Case (Main)
Material Streams Fluid Pkg: All
Name
Vapour Fraction
Temperature
Pressure
Molar Flow
Mass Flow
Liquid Volume Flow
Heat Flow
(C)
(bar)
(kgmole/h)
(kg/h)
(m3/h)
(kJ /h)
1
1.0000 *
4.992
5.500 *
739.2 *
3.260e+004
64.33
-7.842e+007
4
1.0000 *
510.0 *
5.280
1373
6.053e+004
119.5
-6.504e+007
6
1.0000
580.0 *
5.130
2055
6.053e+004
135.8
3.597e+007
.
0.0000
580.0
5.130
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
7
1.0000
580.0 *
5.130
2085
6.531e+004
133.3
-3.131e+007
Name
Vapour Fraction
Temperature
Pressure
Molar Flow
Mass Flow
Liquid Volume Flow
Heat Flow
(C)
(bar)
(kgmole/h)
(kg/h)
(m3/h)
(kJ /h)
'
0.0000
580.0
5.130
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
5
1.0000 *
-164.1
5.130 *
149.7 *
4789
4.209
-8.321e+005
8
1.0000
429.6
4.130
2085
6.531e+004
133.3
-6.348e+007
3
1.0000
250.0 *
5.380
1373
6.053e+004
119.5
-1.134e+008
9
1.0000
150.0 *
3.130
2085
6.531e+004
133.3
-1.125e+008
Name
Vapour Fraction
Temperature
Pressure
Molar Flow
Mass Flow
Liquid Volume Flow
Heat Flow
(C)
(bar)
(kgmole/h)
(kg/h)
(m3/h)
(kJ /h)
STEAM IN
0.0000
30.00 *
1.500 *
1048
1.888e+004
18.92
-2.995e+008
STEAM OUT
1.0000
110.0 *
1.350
1048
1.888e+004
18.92
-2.505e+008
10
0.8601
10.00 *
2.830
2085
6.531e+004
133.3
-1.439e+008
11
0.8102
-32.39
2.600
1786
5.992e+004
127.9
-6.845e+007
12
0.0000
128.7
2.600
299.3
5392
5.403
-8.322e+007
Name
Vapour Fraction
Temperature
Pressure
Molar Flow
Mass Flow
Liquid Volume Flow
Heat Flow
(C)
(bar)
(kgmole/h)
(kg/h)
(m3/h)
(kJ /h)
13
1.0000
-119.4
2.500
464.0
2988
17.04
-5.112e+006
14
0.0000
-23.16
2.500
1322
5.693e+004
110.8
-8.100e+007
15
0.0000
-26.30
2.400
689.9
2.906e+004
55.81
-2.018e+006
16
0.0000
-19.34
2.500
632.1
2.787e+004
55.01
-7.905e+007
2
1.0000
4.995
5.500
1373
6.053e+004
119.5
-1.456e+008
Name
Vapour Fraction
Temperature
Pressure
Molar Flow
Mass Flow
Liquid Volume Flow
Heat Flow
(C)
(bar)
(kgmole/h)
(kg/h)
(m3/h)
(kJ /h)
17
0.0000 *
-19.11
5.600 *
632.1
2.787e+004
55.01
-7.903e+007
18
1.0000 *
4.994
5.500
632.1
2.787e+004
55.01
-6.705e+007
19
1.0000
4.994 *
5.500 *
633.3 *
2.793e+004
55.12
-6.718e+007
Compositions Fluid Pkg: All
Name
Comp Mole Frac (Methane)
Comp Mole Frac (Ethane)
Comp Mole Frac (Propane)
Comp Mole Frac (Propene)
Comp Mole Frac (Ethylene)
Comp Mole Frac (Hydrogen)
Comp Mole Frac (Oxygen)
Comp Mole Frac (H2O)
1
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
1.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
4
0.0000
0.0000
0.9999
0.0001
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
6
0.0246
0.0069
0.3289
0.3144
0.0177
0.3075
0.0000
0.0000
.
0.0246
0.0069
0.3288
0.3144
0.0177
0.3076
0.0000
0.0000
7
0.0242
0.0068
0.3096
0.3244
0.0175
0.1741
0.0000
0.1435
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CANADA
Case Name: C:\USERS\KAMALZAKI\DESKTOP\HYSYS UPDATED BASIS PROPAN
Unit Set: NewUser
Date/Time: Fri Dec 20 19:40:48 2013
Workbook: Case (Main) (continued)
Compositions (continued) Fluid Pkg: All
Name
Comp Mole Frac (Methane)
Comp Mole Frac (Ethane)
Comp Mole Frac (Propane)
Comp Mole Frac (Propene)
Comp Mole Frac (Ethylene)
Comp Mole Frac (Hydrogen)
Comp Mole Frac (Oxygen)
Comp Mole Frac (H2O)
'
0.0242
0.0068
0.3096
0.3244
0.0175
0.1741
0.0000
0.1435
5
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
1.0000 *
0.0000 *
8
0.0242
0.0068
0.3096
0.3244
0.0175
0.1741
0.0000
0.1435
3
0.0000
0.0000
0.9999
0.0001
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
9
0.0242
0.0068
0.3096
0.3244
0.0175
0.1741
0.0000
0.1435
Name
Comp Mole Frac (Methane)
Comp Mole Frac (Ethane)
Comp Mole Frac (Propane)
Comp Mole Frac (Propene)
Comp Mole Frac (Ethylene)
Comp Mole Frac (Hydrogen)
Comp Mole Frac (Oxygen)
Comp Mole Frac (H2O)
STEAM IN
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
1.0000 *
STEAM OUT
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
10
0.0242
0.0068
0.3096
0.3244
0.0175
0.1741
0.0000
0.1435
11
0.0283
0.0079
0.3614
0.3788
0.0204
0.2032
0.0000
0.0000
12
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.0000
Name
Comp Mole Frac (Methane)
Comp Mole Frac (Ethane)
Comp Mole Frac (Propane)
Comp Mole Frac (Propene)
Comp Mole Frac (Ethylene)
Comp Mole Frac (Hydrogen)
Comp Mole Frac (Oxygen)
Comp Mole Frac (H2O)
13
0.1089
0.0304
0.0000
0.0000
0.0785
0.7823
0.0000
0.0000
14
0.0000
0.0000
0.4883
0.5117
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
15
0.0000
0.0000
0.0196
0.9804
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
16
0.0000
0.0000
0.9998
0.0002
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
2
0.0000
0.0000
0.9999
0.0001
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
Name
Comp Mole Frac (Methane)
Comp Mole Frac (Ethane)
Comp Mole Frac (Propane)
Comp Mole Frac (Propene)
Comp Mole Frac (Ethylene)
Comp Mole Frac (Hydrogen)
Comp Mole Frac (Oxygen)
Comp Mole Frac (H2O)
17
0.0000
0.0000
0.9998
0.0002
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
18
0.0000
0.0000
0.9998
0.0002
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
19
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.9998 *
0.0002 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
0.0000 *
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APPENDIX
B
( PRICE OF MATERIAL LIST)
World Trade Atlas
China - Exports -Total-
27111200 Propane, Liguef
Quantity
January - September
% Chanse
Rank Country -KG -2011 -l(G -2912 -Kc -2013 -tilL}-
0 -- World
-
1 Vietnam
2 Philippines
3 Hong Kong
4 Korea, South
5 Malaysia
6 Macau
7 Cambodia
8 lndonesia
9 Australia
10 New Caledonia
360s16797
1494A3673
80455032
59627596
34758762
23031155
3932404
743287
0
0
o
@85741"
224oV42
&24G93
o
o
WorldTradeAtlas
China - Exports -Total-
27111lXXl Propane, liquef
Avg Prke
{Matraysian
Ringgit}
408;t249o5 3ss183876
13ffi348sr0 L34600904
979t-7855 97s88629
62572217 9282186
78794158 287r96L3
18220686 10117010
s636880
3298141
3153000
2301000
2000000
-13.1
-1.05
4.34
2.73
-53.55
44.48
-19.31
47.t9
55.73
o
0
,anuary- Sept'mbr
%
Rank KG -2011 KG -2012 KG -2013
0
*
World
-
1 Vietnam
2 Philippines
3 Hong Kong
4 Korea, South
5 Malaysia
6 Macau
7 Cambodia
8 lndonesia
9 Australia
10 New Caledonia
2.58
2.47
2.66
2.73
2.58
2.68
2.37
2.65
0
0
0
2.96
2,73
2.89
2.9s
3.48
2.78
2.81
2.69
2.W
0
0
3
2.99
2.89
2.85
3.85
2.9L
2.82
2.96
2.9L
3.05
2.94
1.35
9.52
0
-3.39
10.63
4.58
0.36
10.04
2.46
llYorld Trade Atlas
China - Exports -Total-
27111200 Propane, liquef
Millions of ldalaysian Ringgit
,anuary - September
Rank Country
0
-
World
-
1 Vietnam
2 Philippines
3 Hong Kong
4 Korea, South
5 Malaysia
5 Macau
7 Cambodia
8 lndonesia
9 Australia
10 New Caledonia
2011
931.16807
368.61656
213.99377
1,62.54949
89.832727
61.8L5314
9.3318471
1.97231?2
0
0
o
2472
1208.262339
371.2543134
282.898A42
184:560675
274.s926237
50.77202566
19.6503s547
6.019884518
5.75055006s
0
0
WorldTradeAtlas
China - Exports -Total-
2711!!00 Ethylene, Propy
Quantity
% Change
2013 -73h2-
1066.160066
402.566ts82
281.5595862
182.9L42342
11.0.6950@5
29.407tO542
L5.87979719
9.7s2960335
9.t87257075
7.@7110334
5.881595043
-1L.76
8.43
-o.47
-0.89
-59.69
42.03
-19.19
52.Ot
59.76
0
0
January - September
%
Rank - KG - 2011 - KG - 2012 - KG - 2013 t2-
0
-World -
1 Korea, South
2 Thailand
3 Hong Kong
4 Vietnam
5 lran
6 Argentina
7 Greece
I lndia
9 United States
10 Mexico
208/.7542
20832542
0
o
0
0
0
o
0
o
0
10618471 1O29t673
10601574 90417ss
o t24u47
225 699
672 672
0 100
00
00
00
oo
00
-3.08
-r4.71
0
27A.67
0
0
0
o
0
0
0
World Trade Atlas
China
*
Exports -Total-
27111rt00 Ethylene, Propy
Avg Price (Malaysian Ringgit)
lanuary - Septcfiber
% Chanse
Rank Country -lKG -aOLt -lKG -2m2 -/KG -2013 -L3lLz-
0
-
World
-
L Korea, South
2 Thailand
3 Hong Kong
4 Vietnam
5 lran
6 Argentina
7 Greece
8 lndia
9 United States
10 Mexico
4.62
4.59
0
9.76
29.55
0
0
0
0
0
0
WorldTradeAtlas
China - Exports -Total-
27111t{r0 Ethylene, Propf
Millions of Malry-sian Ringgit
4.57
4.57
o
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3.23
3.2s
3.1
44.64
29.65
43.63
0
0
'0
0
0
-30.09
-29.I9
3s7.38
0
Januarv - Segtenrber
Rank Country
0
-World -
1 Korea, South
2 Thailand
3 Hong Kong
4 Vietnam
5 lran
6 Argentina
7 Greece
8 lndia
9 United States
10 Mexico
2017
9s.20963
95.18L72
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o
2072
49.04062054 33.29004559
,18.65543671
29.36886169
o 3.86569r.297
0.00219563 0.031205608
0.019925049 0.01992408
0 0.004362917
00
o0
00
00
o0
% Change
20!3 -!31!2-
-32.t2
-39.64
o
1,320.61
o
0
0
0
0
0
o
World,Trade Atlas
China - Exports -Tota!-
281910 Chromium Trioxide
QuantitY
lanuary - September
% Chanse
Rank Countrv - KG -2011 - KG -2012 - t(G - 201.3 -t3lr2-
0
-World -
1 Japan
2 Pakistan
3 Netherlands
4 Korea, South
5 Thailand
5 Brazil
7 Taiwan
8 lran
9 Australia
10 Vietnam
2s40931.
485178
207550
180950
228820
149000
134000
!75260
30020
40500
17803L
1894625
492875
?420po
178000
181000
84500
120fi)0
234m0
570q)
20250
105000
228s0s0
397100
388000
332000
189200
169000
L57000
!49250
94m0
76475
74000
20.61
-19.43
60.33
86.52
4.53
100
30.83
-36.22
u.97
277.65
-29.s2
World Trade Atlas
China - Exports -Total-
281910 Chromium Trioxide
Avg Price (Malaysian Ringgit|
0
-
World
-
1 Japan
2 Pakistan
3 Netherlands
4 Korea, South
5 Thailand
5 Brazil
7 Taiwan
8 lran
9 Australia
10 Vietnam
12.39
t4.42
11.18
12.35
72.75
t2.9
lo.44
t2.t5
5.8
12.53
11.85
t2.3
13.53
11.75
t2.02
1.1.49
L4.72
12.08
t1,78
12.8
1.2.34
12.79
to.4
11.39
9.64
9.49
1.0.51
10.55
1:0.24
10.25
11.66
10.15
11.31
-15.45
-15.82
-17.96
-21.05
-8.53
-1.59
-15.23
-72.9
-8.91.
-t7.75
-L7.57
lanuary - September
World Trade Atlas
China - Exports -Total-
281910 Chromium Trioxide
Millions of Malaysian Riaggit
Rank Country
O
-
World
-
1 Japan
2 Pakistan
3 Netherlands
4 Korea, South
5 Thailand
6 Brazil
7 Taiwan
8 lran
9 Australia
10 Vietnam
% Change
2?rt 2A!2 2073-13/72-
37.477944 23.3080715 23.77395A64 2
6.80342L4 6.667901036 4.52378782 -32.t6
2.32080s7 2.843516903 3.74225682 31.61
2.2346851 2.14ffi72L82 3.L52246648 47.3
2.916975s 2.078940309 1.9891A4774 4.32
Ls2t8321 0.905887159 1.782683698 96.79
1.3986662 t.4p.W77922 1.507690494 r.0.95
2.t287997 2.757320759 1.531884429 44.44
0.1740969 9.7293@4t 1.095980695 50.27
0.507512 A.24W79368 0.775868282 210.37
2.1o8a272 r.342654927 0.83569215 -37.58
WorldTradeAtlas
China - lmporti -Total-
27 tLLl Prapne, tiqFtefi d
Avg Price
{futalaysian
Rtnggit}
January - September
% Change
Rank country -/KG -2011 -/ l(G - 2012 -/ KG - 2013 -L3lL2-
0
-
World
-
1 Qatar
2 United Arab Emirate
3 Kuwait
4 Saudi Arabia
5 Algeria
6 Nigeria
7 Australia
8 United States
9 Korea, South
10 Norway
2.65 2.58
2.74 2.U
2.67
'
2.65
00
2.62
2.62
0
2.M
10.33
2.47
0
2.65
2.52
2.72
2.3t
10.36
3.49
0
2.7L
2.69
2.74
2.73
2.74
2.67
2.@
2.77
2.51
3.06
2.55
2.26
6.75
6.2
-3.87
3.4
-2.94
19.91
-75.77
-t2.32
WorldTrade Atlas
china - lmports -Total-
27tltzFrcnane thuefied
Millions of Malays'ran Ringgit
tanuarv - Seotember
Rank Country
0
-
World
-
1 Qatar
2 United Arab Emirate
3 Kuwait
.
4 Saudi Arabia
5 Algeria
6 Nigeria
7 Australia
8 United States
9 Korea, South
10 Norway
2011
3604.6823
u9.23468
755.70184
437.33184
363.8979s
0
0
89.516857
o.4743966
90.s22881
o
20tz
4463.!79724
956.3804311
u3.663979
566.7659347
940.7263735
0
t68.Zs20t73
175.1810'MG
0.313037384
230.4086121
0
% Change
2O\3 -t3lt2-
4531.250901 13.98
1t49.o76t32 20.75
r1s5.146757 36.92
s52.7294456 -2.48
546.4820462 41.9L
234-2792693 0
278.4044461 29.81
215.4274156 22.97
189,7110s48 60503.32
t8/..296/,494 -20.0L
58.7236t941 0
WorldTradeAtlas
United States - Exports
27 t1,l2 Prcpa;fie, liquefi ed
Ctuantity
lanuary
*August
% Chanse
Rank country -8BL-2011 -BBL-2012 -BBt-2013 -L3lt2-
0
-
World -- 31.632285
1 Mexico 8352749
2 Bnzil 27A6502
3 Netherlands 6327492
4 Japan 0
5 Chile 3609999
5 Dominican Republic 4083000
38754995 627586t7
9255690 9287833
7 Panama
8 Honduras
8258
22228r';9
350s339
183(M78
1521995
47L2912
3978289
773748
2&1447
1651919
2913.25
9109733
7966942
6095000
5681000
5146L4/'
4922583
3408197
312305L
1886100
61.94
o.3s
159.88
33s.24
275.77
20.54
29.35
2,733.83
31.01
89.06
-35.27
9 Venezuela 30O
10 Ecuador 1051.020
World Trade Atlas
United States - Export$
27 t1J2 Propane, Liquef ied
Avg Price (Malaysian Ringgit)
January - AuEust
% hanee
Rank Country
IBBL-2011
-IBBL-2O12 -/ BBL - 2o1s - L3i12 -
0
-
World
-
l Mexico
2 Brazil
3 Netherlands
4 Japan
5 Chite
6 Dominican Republic
7 Panama
8 Honduras
9 Venezuela
10 Ecuador
t83.77
184.67
1.84.15
182.35
0
1.85.84
1.80.33
187.57
185.13
208.83
173.68
145.16
L47.97
146.4
128.58
142.77
13s.69
132.3s
to7.47
150.29
135.03
146.46
121.37
1.L9.32
119.6
\r8.29
1.15.78
116.91
122.77
119.92
L2d.24
t22.L
124.82
-16.39
-1.9.36
-18.31
-8
-18.56
-13.84
-7.24
11.58
-14.o7
-70.24
-14.78
World TradeAtlas
United States - Exports
27 LLlz Propne, Liquefed
Millions of Malaysian Ringgit
January -Augu$t
zAIt 2A].2
5813.1797 5625.580816
1542.5363 1369.s35849
498.4035s 513.1950585
11s3.8153 235.3619514
0 230.sE6s012
670.880s1 639.5174839
736.27678 s26.5119537
1.5485559 18.6682186
4tL.st702 390.9794206
0.0626483 224.7A27683
t82.5MU 426.7617t37
WorldTradeAtlas
United States - Exports
280440Oryten
quantity
% Change
2073 -73/t2- Rank Country
0
-World -
l Mexico
2 Brazil
3 Netherlands
4 Japan
5 Chile
6 Dominican Republic
7 Panama
8 Honduras
9 Venezuela
1O Ecuador
7616.986376
1108.26s83s
1089.501506
942.39377t
705.708426
564.163832
63L.8080987
590.328066
4/;O.4773t98
381.3189834
235.4215L29
35.4
-19.08
112.3
300.4
205.04
3.85
20
3,062.21
12.66
69.7
44.84
January - August
% Chanse
Rank Country - KM3 - 201r - t(M3 - 2012 - KM3 - 2013 -73112-
0
-
World
-
1 Canada
2 Mexico
3 Djibouti
.
4 Hong Kong
5 Dominican Republic
5 Colombia
7 Bahamas
8 Panama
9 Saudi Arabia
10 Philippines
87456
407t7
6735
0
0
20355
332
1522
1458
t26
0
78561
38536
10811
0
3881
3126
238
2832
1499
to4
o
90556
37682
735L
5882
5721
5595
4307
4252
3593
t798
1564
15.27
-2.22
-32
0
47.41
78.98
1,709.66
50.14
146.36
1,628.85
0
WorldTradeAtlas
United States - Exports
280{40 Oxygen
Avg Price (Malaysian Ringgit)
January - August
Rank KM3 - 201 xM3 - 2012 KM3 - 2013
0
-
World
-
1 Canada
2 Mexico
3 Djibouti
4 Hong Kong
5 Dominican Republic
6 Colombia
7 Bahamas
8 Panama
9 Saudi Arabia
1O Philippines
223.94
256.74
399.32
0
0
134.01
395.8s
268.93
96.67
259.02
0
291.03
263.99
300.28
0
267.53
1216.62
267-a
266.t\
ias.re
258.22
0
310.M
265.96
274.67
278.55
283.8s
740.51
268.06
253.77
279.67
267.2s
1055.69
6.67
0.75
-8.53
8.53
-39.13
0.1
-4.86
109.98
3,5
-1
World Trade Atlas
United States
*
Exports
280440 Oxygen
Millions of Malaysian Ringgit
January - August
Rank Country
0
-
World
-
1 Canada
2 Mexico
3 Djibouti
4 Hong Kong
5 Dominican Republic
5 Colombia
7 Bahamas
8 Panama
9 Saudi Arabia
10 Philippines
2Ar1
19.584913
]:o.453777
2.6894L48
0
0
2.7277872
o.t3t42tL
0.4093119
0.140941
0.0326358
0
2At2
22.86385982 28.L1195286
to.t7296d'gt 74.a21a6372
3.24633501.7 2.019075303
0 1.638449991
L0150r7033 1.623916789
3.803155336 4.!4312729L
0.063736334 1..154530569
0.73362473 1.076493651
0.199605902 1.032s9s552
0.026854656 A.48A522s57
0 1.666739691
% Change
2073 - 131t2 -
22.95
-t.49
-37.8
0
59.99
8.94
t,7L1,.42
42.84
417.32
1,689.35
0
WorldTradeAdas
United States - Exports
281910 Chromium Trbxide
Quantity
January - August
, 96Change
Rank Country - KG -2011 - KG -2012 -KG -2013 -131L2-
-7.49
82.66
17.3L
-16.99
t9.7L
-29.54
-27.8
18.55
30.84
43.53
25
World Trade Adas
United Stat6 - Exports
281910 Chromium Trioxide
Avg Price (Malaysian Ringgit)
lanuary - August
% Change
0
-
World
..
1 China
2 Brazil
3 Japan
4 United Kingdom
5 Korea, South
6 lndia
7 Germany
8 lndonesia
9 France
10 Turkey
10546305
1i145198
1396314
t4526t8
566962
905882
5gll(no
327952
288900
191250
216000
10389260
2639874
1638000
1205789
678696
638290
428868
388784
378000
274500
2700o/O
8612224
249943
1838693
86538
747000
740127
540000
347499
450000
4882sO
90000
0
-
World
-
1 China
2 Brazil
3 Japan
4 United Kingdom
5 Korea, South
5 lndia
7 Germany
8 lndonesia
I France
1-0 Turkey
5.14
15.46
3.8
5.12
3.77
3.U
3.77
5.09
3.77
3.78
3.77
6.75
4.22
5.43
6.5
4.12
8.2L
6.3
9.13
8.71
12.58
5.32
11.33
9.81
11.53
1.1.75
1o.44
r.3.49
]]o.25
tt.7L
1.3.22
t2
1'2.57
67.85
132.46
1t2.34
8A.77
153.4
64.3L
62.7
28.26
5!.78
4.67
136.28
WorldTradeAtlas
t nitd State$ - Exports
281910 hromium Trioxide
Millions ol Malaysian Ringgit
January - August
Rank Country
O
*
World
-
1 China
2 Erazil
3 Japan
4 United Kingdom
5 Korea, South
6 lndia
7 Germany
8 lndonesia
9 France
10 Turkey
2011
44.23s24?
3.8635831
6.9849268
0.4433835
2.8199198
2.6875\94
2.0352172
1.7385s94
1.6972832
1..844508
0.33900s3
2At2
71.237428s
6.095573967
7.587634t42
9.441956535
2.338188243
7.43784595
3.74496457
2.993s01583
2.515262745
2.406428589
1.14867693
% Change
2073 - t3112 -
t!7.6811174
25.8U54994
18.8929861.3
14.17064667
7.482943922
8.611214574
4.395260306
4.55211799
4.995724865
3.29462369:7
3.394429ss7
6s.2
324.&
L49
50.08
202.92
15.78
17.36
52.O7
98.62
36.91
195.51
World Trade Atlas
United States - Exports
290122 Propene (Propylenel
Quantity
lanuary - AuBust
% hange
RankCountry -KG-2011 -KG-2012 -KG-2013 -t3l'.2-
O
-
World
-
l Colombia
2 Canada
3 Brazil
4 Mexico
5 Greece
6 Taiwan
7 Australia
8 Venezuela
9 Korea, South
10 Singapore
97347432
57313691
1602727
24704.8
14151169
503159
392214
zg4ts23
477212
7Z3ttffi
s28008
405461
471404
210940
188020
L77M
t19944
113961.
92829
52283
444ffi
-8.6
7.2
-76.91
-50.52
-97.4
-66.4
-70.42
-79.08
-92.U
-86.06
-58.16
90078205 82327320
75L2s6r'-7 80531792
54190 5M634
335793 t26o77l
650s17 374926
282122 13!'625
WorldTradeAtlas
woddTradAtlas
United States - Exports
290122 Propcne (Propytenel
Avg Price (Malaysian Ringgit)
Janpary-August
% Change
Rank country -l KG -2011 -lRG -mtz
./
KG -2013 -L3lt2-
0
-World -
1 Colombia
2 Canada
3 Brazil
4 Mexico
5 Greece
6 Taiwan
7 Australia
8 Venezuela
9 Korea, South
10 Singapore
4.74
4.77
2.67
3.9
5.2
3.88
3.38
2.63
3.91
3.97
3.91
4.03
3.82
4.05
7.16
4.46
7.04
5.25
6.s6
5.29
5.16
7.55
4.48
4.13
74.32
27.68
16.43
1,6.22
26.94
24.28
25.34
27.58
22.44
71.L7
8.t2
253.58
286.59
268.39
130.4
331.04
270.12
379.02
434.5
196.83
WorldTradeAtlas
UnitedStates - Exports
290122 Propene (Propylene)
Millions of Malaysian Ringdt
JanuarY - AuFust
% Change
2Ot3 -!3/L2- Rank Country
0
-
World --
1 Colombia
2 Canada.
3 Brazil
4 Mexico
5 Greece
6 Taiwan
7 Australia
8 Venezuela
9 Korea, South
10 Singapore
2071 2At2
46t.39372 362.8031499
32t.O3957 287.200572L
4.2742201 8.27629276
0.96331s7 3.059941589
73.630778 32.2408924
1.9st428 3.716086568
1.3275798 2.53348076
o.r4272!3 3.57035567
1.3118551 6.564258968
2.5524462 1.9355rt4399
LLAfi944 1.055395136
WorldTradeAtlas
China - Exports -Total-
280tt40 Oxygen
Quamity
368.6456729
332.8197826
6.748t5!622
5.8386370d'7
3.089357501
2.877316349
3.231609851
2.766835964
2.3s2030663
1.r1421.50618
0.997479983
1.61
15.88
-18.46
90.81
-9A.42
-22.57
27.56
-22.51
-64.7L
-25.49
-5.49
January - September
% Change
Rank Country -M3 -2011 -M3 -2012 -M3 -2013 -L3lt2-
0
-
World
-
1 Macau
2 Hong Kong
3 Papua NewGuinea
4 Russia
5 Thailand
6 Mongolia
7 Kenya
I Korea, North
9 Singapore
1L92034 18.4
691094 18.33
462686 13.6
13300 0
taB77 0
9173 85.24
2188 4988.37
94/.0
732 -85.84
624 0
L42A8t5
st4?.7L
409500
46
188738
42
24
0
29413
0
1005789
584061
4A7297
0
0
4952
43
o
5159
o
10 Vietnam 1258 43
World Trade Atlas
China - Exports -Total-
28g40Oxygen
Avg Price (Malaysian Ringeitl
395 818.5
lanuary - September
% Chanae
Rank Country -l M3 -z0t'. -l M? -2At2 -/ M3 - 2013 - L3ILZ -
0
-
World
-
1 Macau
2 Hong Kong
3 Papua NewGuinea
4 Russia
5 Thailand
6 Mongolia
7 Kenya
8 Korea, North
9 Singapore
10 Vietnam
1.69
o.94
2.58
0
0
6.01
222.33
0
3.45
0
56.77
World Trade Atlas
China
r
ExporB -Total-
281910 Chromium Trioxide
Millions of Malaysian Ringgit
1.5
t.tz
1.89
2174.37
o.62
tt77.55
295.O7
0
L.57
0
58.04
1.81
0.97
2.8L
2.26
1.11
1..6
3.03
18.59
1,2.19
5.6
40.2L
7.1
3.19
8.91
-73.38
-98.64
253.33
-29.L7
lanuarv - September
Rank Country
0
-
World
-
1 Japan
2 Pakistan
3 Netherlands
4 Korea, South
5 Thailand
6 Brazil
7 Taiwan
8 lran
9 Australia
10 Vietnam
% Change
201!
'2at2
2a'3-13./12-
3]-.4779M 23.3080715 23.77395064 2
6.80U274 6.657901036 4.52378782
.32.t6
23208457 2.843515903 3.74225682 31.61
2.23468sr 2.140072782 3.t52246608 47.3
2.9L69755 2.078940309 7.9891U774 4.32
1.92t832t 0.905887159 1.782583698 96.79
1.3986552 7.M9o77922 1.607690494 10.95
2.1287997 2.757320759 1.53r8U429 -M.M
0.1740969 0.72936041 1..09598059s 50.27
0.507512 0.249979568 A.775858282 210.37
2.1088272 t.3/.265492t 0.83669216 -37.68
World Trade Atlas
China - Exports -Total-
280440 Oxygen
Millions of Malaysian Ringgit
lanuary - Seotember
Rank Country
O
-
World
-
1 Macau
2 Hong Kong
3 Papua NewGuinea
4 Russia
5 Thailand
6 Mongolia
7 Kenya
8 Korea, North
9 Singapore
10 Vietnam
20t7
2.7242733
o.5743753
4.7740456
0.1000182
0.11.53339
0.0494s69
0.0070818
0
o.M6243
0
0.0730119
20t2
!.70151773
0.551779465
1.@.9979127
0
0
o.o297590/.
0.009559978
o
o.01784087
0
o.4o244a934
% Change
2073 - t3h2-
2.76087?'L88
0.671666638
1.29863t02
0.030112814
o.01207218L
0.o14539698
0.006619789
o.017s473
0.008920539
0.003494802
0.015883555
27
21.73
23.68
0
0
-50.81
-30.76
0
-50
0
550.72
World Trade Atlas
China - lmports -Total-
280tl40Oxygen
Millions ol Malaysian Rintgit
lanuary - September
Rank Country
0
-
World
-
1 Taiwan
2 United Kingdom
3 Hong Kong
4 Singapore
5 United Statds
6 Japan
7 China
8 Korea, South
9 Macau
1O Thailand
20!2
o.278689293
0.096513784
0.o57752841
o.00534s37s
0.01584037
o.0371838!18
0.065033731
0
o
o
0
WorldTradeAtlas
China- lmport'-?otal-
280440Orrygpn
qrantity
% Change
2Ot3 - t3/72- 2011
4.2935524
0.0555871
0.0178519
4.o2L2229
0.0210483
0.1085147
0.0584994
0
0
o
0
o.2279ffi607
o.M4465424
o.031948655
0.016359279
0.m7066202
0.071715178
o.00680s859
0
0
0
0
-t8.2
-2.54
44.69
t57.8L
-55.39
97.87
-89.53
0
0
0
o
,anuary- Sefitember
, Y"Change
Rank C,ountry - M3 - 2011 -M3 -mrl - M3 - 2013 -t3lt2-
0
*
World
-
1 Taiwan
2 United Kingdom
3 Hong Kong
4 Singapore
5 United States
6 Japan
7 China
8 Korea, South
9 Macau
10 Thailand
1814
362
763
130
235
'
252
199 94
72 272
00
00
00
00
WorldTmdeAtlas
China - lnports -Total-
280tt40o'(ygen
416 Price (Malaysian Ringgit)
1594
386
339
235
26860
25727
424
358
205
139
6
0
0
0
0
1,380.71
20o5.91
44.43
175.38
-18.25
47.87
-97.77
0
0
0
0
January - September
%
Rank M3 - 201: M3 -2(n2 M3 - 2013
0
-World -
l Taiwan
2 United Kingdom
3 Hong Kopg
4 Singapore
5 United States
6 Japan
7 China
8 Korea, South
9 Macau
10 Thailand
153.63
266.6t
75.7
48.81
62.86
395.57
305.76
0
0
0
0
WorldTradeAtlas
China - lmport'-Total-
281910 Chrqnium Trioxide
Quantity
184.16
169.91
52.66
90.31
89,57
54s.8
812.49
0
0
0
0
8.49
3.56
75.35
45.7
34.3
515.94
1134.31
0
0
0
0
-94.47
-98.63
-0.46
-6.37
45.43
30.43
269.77
January - September
% Chanse
Rank Country -KG -2011 - t(G - 2012 -KG -2013 -!31'.2-
0
-
World
-
1 United States
2 Turkey
3 South Africa
4 lndia
5 Kazakhstan
6 Taiwan
7 Japan
8 China
9 Germany
10 Korea, South
3918r.14
2959
340600
7477600
0
1692000
19000
34155
1200
50
5300
4688996
1531469
72S00
1739000
0
5940@
377ffi
75726
s00
5000
600
6163743
28tt274
1656000
1439800
144000
7200rA
31608
7976
500
460
1'23
31.45
83.57
t27.t6
-17.27
0
-87.88
-16.16
49.28
0
-90.8
-79.t7
World Trade Atlas
China - lmports -Total-
281910 Chromium Trioxide
Millions of Malaysian Ringgit
lanuarv - September
Rank Country
0
-
World
-
1 United States
2 Turkey
3 South Africa
4 lndia
5 Kazakhstan'
5 Taiwan
7 Japan
8 China
9 Germany
10 Korea, South
2011.
41.O03334
0.168060s
3.33].24t2
15.O2434t
2AL2
53.69456948
1.7.15080278
8.18730191
19.58609643
% Change
2Ot3 -t3lt2-
00
18.s32607 6.45t4477A8
0.4331905 0.8838:t8083
1.0458313 0.948686322
0.0111903 0.007611
0.@24047 0.038463913
0.0795941 0.038250912
World TradeAilas
United States- lmports
27 tL12 PJ opae, Liquefi ed
Quantiry
65.11430152
23.9737682
18.40543456
19.57829184.
1.217L924
0.69ss72021
0.759786048
0.43151508
0.007601.7s
0.025183102
0.0199s6s06
21.27
39.78
124.8
{.04
0
-89.22
-14.04
-54.51
-o.72
-34.53
-47.83
lanuary- August
% Chanee
Rank Country - BBL - 2011 - Bgr - 2012 - BBL-2013 -L3172-
0
-World -
1 Canada
2 Trinidad & Tobago
3 Dominican Republic
4 United Kingdom
5 Germany
6 Venezuela
7 Belgium
8 France
9 lreland
10 Malta
27313128
20831067
977617
525433
0
62
0
0
0
0
o
25091680 26128609
2!92074L 24517007
331196 920801
&34:216 690789
-08
04
0.14
11.84
178.02
-L7.L9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WorldTrade Atlas
United States - lErports
27L'.1,zProp6;ne, Uguefied
Avg Price (Malaysian Ringgit|
January - August
% Chanse
Rank Country -/ BBL-201! -l BgL-2Ot2 -/ BBr- 2013 -t3lt2-
0
-
World
-
1 Canada
2 Trinidad &Tobago
3 Dominic4n Republic
4 United Kingdom
5 Germany
6 Venezuela
7 Belgium
8 France
9 lreland
1O Malta
t44.93
139.99
t47.2
167.81
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
World Trade Atlas
United States - lmports
z7Lllz?rcno,ne, Uquefied
Millions of Malaysian Ringgit
168.88
L60.67
198.45
203.2
0
204.67
o
o
0
0
0
119.63
t18.74
131.47
135.5
2087.O2
478r.97
0
0
0
0
0
-L7.46
-15.18
-7.55
-19.25
,anuary - August
Rank Country
0
-
World
-
1 Canada
2 Trinidad & Tobago
3 Dominican Republic
4 United Kingdom
5 Germany
6 Venezuela
7 Belgium
8 France
9 lreland
10 Malta
20tL
46t2.7011
3346.9157
194.01288
106.76896
o
o.olz44t6
0
0
o
0
0
20tz
3781.44794
3468.777946
47.fr96@.245
139.9892668
0
0
0
0
0
0
o
% Change
2Ot3 - t3/12 -
31,25.759437
2911.068385
121..0550666
93.60020844
0.016548176
0.0191.27893
0
o
0
0
0
-17.34
-5.14
157.44
-33.14
0
0
0
o
0
0
0











APPENDIX
C
( MSDS OF CHEMICALS )
Ethylene
001022
Synthetic/Analytical chemistry.
5/11/2011.
Material Safety Data Sheet
Product name
AIRGAS INC., on behalf of its subsidiaries
259 North Radnor-Chester Road
Suite 100
Radnor, PA 19087-5283
1-610-687-5253
Product use
MSDS #
Date of
Preparation/Revision
In case of emergency
Section 1. Chemical product and company identification
Ethylene
:
:
:
:
Supplier
1-866-734-3438
Synonym : ACETENE ;ATHYLEN (GERMAN) ; BICARBURRETTED HYDROGEN ; ELAYL ;
ETHENE ; ETHYLENE (ACGIH, DOT, OSHA) ; ETHYLENE, REFRIGERATED
LIQUID (CRYOGENIC LIQUID) (UN1038) (DOT) ; LIQUID ETHYLENE ; OLEFIANT
GAS UN1038 (DOT) ; UN1962 (DOT)
:
:
Inhalation
Emergency overview
Section 2. Hazards identification
Routes of entry
Potential acute health effects
Acts as a simple asphyxiant.
Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite.Contact with cryogenic
liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Ingestion is not a normal route of exposure for gases.Contact with cryogenic liquid can
cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite.Contact with cryogenic
liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Eyes
Skin
Inhalation
Ingestion
Physical state Gas or Liquid.
WARNING!
GAS:
CONTENTS UNDER PRESURE.
Extremely flammable
Do not puncture or incinerate container.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
LIQUID:
Extremely flammable
Extremely cold liquid and gas under pressure.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. Do not puncture or incinerate container. May
cause target organ damage, based on animal data. Use only with adequate ventilation.
Keep container closed.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Medical conditions
aggravated by over-
exposure
Pre-existing disorders involving any target organs mentioned in this MSDS as being at
risk may be aggravated by over-exposure to this product.
:
Contact with rapidly expanding gases can cause frostbite.
Target organs : May cause damage to the following organs: lungs, heart, muscle tissue.
Potential chronic health effects
Chronic effects : May cause target organ damage, based on animal data.
Target organs : May cause damage to the following organs: lungs, heart, muscle tissue.
Page: 1/7
Build 1.1
Ethylene
See toxicological information (Section 11)
Ethylene 74-85-1 100 ACGIH TLV (United States, 2/2010).
TWA: 200 ppm 8 hour(s).
Section 3. Composition, Information on Ingredients
Name % Volume Exposure limits CAS number
As this product is a gas, refer to the inhalation section.
Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical
attention immediately.
In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes
while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. To avoid the risk of static discharges
and gas ignition, soak contaminated clothing thoroughly with water before removing it.
Wash clothing before reuse. Clean shoes thoroughly before reuse. Get medical
attention immediately.
Move exposed person to fresh air. If not breathing, if breathing is irregular or if
respiratory arrest occurs, provide artificial respiration or oxygen by trained personnel.
Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention
immediately.
Section 4. First aid measures
Eye contact
Skin contact
Inhalation
Ingestion
:
:
:
:
No action shall be taken involving any personal risk or without suitable training.If it is suspected that fumes are still present,
the rescuer should wear an appropriate mask or self-contained breathing apparatus.It may be dangerous to the person
providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Frostbite : Try to warm up the frozen tissues and seek medical attention.
490C (914F)
Flammable.
Decomposition products may include the following materials:
carbon dioxide
carbon monoxide
Closed cup: -135.85C (-212.5F).
Lower: 2.7% Upper: 36%
In case of fire, use water spray (fog), foam or dry chemical.
Extremely flammable in the presence of the following materials or conditions: oxidizing
materials.
Section 5. Fire-fighting measures
Flammability of the product
Auto-ignition temperature
Flash point
Flammable limits
Products of combustion
Fire hazards in the presence
of various substances
Fire-fighting media and
instructions
In case of fire, allow gas to burn if flow cannot be shut off immediately. Apply water from
a safe distance to cool container and protect surrounding area. If involved in fire, shut
off flow immediately if it can be done without risk.
Contains gas under pressure. Flammable gas. In a fire or if heated, a pressure
increase will occur and the container may burst, with the risk of a subsequent explosion.
Special protective
equipment for fire-fighters
Fire-fighters should wear appropriate protective equipment and self-contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) with a full face-piece operated in positive pressure mode.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Keep unnecessary personnel away. Use
suitable protective equipment (section 8). Shut off gas supply if this can be done safely.
Isolate area until gas has dispersed.
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Stop leak if without risk. Use spark-proof
tools and explosion-proof equipment. Note: see section 1 for emergency contact
information and section 13 for waste disposal.
Environmental precautions
Section 6. Accidental release measures
: Avoid dispersal of spilled material and runoff and contact with soil, waterways, drains
and sewers.
Personal precautions :
Methods for cleaning up :
Page: 2/7
Build 1.1
Ethylene
Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Keep container tightly closed and sealed
until ready for use. Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame). Segregate
from oxidizing materials. Cylinders should be stored upright, with valve protection cap in
place, and firmly secured to prevent falling or being knocked over. Cylinder temperatures
should not exceed 52 C (125 F).
Use only with adequate ventilation. Use explosion-proof electrical (ventilating, lighting
and material handling) equipment. High pressure gas. Do not puncture or incinerate
container. Use equipment rated for cylinder pressure. Close valve after each use and
when empty. Keep container closed. Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. To avoid
fire, eliminate ignition sources. Protect cylinders from physical damage; do not drag, roll,
slide, or drop. Use a suitable hand truck for cylinder movement.
Section 7. Handling and storage
Handling
Storage
:
:
Use only with adequate ventilation. Use process enclosures, local exhaust ventilation or
other engineering controls to keep worker exposure to airborne contaminants below any
recommended or statutory limits. The engineering controls also need to keep gas, vapor
or dust concentrations below any lower explosive limits. Use explosion-proof ventilation
equipment.
Ethylene ACGIH TLV (United States, 2/2010).
TWA: 200 ppm 8 hour(s).
Section 8. Exposure controls/personal protection
Engineering controls
Product name
Use a properly fitted, air-purifying or air-fed respirator complying with an approved
standard if a risk assessment indicates this is necessary. Respirator selection must be
based on known or anticipated exposure levels, the hazards of the product and the safe
working limits of the selected respirator.
Safety eyewear complying with an approved standard should be used when a risk
assessment indicates this is necessary to avoid exposure to liquid splashes, mists or
dusts.
Personal protective equipment for the body should be selected based on the task being
performed and the risks involved and should be approved by a specialist before handling
this product.
Personal protection
Eyes
Skin
Respiratory
Consult local authorities for acceptable exposure limits.
:
:
:
:
Personal protection in case
of a large spill
: Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) should be used to avoid inhalation of the
product.
Chemical-resistant, impervious gloves complying with an approved standard should be
worn at all times when handling chemical products if a risk assessment indicates this is
necessary.
Hands :
The applicable standards are (US) 29 CFR 1910.134 and (Canada) Z94.4-93
-104C (-155.2F)
-169.2C (-272.6F)
1 (Air = 1) Liquid Density@BP: 35.3 lb/ft3 (566 kg/m3)
10C (50F)
28.06 g/mole
Boiling/condensation point
Melting/freezing point
Section 9. Physical and chemical properties
Molecular weight
Critical temperature
Vapor density
C2-H4 Molecular formula
:
:
:
:
:
:
Specific Volume (ft
3
/lb) : 13.8007
Gas Density (lb/ft
3
) : 0.07246
Page: 3/7
Build 1.1
Ethylene
The product is stable.
Extremely reactive or incompatible with the following materials: oxidizing materials.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous polymerization will not occur.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous decomposition products should
not be produced.
Section 10. Stability and reactivity
Stability and reactivity
Incompatibility with various
substances
Hazardous decomposition
products
Hazardous polymerization
:
:
:
:
Section 11. Toxicological information
Specific effects
Carcinogenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Mutagenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Reproduction toxicity No known significant effects or critical hazards.
No specific information is available in our database regarding the other toxic effects of
this material to humans.
CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: A4 (Not classifiable for humans or animals.) by ACGIH,
3 (Not classifiable for humans.) by IARC.
May cause damage to the following organs: lungs, heart, muscle tissue.
Chronic effects on humans
Other toxic effects on
humans
:
:
Toxicity data
:
:
:
Section 12. Ecological information
Environmental fate : Not available.
Environmental hazards : No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Toxicity to the environment : Not available.
Aquatic ecotoxicity
Not available.
Products of degradation: carbon oxides (CO, CO2) and water. : Products of degradation
Section 13. Disposal considerations
Product removed from the cylinder must be disposed of in accordance with appropriate Federal, State, local
regulation.Return cylinders with residual product to Airgas, Inc.Do not dispose of locally.
Section 14. Transport information
2.1
2.1
Limited
quantity
Yes.
Packaging
instruction
Passenger
aircraft
Quantity
limitation:
Forbidden.
Cargo aircraft
Quantity
limitation:
Forbidden.
Special
provisions
DOT Classification ETHYLENE,
COMPRESSED
ETHYLENE,
REFRIGERATED
LIQUID
Regulatory
information
UN number Proper shipping
name
Class Packing group Label Additional
information
UN1962
UN1038
Not applicable (gas).
Page: 4/7
Build 1.1
Ethylene
T75, TP5
TDG Classification 2.1
2.1
UN1962
UN1038
ETHYLENE,
COMPRESSED
ETHYLENE,
REFRIGERATED
LIQUID
Explosive
Limit and
Limited
Quantity
Index
0.125
ERAP Index
3000
Passenger
Carrying Ship
Index
Forbidden
Passenger
Carrying
Road or Rail
Index
Forbidden
Mexico
Classification
UN1962
UN1038
ETHYLENE,
COMPRESSED
ETHYLENE,
REFRIGERATED
LIQUID
2.1
2.1
-
Not applicable (gas).
Not applicable (gas).
Refer to CFR 49 (or authority having jurisdiction) to determine the information required for shipment of the
product.
Section 15. Regulatory information
U.S. Federal regulations TSCA 8(a) IUR: Partial exemption
United States inventory (TSCA 8b): This material is listed or exempted.
Clean Air Act (CAA) 112 regulated flammable substances: Ethylene
SARA 302/304/311/312 extremely hazardous substances: No products were found.
SARA 302/304 emergency planning and notification: No products were found.
SARA 302/304/311/312 hazardous chemicals: Ethylene
SARA 311/312 MSDS distribution - chemical inventory - hazard identification:
Ethylene: Fire hazard, reactive, Sudden release of pressure, Delayed (chronic) health
hazard
:
SARA 313
Form R - Reporting
requirements
Ethylene 74-85-1 100
Ethylene 74-85-1 100 Supplier notification
:
:
United States
Product name CAS number Concentration
SARA 313 notifications must not be detached from the MSDS and any copying and redistribution of the MSDS shall
include copying and redistribution of the notice attached to copies of the MSDS subsequently redistributed.
Ethylene
Clean Air Act (CAA) 112 accidental release prevention - Flammable Substances:
Page: 5/7
Build 1.1
Ethylene
Connecticut Carcinogen Reporting: This material is not listed.
Connecticut Hazardous Material Survey: This material is not listed.
Florida substances: This material is not listed.
Illinois Chemical Safety Act: This material is not listed.
Illinois Toxic Substances Disclosure to Employee Act: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Reporting: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Substances: This material is listed.
Michigan Critical Material: This material is not listed.
Minnesota Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
New Jersey Spill: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Toxic Catastrophe Prevention Act: This material is not listed.
New York Acutely Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New York Toxic Chemical Release Reporting: This material is not listed.
Pennsylvania RTK Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
Rhode Island Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
State regulations
CEPA Toxic substances: This material is not listed.
Canadian ARET: This material is not listed.
Canadian NPRI: This material is listed.
Alberta Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Ontario Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Quebec Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
WHMIS (Canada) Class A: Compressed gas.
Class B-1: Flammable gas.
Class D-2B: Material causing other toxic effects (Toxic).
:
:
Canada
Section 16. Other information
3 *
Health
GAS:
CONTENTS UNDER PRESURE.
Extremely flammable
Do not puncture or incinerate container.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
LIQUID:
Extremely flammable
Extremely cold liquid and gas under pressure.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
Label requirements :
Label requirements : Class A: Compressed gas.
Class B-1: Flammable gas.
Class D-2B: Material causing other toxic effects (Toxic).
United States
Canada
liquid:
Hazardous Material
Information System (U.S.A.)
2
4
0
*
Health
Flammability
Physical hazards
:
Page: 6/7
Build 1.1
Ethylene
4
1
2
4
3
Health
Special
Instability
Flammability
Fire hazard
Reactivity
Personal protection
Notice to reader
To the best of our knowledge, the information contained herein is accurate. However, neither the above-named
supplier, nor any of its subsidiaries, assumes any liability whatsoever for the accuracy or completeness of the
information contained herein.
Final determination of suitability of any material is the sole responsibility of the user. All materials may present
unknown hazards and should be used with caution. Although certain hazards are described herein, we cannot
guarantee that these are the only hazards that exist.
1
4
2
National Fire Protection
Association (U.S.A.)
Health
Special
Instability
Flammability
:
liquid:
Page: 7/7
Build 1.1
Ethane
001024
Synthetic/Analytical chemistry.
10/23/2012.
Material Safety Data Sheet
Product name
AIRGAS INC., on behalf of its subsidiaries
259 North Radnor-Chester Road
Suite 100
Radnor, PA 19087-5283
1-610-687-5253
Product use
MSDS #
Date of
Preparation/Revision
In case of emergency
Section 1. Chemical product and company identification
Ethane
:
:
:
:
Supplier
1-866-734-3438
Synonym : Bimethyl; Dimethyl; Ethyl hydride; Methylmethane; C2H6; UN 1035; UN 1961, R170
:
:
Inhalation
Emergency overview
Section 2. Hazards identification
Routes of entry
Potential acute health effects
Acts as a simple asphyxiant.
Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite. Contact with cryogenic
liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Ingestion is not a normal route of exposure for gases. Contact with cryogenic liquid can
cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite. Contact with cryogenic
liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Eyes
Skin
Inhalation
Ingestion
Physical state Gas. [Compressed gas.]
See toxicological information (Section 11)
WARNING!
GAS:
CONTENTS UNDER PRESURE.
Extremely flammable.
May cause flash fire.
Do not puncture or incinerate container.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
LIQUID:
Extremely flammable.
Extremely cold liquid and gas under pressure.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. Do not puncture or incinerate container. May
cause target organ damage, based on animal data. Use only with adequate ventilation.
Keep container closed.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Medical conditions
aggravated by over-
exposure
Pre-existing disorders involving any target organs mentioned in this MSDS as being at
risk may be aggravated by over-exposure to this product.
:
Contact with rapidly expanding gases or liquids can cause frostbite.
Target organs : May cause damage to the following organs: heart, central nervous system (CNS).
Potential chronic health effects
Chronic effects : May cause target organ damage, based on animal data.
Target organs : May cause damage to the following organs: heart, central nervous system (CNS).
Page: 1/7
Build 1.1
Ethane
Ethane 74-84-0 100 ACGIH TLV (United States, 2/2010).
TWA: 1000 ppm 8 hour(s).
Section 3. Composition, Information on Ingredients
Name % Volume Exposure limits CAS number
As this product is a gas, refer to the inhalation section.
Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical
attention immediately.
In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes
while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. To avoid the risk of static discharges
and gas ignition, soak contaminated clothing thoroughly with water before removing it.
Wash clothing before reuse. Clean shoes thoroughly before reuse. Get medical
attention immediately.
Move exposed person to fresh air. If not breathing, if breathing is irregular or if
respiratory arrest occurs, provide artificial respiration or oxygen by trained personnel.
Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention
immediately.
Section 4. First aid measures
Eye contact
Skin contact
Inhalation
Ingestion
:
:
:
:
No action shall be taken involving any personal risk or without suitable training.If it is suspected that fumes are still present,
the rescuer should wear an appropriate mask or self-contained breathing apparatus.It may be dangerous to the person
providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Frostbite : Try to warm up the frozen tissues and seek medical attention.
472C (881.6F)
Flammable.
Decomposition products may include the following materials:
carbon dioxide
carbon monoxide
Closed cup: -135.15C (-211.3F).
Lower: 3% Upper: 12.5%
In case of fire, use water spray (fog), foam or dry chemical.
Extremely flammable in the presence of the following materials or conditions: oxidizing
materials.
Section 5. Fire-fighting measures
Flammability of the product
Auto-ignition temperature
Flash point
Flammable limits
Products of combustion
Fire hazards in the presence
of various substances
Fire-fighting media and
instructions
In case of fire, allow gas to burn if flow cannot be shut off immediately. Apply water from
a safe distance to cool container and protect surrounding area. If involved in fire, shut
off flow immediately if it can be done without risk.
Contains gas under pressure. Flammable gas. In a fire or if heated, a pressure
increase will occur and the container may burst, with the risk of a subsequent explosion.
Special protective
equipment for fire-fighters
Fire-fighters should wear appropriate protective equipment and self-contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) with a full face-piece operated in positive pressure mode.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Keep unnecessary personnel away. Use
suitable protective equipment (section 8). Shut off gas supply if this can be done safely.
Isolate area until gas has dispersed.
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Stop leak if without risk. Use spark-proof
tools and explosion-proof equipment. Note: see section 1 for emergency contact
information and section 13 for waste disposal.
Environmental precautions
Section 6. Accidental release measures
: Avoid dispersal of spilled material and runoff and contact with soil, waterways, drains
and sewers.
Personal precautions :
Methods for cleaning up :
Page: 2/7
Build 1.1
Ethane
Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Keep container tightly closed and sealed
until ready for use. Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame). Segregate
from oxidizing materials. Cylinders should be stored upright, with valve protection cap in
place, and firmly secured to prevent falling or being knocked over. Cylinder temperatures
should not exceed 52 C (125 F).
For additional information concerning storage and handling refer to Compressed Gas
Association pamphlets P-1 Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers and P-
12 Safe Handling of Cryogenic Liquids available from the Compressed Gas Association,
Inc.
Use only with adequate ventilation. Use explosion-proof electrical (ventilating, lighting
and material handling) equipment. High pressure gas. Do not puncture or incinerate
container. Use equipment rated for cylinder pressure. Close valve after each use and
when empty. Keep container closed. Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. To avoid
fire, eliminate ignition sources. Protect cylinders from physical damage; do not drag, roll,
slide, or drop. Use a suitable hand truck for cylinder movement.
Never allow any unprotected part of the body to touch uninsulated pipes or vessels that
contain cryogenic liquids. Prevent entrapment of liquid in closed systems or piping
without pressure relief devices. Some materials may become brittle at low temperatures
and will easily fracture.
Section 7. Handling and storage
Handling
Storage
:
:
Use only with adequate ventilation. Use process enclosures, local exhaust ventilation or
other engineering controls to keep worker exposure to airborne contaminants below any
recommended or statutory limits. The engineering controls also need to keep gas, vapor
or dust concentrations below any lower explosive limits. Use explosion-proof ventilation
equipment.
ethane ACGIH TLV (United States, 2/2010).
TWA: 1000 ppm 8 hour(s).
Section 8. Exposure controls/personal protection
Engineering controls
Product name
Use a properly fitted, air-purifying or air-fed respirator complying with an approved
standard if a risk assessment indicates this is necessary. Respirator selection must be
based on known or anticipated exposure levels, the hazards of the product and the safe
working limits of the selected respirator.
Safety eyewear complying with an approved standard should be used when a risk
assessment indicates this is necessary to avoid exposure to liquid splashes, mists or
dusts.
Personal protective equipment for the body should be selected based on the task being
performed and the risks involved and should be approved by a specialist before handling
this product.
Personal protection
Eyes
Skin
Respiratory
Consult local authorities for acceptable exposure limits.
:
:
:
:
Personal protection in case
of a large spill
: Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) should be used to avoid inhalation of the
product.
Chemical-resistant, impervious gloves complying with an approved standard should be
worn at all times when handling chemical products if a risk assessment indicates this is
necessary.
Hands :
The applicable standards are (US) 29 CFR 1910.134 and (Canada) Z94.4-93
When working with cryogenic liquids, wear a full face shield.
Insulated gloves suitable for low temperatures
Page: 3/7
Build 1.1
Ethane
-89C (-128.2F)
-183C (-297.4F)
1.1 (Air = 1) Liquid Density: BP@34.1 lb/ft3 (546 kg/m3)
543 (psig)
32.4C (90.3F)
30.08 g/mole
Boiling/condensation point
Melting/freezing point
Section 9. Physical and chemical properties
Molecular weight
Critical temperature
Vapor pressure
Vapor density
C2-H6 Molecular formula
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Specific Volume (ft
3
/lb) : 12.6582
Gas Density (lb/ft
3
) : 0.079
The product is stable.
Extremely reactive or incompatible with the following materials: oxidizing materials.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous polymerization will not occur.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous decomposition products should
not be produced.
Section 10. Stability and reactivity
Stability and reactivity
Incompatibility with various
substances
Hazardous decomposition
products
Hazardous polymerization
:
:
:
:
Section 11. Toxicological information
Specific effects
Carcinogenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Mutagenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Reproduction toxicity No known significant effects or critical hazards.
No specific information is available in our database regarding the other toxic effects of
this material to humans.
May cause damage to the following organs: heart, central nervous system (CNS). Chronic effects on humans
Other toxic effects on
humans
:
:
Toxicity data
:
:
:
Section 12. Ecological information
Environmental fate : Not available.
Environmental hazards : This product shows a low bioaccumulation potential.
Toxicity to the environment : Not available.
Aquatic ecotoxicity
Not available.
Products of degradation: carbon oxides (CO, CO2) and water. : Products of degradation
Section 13. Disposal considerations
Product removed from the cylinder must be disposed of in accordance with appropriate Federal, State, local
regulation.Return cylinders with residual product to Airgas, Inc.Do not dispose of locally.
Section 14. Transport information
Regulatory
information
UN number Proper shipping
name
Class Packing group Label Additional
information
Page: 4/7
Build 1.1
Ethane
2.1 Limited
quantity
Yes.
Packaging
instruction
Passenger
aircraft
Quantity
limitation:
Forbidden.
Cargo aircraft
Quantity
limitation:
150 kg
DOT Classification
TDG Classification 2.1
ETHANE
Ethane, refrigerated
liquid
UN1035
UN1961
ETHANE
Ethane, refrigerated
liquid
UN1035
UN1961
Explosive
Limit and
Limited
Quantity
Index
0.125
ERAP Index
3000
Passenger
Carrying Ship
Index
Forbidden
Passenger
Carrying
Road or Rail
Index
Forbidden
Mexico
Classification
UN1035
UN1961
ETHANE
Ethane, refrigerated
liquid
2.1 -
Not applicable (gas).
Not applicable (gas).
Not applicable (gas).
Refer to CFR 49 (or authority having jurisdiction) to determine the information required for shipment of the
product.
Section 15. Regulatory information
U.S. Federal regulations TSCA 8(a) IUR: Not determined
United States inventory (TSCA 8b): This material is listed or exempted.
SARA 302/304/311/312 extremely hazardous substances: No products were found.
SARA 302/304 emergency planning and notification: No products were found.
SARA 302/304/311/312 hazardous chemicals: ethane
SARA 311/312 MSDS distribution - chemical inventory - hazard identification:
ethane: Fire hazard, Sudden release of pressure, Immediate (acute) health hazard
:
United States
Ethane
Clean Air Act (CAA) 112 accidental release prevention - Flammable Substances:
Page: 5/7
Build 1.1
Ethane
Connecticut Carcinogen Reporting: This material is not listed.
Connecticut Hazardous Material Survey: This material is not listed.
Florida substances: This material is not listed.
Illinois Chemical Safety Act: This material is not listed.
Illinois Toxic Substances Disclosure to Employee Act: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Reporting: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Substances: This material is listed.
Michigan Critical Material: This material is not listed.
Minnesota Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
New Jersey Spill: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Toxic Catastrophe Prevention Act: This material is not listed.
New York Acutely Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New York Toxic Chemical Release Reporting: This material is not listed.
Pennsylvania RTK Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
Rhode Island Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
Clean Air Act (CAA) 112 regulated flammable substances: ethane
State regulations
CEPA Toxic substances: This material is listed.
Canadian ARET: This material is not listed.
Canadian NPRI: This material is listed.
Alberta Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Ontario Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Quebec Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
WHMIS (Canada) Class A: Compressed gas.
Class B-1: Flammable gas.
:
:
Canada
Section 16. Other information
3
Health
GAS:
CONTENTS UNDER PRESURE.
Extremely flammable.
May cause flash fire.
Do not puncture or incinerate container.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
LIQUID:
Extremely flammable.
Extremely cold liquid and gas under pressure.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
Label requirements :
Label requirements : Class A: Compressed gas.
Class B-1: Flammable gas.
United States
Canada
liquid:
Hazardous Material
Information System (U.S.A.)
1
4
0
Health
Flammability
Physical hazards
:
Page: 6/7
Build 1.1
Ethane
4
0
0
4
3
Health
Special
Instability
Flammability
Fire hazard
Reactivity
Personal protection
Notice to reader
To the best of our knowledge, the information contained herein is accurate. However, neither the above-named
supplier, nor any of its subsidiaries, assumes any liability whatsoever for the accuracy or completeness of the
information contained herein.
Final determination of suitability of any material is the sole responsibility of the user. All materials may present
unknown hazards and should be used with caution. Although certain hazards are described herein, we cannot
guarantee that these are the only hazards that exist.
0
4
1
National Fire Protection
Association (U.S.A.)
Health
Special
Instability
Flammability
:
liquid:
Page: 7/7
Build 1.1
Hydrogen
001026
Synthetic/Analytical chemistry.
3/7/2013.
Material Safety Data Sheet
Product name
AIRGAS INC., on behalf of its subsidiaries
259 North Radnor-Chester Road
Suite 100
Radnor, PA 19087-5283
1-610-687-5253
Product use
MSDS #
Date of
Preparation/Revision
In case of emergency
Section 1. Chemical product and company identification
Hydrogen
:
:
:
:
Supplier
1-866-734-3438
Synonym : Dihydrogen; o-Hydrogen; p-Hydrogen; Molecular hydrogen; H2; UN 1049; UN 1966;
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2)
:
:
Inhalation
Emergency overview
Section 2. Hazards identification
Routes of entry
Potential acute health effects
Acts as a simple asphyxiant.
Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite. Contact with cryogenic
liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Ingestion is not a normal route of exposure for gases Contact with cryogenic liquid can
cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite. Contact with cryogenic
liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Eyes
Skin
Inhalation
Ingestion
Physical state Gas or Liquid.
See toxicological information (Section 11)
WARNING!
GAS:
CONTENTS UNDER PRESURE.
Extremely flammable
Do not puncture or incinerate container.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
LIQUID:
Extremely flammable
Extremely cold liquid and gas under pressure.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
Do not puncture or incinerate container. May cause target organ damage, based on
animal data.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Medical conditions
aggravated by over-
exposure
Pre-existing disorders involving any target organs mentioned in this MSDS as being at
risk may be aggravated by over-exposure to this product.
:
Contact with rapidly expanding gases or liquids can cause frostbite.
Target organs : May cause damage to the following organs: lungs.
Potential chronic health effects
Chronic effects : May cause target organ damage, based on animal data.
Target organs : May cause damage to the following organs: lungs.
Page: 1/6
Build 1.1
Hydrogen
Hydrogen 1333-74-0 100 Oxygen Depletion [Asphyxiant]
Section 3. Composition, Information on Ingredients
Name % Volume Exposure limits CAS number
As this product is a gas, refer to the inhalation section.
Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical
attention immediately.
In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes
while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Clean
shoes thoroughly before reuse. Get medical attention immediately.
Move exposed person to fresh air. If not breathing, if breathing is irregular or if
respiratory arrest occurs, provide artificial respiration or oxygen by trained personnel.
Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention
immediately.
Section 4. First aid measures
Eye contact
Skin contact
Inhalation
Ingestion
:
:
:
:
No action shall be taken involving any personal risk or without suitable training.If it is suspected that fumes are still present,
the rescuer should wear an appropriate mask or self-contained breathing apparatus.It may be dangerous to the person
providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Frostbite : Try to warm up the frozen tissues and seek medical attention.
500 to 571C (932 to 1059.8F)
Flammable.
No specific data.
Lower: 4% Upper: 76%
Use an extinguishing agent suitable for the surrounding fire.
Extremely flammable in the presence of the following materials or conditions: oxidizing
materials.
Section 5. Fire-fighting measures
Flammability of the product
Auto-ignition temperature
Flammable limits
Products of combustion
Fire hazards in the presence
of various substances
Fire-fighting media and
instructions
Apply water from a safe distance to cool container and protect surrounding area. If
involved in fire, shut off flow immediately if it can be done without risk.
Contains gas under pressure. In a fire or if heated, a pressure increase will occur and
the container may burst or explode.
Special protective
equipment for fire-fighters
Fire-fighters should wear appropriate protective equipment and self-contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) with a full face-piece operated in positive pressure mode.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Keep unnecessary personnel away. Use
suitable protective equipment (section 8). Shut off gas supply if this can be done safely.
Isolate area until gas has dispersed.
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Stop leak if without risk. Note: see section 1
for emergency contact information and section 13 for waste disposal.
Environmental precautions
Section 6. Accidental release measures
: Avoid dispersal of spilled material and runoff and contact with soil, waterways, drains
and sewers.
Personal precautions :
Methods for cleaning up :
High pressure gas. Do not puncture or incinerate container. Use equipment rated for
cylinder pressure. Close valve after each use and when empty. Protect cylinders from
physical damage; do not drag, roll, slide, or drop. Use a suitable hand truck for cylinder
movement.
Never allow any unprotected part of the body to touch uninsulated pipes or vessels that
contain cryogenic liquids. Prevent entrapment of liquid in closed systems or piping
without pressure relief devices. Some materials may become brittle at low temperatures
and will easily fracture.
Section 7. Handling and storage
Handling :
Page: 2/6
Build 1.1
Hydrogen
Cylinders should be stored upright, with valve protection cap in place, and firmly secured
to prevent falling or being knocked over. Cylinder temperatures should not exceed 52 C
(125 F).
For additional information concerning storage and handling refer to Compressed Gas
Association pamphlets P-1 Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers and P-
12 Safe Handling of Cryogenic Liquids available from the Compressed Gas Association,
Inc.
Storage :
Use only with adequate ventilation. Use process enclosures, local exhaust ventilation or
other engineering controls to keep worker exposure to airborne contaminants below any
recommended or statutory limits.
hydrogen Oxygen Depletion [Asphyxiant]
Section 8. Exposure controls/personal protection
Engineering controls
Product name
Use a properly fitted, air-purifying or air-fed respirator complying with an approved
standard if a risk assessment indicates this is necessary. Respirator selection must be
based on known or anticipated exposure levels, the hazards of the product and the safe
working limits of the selected respirator.
Safety eyewear complying with an approved standard should be used when a risk
assessment indicates this is necessary to avoid exposure to liquid splashes, mists or
dusts.
Personal protective equipment for the body should be selected based on the task being
performed and the risks involved and should be approved by a specialist before handling
this product.
Personal protection
Eyes
Skin
Respiratory
Consult local authorities for acceptable exposure limits.
:
:
:
:
Personal protection in case
of a large spill
: Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) should be used to avoid inhalation of the
product.
Chemical-resistant, impervious gloves complying with an approved standard should be
worn at all times when handling chemical products if a risk assessment indicates this is
necessary.
Hands :
The applicable standards are (US) 29 CFR 1910.134 and (Canada) Z94.4-93
When working with cryogenic liquids, wear a full face shield.
Insulated gloves suitable for low temperatures
-253C (-423.4F)
-259.15C (-434.5F)
0.07 (Air = 1) Liquid Density@BP: 4.43 lb/ft3 (70.96 kg/m3)
-240.15C (-400.3F)
2.02 g/mole
Boiling/condensation point
Melting/freezing point
Section 9. Physical and chemical properties
Molecular weight
Critical temperature
Vapor density
H2 Molecular formula
:
:
:
:
:
:
Specific Volume (ft
3
/lb) : 191.9386
Gas Density (lb/ft
3
) : 0.00521
The product is stable.
Extremely reactive or incompatible with the following materials: oxidizing materials.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous polymerization will not occur.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous decomposition products should
not be produced.
Section 10. Stability and reactivity
Stability and reactivity
Incompatibility with various
substances
Hazardous decomposition
products
Hazardous polymerization
:
:
:
:
Page: 3/6
Build 1.1
Hydrogen
Section 11. Toxicological information
Specific effects
Carcinogenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Mutagenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Reproduction toxicity No known significant effects or critical hazards.
No specific information is available in our database regarding the other toxic effects of
this material to humans.
May cause damage to the following organs: lungs. Chronic effects on humans
Other toxic effects on
humans
:
:
Toxicity data
:
:
:
Section 12. Ecological information
Environmental fate : Not available.
Environmental hazards : No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Toxicity to the environment : Not available.
Aquatic ecotoxicity
Not available.
Section 13. Disposal considerations
Product removed from the cylinder must be disposed of in accordance with appropriate Federal, State, local
regulation.Return cylinders with residual product to Airgas, Inc.Do not dispose of locally.
Section 14. Transport information
2.1 Limited
quantity
Yes.
Packaging
instruction
Passenger
aircraft
Quantity
limitation:
Forbidden.
Cargo aircraft
Quantity
limitation:
150 kg
DOT Classification
TDG Classification 2.1
HYDROGEN,
COMPRESSED
Hydrogen,
refrigerated liquid
UN1049
UN1966
HYDROGEN,
COMPRESSED
Hydrogen,
refrigerated liquid
Regulatory
information
UN number Proper shipping
name
Class Packing group Label Additional
information
UN1049
UN1966
Explosive
Limit and
Limited
Quantity
Index
0.125
ERAP Index
3000
Passenger
Carrying Ship
Index
Forbidden
Not applicable (gas).
Not applicable (gas).
Page: 4/6
Build 1.1
Hydrogen
Passenger
Carrying
Road or Rail
Index
Forbidden
Mexico
Classification
UN1049
UN1966
HYDROGEN,
COMPRESSED
Hydrogen,
refrigerated liquid
2.1 - Not applicable (gas).
Refer to CFR 49 (or authority having jurisdiction) to determine the information required for shipment of the
product.
Section 15. Regulatory information
U.S. Federal regulations
Connecticut Carcinogen Reporting: This material is not listed.
Connecticut Hazardous Material Survey: This material is not listed.
Florida substances: This material is not listed.
Illinois Chemical Safety Act: This material is not listed.
Illinois Toxic Substances Disclosure to Employee Act: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Reporting: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Substances: This material is listed.
Michigan Critical Material: This material is not listed.
Minnesota Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
New Jersey Spill: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Toxic Catastrophe Prevention Act: This material is not listed.
New York Acutely Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New York Toxic Chemical Release Reporting: This material is not listed.
Pennsylvania RTK Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
Rhode Island Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
TSCA 8(a) IUR: This material is listed or exempted.
United States inventory (TSCA 8b): This material is listed or exempted.
Clean Air Act (CAA) 112 regulated flammable substances: hydrogen
State regulations
CEPA Toxic substances: This material is not listed.
Canadian ARET: This material is not listed.
Canadian NPRI: This material is not listed.
Alberta Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Ontario Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Quebec Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
WHMIS (Canada) Class A: Compressed gas.
Class B-1: Flammable gas.
SARA 302/304/311/312 extremely hazardous substances: No products were found.
SARA 302/304 emergency planning and notification: No products were found.
SARA 302/304/311/312 hazardous chemicals: hydrogen
SARA 311/312 MSDS distribution - chemical inventory - hazard identification:
hydrogen: Fire hazard, Sudden release of pressure
:
:
:
Canada
United States
Hydrogen
Clean Air Act (CAA) 112 accidental release prevention - Flammable Substances:
Page: 5/6
Build 1.1
Hydrogen
Section 16. Other information
3
4
0
0
4
3
Health
Special
Instability
Flammability
Health
Fire hazard
Reactivity
Personal protection
GAS:
CONTENTS UNDER PRESURE.
Extremely flammable
Do not puncture or incinerate container.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
LIQUID:
Extremely flammable
Extremely cold liquid and gas under pressure.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
Label requirements :
Notice to reader
To the best of our knowledge, the information contained herein is accurate. However, neither the above-named
supplier, nor any of its subsidiaries, assumes any liability whatsoever for the accuracy or completeness of the
information contained herein.
Final determination of suitability of any material is the sole responsibility of the user. All materials may present
unknown hazards and should be used with caution. Although certain hazards are described herein, we cannot
guarantee that these are the only hazards that exist.
Label requirements : Class A: Compressed gas.
Class B-1: Flammable gas.
United States
Canada
0
4
0
National Fire Protection
Association (U.S.A.)
Health
Special
Instability
Flammability
:
liquid:
liquid:
Hazardous Material
Information System (U.S.A.)
0
4
0
Health
Flammability
Physical hazards
:
Page: 6/6
Build 1.1
Methane
001033
Synthetic/Analytical chemistry.
4/1/2013.
Material Safety Data Sheet
Product name
AIRGAS INC., on behalf of its subsidiaries
259 North Radnor-Chester Road
Suite 100
Radnor, PA 19087-5283
1-610-687-5253
Product use
MSDS #
Date of
Preparation/Revision
In case of emergency
Section 1. Chemical product and company identification
Methane
:
:
:
:
Supplier
1-866-734-3438
Synonym : fire damp; marsh gas; methane (dot); methyl hydride
:
:
Inhalation
Emergency overview
Section 2. Hazards identification
Routes of entry
Potential acute health effects
Acts as a simple asphyxiant.
Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite. Contact with cryogenic
liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Ingestion is not a normal route of exposure for gases. Contact with cryogenic liquid can
cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite. Contact with cryogenic
liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Eyes
Skin
Inhalation
Ingestion
Physical state Gas. [COLORLESS GAS; MAY BE A LIQUID UNDER PRESSURE OR
REFRIGERATION.]
See toxicological information (Section 11)
WARNING!
GAS:
CONTENTS UNDER PRESURE.
Extremely flammable.
May cause flash fire.
Do not puncture or incinerate container.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
LIQUID:
Extremely flammable.
Extremely cold liquid and gas under pressure.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. Do not puncture or incinerate container. Use
only with adequate ventilation. Keep container closed.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Medical conditions
aggravated by over-
exposure
Acute or chronic respiratory conditions may be aggravated by overexposure to this gas. :
Contact with rapidly expanding gases or liquids can cause frostbite.
Page: 1/7
Build 1.1
Methane
Methane 74-82-8 100 ACGIH TLV (United States, 1/2009).
TWA: 1000 ppm 8 hour(s).
Section 3. Composition, Information on Ingredients
Name % Volume Exposure limits CAS number
As this product is a gas, refer to the inhalation section.
Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical
attention immediately.
In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes
while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. To avoid the risk of static discharges
and gas ignition, soak contaminated clothing thoroughly with water before removing it.
Wash clothing before reuse. Clean shoes thoroughly before reuse. Get medical
attention immediately.
Move exposed person to fresh air. If not breathing, if breathing is irregular or if
respiratory arrest occurs, provide artificial respiration or oxygen by trained personnel.
Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention
immediately.
Section 4. First aid measures
Eye contact
Skin contact
Inhalation
Ingestion
:
:
:
:
No action shall be taken involving any personal risk or without suitable training.If it is suspected that fumes are still present,
the rescuer should wear an appropriate mask or self-contained breathing apparatus.It may be dangerous to the person
providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Frostbite : Try to warm up the frozen tissues and seek medical attention.
539.85C (1003.7F)
Flammable.
Decomposition products may include the following materials:
carbon dioxide
carbon monoxide
Closed cup: -188.15C (-306.7F).
Lower: 5% Upper: 15%
In case of fire, use water spray (fog), foam or dry chemical.
Extremely flammable in the presence of the following materials or conditions: open
flames, sparks and static discharge and oxidizing materials.
Section 5. Fire-fighting measures
Flammability of the product
Auto-ignition temperature
Flash point
Flammable limits
Products of combustion
Fire hazards in the presence
of various substances
Fire-fighting media and
instructions
In case of fire, allow gas to burn if flow cannot be shut off immediately. Apply water from
a safe distance to cool container and protect surrounding area. If involved in fire, shut
off flow immediately if it can be done without risk.
Contains gas under pressure. Flammable gas. In a fire or if heated, a pressure
increase will occur and the container may burst, with the risk of a subsequent explosion.
Special protective
equipment for fire-fighters
Fire-fighters should wear appropriate protective equipment and self-contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) with a full face-piece operated in positive pressure mode.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Keep unnecessary personnel away. Use
suitable protective equipment (section 8). Shut off gas supply if this can be done safely.
Isolate area until gas has dispersed.
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Stop leak if without risk. Use spark-proof
tools and explosion-proof equipment. Note: see section 1 for emergency contact
information and section 13 for waste disposal.
Environmental precautions
Section 6. Accidental release measures
: Avoid dispersal of spilled material and runoff and contact with soil, waterways, drains
and sewers.
Personal precautions :
Methods for cleaning up :
Page: 2/7
Build 1.1
Methane
Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Keep container tightly closed and sealed
until ready for use. Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame). Segregate
from oxidizing materials. Cylinders should be stored upright, with valve protection cap in
place, and firmly secured to prevent falling or being knocked over. Cylinder temperatures
should not exceed 52 C (125 F).
For additional information concerning storage and handling refer to Compressed Gas
Association pamphlets P-1 Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers and P-
12 Safe Handling of Cryogenic Liquids available from the Compressed Gas Association,
Inc.
Use only with adequate ventilation. Use explosion-proof electrical (ventilating, lighting
and material handling) equipment. High pressure gas. Do not puncture or incinerate
container. Use equipment rated for cylinder pressure. Close valve after each use and
when empty. Keep container closed. Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. To avoid
fire, eliminate ignition sources. Protect cylinders from physical damage; do not drag, roll,
slide, or drop. Use a suitable hand truck for cylinder movement.
Never allow any unprotected part of the body to touch uninsulated pipes or vessels that
contain cryogenic liquids. Prevent entrapment of liquid in closed systems or piping
without pressure relief devices. Some materials may become brittle at low temperatures
and will easily fracture.
Section 7. Handling and storage
Handling
Storage
:
:
Use only with adequate ventilation. Use process enclosures, local exhaust ventilation or
other engineering controls to keep worker exposure to airborne contaminants below any
recommended or statutory limits. The engineering controls also need to keep gas, vapor
or dust concentrations below any lower explosive limits. Use explosion-proof ventilation
equipment.
methane ACGIH TLV (United States, 1/2009).
TWA: 1000 ppm 8 hour(s).
Section 8. Exposure controls/personal protection
Engineering controls
Product name
Use a properly fitted, air-purifying or air-fed respirator complying with an approved
standard if a risk assessment indicates this is necessary. Respirator selection must be
based on known or anticipated exposure levels, the hazards of the product and the safe
working limits of the selected respirator.
Safety eyewear complying with an approved standard should be used when a risk
assessment indicates this is necessary to avoid exposure to liquid splashes, mists or
dusts.
Personal protective equipment for the body should be selected based on the task being
performed and the risks involved and should be approved by a specialist before handling
this product.
Personal protection
Eyes
Skin
Respiratory
Consult local authorities for acceptable exposure limits.
:
:
:
:
Personal protection in case
of a large spill
: Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) should be used to avoid inhalation of the
product.
Chemical-resistant, impervious gloves complying with an approved standard should be
worn at all times when handling chemical products if a risk assessment indicates this is
necessary.
Hands :
The applicable standards are (US) 29 CFR 1910.134 and (Canada) Z94.4-93
When working with cryogenic liquids, wear a full face shield.
Insulated gloves suitable for low temperatures
Page: 3/7
Build 1.1
Methane
-161.6C (-258.9F)
-182.6C (-296.7F)
0.55 (Air = 1) Liquid Density@BP: 26.5 lb/ft3 (424.5 kg/m3)
-82.4C (-116.3F)
16.05 g/mole
Boiling/condensation point
Melting/freezing point
Section 9. Physical and chemical properties
Molecular weight
Critical temperature
Vapor density
C-H4 Molecular formula
:
:
:
:
:
:
Specific Volume (ft
3
/lb) : 23.6128
Gas Density (lb/ft
3
) : 0.04235
The product is stable.
Extremely reactive or incompatible with the following materials: oxidizing materials.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous polymerization will not occur.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous decomposition products should
not be produced.
Section 10. Stability and reactivity
Stability and reactivity
Incompatibility with various
substances
Hazardous decomposition
products
Hazardous polymerization
:
:
:
:
Section 11. Toxicological information
Specific effects
Carcinogenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Mutagenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Reproduction toxicity No known significant effects or critical hazards.
No specific information is available in our database regarding the other toxic effects of
this material to humans.
Other toxic effects on
humans
:
Toxicity data
:
:
:
Section 12. Ecological information
Environmental fate : Not available.
Environmental hazards : No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Toxicity to the environment : Not available.
Aquatic ecotoxicity
Not available.
Products of degradation: carbon oxides (CO, CO2) and water. : Products of degradation
Section 13. Disposal considerations
Product removed from the cylinder must be disposed of in accordance with appropriate Federal, State, local
regulation.Return cylinders with residual product to Airgas, Inc.Do not dispose of locally.
Section 14. Transport information
2.1 - DOT Classification Methane, compressed
or Methane or Natural
gas, compressed
(with high methane
content)(Methane)
Methane, refrigerated
liquid
Regulatory
information
UN number Proper shipping
name
Class Packing group Label Additional
information
UN1971
UN1972
Not applicable (gas).
Page: 4/7
Build 1.1
Methane
TDG Classification 2.1 UN1971
UN1972
(Methane)Methane,
compressed or
Methane or Natural
gas, compressed
(with high methane
content)
Methane, refrigerated
liquid
Explosive
Limit and
Limited
Quantity
Index
0.125
ERAP Index
3000
Passenger
Carrying Ship
Index
Forbidden
Passenger
Carrying
Road or Rail
Index
Forbidden
Mexico
Classification
UN1971
UN1972
(Methane)Methane,
compressed or
Methane or Natural
gas, compressed
(with high methane
content)
Methane, refrigerated
liquid
2.1 -
Not applicable (gas).
Not applicable (gas).
Refer to CFR 49 (or authority having jurisdiction) to determine the information required for shipment of the
product.
Section 15. Regulatory information
U.S. Federal regulations
Connecticut Carcinogen Reporting: This material is not listed.
Connecticut Hazardous Material Survey: This material is not listed.
Florida substances: This material is not listed.
Illinois Chemical Safety Act: This material is not listed.
Illinois Toxic Substances Disclosure to Employee Act: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Reporting: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Substances: This material is listed.
Michigan Critical Material: This material is not listed.
Minnesota Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
United States inventory (TSCA 8b): This material is listed or exempted.
Clean Water Act (CWA) 307: No products were found.
Clean Water Act (CWA) 311: No products were found.
Clean Air Act (CAA) 112 regulated flammable substances: methane
Clean Air Act (CAA) 112 regulated toxic substances: No products were found.
State regulations
SARA 302/304/311/312 extremely hazardous substances: No products were found.
SARA 302/304 emergency planning and notification: No products were found.
SARA 302/304/311/312 hazardous chemicals: methane
SARA 311/312 MSDS distribution - chemical inventory - hazard identification:
methane: Fire hazard, Sudden release of pressure
:
:
United States
Page: 5/7
Build 1.1
Methane
New Jersey Spill: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Toxic Catastrophe Prevention Act: This material is not listed.
New York Acutely Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New York Toxic Chemical Release Reporting: This material is not listed.
Pennsylvania RTK Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
Rhode Island Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
CEPA Toxic substances: This material is listed.
Canadian ARET: This material is not listed.
Canadian NPRI: This material is listed.
Alberta Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Ontario Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Quebec Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
WHMIS (Canada) Class A: Compressed gas.
Class B-1: Flammable gas.
:
Canada
Section 16. Other information
3
4
1
Health
Fire hazard
Reactivity
Personal protection
GAS:
CONTENTS UNDER PRESURE.
Extremely flammable.
May cause flash fire.
Do not puncture or incinerate container.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
LIQUID:
Extremely flammable.
Extremely cold liquid and gas under pressure.
Can cause rapid suffocation.
May cause severe frostbite.
Label requirements :
Label requirements : Class A: Compressed gas.
Class B-1: Flammable gas.
United States
Canada
0
4
1
National Fire Protection
Association (U.S.A.)
Health
Special
Instability
Flammability
:
liquid:
Hazardous Material
Information System (U.S.A.)
1
4
0
Health
Flammability
Physical hazards
:
Page: 6/7
Build 1.1
Methane
0
4
3
Health
Special
Instability
Flammability
Notice to reader
To the best of our knowledge, the information contained herein is accurate. However, neither the above-named
supplier, nor any of its subsidiaries, assumes any liability whatsoever for the accuracy or completeness of the
information contained herein.
Final determination of suitability of any material is the sole responsibility of the user. All materials may present
unknown hazards and should be used with caution. Although certain hazards are described herein, we cannot
guarantee that these are the only hazards that exist.
liquid:
Page: 7/7
Build 1.1
Oxygen
001043
Synthetic/Analytical chemistry.
9/24/2013.
Material Safety Data Sheet
Product name
AIRGAS INC., on behalf of its subsidiaries
259 North Radnor-Chester Road
Suite 100
Radnor, PA 19087-5283
1-610-687-5253
Product use
MSDS #
Date of Preparation/
Revision
In case of emergency
Section 1. Chemical product and company identification
Oxygen
:
:
:
:
Supplier
1-866-734-3438
Synonym : Molecular oxygen; Oxygen molecule; Pure oxygen; O2; UN 1072; Dioxygen; Oxygen
USP, Aviators Breathing Oxygen (ABO)
:
:
Inhalation
Emergency overview
Section 2. Hazards identification
Routes of entry
Potential acute health effects
Respiratory system irritation after overexposure to high oxygen concentrations.
May cause eye irritation. Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or
frostbite. Contact with cryogenic liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Ingestion is not a normal route of exposure for gases. Contact with cryogenic liquid can
cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
May cause skin irritation. Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or
frostbite. Contact with cryogenic liquid can cause frostbite and cryogenic burns.
Eyes
Skin
Inhalation
Ingestion
Physical state Gas. [Compressed gas.]
See toxicological information (Section 11)
DANGER!
GAS:
OXIDIZER.
CONTACT WITH COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL MAY CAUSE FIRE.
CONTENTS UNDER PRESURE.
Do not puncture or incinerate container.
May cause severe frostbite.
LIQUID:
OXIDIZER.
CONTACT WITH COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL MAY CAUSE FIRE.
Extremely cold liquid and gas under pressure.
May cause severe frostbite.
Do not puncture or incinerate container. Store in tightly-closed container. Avoid contact
with combustible materials.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Medical conditions
aggravated by over-
exposure
Acute or chronic respiratory conditions may be aggravated by overexposure to this gas. :
Contact with rapidly expanding gases or liquids can cause frostbite.
Page: 1/7
Build 1.1
Oxygen
Oxygen 7782-44-7 100
Section 3. Composition, Information on Ingredients
Name % Volume Exposure limits CAS number
As this product is a gas, refer to the inhalation section.
Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical
attention immediately.
None expected.
Move exposed person to fresh air. If not breathing, if breathing is irregular or if
respiratory arrest occurs, provide artificial respiration or oxygen by trained personnel.
Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention
immediately.
Section 4. First aid measures
Eye contact
Skin contact
Inhalation
Ingestion
:
:
:
:
No action shall be taken involving any personal risk or without suitable training.If it is suspected that fumes are still present,
the rescuer should wear an appropriate mask or self-contained breathing apparatus.It may be dangerous to the person
providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Frostbite : Try to warm up the frozen tissues and seek medical attention.
Non-flammable.
No specific data.
Use an extinguishing agent suitable for the surrounding fire.
Extremely flammable in the presence of the following materials or conditions: reducing
materials, combustible materials and organic materials.
Section 5. Fire-fighting measures
Flammability of the product
Products of combustion
Fire hazards in the
presence of various
substances
Fire-fighting media and
instructions
Apply water from a safe distance to cool container and protect surrounding area. If
involved in fire, shut off flow immediately if it can be done without risk.
Contains gas under pressure. Contact with combustible material may cause fire. This
material increases the risk of fire and may aid combustion. In a fire or if heated, a
pressure increase will occur and the container may burst or explode.
Special protective
equipment for fire-fighters
Fire-fighters should wear appropriate protective equipment and self-contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) with a full face-piece operated in positive pressure mode.
:
:
:
:
:
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Keep unnecessary personnel away. Use
suitable protective equipment (section 8). Eliminate all ignition sources if safe to do so.
Do not touch or walk through spilled material. Shut off gas supply if this can be done
safely. Isolate area until gas has dispersed.
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Stop leak if without risk. Use spark-proof
tools and explosion-proof equipment. Note: see Section 1 for emergency contact
information and Section 13 for waste disposal.
Environmental precautions
Section 6. Accidental release measures
: Avoid dispersal of spilled material and runoff and contact with soil, waterways, drains
and sewers.
Personal precautions :
Methods for cleaning up :
High pressure gas. Do not puncture or incinerate container. Use equipment rated for
cylinder pressure. Close valve after each use and when empty. Store in tightly-closed
container. Avoid contact with combustible materials. Protect cylinders from physical
damage; do not drag, roll, slide, or drop. Use a suitable hand truck for cylinder
movement.
Never allow any unprotected part of the body to touch uninsulated pipes or vessels that
contain cryogenic liquids. Prevent entrapment of liquid in closed systems or piping
without pressure relief devices. Some materials may become brittle at low temperatures
Section 7. Handling and storage
Handling :
Page: 2/7
Build 1.1
Oxygen
Keep container tightly closed. Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Separate
from acids, alkalies, reducing agents and combustibles. Cylinders should be stored
upright, with valve protection cap in place, and firmly secured to prevent falling or being
knocked over. Cylinder temperatures should not exceed 52 C (125 F).
and will easily fracture.
Storage :
Use only with adequate ventilation. Use process enclosures, local exhaust ventilation or
other engineering controls to keep worker exposure to airborne contaminants below any
recommended or statutory limits.
Oxygen
Section 8. Exposure controls/personal protection
Engineering controls
Product name
Use a properly fitted, air-purifying or air-fed respirator complying with an approved
standard if a risk assessment indicates this is necessary. Respirator selection must be
based on known or anticipated exposure levels, the hazards of the product and the safe
working limits of the selected respirator.
Safety eyewear complying with an approved standard should be used when a risk
assessment indicates this is necessary to avoid exposure to liquid splashes, mists or
dusts.
Personal protective equipment for the body should be selected based on the task being
performed and the risks involved and should be approved by a specialist before
handling this product.
Personal protection
Eyes
Skin
Respiratory
Consult local authorities for acceptable exposure limits.
:
:
:
:
Personal protection in case
of a large spill
: Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) should be used to avoid inhalation of the
product.
Chemical-resistant, impervious gloves complying with an approved standard should be
worn at all times when handling chemical products if a risk assessment indicates this is
necessary.
Hands :
The applicable standards are (US) 29 CFR 1910.134 and (Canada) Z94.4-93
When working with cryogenic liquids, wear a full face shield.
Insulated gloves suitable for low temperatures
-183C (-297.4F)
-218.4C (-361.1F)
1.1 (Air = 1)
-118.15C (-180.7F)
32 g/mole
Boiling/condensation point
Melting/freezing point
Section 9. Physical and chemical properties
Molecular weight
Critical temperature
Vapor density
O2 Molecular formula
:
:
:
:
:
:
Specific Volume (ft
3
/lb) : 12.0482
Gas Density (lb/ft
3
) : 0.083
The product is stable.
Extremely reactive or incompatible with the following materials: oxidizing materials,
reducing materials and combustible materials.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous polymerization will not occur.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous decomposition products should
not be produced.
Section 10. Stability and reactivity
Stability and reactivity
Incompatibility with various
substances
Hazardous decomposition
products
Hazardous polymerization
:
:
:
:
Page: 3/7
Build 1.1
Oxygen
Section 11. Toxicological information
Specific effects
Carcinogenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Mutagenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Reproduction toxicity No known significant effects or critical hazards.
No specific information is available in our database regarding the other toxic effects of
this material to humans.
Other toxic effects on
humans
:
Toxicity data
:
:
:
Section 12. Ecological information
Environmental fate : Not available.
Environmental hazards : This product shows a low bioaccumulation potential.
Toxicity to the environment : Not available.
Aquatic ecotoxicity
Not available.
Section 13. Disposal considerations
Product removed from the cylinder must be disposed of in accordance with appropriate Federal, State, local
regulation.Return cylinders with residual product to Airgas, Inc.Do not dispose of locally.
Section 14. Transport information
2.2 Limited
quantity
Yes.
Packaging
instruction
Passenger
aircraft
Quantity
limitation: 75
kg
Cargo aircraft
Quantity
limitation: 150
kg
Special
provisions
A52
DOT Classification OXYGEN,
COMPRESSED
Oxygen, refrigerated
liquid
Regulatory
information
UN number Proper shipping
name
Class Packing group Label Additional
information
UN1072
UN1073
Not applicable (gas).
Page: 4/7
Build 1.1
Oxygen
TDG Classification 2.2 UN1072
UN1073
OXYGEN,
COMPRESSED
Oxygen, refrigerated
liquid
Explosive
Limit and
Limited
Quantity
Index
0.125
ERAP Index
3000
Passenger
Carrying Ship
Index
50
Passenger
Carrying
Road or Rail
Index
75
Special
provisions
42
Mexico
Classification
UN1072
UN1073
OXYGEN,
COMPRESSED
Oxygen, refrigerated
liquid
2.2 -
Not applicable (gas).
Not applicable (gas).
Refer to CFR 49 (or authority having jurisdiction) to determine the information required for shipment of the
product.
Section 15. Regulatory information
U.S. Federal regulations
Connecticut Carcinogen Reporting: This material is not listed.
Connecticut Hazardous Material Survey: This material is not listed.
Florida substances: This material is not listed.
Illinois Chemical Safety Act: This material is not listed.
Illinois Toxic Substances Disclosure to Employee Act: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Reporting: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Substances: This material is listed.
Michigan Critical Material: This material is not listed.
Minnesota Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
New Jersey Spill: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Toxic Catastrophe Prevention Act: This material is not listed.
New York Acutely Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New York Toxic Chemical Release Reporting: This material is not listed.
Pennsylvania RTK Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
TSCA 8(a) CDR Exempt/Partial exemption: This material is listed or exempted.
United States inventory (TSCA 8b): This material is listed or exempted.
State regulations
SARA 302/304: No products were found.
SARA 311/312 Hazards identification: Fire hazard, Sudden release of pressure
:
:
United States
Page: 5/7
Build 1.1
Oxygen
Rhode Island Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
CEPA Toxic substances: This material is not listed.
Canadian ARET: This material is not listed.
Canadian NPRI: This material is not listed.
Alberta Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Ontario Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Quebec Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
WHMIS (Canada) Class A: Compressed gas.
Class C: Oxidizing material.
:
Canada
Section 16. Other information
3
0
0
Health
Fire hazard
Reactivity
Personal protection
GAS:
OXIDIZER.
CONTACT WITH COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL MAY CAUSE FIRE.
CONTENTS UNDER PRESURE.
Do not puncture or incinerate container.
May cause severe frostbite.
LIQUID:
OXIDIZER.
CONTACT WITH COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL MAY CAUSE FIRE.
Extremely cold liquid and gas under pressure.
May cause severe frostbite.
Label requirements :
Label requirements : Class A: Compressed gas.
Class C: Oxidizing material.
United States
Canada
0
0
0
National Fire Protection
Association (U.S.A.)
Health
Special
Instability
Flammability
:
liquid:
liquid:
Hazardous Material
Information System (U.S.A.)
0
0
0
Health
Flammability
Physical hazards
:
Page: 6/7
Build 1.1
Oxygen
0
0
3
Health
Special
Instability
Flammability
Notice to reader
To the best of our knowledge, the information contained herein is accurate. However, neither the above-named
supplier, nor any of its subsidiaries, assumes any liability whatsoever for the accuracy or completeness of the
information contained herein.
Final determination of suitability of any material is the sole responsibility of the user. All materials may present
unknown hazards and should be used with caution. Although certain hazards are described herein, we cannot
guarantee that these are the only hazards that exist.
Page: 7/7
Build 1.1
Propane
001045
Synthetic/Analytical chemistry.
8/19/2013.
Material Safety Data Sheet
Product name
AIRGAS INC., on behalf of its subsidiaries
259 North Radnor-Chester Road
Suite 100
Radnor, PA 19087-5283
1-610-687-5253
Product use
MSDS #
Date of
Preparation/Revision
In case of emergency
Section 1. Chemical product and company identification
Propane
:
:
:
:
Supplier
1-866-734-3438
Synonym : n-Propane; Dimethylmethane; Freon 290; Liquefied petroleum gas; Lpg; Propyl
hydride; R 290; C3H8; UN 1075; UN 1978; A-108; Hydrocarbon propellant.
:
:
Inhalation
Emergency overview
Section 2. Hazards identification
Routes of entry
Potential acute health effects
Acts as a simple asphyxiant.
Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite.
Ingestion is not a normal route of exposure for gases
Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite.
Eyes
Skin
Inhalation
Ingestion
Physical state Gas. [COLORLESS LIQUEFIED COMPRESSED GAS; ODORLESS BUT MAY HAVE
SKUNK ODOR ADDED.]
See toxicological information (Section 11)
WARNING!
FLAMMABLE GAS.
MAY CAUSE FLASH FIRE.
MAY CAUSE TARGET ORGAN DAMAGE, BASED ON ANIMAL DATA.
CONTENTS UNDER PRESSURE.
Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. Do not puncture or incinerate container. May
cause target organ damage, based on animal data. Use only with adequate ventilation.
Keep container closed.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Medical conditions
aggravated by over-
exposure
Pre-existing disorders involving any target organs mentioned in this MSDS as being at
risk may be aggravated by over-exposure to this product.
:
Contact with rapidly expanding gases can cause frostbite.
Target organs : May cause damage to the following organs: the nervous system, heart, central nervous
system (CNS).
Potential chronic health effects
Chronic effects : May cause target organ damage, based on animal data.
Target organs : May cause damage to the following organs: the nervous system, heart, central nervous
system (CNS).
Page: 1/7
Build 1.1
Propane
Propane 74-98-6 100 ACGIH TLV (United States, 3/2012).
TWA: 1000 ppm 8 hour(s).
NIOSH REL (United States, 1/2013).
TWA: 1800 mg/m 10 hour(s).
TWA: 1000 ppm 10 hour(s).
OSHA PEL (United States, 6/2010).
TWA: 1800 mg/m 8 hour(s).
TWA: 1000 ppm 8 hour(s).
OSHA PEL 1989 (United States, 3/1989).
TWA: 1800 mg/m 8 hour(s).
TWA: 1000 ppm 8 hour(s).
Section 3. Composition, Information on Ingredients
Name % Volume Exposure limits CAS number
As this product is a gas, refer to the inhalation section.
Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical
attention immediately.
In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes
while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. To avoid the risk of static discharges
and gas ignition, soak contaminated clothing thoroughly with water before removing it.
Wash clothing before reuse. Clean shoes thoroughly before reuse. Get medical
attention immediately.
Move exposed person to fresh air. If not breathing, if breathing is irregular or if
respiratory arrest occurs, provide artificial respiration or oxygen by trained personnel.
Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention
immediately.
Section 4. First aid measures
Eye contact
Skin contact
Inhalation
Ingestion
:
:
:
:
No action shall be taken involving any personal risk or without suitable training.If it is suspected that fumes are still present,
the rescuer should wear an appropriate mask or self-contained breathing apparatus.It may be dangerous to the person
providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Frostbite : Try to warm up the frozen tissues and seek medical attention.
450C (842F)
Flammable.
Decomposition products may include the following materials:
carbon dioxide
carbon monoxide
Closed cup: -104C (-155.2F). Open cup: -104C (-155.2F).
Lower: 2.1% Upper: 9.5%
In case of fire, use water spray (fog), foam or dry chemical.
Extremely flammable in the presence of the following materials or conditions: open
flames, sparks and static discharge and oxidizing materials.
Section 5. Fire-fighting measures
Flammability of the product
Auto-ignition temperature
Flash point
Flammable limits
Products of combustion
Fire hazards in the presence
of various substances
Fire-fighting media and
instructions
In case of fire, allow gas to burn if flow cannot be shut off immediately. Apply water from
a safe distance to cool container and protect surrounding area. If involved in fire, shut
off flow immediately if it can be done without risk.
Contains gas under pressure. Flammable gas. In a fire or if heated, a pressure
increase will occur and the container may burst, with the risk of a subsequent explosion.
Special protective
equipment for fire-fighters
Fire-fighters should wear appropriate protective equipment and self-contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) with a full face-piece operated in positive pressure mode.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Page: 2/7
Build 1.1
Propane
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Keep unnecessary personnel away. Use
suitable protective equipment (section 8). Shut off gas supply if this can be done safely.
Isolate area until gas has dispersed.
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Stop leak if without risk. Use spark-proof
tools and explosion-proof equipment. Note: see section 1 for emergency contact
information and section 13 for waste disposal.
Environmental precautions
Section 6. Accidental release measures
: Avoid dispersal of spilled material and runoff and contact with soil, waterways, drains
and sewers.
Personal precautions :
Methods for cleaning up :
Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Keep container tightly closed and sealed
until ready for use. Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame). Segregate
from oxidizing materials. Cylinders should be stored upright, with valve protection cap in
place, and firmly secured to prevent falling or being knocked over. Cylinder temperatures
should not exceed 52 C (125 F).
Use only with adequate ventilation. Use explosion-proof electrical (ventilating, lighting
and material handling) equipment. High pressure gas. Do not puncture or incinerate
container. Use equipment rated for cylinder pressure. Close valve after each use and
when empty. Keep container closed. Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. To avoid
fire, eliminate ignition sources. Protect cylinders from physical damage; do not drag, roll,
slide, or drop. Use a suitable hand truck for cylinder movement.
Section 7. Handling and storage
Handling
Storage
:
:
Use only with adequate ventilation. Use process enclosures, local exhaust ventilation or
other engineering controls to keep worker exposure to airborne contaminants below any
recommended or statutory limits. The engineering controls also need to keep gas, vapor
or dust concentrations below any lower explosive limits. Use explosion-proof ventilation
equipment.
propane ACGIH TLV (United States, 3/2012).
TWA: 1000 ppm 8 hour(s).
NIOSH REL (United States, 1/2013).
TWA: 1800 mg/m 10 hour(s).
TWA: 1000 ppm 10 hour(s).
OSHA PEL (United States, 6/2010).
TWA: 1800 mg/m 8 hour(s).
TWA: 1000 ppm 8 hour(s).
OSHA PEL 1989 (United States, 3/1989).
TWA: 1800 mg/m 8 hour(s).
Section 8. Exposure controls/personal protection
Engineering controls
Product name
Use a properly fitted, air-purifying or air-fed respirator complying with an approved
standard if a risk assessment indicates this is necessary. Respirator selection must be
based on known or anticipated exposure levels, the hazards of the product and the safe
working limits of the selected respirator.
Safety eyewear complying with an approved standard should be used when a risk
assessment indicates this is necessary to avoid exposure to liquid splashes, mists or
dusts.
Personal protective equipment for the body should be selected based on the task being
performed and the risks involved and should be approved by a specialist before handling
this product.
Personal protection
Eyes
Skin
Respiratory
:
:
:
:
Personal protection in case
of a large spill
: Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) should be used to avoid inhalation of the
product.
Chemical-resistant, impervious gloves complying with an approved standard should be
worn at all times when handling chemical products if a risk assessment indicates this is
necessary.
Hands :
The applicable standards are (US) 29 CFR 1910.134 and (Canada) Z94.4-93
Page: 3/7
Build 1.1
Propane
TWA: 1000 ppm 8 hour(s).
Consult local authorities for acceptable exposure limits.
-42C (-43.6F)
-189.7C (-309.5F)
1.6 (Air = 1)
109 (psig)
96.6C (205.9F)
44.11 g/mole
Boiling/condensation point
Melting/freezing point
Section 9. Physical and chemical properties
Molecular weight
Critical temperature
Vapor pressure
Vapor density
C3-H8 Molecular formula
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Specific Volume (ft
3
/lb) : 8.6206
Gas Density (lb/ft
3
) : 0.116
The product is stable.
Extremely reactive or incompatible with the following materials: oxidizing materials.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous polymerization will not occur.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous decomposition products should
not be produced.
Section 10. Stability and reactivity
Stability and reactivity
Incompatibility with various
substances
Hazardous decomposition
products
Hazardous polymerization
:
:
:
:
Section 11. Toxicological information
Specific effects
Carcinogenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Mutagenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Reproduction toxicity No known significant effects or critical hazards.
No specific information is available in our database regarding the other toxic effects of
this material to humans.
May cause damage to the following organs: the nervous system, heart, central nervous
system (CNS).
Chronic effects on humans
Other toxic effects on
humans
:
:
Toxicity data
:
:
:
IDLH : 2100 ppm
propane LC50 Inhalation
Gas.
Rat >800000 ppm 15 minutes
Product/ingredient name Result Species Dose Exposure
Section 12. Ecological information
Environmental fate : Not available.
Environmental hazards : This product shows a low bioaccumulation potential.
Toxicity to the environment : Not available.
Aquatic ecotoxicity
Not available.
Products of degradation: carbon oxides (CO, CO2) and water. : Products of degradation
Page: 4/7
Build 1.1
Propane
Section 13. Disposal considerations
Product removed from the cylinder must be disposed of in accordance with appropriate Federal, State, local
regulation.Return cylinders with residual product to Airgas, Inc.Do not dispose of locally.
Section 14. Transport information
2.1 Limited
quantity
Yes.
Packaging
instruction
Passenger
aircraft
Quantity
limitation:
Forbidden.
Cargo aircraft
Quantity
limitation:
150 kg
Special
provisions
19, T50
DOT Classification
TDG Classification 2.1
PROPANE
UN1978 PROPANE
Regulatory
information
UN number Proper shipping
name
Class Packing group Label Additional
information
UN1978
Explosive
Limit and
Limited
Quantity
Index
0.125
ERAP Index
3000
Passenger
Carrying Ship
Index
65
Passenger
Carrying
Road or Rail
Index
Forbidden
Special
provisions
29, 42
Mexico
Classification
UN1978 PROPANE 2.1 -
Not applicable (gas).
Not applicable (gas).
Not applicable (gas).
Refer to CFR 49 (or authority having jurisdiction) to determine the information required for shipment of the
product.
Page: 5/7
Build 1.1
Propane
Section 15. Regulatory information
U.S. Federal regulations
Connecticut Carcinogen Reporting: This material is not listed.
Connecticut Hazardous Material Survey: This material is not listed.
Florida substances: This material is not listed.
Illinois Chemical Safety Act: This material is not listed.
Illinois Toxic Substances Disclosure to Employee Act: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Reporting: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Substances: This material is listed.
Michigan Critical Material: This material is not listed.
Minnesota Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
New Jersey Spill: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Toxic Catastrophe Prevention Act: This material is not listed.
New York Acutely Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New York Toxic Chemical Release Reporting: This material is not listed.
Pennsylvania RTK Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
Rhode Island Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
TSCA 8(a) IUR: Not determined
United States inventory (TSCA 8b): This material is listed or exempted.
Clean Air Act (CAA) 112 regulated flammable substances: propane
State regulations
CEPA Toxic substances: This material is not listed.
Canadian ARET: This material is not listed.
Canadian NPRI: This material is listed.
Alberta Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Ontario Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Quebec Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
WHMIS (Canada) Class A: Compressed gas.
Class B-1: Flammable gas.
SARA 302/304/311/312 extremely hazardous substances: No products were found.
SARA 302/304 emergency planning and notification: No products were found.
SARA 302/304/311/312 hazardous chemicals: propane
SARA 311/312 MSDS distribution - chemical inventory - hazard identification:
propane: Fire hazard, Sudden release of pressure
:
:
:
Canada
United States
Propane
Clean Air Act (CAA) 112 accidental release prevention - Flammable Substances:
Section 16. Other information
FLAMMABLE GAS.
MAY CAUSE FLASH FIRE.
MAY CAUSE TARGET ORGAN DAMAGE, BASED ON ANIMAL DATA.
CONTENTS UNDER PRESSURE.
Label requirements :
Label requirements : Class A: Compressed gas.
Class B-1: Flammable gas.
United States
Canada
Page: 6/7
Build 1.1
Propane
Notice to reader
To the best of our knowledge, the information contained herein is accurate. However, neither the above-named
supplier, nor any of its subsidiaries, assumes any liability whatsoever for the accuracy or completeness of the
information contained herein.
Final determination of suitability of any material is the sole responsibility of the user. All materials may present
unknown hazards and should be used with caution. Although certain hazards are described herein, we cannot
guarantee that these are the only hazards that exist.
0
4
2
National Fire Protection
Association (U.S.A.)
Health
Special
Instability
Flammability
:
Hazardous Material
Information System (U.S.A.)
1
4
2
*
Health
Flammability
Physical hazards
:
Page: 7/7
Build 1.1
Propylene
001046
Synthetic/Analytical chemistry.
5/23/2013.
Material Safety Data Sheet
Product name
AIRGAS INC., on behalf of its subsidiaries
259 North Radnor-Chester Road
Suite 100
Radnor, PA 19087-5283
1-610-687-5253
Product use
MSDS #
Date of
Preparation/Revision
In case of emergency
Section 1. Chemical product and company identification
Propylene
:
:
:
:
Supplier
1-866-734-3438
Synonym : Propene, methylethene, methylethylene, 1-propene, 1-propylene, refrigerant gas
R1270
:
:
Inhalation
Emergency overview
Section 2. Hazards identification
Routes of entry
Potential acute health effects
Acts as a simple asphyxiant.
Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite.
Ingestion is not a normal route of exposure for gases
Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite.
Eyes
Skin
Inhalation
Ingestion
Physical state Gas. [COLORLESS LIQUEFIED COMPRESSED GAS WITH A MILD ODOR.]
See toxicological information (Section 11)
WARNING!
FLAMMABLE GAS.
MAY CAUSE FLASH FIRE.
CONTENTS UNDER PRESSURE.
Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. Do not puncture or incinerate container. Use
only with adequate ventilation. Keep container closed.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Medical conditions
aggravated by over-
exposure
Acute or chronic respiratory conditions may be aggravated by overexposure to this gas. :
Contact with rapidly expanding gases can cause frostbite.
Propylene 115-07-1 100 ACGIH TLV (United States, 1/2005).
TWA: 500 ppm 8 hour(s). Form: All forms
ACGIH TLV (United States, 3/2012).
TWA: 500 ppm 8 hour(s).
Section 3. Composition, Information on Ingredients
Name % Volume Exposure limits CAS number
Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. Get medical
attention immediately.
Section 4. First aid measures
Eye contact :
No action shall be taken involving any personal risk or without suitable training.If it is suspected that fumes are still present,
the rescuer should wear an appropriate mask or self-contained breathing apparatus.It may be dangerous to the person
providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Page: 1/6
Build 1.1
Propylene
As this product is a gas, refer to the inhalation section.
In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes
while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. To avoid the risk of static discharges
and gas ignition, soak contaminated clothing thoroughly with water before removing it.
Wash clothing before reuse. Clean shoes thoroughly before reuse. Get medical
attention immediately.
Move exposed person to fresh air. If not breathing, if breathing is irregular or if
respiratory arrest occurs, provide artificial respiration or oxygen by trained personnel.
Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention
immediately.
Skin contact
Inhalation
Ingestion
:
:
:
Frostbite : Try to warm up the frozen tissues and seek medical attention.
454.85 to 459.85C (850.7 to 859.7F)
Flammable.
Decomposition products may include the following materials:
carbon dioxide
carbon monoxide
Closed cup: -108.15C (-162.7F).
Lower: 2.4% Upper: 11%
In case of fire, use water spray (fog), foam or dry chemical.
Extremely flammable in the presence of the following materials or conditions: open
flames, sparks and static discharge and oxidizing materials.
Section 5. Fire-fighting measures
Flammability of the product
Auto-ignition temperature
Flash point
Flammable limits
Products of combustion
Fire hazards in the presence
of various substances
Fire-fighting media and
instructions
In case of fire, allow gas to burn if flow cannot be shut off immediately. Apply water from
a safe distance to cool container and protect surrounding area. If involved in fire, shut
off flow immediately if it can be done without risk.
Contains gas under pressure. Flammable gas. In a fire or if heated, a pressure
increase will occur and the container may burst, with the risk of a subsequent explosion.
Special protective
equipment for fire-fighters
Fire-fighters should wear appropriate protective equipment and self-contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) with a full face-piece operated in positive pressure mode.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Keep unnecessary personnel away. Use
suitable protective equipment (section 8). Shut off gas supply if this can be done safely.
Isolate area until gas has dispersed.
Immediately contact emergency personnel. Stop leak if without risk. Use spark-proof
tools and explosion-proof equipment. Note: see section 1 for emergency contact
information and section 13 for waste disposal.
Environmental precautions
Section 6. Accidental release measures
: Avoid dispersal of spilled material and runoff and contact with soil, waterways, drains
and sewers.
Personal precautions :
Methods for cleaning up :
Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Keep container tightly closed and sealed
until ready for use. Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame). Segregate
from oxidizing materials. Cylinders should be stored upright, with valve protection cap in
place, and firmly secured to prevent falling or being knocked over. Cylinder temperatures
should not exceed 52 C (125 F).
Use only with adequate ventilation. Use explosion-proof electrical (ventilating, lighting
and material handling) equipment. High pressure gas. Do not puncture or incinerate
container. Use equipment rated for cylinder pressure. Close valve after each use and
when empty. Keep container closed. Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. To avoid
fire, eliminate ignition sources. Protect cylinders from physical damage; do not drag, roll,
slide, or drop. Use a suitable hand truck for cylinder movement.
Section 7. Handling and storage
Handling
Storage
:
:
Page: 2/6
Build 1.1
Propylene
Use only with adequate ventilation. Use process enclosures, local exhaust ventilation or
other engineering controls to keep worker exposure to airborne contaminants below any
recommended or statutory limits. The engineering controls also need to keep gas, vapor
or dust concentrations below any lower explosive limits. Use explosion-proof ventilation
equipment.
propene ACGIH TLV (United States, 1/2005).
TWA: 500 ppm 8 hour(s). Form: All forms
ACGIH TLV (United States, 3/2012).
TWA: 500 ppm 8 hour(s).
Section 8. Exposure controls/personal protection
Engineering controls
Product name
Use a properly fitted, air-purifying or air-fed respirator complying with an approved
standard if a risk assessment indicates this is necessary. Respirator selection must be
based on known or anticipated exposure levels, the hazards of the product and the safe
working limits of the selected respirator.
Safety eyewear complying with an approved standard should be used when a risk
assessment indicates this is necessary to avoid exposure to liquid splashes, mists or
dusts.
Personal protective equipment for the body should be selected based on the task being
performed and the risks involved and should be approved by a specialist before handling
this product.
Personal protection
Eyes
Skin
Respiratory
Consult local authorities for acceptable exposure limits.
:
:
:
:
Personal protection in case
of a large spill
: Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) should be used to avoid inhalation of the
product.
Chemical-resistant, impervious gloves complying with an approved standard should be
worn at all times when handling chemical products if a risk assessment indicates this is
necessary.
Hands :
The applicable standards are (US) 29 CFR 1910.134 and (Canada) Z94.4-93
-47.7C (-53.9F)
-185C (-301F)
1.4 (Air = 1)
136.6 (psig)
91.9C (197.4F)
42.09 g/mole
Boiling/condensation point
Melting/freezing point
Section 9. Physical and chemical properties
Molecular weight
Critical temperature
Vapor pressure
Vapor density
C3-H6 Molecular formula
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Specific Volume (ft
3
/lb) : 9.0909
Gas Density (lb/ft
3
) : 0.11
The product is stable.
Extremely reactive or incompatible with the following materials: oxidizing materials.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous polymerization will not occur.
Under normal conditions of storage and use, hazardous decomposition products should
not be produced.
Section 10. Stability and reactivity
Stability and reactivity
Incompatibility with various
substances
Hazardous decomposition
products
Hazardous polymerization
:
:
:
:
Page: 3/6
Build 1.1
Propylene
Section 11. Toxicological information
Specific effects
Carcinogenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Mutagenic effects No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Reproduction toxicity No known significant effects or critical hazards.
No specific information is available in our database regarding the other toxic effects of
this material to humans.
CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: A4 (Not classifiable for humans or animals.) by ACGIH, 3
(Not classifiable for humans.) by IARC.
Chronic effects on humans
Other toxic effects on
humans
:
:
Toxicity data
:
:
:
Section 12. Ecological information
Environmental fate : Not available.
Environmental hazards : No known significant effects or critical hazards.
Toxicity to the environment : Not available.
Aquatic ecotoxicity
Not available.
Products of degradation: carbon oxides (CO, CO2) and water. : Products of degradation
Section 13. Disposal considerations
Product removed from the cylinder must be disposed of in accordance with appropriate Federal, State, local
regulation.Return cylinders with residual product to Airgas, Inc.Do not dispose of locally.
Section 14. Transport information
2.1 Limited
quantity
Yes.
Packaging
instruction
Passenger
aircraft
Quantity
limitation:
Forbidden.
Cargo aircraft
Quantity
limitation:
150 kg
Special
provisions
19, T50
DOT Classification
TDG Classification 2.1
PROPYLENE SEE
ALSO PETROLEUM
GASES, LIQUEFIED
UN1077 PROPYLENE
Regulatory
information
UN number Proper shipping
name
Class Packing group Label Additional
information
UN1077
Explosive
Limit and
Limited
Quantity
Index
0.125
ERAP Index
Not applicable (gas).
Not applicable (gas).
Page: 4/6
Build 1.1
Propylene
3000
Passenger
Carrying Ship
Index
Forbidden
Passenger
Carrying
Road or Rail
Index
Forbidden
Special
provisions
29
Mexico
Classification
UN1077 PROPYLENE SEE
ALSO PETROLEUM
GASES, LIQUEFIED
2.1 - Not applicable (gas).
Refer to CFR 49 (or authority having jurisdiction) to determine the information required for shipment of the
product.
Section 15. Regulatory information
U.S. Federal regulations
Connecticut Carcinogen Reporting: This material is not listed.
Connecticut Hazardous Material Survey: This material is not listed.
Florida substances: This material is not listed.
Illinois Chemical Safety Act: This material is not listed.
Illinois Toxic Substances Disclosure to Employee Act: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Reporting: This material is not listed.
Louisiana Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Spill: This material is not listed.
Massachusetts Substances: This material is listed.
Michigan Critical Material: This material is not listed.
Minnesota Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
New Jersey Spill: This material is not listed.
New Jersey Toxic Catastrophe Prevention Act: This material is not listed.
United States inventory (TSCA 8b): This material is listed or exempted.
Clean Water Act (CWA) 307: No products were found.
Clean Water Act (CWA) 311: No products were found.
Clean Air Act (CAA) 112 regulated flammable substances: propene
Clean Air Act (CAA) 112 regulated toxic substances: No products were found.
State regulations
SARA 302/304/311/312 extremely hazardous substances: No products were found.
SARA 302/304 emergency planning and notification: No products were found.
SARA 302/304/311/312 hazardous chemicals: propene
SARA 311/312 MSDS distribution - chemical inventory - hazard identification:
propene: Fire hazard, Sudden release of pressure
:
:
SARA 313
Form R - Reporting
requirements
Propylene 115-07-1 100
Propylene 115-07-1 100 Supplier notification
:
:
United States
Product name CAS number Concentration
SARA 313 notifications must not be detached from the MSDS and any copying and redistribution of the MSDS shall
include copying and redistribution of the notice attached to copies of the MSDS subsequently redistributed.
Page: 5/6
Build 1.1
Propylene
New York Acutely Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
New York Toxic Chemical Release Reporting: This material is not listed.
Pennsylvania RTK Hazardous Substances: This material is listed.
Rhode Island Hazardous Substances: This material is not listed.
CEPA Toxic substances: This material is not listed.
Canadian ARET: This material is not listed.
Canadian NPRI: This material is listed.
Alberta Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Ontario Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
Quebec Designated Substances: This material is not listed.
WHMIS (Canada) Class A: Compressed gas.
Class B-1: Flammable gas.
Class D-2B: Material causing other toxic effects (Toxic).
:
Canada
Section 16. Other information
FLAMMABLE GAS.
MAY CAUSE FLASH FIRE.
CONTENTS UNDER PRESSURE.
Label requirements :
Notice to reader
To the best of our knowledge, the information contained herein is accurate. However, neither the above-named
supplier, nor any of its subsidiaries, assumes any liability whatsoever for the accuracy or completeness of the
information contained herein.
Final determination of suitability of any material is the sole responsibility of the user. All materials may present
unknown hazards and should be used with caution. Although certain hazards are described herein, we cannot
guarantee that these are the only hazards that exist.
Label requirements : Class A: Compressed gas.
Class B-1: Flammable gas.
Class D-2B: Material causing other toxic effects (Toxic).
United States
Canada
0
4
1
National Fire Protection
Association (U.S.A.)
Health
Special
Instability
Flammability
:
Hazardous Material
Information System (U.S.A.)
1
4
2
Health
Flammability
Physical hazards
:
Page: 6/6
Build 1.1











APPENDIX
D
( SUMMARY OF MASS BALANCE)

Stream Number S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
Temperature (C) 5.0 5.0 250.0 510.0 -164.1 580.0 580.0 429.6
Pressure (bar) 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.1 4.1
Vapor Fraction 1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Total Mass Flow Rate 38202.7 60390.4 60390.4 60390.4 4788.79 60390.4 65179.1 65179.1
(kg/hr)






Component Mass Flow Rate (kg/hr)

Propylene, CH - - - - - 30518.4 31526.4 31526.4
Propane, CH 38202.7 60390.4 60390.4 60390.4 - 24156.1 23100.1 23100.1
Hydrogen, H - - - - - 1259.5 708.9 708.9
Methane, CH - - - - - 1550.03 1550.03 1550.03
Ethane, CH - - - - - 2906.31 2906.31 2906.31
Water, HO - - - - - 0 5387.39 5387.39
Oxygen, O - - - - 4788.79 0 0 0














Stream Number S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16
Temperature (C) 150.0 10 -32.4 128.7 -119.4 -23.2 -26.3 -19.3
Pressure (bar) 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.5
Vapor Fraction 1.0 0.9 0.8 0 1.0 0 0 0
Total Mass Flow Rate 65179.1 65179.1 59193.8 5985.3 6195.2 52998.6 30505.1 22493.5
(kg/hr)




Component Mass Flow Rate (kg/hr)

Propylene, CH 31526.4 31526.4 31211.1 315.26 624.22 30586.9 30281 305.87
Propane, CH 23100.1 23100.1 22869.1 231 457.38 22411.8 224.118 22187.6
Hydrogen, H 708.9 708.9 701.81 7.09 701.81 0 0 0
Methane, CH 1550.03 1550.03 1534.53 15.5 1534.53 0 0 0
Ethane, CH 2906.31 2906.31 2877.25 29.06 2877.25 0 0 0
Water, HO 5387.39 5387.39 0 5387.39 0 0 0 0
Oxygen, O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


Stream Number S17 S18 S19
Temperature (C) -19.11 5.0 5.0
Pressure (bar) 5.6 5.5 5.5
Vapor Fraction 0 1 1.0
Total Mass Flow Rate 22493.5 22493.5 22493.5
(kg/hr)


Component Mass Flow Rate (kg/hr)

Propylene, CH 305.87 305.87 305.87
Propane, CH 22187.6 22187.6 22187.6
Hydrogen, H 0 0 0
Methane, CH 0 0 0
Ethane, CH 0 0 0
Water, HO 0 0 0
Oxygen, O 0 0 0












APPENDIX
E
( ENERGY BALANCE MANUAL CALCULATION )
NOTE:
COMPOUNDS
*HEAT
SYMBOL
(H
i
)
MOLECULAR
WEIGHT
(g/mol)
BOILING
POINT
(
o
C)
HEAT OF
VAPORIZATION
(kJ/mol)
CH4 H
1
16.040 -161.5 8.179
C2H6 H
2
30.070 -88.6 14.720
C2H4 H
3
28.050 -103.7 13.540
C3H8 H
4
44.090 -42.07 -42.070
C3H6 H
5
42.080 -47.71 -47.700
H2 H
6
2.016 -60.30 0.904
H2O H
7
18.016 100 40.656
O2 H
8
32.000 -182.97 6.820
*Heat Symbol (H
i
) is denoted for each compound and for each equipment.



HEAT OF REACTION CALCULATION AT REFORMER (R-101)
The heat of reaction is the enthalpy change of a chemical reaction that occurs at
constant pressure. It is a useful unit of thermodynamic measurements to calculate the
amount of energy per mole of either manufactured or produced in the reaction. To
find the heat of reaction, we use equation A1.

r = v
f
=
product
l v l
f
-
reactants
l v l
f
(A 1)

Since there are three reactions involved in the reactor, so there will be three
heat of reaction with respect to each response. The reaction involved is as follows:

Reaction 1: C
3
H
8
C
3
H
6
+H
2

Reaction 2: C
3
H
8
C
2
H
4
+CH
4

Reaction 3: C
3
H
8
+H
2
C
2
H
6
+CH
4

In chemistry, the degree of reaction () describes the progress of a multiple of
a chemical reaction similar to the number of chemical changes. The values of are
need because to determine each reaction total heat flow and we use Equation (6.12)
to find .
=

=
(out ) ()

(A 2)
Table A 1 :Values of Heat of Formation (Source: David M. Himmelblau, 2004)
COMPONENTS HEAT OF FORMATION,
F
(KJ/MOL)
C
3
H
8
-103.85
C
3
H
6
20.41
C
2
H
6
-84.667
CH
4
-74.84
C
2
H
4
52.283
H
2
0

H for Reaction 1

r
=[(1) (20.41) +(1) (0)] [(1) (-103.85)]
= 124.26 kJ/mol

By using inlet and outlet molar flow rate of C
3
H
8

=l(7.0079 x 10
5
- 1.4231 x 10
6
) / 1l
= 722310 mol/h

H
reaction 1
=(124.26 kJ /mol) x (722310 mol/h)
=89.7542 x 10
6
kJ/h

H for Reaction 2

r
=[(1) (52.283) +(1) (-74.84)] [(1) (-103.85) +(1) (0)]
= 81.293 kJ/mol

By using inlet and outlet molar flow rate of C
3
H
8

=l (7.0079 x 10
5
- 1.4231 x 10
6
) / 1l
= 722310 mol/h

H
reaction 2
=(81.293 kJ /mol) x (722310 mol/h)
=58.7187 x 10
6
kJ/h

H for Reaction 3

r
=[(1) (-84.667) +(1) (-74.84)] [(1) (-103.85) +(1) (0)]
= -55.657 kJ/mol

By using inlet and outlet molar flow rate of C
3
H
8

=l(7.0079 x 10
5
- 1.4231 x 10
6
) / 1l
= 722310 mol/h


H
reaction 3
=(-55.657 kJ /mol) x (722310 mol/h)
=- 40.2146 x 10
6
kJ/h

H
r
=H
reaction 1
+ H
reaction 2
+ H
reaction 3

=(89.7542 x 10
6
+58.7187 x 10
6
- 40.2146 x 10
6
) kJ /h
=108.2583 x 10
6
kJ/h




























HEAT OF REACTION CALCULATION AT OXYREACTOR (R-102)

Reaction 1:

2 C
3
H
8
+ O
2
2 C
3
H
6
+ 2 H
2
O

Reaction 2:

2 H
2
+ O
2
2 H
2
O


H for Reaction 1,
r1

r1
=[(2) (-241.83) +(2) (20.41)] [(2) (-103.85)]
= -235.14 kJ/mol

By using inlet and outlet molar flow rate of C
3
H
8

=l(657.5585 - 700.7852) / 2l
= 21.6134 kmol/h

H
r1
=(-235.14 kJ /mol) x (21.6134 x10
3
mol/h)
=-5.0822 x10
6
kJ/h


H for Reaction 2,
r2

r2
=[(2) (-241.83) - 0]
= -483.66 kJ/mol

By using inlet and outlet molar flow rate of H
2


=l(0 655.3332) / 2l
= 327.667 x10
3
mol/h
H
r2
=(-483.66 kJ /mol) x (327.667 x10
3
mol/h)
=-158.479 x 10
6
kJ/h

H
r
=H
reaction 1
+ H
reaction 2

=(-5.0822 x10
6
-158.479 x 10
6
) kJ /h
=-163.5612 x 10
6
kJ/h



BALANCE FOR STREAM 3
Component C
3
H
8
:







4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
250
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=21644 J /mol
=21.644 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466 kg/h
56.183 m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 506678 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
506678g
x (5.3 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.038 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=21.644 kJ /mol +0.038 kJ /mol
= 21.682 kJ/mol

H
4
=(1372434 mol/h) x (21.682 kJ /mol)
=2.9758 x10
7
kJ/h





4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, 250 C, 5.3 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, 250C, 1 atm)

Component C
3
H
6
:





5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
250
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=18379 J /mol
=18.379 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28467 kg/h
54.644 m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 520955 g/ m

6b
=
1cm
520955 g
x (5.3 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.035269 kJ/mol

6
=
6a
+
6b

=18.379 kJ /mol +0.035269 kJ /mol
= 18.414 kJ/mol

H
6
=(122.47 mol/h) x (18.414 kJ /mol)
=2255 kJ/h





5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, 250 C, 5.3 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, 250C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM 5
Component O
2
:







8a
= (29.1 +1.158 x10 T 0.6076 x10 T+
164
25
1.311 x10 T)dT
=-5344 J /mol
=-5.344 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
0.000048 kg/h
4.21E08 m /h

=1.14 x10
3
kg/m
=1.14 x10
6
g/ m

8b
=
1cm
1.14 x10
6
g
x (5.06 1) atm x
32 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0116 kJ/mol

8
=
8a
+
8b

=-5.344 kJ /mol +0.0116 kJ /mol
= -5.332 kJ/mol

H
8
=(149650 mol/h ) x (-5.332 kJ /mol)
=-7.98 x10
5
kJ/h



8

O
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm)

O
2
(v, -164 C, 5.06 atm)

8a

8b



O
2
(v, -164 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM 6
Component CH
4
:




2




1a
= (19.87 +5.021 x 10 T +1.268 x 10 T
108
298
11x10 T)dT
=28103.4 J /mol
=28.1034 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
810.424 kg/h
2.71 m /h

=16.04 kg/m
=16040 g/ m

1b
=
1cm
16040 g
x (5.06 1) atm x
16 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.4112 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b

=28.1034 kJ /mol +0.4112 kJ /mol
=28.553 kJ/mol

H
1
=(52381 mol/h) x (28.553 kJ /mol)
=1.475 x10
6
kJ/h



1

CH
4
(v, 298 K, 1 atm) (v, 853 k, 5.06 atm)

1a

1b

CH
4
(v, 853 K, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
6
:






2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
580
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=47193.97 J /mol
=47.194 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
424.218 kg/h
1.1926 m /h

=30.0699 kg/m
= 30069.9 g/ m

2b
=
1cm
30069.9 g
x (5.06 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.4116 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b

=47.194 kJ /mol +0.4116 kJ /mol
= 47.605 kJ/mol

H
2
=(14629 mol/h) x ( 47. 605 kJ /mol)
=6.909 x 10
5
kJ/h





2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

2a

2b

C
2
H
6
(v, 580 C, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
4
:






3a
= (40.75 +11.47x10 T 6.891x10 T+
580
25
17.66x10 T)dT
=37891.2 J /mol
=37.891 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1021.392 kg/h
2.665 m /h

=44.097 kg/m
= 44097 g/ m

3b
=
1cm
44097 g
x (5.06 1) atm x
28 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.2618 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b

=37.891 kJ /mol +0.2618 kJ /mol
= 38.153 kJ/mol

H
3
=(37752 mol/h) x (38.153 kJ /mol)
=1.432 x 10
6
kJ/h





3

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

3a

3b

C
2
H
4
(v, 580C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
580
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=68054.95 J /mol
=68.055 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
29802 kg/h
58.819 m /h

=42.0806 kg/m
= 42081 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
42081 G
x (5.06 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.431 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=68.055 kJ /mol +0.431 kJ /mol
= 68.486 kJ/mol

H
4
=(700790 mol/h) x (68.486 kJ /mol)
=4.772 x 10
7
kJ/h





4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, 580C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
580
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=56881.97 J /mol
=56.882 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
27192 kg/h
52.198 m /h

=28.054 kg/m
= 28054 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
28054 g
x (5.06 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.6174 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=56.882 kJ /mol +0.6174 kJ /mol
= 57.499 kJ/mol

H
5
=(670020 mol/h) x (57.499 kJ /mol)
=3.813 x 10
7
kJ/h





5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, 580C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
:






6a
= (28.84 +0.00765 x 10 T +0.3288 x 10 T 0.8698
580
25
x10 T)dT
=16208.26 J /mol
=16.2083 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1274 kg/h
18.238 m /h

=2.016 kg/m
= 201.6 g/ m

6b
=
1cm
201.6 g
x (5.06 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.4116 kJ/mol

6
=
6a
+
6b

=16.2083 kJ /mol +0.4116 kJ /mol
= 16.6199 kJ/mol

H
6
=(655330 kmol/h) x (16.6199 kJ /mol)
=1.063 x10
7
kJ/h





6

H
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) H
2
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

6a

6b

H
2
(v, 580C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM 7
Conditions: Gas phase, T= 580
o
C and P= 5.06 atm.

Component CH
4
:






1a
= (19.87 +5.021 x 10 T +1.268 x 10 T
853
298
11x10 T)dT
=28103.4 J /mol
=28.1034 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
810.424 kg/h
2.71 m /h

=299.394 kg/m
= 2994 g/ m

1b
=
1cm
2994 g
x (5.06 1) atm x
16 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.4112 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b

=28.1034 kJ /mol +0.4112 kJ /mol
= 28.553 kJ/mol

H
1
=(52381 mol/h) x (28.553 kJ /mol)
=1.475 x10
6
kJ/h


1

CH
4
(v, 298 k, 1 atm) CH
4
(v, 853 K, 5.3 atm)

1a

1b

CH
4
(v, 853 K, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
6
:






2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
580
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=47193.97 J /mol
=47.194 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
424.218 kg/h
1.1926 m /h

=355.683 kg/m
= 3557 g/ m

2b
=
1cm
3557 g
x (5.06 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.4116 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b

=47.194 kJ /mol +0.4116 kJ /mol
= 47.605 kJ/mol

H
2
=(14629 mol/h )x (47. 605 kJ /mol)
=6.910 x 10
5
kJ/h





2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

2a

2b

C
2
H
6
(v, 580 C, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
4
:






3a
= (40.75 +11.47x10 T 6.891x10 T+
580
25
17.66x10 T)dT
=37891.2 J /mol
=37.891 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1021.392 kg/h
2.665 m /h

=383.26 kg/m
= 383260 g/ m

3b
=
1cm
383260 g
x (5.06 1) atm x
28 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.03 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b

=37.891 kJ /mol +0.03 kJ /mol
= 37.921 kJ/mol

H
3
=(37752 mol/h) x (37.921 kJ /mol)
=1.432 x 10
6
kJ/h





3

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

3a

3b

C
2
H
4
(v, 580 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
580
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=68054.95 J /mol
=68.055 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466 kg/h
56.183 m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 506678 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
506678g
x (5.06 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.03581 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=68.055 kJ /mol +0.03581 kJ /mol
= 68.090 kJ/mol

H
4
=(657560 mol/h) x (68.090 kJ /mol)
=4.477 x10
7
kJ/h





4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, 580 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
580
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=56881.97 J /mol
=56.882 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28467 kg/h
54.644 m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 520995 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
520995 g
x (5.06 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0333 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=56.882 kJ /mol +0.0333 kJ /mol
= 56.915 kJ/mol

H
5
=(713250 mol/h) x (56.915 kJ /mol)
=4.059 x10
7
kJ/h





5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, 580 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
:






6a
= (28.84 +0.00765 x 10 T +0.3288 x 10 T 0.8698
580
25
x10 T)dT
=16208.26 J /mol
=16.2083 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
731.7 kg/h
10.474 m /h

=69.8591 kg/m
= 699859.1 g/ m

6b
=
1cm
699859.1 g
x (5.06 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0119 kJ/mol

6
=
6a
+
6b

=16.2083 kJ /mol +0.0119 kJ /mol
= 16.220 kJ/mol

H
6
=(271310 kmol/h) x (16.220 kJ /mol)
=4.401 x10
6
kJ/h





6

H
2
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
(v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

6a

6b

H
2
(v, 580 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
0 :






7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
580
25
x10 T)dT
=20118.22 J /mol
=20.1182 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
5392 kg/h
5.40 m /h

=997.986 kg/m
= 997986 g/ m

7b
=
1cm
997986 g
x (5.06 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0074 kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b

=20.1182 kJ /mol +0.0074 kJ /mol
= 20.126 kJ/mol

H
7
=(427250 kmol/h) x( 20.126 kJ /mol)
=8.599 x10
6
kJ/h





7

H
2
O (v, 25 , C, 1 atm)

H
2
O (v, 580 C, 5.06 atm)

7a

7b

H
2
O (v, 580 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM 8
Conditions: T = 430
O
C and P = 4.08 atm.

Component CH
4
:





1a
= (19.87 +5.021 x 10 T +1.268 x 10 T
703
298
11x10 T)dT
=19060 J /mol
=19.060 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
810.424 kg/h
2.71 m /h

=299.394 kg/m
= 299394 g/ m

1b
=
1cm
299394 g
x (4.08 1) atm x
16 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.4112 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b

=19.060kJ /mol +0.4112 kJ /mol
= 19.471 kJ /mol

H
1
=(50516 mol/h) x (19.471 kJ /mol)
=9.63720 x10
5
kJ/h



1


CH
4
(v, 298K, 1 atm) CH
4
(v, 703 K, 4.08 atm)

1a

1b

CH
4
(v, 703 K, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
6
:






2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
430
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=31370 J /mol
=31.370 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
424.218 kg/h
1.1926 m /h

=355.683 kg/m
= 355683 g/ m

2b
=
1cm
355683 g
x (4.08 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0263 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b

=31.370 kJ /mol +0.0263 kJ /mol
= 31.397 kJ/mol

H
2
=(14107 mol/h) x (31.397 kJ /mol)
=4.42945 x 10
5
kJ/h





2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(v, 430 C, 4.08 atm)

2a

2b

C
2
H
6
(v, 430 C, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
4
:






3a
= (40.75 +11.47x10 T 6.891x10 T+
430
25
17.66x10 T)dT
=25420 J /mol
=25.420 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1021.392 kg/h
2.665 m /h

=383.26 kg/m
= 383260 g/ m

3b
=
1cm
383260 g
x (4.08 1) atm x
28 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0228 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b

=25.420 kJ /mol +0.0228 kJ /mol
= 25.443 kJ/mol

H
3
=(36408 mol/h) x (25.443 kJ /mol)
=926338 x 10
5
kJ/h





3

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(v, 430 C, 4.08 atm)

3a

3b

C
2
H
6
(v, 430 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
430
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=45206 J /mol
=45.206 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466 kg/h
56.183 m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 506678 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
506678g
x (4.08 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.02712 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=45.206 kJ /mol +0.02712 kJ /mol
= 45.233 kJ/mol

H
4
=(645551 mol/h) x (45.233 kJ /mol)
=2.9201x10
7
kJ/h





4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, 430 C, 4.08 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, 430 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
430
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=37998 J /mol
=37.998 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28467 kg/h
54.644 m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 520955 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
520955g
x (4.08 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0252 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=37.998 kJ /mol +0.0252 kJ /mol
= 38.023 kJ/mol

H
5
=(676489 mol/h) x( 38.023 kJ /mol)
=2.5722 x10
7
kJ/h





5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, 430 C, 4.08 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, 430 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
:






6a
= (28.84 +0.00765 x 10 T +0.3288 x 10 T 0.8698
430
25
x10 T)dT
=11775 J /mol
=11.775 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
731.7 kg/h
10.474 m /h

=69.8591 kg/m
= 69859.1 g/ m

6b
=
1cm
69859.1 g
x (4.08 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00899 kJ/mol

6
=
6a
+
6b

=11.775 kJ /mol +0.00899 kJ /mol
= 11.784 kJ/mol

H
6
=(362959 mol/h) x (11.784 kJ /mol)
=4.277392 x10
6
kJ/h





6

H
2
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
(v,430 C, 4.08 atm)

6a

6b

H
2
(v, 430 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
0 :






7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
430
25
x10 T)dT
=14367 J /mol
=14.367 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
5392 kg/h
5.40 m /h

=997.986 kg/m
= 998986 g/ m

7b
=
1cm
998986 g
x (4.08 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00563 kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b

=14.367 kJ /mol +0.00563 kJ /mol
= 14.372 kJ/mol

H
7
=(299299 mol/h) x (14.372 kJ /mol)
=4.3018 x10
6
kJ/h





7

H
2
O (v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
O (v, 430 C, 4.08 atm)

7a

7b



H
2
O (v, 430 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM 9
Conditions: Gas phase, T = 150
O
C and P = 3.04 atm

Component CH
4
:






1a
= (19.87 +5.021 x 10 T +1.268 x 10 T
423
298
11x10 T)dT
=4888.03 J /mol
=4.888 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
810.424 kg/h
2.71 m /h

=299.394 kg/m
= 299394 g/ m

1b
=
1cm
0.2994 g
x (3.04 1) atm x
16 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.011067 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b

=4.888 kJ /mol +0.011067 kJ /mol
= 4.899 kJ /mol

H
1
=(50516 mol/h) x (4.899 kJ /mol)
=5.0516 x10
4
kJ/h


1

CH
4
(v, 298 K, 1 atm) CH
4
(v, 423 K, 3.04 atm)

1a

1b

CH
4
(v, 423 K, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
6
:






2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
150
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=7629 J /mol
=7.629 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
424.218kg/h
1.1926m /h

=355.683 kg/m
= 355683 g/ m

2b
=
1cm
355683 g
x (3.04 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.01746 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b

=7.629 kJ /mol +0.01746 kJ /mol
= 7.647 kJ/mol

H
2
=(14107 mol/h) x (7.647 kJ /mol)
=1.07881 x 10
5
kJ/h





2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(v, 150 C, 3.04 atm)

2a

2b

C
2
H
6
(v, 150 C, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
4
:






3a
= (40.75 +11.47x10 T 6.891x10 T+
150
25
17.66x10 T)dT
=6273 J /mol
=6.273 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1021.392kg/h
2.665m /h

=383.26 kg/m
= 383260 g/ m

3b
=
1cm
383260 g
x (3.04 1) atm x
28 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.01512 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b

=6.273 kJ /mol +0.01512 kJ /mol
= 6.288 kJ/mol

H
3
=(34346 mol/h) x(6.288 kJ /mol)
=2.28952 x 10
5
kJ/h





3

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(v, 150 C, 3.04 atm)

3a

3b

C
2
H
4
(v, 150 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
150
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=10831 J /mol
=10.831 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466kg/h
56.183m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 506678 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
506678 g
x (3.04 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.01797 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=10.831 kJ /mol +0.01797 kJ /mol
= 10.849 kJ/mol

H
4
=( 645551mol/h) x (10.849 kJ /mol)
=10849 x10
4
kJ/h





4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, 150 C, 3.04 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, 150 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
150
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=37998 J /mol
=37.998 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28467kg/h
54.644m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 520955 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
520955 g
x (3.04 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0252 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=37.998 kJ /mol +0.0252 kJ /mol
= 9.290 kJ/mol

H
5
=(676489 mol/h) x (9.290 kJ /mol)
=6.2849 x10
6
kJ/h





5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, 150 C, 3.04 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, 150 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
:






6a
= (28.84 +0.00765 x 10 T +0.3288 x 10 T 0.8698
150
25
x10 T)dT
=3609 J /mol
=3.609 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
731.7kg/h
10.474m /h

=69.8591 kg/m
= 69859.1 g/ m

6b
=
1cm
69859.1 g
x (3.04 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.005961 kJ/mol

6
=
6a
+
6b

=3.609 kJ /mol +0.005961 kJ /mol
= 3.615 kJ/mol

H
6
=( 362959 mol/h) x (3.615 kJ /mol)
=1.312 x10
6
kJ/h





6

H
2
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
(v, 150 C, 3.04 atm)

6a

6b

H
2
(v, 150 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
0 :






7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
150
25
x10 T)dT
=4265 J /mol
=4.265 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
5392kg/h
5.40m /h

=997.986 kg/m
= 997986 g/ m

7b
=
1cm
997986 g
x (3.04 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00373 kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b

=4.265 kJ /mol +0.00373 kJ /mol
= 4.269 kJ/mol

H
7
=(299299 mol/h) x (4.269 kJ /mol)
=1.278 x10
6
kJ/h





7

H
2
O

(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
O

(v, 150 C, 3.04 atm)

7a

7b

H
2
O

(v, 150 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM 10 (PARTIAL PHASE)
1. GAS PHASE
Conditions: Gas phase, T = 10
O
C and P = 2.79 atm

Component CH
4
:






1a
= (19.87 +5.021 x 10 T +1.268 x 10 T
283
298
11x10 T)dT
=-528.85 J /mol
=-0.52885 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
810.424kg/h
2.71m /h

=299.394 kg/m
= 299394 g/ m

1b
=
1cm
299394 g
x (2.79 1) atm x
16 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0097 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b

=-0.52885 kJ /mol +0.0097 kJ /mol
= -0.529 kJ /mol

H
1
=(52381 mol/h) x (-0.529 kJ /mol)
=-5.89 x10
2
kJ/h

1

CH
4
(v, 298 K, 1 atm) CH
4
(v, 283 K, 2.79 atm)

1a

1b

CH
4
(v, 283 K, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
6
:







2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
10
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-776.81 J /mol
=-0.7768 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
424.218kg/h
1.1926m /h

=355.683 kg/m
= 355683 g/ m

2b
=
1cm
355683 g
x (2.79 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.01536 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b

=-0.7768 kJ /mol +0.01536 kJ /mol
= -0.7614 kJ/mol

H
2
=(14629 mol/h) x( -0.7614 kJ /mol)
=-1.06 x 10
2
kJ/h




2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(v, 10 C, 2.79 atm)

2a

2b

C
2
H
6
(v, 10 C, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
4
:







3a
= (40.75 +11.47x10 T 6.891x10 T+
10
25
17.66x10 T)dT
=-641.02 J /mol
=-0.641 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1021.392kg/h
2.665m /h

=383.26 kg/m
= 383260 g/ m

3b
=
1cm
383260 g
x (2.79 1) atm x
28 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.01329 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b

=-0.641 kJ /mol +0.01329 kJ /mol
= -0.6277 kJ/mol

H
3
=(37375.2 mol/h) x( -0.6277 kJ /mol)
=-5.00 x 10
2
kJ/h




3

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(v, 10 C, 2.79 atm)

3a

3b

C
2
H
4
(v, 10 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
8
:







4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
10
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-1079 J /mol
=-1.079 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466kg/h
56.183m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 506678 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
506678g
x (2.79 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0158 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=-1.079 kJ /mol +0.0158 kJ /mol
= -1.063 kJ/mol

H
4
=(657560 mol/h) x (-1.063 kJ /mol)
=-3.09 x10
5
kJ/h




4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, 10 C, 2.79 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, 10 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
10
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-939.695 J /mol
=-0.9397 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28467kg/h
54.644m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 520955 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
520955 g
x (2.8 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.01467 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=-0.9397 kJ /mol +0.01467 kJ /mol
= -0.925 kJ/mol

H
5
=(713250 mol/h) x (-0.925 kJ /mol)
=-2.93 x10
5
kJ/h





5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, 10 C, 2.8 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, 10 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
:






6a
= (28.84 +0.00765 x 10 T +0.3288 x 10 T 0.8698
10
25
x10 T)dT
=-432.636 J /mol
=-0.4326 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
731.7kg/h
10.474m /h

=69.8591 kg/m
= 69859 g/ m

6b
=
1cm
69859 g
x (2.79 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00524 kJ/mol

6
=
6a
+
6b

=0.00524 kJ /mol +-0.4326 kJ /mol
= -0.427 kJ/mol

H
6
=(271310 mol/h) x (-0.427 kJ /mol)
=-7.00 x10
3
kJ/h





6

H
2
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
(v, 10 C, 2.79 atm)

6a

6b

H
2
(v, 10 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
0 :






7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
10
25
x10 T)dT
=-503.742 J /mol
=-0.5037 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
5392kg/h
5.40m /h

=997.986 kg/m
= 997986 g/ m

7b
=
1cm
0.998 g
x (2.79 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00328 kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b

=-0.5037 kJ /mol +0.00328 kJ /mol
= -0.500 kJ/mol

H
7
=(7473.6 mol/h) x (-0.500 kJ /mol)
=-3.89 kJ/h





7

H
2
O (v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
O (v, 10 C, 2.79 atm)

7a

7b

H
2
O (v, 10 C, 1 atm)
2. LIQUID PHASE
Conditions: Liquid phase, T = 10
O
C and P = 2.79 atm.

Component H
2
O:






7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
100
25
x10 T)dT
=-503.742 J /mol
=-0.50374 kJ/mol

7b
=- v (H
2
O,100
o
C) =-40.656 kJ/mol

7c
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T 3.593
10
100
x10 T)dT
=2544.16 J /mol
=2.544 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
299 kg/h
7.5775 m /h

=39.5 kg/m
= 39500 g/ m

7d
=
1cm
39500 g
x (2.79 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=39500 kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b +

7c
+
7d

=(-0.5037 kJ /mol) +(-40.656 kJ /mol) +(2.544 kJ /mol) +0.0829 kJ /mol
= -38.5 kJ/mol

7

H
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) H
2
(l, 10 C, 2.79 atm)

7a

7b

7c

7d
H
2
(v,100
o
C, 1 atm) H
2
(l,100
o
C, 1 atm) H
2
(l,10
o
C, 1 atm)
H
7
=(4.2x10
5
mol/h) x (-38.5 kJ /mol)
=-1.62x10
7
kJ/h

BALANCE FOR STREAM 16
Conditions: Gas phase, T= -19.34
o
C and P= 2.47 atm

Component C
3
H
8
:





4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
19.34
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-4429 J /mol
=-4.429 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466kg/h
56.183m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 506678 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
0.5067g
x (2.47 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=506678 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=-4.429 kJ /mol +42.1 kJ /mol
= 39.0 kJ/mol

H
4
=(6.32 x10
5
mol/h) x (39.0 kJ /mol)
=2.47 x10
7
kJ/h



4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, -19.34 C, 2.47 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, -19.34 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T +
19.34
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-4181 J /mol
=-4.181 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28467kg/h
54.644m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 520955 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
52.09 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=47.7 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=-4.181 kJ /mol +47.7 kJ /mol
= 45.0 kJ/mol

H
5
=(97.4 mol/h) x (45.0 kJ /mol)
=4.39 x10
3
kJ/h





5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, -19.34 C, 2.47 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, -19.1 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM 17
Conditions: Gas phase, T= -19.1
o
C and P= 5.53 atm

Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
19.1
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-4429 J /mol
=-4.429 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466kg/h
56.183m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 506678 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
0.5067g
x (5.53 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=42.07 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=-4.429 kJ /mol +42.07 kJ /mol
= 39.1 kJ/mol

H
4
=(6.32072 x10
5
mol/h) x (39.1 kJ /mol)
=2.47 x10
7
kJ/h


4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, -19.1 C, 5.53 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, -19.1 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T +
19.1
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-4181 J /mol
=-4.181 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28467kg/h
54.644m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 520955 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
520955 g
x (5.5 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=47.7 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=-4.181 kJ /mol +47.7 kJ /mol
= 45.0 kJ/mol

H
5
=(97.4 mol/h) x (45.0 kJ /mol)
=4.39 x10
3
kJ/h





5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, -19.1 C, 5.53atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, -19.1 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM 18
Conditions: Gas phase, T= 4.996
o
C and P= 5.43 atm

Component C
3
H
8
:





4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
4.996
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-1428 J /mol
=-1.428 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466kg/h
56.183m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 506678 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
506678g
x (5.4 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.039039 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=-1.428 kJ /mol +0.039039 kJ /mol
= -1.388 kJ/mol

H
4
=(632072 mol/h) x (-1.388 kJ /mol)
=-8.77932 x10
5
kJ/h



4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, 4.996 C, 5.43atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, 4.996 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
4.995
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-1244 J /mol
=-1.244 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28467kg/h
54.644m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 520955 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
0.521 g
x (5.4 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.03623 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=-1.244 kJ /mol +0.03623 kJ /mol
= -1.208 kJ/mol

H
5
=(97.367 mol/h) x (-1.208 kJ /mol)
=-117.64 kJ/h





5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, 4.995 C, 5.43atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, 4.995 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM COND 1
Conditions: Gas phase, T = 107
O
C and P = 2.6 atm.

Component CH
4
:





1a
= (19.87 +5.021 x 10 T +1.268 x 10 T
378
298
11x10 T)dT
=-528.84 J /mol
=-0.5288 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
810.424 kg/h
2.71 m /h

=299.394 kg/m
= 299394 g/ m

1b
=
1cm
299394 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
16 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0085 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b

=-0.5288 kJ /mol +0.0085 kJ /mol
= -0.5203 kJ /mol

H
1
=50516 mol/h x -0.5203 kJ /mol
=-26285 x10
4
kJ/h



1


CH
4
(v, 298K, 1 atm) CH
4
(v, 378 K, 2.6 atm)

1a

1b

CH
4
(v, 378 K, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
6
:






2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
107
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=4772 J /mol
=4.772 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
424.218 kg/h
1.1926 m /h

=355.683 kg/m
= 355683 g/ m

2b
=
1cm
3556837 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.013413 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b

=4.772 kJ /mol +0.013413 kJ /mol
= 4.785 kJ/mol

H
2
=14107 mol/h x 4.785 kJ /mol
=4.42945 x 10
5
kJ/h





2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(v, 107 C, 2.6 atm)

2a

2b

C
2
H
6
(v, 107 C, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
4
:






3a
= (40.75 +11.47x10 T 6.891x10 T+
107
25
17.66x10 T)dT
=3929 J /mol
=3.929 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1021.392 kg/h
2.665 m /h

=383.26 kg/m
= 383260 g/ m

3b
=
1cm
38332060 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
28 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.01163 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b

=3.929 kJ /mol +0.01163 kJ /mol
= 3.941 kJ/mol

H
3
=36408 mol/h x 3.941 kJ /mol
=143501 x 10
5
kJ/h





3

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(v, 107 C, 2.6 atm)

3a

3b

C
2
H
6
(v, 107 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
107
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=6740 J /mol
=6.740 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466 kg/h
56.183 m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 506678 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
506678g
x (2.6 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0138 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=6.740 kJ /mol +0.0138 kJ /mol
= 6.754 kJ/mol

H
4
=645551 mol/h x 6.754 kJ /mol
=4.3601 x10
6
kJ/h





4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, 107C, 2.6 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, 107 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
107
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=5796 J /mol
=5.796 kJ/mol


Density, =


=
28467 kg/h
54.644 m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 520955 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
520955 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.01281 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=5.796 kJ /mol +0.01281 kJ /mol
= 5.808 kJ/mol

H
5
=676489 mol/h x 5.808 kJ /mol
=3.9296 x10
6
kJ/h



5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, 107 C, 2.6 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, 107 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
:






6a
= (28.84 +0.00765 x 10 T +0.3288 x 10 T 0.8698
107
25
x10 T)dT
=2363 J /mol
=2.363 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
731.7 kg/h
10.474 m /h

=69.8591 kg/m
= 0.0699 g/ m

6b
=
1cm
0.0699 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00457 kJ/mol

6
=
6a
+
6b

=2.363 kJ /mol +0.00457 kJ /mol
= 2.368 kJ/mol

H
6
=362959 mol/h x 2.368 kJ /mol
=8.596 x10
5
kJ/h





6

H
2
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
(v,107 C, 2.6 atm)

6a

6b

H
2
(v, 107 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
0 :






7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
107
25
x10 T)dT
=2780 J /mol
=2.780 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
5392 kg/h
5.40 m /h

=997.986 kg/m
= 997.986 g/ m

7b
=
1cm
97986 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00286 kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b

=2.780 kJ /mol +0.00286 kJ /mol
= 2.783 kJ/mol

H
7
=1786010 mol/h x 2.783 kJ /mol
=4.971 x10
6
kJ/h





7

H
2
O (v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
O (v, 107C,2.6 atm)

7a

7b



H
2
O (v, 107 C, 1 atm)
Component O
2
:






8a
= (29.1 +1.158 x10 T 0.6076 x10 T+
107
25
1.311 x10 T)dT
=2443 J /mol
=2.443 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
0.000048 kg/h
4.21E08 m /h

=1.14 x10
3
kg/m
=1.14 x10
6
g/ m

8b
=
1cm
1.14 x10
6
g
x (2.6 1) atm x
32 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.004462 kJ/mol

8
=
8a
+
8b

=2.443 kJ /mol +0.004462
= 2.45 kJ/mol

H
8
=0.00150 mol/h x 2.45 kJ /mol
=3.66 x10
-3
kJ/h





8

O
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm)

O
2
(v, 107 C, 2.6 atm)

8a

8b



O
2
(v, 107 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM 8@D-301
Conditions: Gas phase, T = -107
O
C and P = 2.6 atm.

Component CH
4
:






1a
= (19.87 +5.021 x 10 T +1.268 x 10 T
378
298
11x10 T)dT
=-4239 J /mol
=-4.239 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
810.424 kg/h
2.71 m /h

=299.394 kg/m
= 0.2994 g/ m

1b
=
1cm
0.2994 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
16 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0085 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b

=-4.239 kJ /mol +0.0085 kJ /mol
= -4.230 kJ /mol

H
1
=50516 mol/h x -4.230 kJ /mol
=-2.13712 x10
5
kJ/h


1


CH
4
(v, 298K, 1 atm) CH
4
(v, -378 K, 2.6 atm)

1a

1b

CH
4
(v, -378 K, 1 atm)

Component C
2
H
6
:






2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
107
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-5745 J /mol
=-5.745 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
424.218 kg/h
1.1926 m /h

=355.683 kg/m
= 0.3557 g/ m

2b
=
1cm
0.3557 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.013413 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b

=-5.745 kJ /mol +0.013413 kJ /mol
= -5.732 kJ/mol

H
2
=-5.732 kJ /mol x 4.785 kJ /mol
=-80873 x 10
4
kJ/h




2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(v, -107 C, 2.6 atm)

2a

2b

C
2
H
6
(v, -107 C, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
4
:






3a
= (40.75 +11.47x10 T 6.891x10 T+
107
25
17.66x10 T)dT
=-4734 J /mol
=-4.734 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1021.392 kg/h
2.665 m /h

=383.26 kg/m
= 383260 g/ m

3b
=
1cm
0.3833 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
28 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.01163 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b

=-4.734 kJ /mol +0.01163 kJ /mol
= -4.723 kJ/mol

H
3
=36408 mol/h x -4.723 kJ /mol
=-1.71959 x 10
5
kJ/h





3

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(v, -107 C, 2.6 atm)

3a

3b

C
2
H
6
(v, -107 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
107
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-7710 J /mol
=-7.710 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466 kg/h
56.183 m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 0.5067 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
0.5067g
x (2.6 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0138 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=-7.710 kJ /mol +0.0138 kJ /mol
= -7.697 kJ/mol

H
4
=645551 mol/h x -7.697 kJ /mol
=-4.9688 x10
6
kJ/h





4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, -107C, 2.6 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, -107 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
107
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-6871 J /mol
=-6.871 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28467 kg/h
54.644 m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 0.521 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
0.521 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.01281 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=-6.871 kJ /mol +0.01281 kJ /mol
= -6.858 kJ/mol

H
5
=676489 mol/h x -6.858 kJ /mol
=-4.639 x10
6
kJ/h





5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, -107 C, 2.6 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, -107 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
:






6a
= (28.84 +0.00765 x 10 T +0.3288 x 10 T0.8698
107
25
x10 T)dT
=-3813 J /mol
=-3.813 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
731.7 kg/h
10.474 m /h

=69.8591 kg/m
= 69859 g/ m

6b
=
1cm
69859 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00457 kJ/mol

6
=
6a
+
6b

=-3.813 kJ /mol +0.00457 kJ /mol
= -3.809 kJ/mol

H
6
=362959 mol/h x -3.809 kJ /mol
=-1.382 x10
6
kJ/h





6

H
2
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
(v,-107 C, 2.6 atm)

6a

6b

H
2
(v, -107 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
0 :






7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
107
25
x10 T)dT
=-4389 J /mol
=-4.389 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
5392 kg/h
5.40 m /h

=997.986 kg/m
= 997986 g/ m

7b
=
1cm
0.998 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00286 kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b

=-4.389 kJ /mol +0.00286 kJ /mol
= -4.386 kJ/mol

H
7
=1786010 mol/h x -4.386 kJ /mol
=-5.46 x10
-2
kJ/h





7

H
2
O (v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
O (v, -107C,2.6 atm)

7a

7b



H
2
O (v, -107 C, 1 atm)
Component O
2
:






8a
= (29.1 +1.158 x10 T 0.6076 x10 T+
107
25
1.311 x10 T)dT
=-3781 J /mol
=-3.781 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
0.000048 kg/h
4.21E08 m /h

=1.14 x10
3
kg/m
=1.14 x10
6
g/ m

8b
=
1cm
1.14 x10
6
g
x (2.6 1) atm x
32 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.004462 kJ/mol

8
=
8a
+
8b

=-3.781 kJ /mol +0.004462
= -3.777 kJ/mol

H
8
=0.00150 mol/h x -3.777 kJ /mol
=-0.00565 kJ/h





8

O
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm)

O
2
(v, -107 C, 2.6 atm)

8a

8b



O
2
(v, -107 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM REFLUX 1
Conditions: Liquid phase, T = -107
O
C and P = 2.6 atm

Component H
2
O:






7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
100
25
x10 T)dT
=4336.3 J /mol
=4.336 kJ/mol

7b
=- v (H
2
O,100
o
C) =-40.656 kJ/mol

7c
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T 3.593
29
100
x10 T)dT
=-6933.47 kJ /mol
=-6.933 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
32175 kg/h
32.34 m /h

=998 kg/m
= 99800 g/ m

7d
=
1cm
99800 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=2.864x10
-3
kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b +

7c
+
7d

=(4.336 kJ /mol) +(-40.656 kJ /mol) +(-6.933 kJ /mol) +2.864x10
-3
kJ /mol
= -4.33x10
6
kJ/mol

7

H
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) H
2
(l, 107 C, 2.6 atm)

7a

7b

7c

7d
H
2
(v,100
o
C, 1 atm) H
2
(l,100
o
C, 1 atm) H
2
(l,07
o
C, 1 atm)
H
7
=(1.786x10
6
mol/h) x (-4.33x10
4
kJ /mol)
=-7.73x10
7
kJ/h
































BALANCE FOR STREAM BOILER 1
Conditions: Liquid phase, T = 129
O
C and P = 2.6 atm.

Component H
2
O:






7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
100
25
x10 T)dT
=2544.16 J /mol
=2.544 kJ/mol

7b
=- v (H
2
O,100
o
C) =-40.656 kJ/mol

7c
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T 3.593
29
100
x10 T)dT
=985.593J /mol
=0.986 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
58067 kg/h
58.185 m /h

=997.972 kg/m
= 997972 g/ m

7d
=
1cm
997972 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=2.864 kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b +

7c
+
7d

=(2.544 kJ /mol) +(-40.656 kJ /mol) +(0.986 kJ /mol) +2.864 kJ /mol
= -37.12 kJ/mol

7

H
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) H
2
(l, 129 C, 2.6 atm)

7a

7b

7c

7d
H
2
(v,100
o
C, 1 atm) H
2
(l,100
o
C, 1 atm) H
2
(l,29
o
C, 1 atm)
H
7
=(3.22x10
6
mol/h) x (-37.12 kJ /mol)
=-1.19x10
8
kJ/h
































BALANCE FOR STREAM 7.6@ D-301
Conditions: Liquid phase, T = 129
O
C and P = 2.6 atm.

Component H
2
O:






7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
100
25
x10 T)dT
=2544.16 J /mol
=2.544 kJ/mol

7b
=- v (H
2
O,100
o
C) =-40.656 kJ/mol

7c
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T 3.593
29
100
x10 T)dT
=985.593J /mol
=0.986 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
5391.9kg/h
5.4028 m /h

=997.98 kg/m
= 997980 g/ m

7d
=
1cm
997980 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=2.864 kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b +

7c
+
7d

=(2.544 kJ /mol) +(-40.656 kJ /mol) +(0.986 kJ /mol) +2.864 kJ /mol
= -37.12 kJ/mol

7

H
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) H
2
(l, 129 C, 2.6 atm)

7a

7b

7c

7d
H
2
(v,100
o
C, 1 atm) H
2
(l,100
o
C, 1 atm) H
2
(l,29
o
C, 1 atm)
H
7
=(2.99x10
5
mol/h) x (-37.12 kJ /mol)
=-1.11x10
7
kJ/h
































BALANCE FOR STREAM BOIL-UP 1
Conditions: Gas phase, T = 129
O
C and P = 2.6 atm

Component H
2
0 :






1a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
129
25
x10 T)dT
=3529 J /mol
=3.529 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
5392 kg/h
5.40 m /h

=997.986 kg/m
= 997986 g/ m

1b
=
1cm
997986 g
x (2.6 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00286 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b

=3.529 kJ /mol +0.00286 kJ /mol
= 3.532 kJ/mol

H
1
=2.92 x 10
6
mol/h x 3.532 kJ /mol
=1.03 x10
7
kJ/h


1

H
2
O (v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
O (v, 129C,2.6 atm)

1a

1b



H
2
O (v, 129 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR COND 2
Conditions: Gas phase, T = 195
O
C and P = 2.5 atm

Component CH
4
:






1a
= (19.87 +5.021 x 10 T +1.268 x 10 T
195
298
11x10 T)dT
=-3381 J /mol
=-3.381 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
810.424 kg/h
2.71 m /h

=299.394 kg/m
= 299394 g/ m

1b
=
1cm
299394 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
16 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00796 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b

=-3.381 kJ /mol+0.00796 kJ /mol
= -3.37 kJ /mol

H
1
=3.73x 10
5
mol/h x -3.37 kJ /mol
=-1.26 x10
6
kJ/h


1


CH
4
(v, 298K, 1 atm) CH
4
(v, 195 K, 2.5 atm)

1a

1b

CH
4
(v, 195 K, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
6
:






2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
78
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-4691 J /mol
=-4.691 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
424.218 kg/h
1.1926 m /h

=355.683 kg/m
= 355683 g/ m

2b
=
1cm
355683 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0126 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b

=-4.691 kJ /mol +0.0126 kJ /mol
= -4.68 kJ/mol

H
2
=8.66 x10
6
mol/h x -4.68 kJ /mol
=-4.05 x 10
7
kJ/h





2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(v, -78 C, 2.5 atm)

2a

2b

C
2
H
6
(v, -78 C, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
4
:






3a
= (40.75 +11.47x10 T 6.891x10 T+
78
25
17.66x10 T)dT
=-3869 J /mol
=-3.869 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1021.392 kg/h
2.665 m /h

=383.26 kg/m
= 383260 g/ m

3b
=
1cm
383260 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
28 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0109 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b

=-3.869 kJ /mol +0.0109 kJ /mol
= -3.86 kJ/mol

H
3
=8.03x 10
6
mol/h x -3.86 kJ /mol
=-3.10 x 10
7
kJ/h





3

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(v, -78 C, 2.5 atm)

3a

3b

C
2
H
6
(v, -78 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
78
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-6364 J /mol
=-6.364 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466 kg/h
56.183 m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 506678 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
506678g
x (2.5 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0129 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=-6.364 kJ /mol +0.0129 kJ /mol
= -6.35 kJ/mol

H
4
=2.42 x10
-4
mol/h x -6.35 kJ /mol
=-1.53 x10
-3
kJ/h





4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, -78C, 2.5 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, -78 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
78
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-5631 J /mol
=-5.631 kJ/mol


Density, =


=
28467 kg/h
54.644 m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 520955 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
520955 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0120 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=-5.631 kJ /mol +0.0120 kJ /mol
= -5.62 kJ/mol

H
5
=1.64 x 10
-2
mol/h x -5.62 kJ /mol
=-9.22x10
-2
kJ/h



5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, -78 C, 2.5 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, -78 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
:






6a
= (28.84 +0.00765 x 10 T +0.3288 x 10 T0.8698
78
25
x10 T)dT
=-2967 J /mol
=-2.967 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
731.7 kg/h
10.474 m /h

=69.8591 kg/m
= 69859 g/ m

6b
=
1cm
69859 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00429 kJ/mol

6
=
6a
+
6b

=-2.967 kJ /mol +0.00429 kJ /mol
= -2.96 kJ/mol

H
6
=3.77 x10
5
mol/h x -2.96 kJ /mol
=-1.12 x10
6
kJ/h





6

H
2
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
(v,-78 C, 2.5 atm)

6a

6b

H
2
(v, -78 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
0 :






7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
78
25
x10 T)dT
=-3425 J /mol
=-3.425 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
5392 kg/h
5.40 m /h

=997.986 kg/m
= 997986 g/ m

7b
=
1cm
997986 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00268 kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b

=-3.425 kJ /mol +0.00286 kJ /mol
= -3.42 kJ/mol

H
7
=0.882 mol/h x -3.42 kJ /mol
=-3.02 kJ/h





7

H
2
O (v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
O (v, -78C,2.5 atm)

7a

7b



H
2
O (v, -78 C, 1 atm)
Component O
2
:






8a
= (29.1 +1.158 x10 T 0.6076 x10 T+
78
25
1.311 x10 T)dT
=-2961 J /mol
=-2.961 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
0.000048 kg/h
4.21E08 m /h

=1.14 x10
3
kg/m
=1.14 x10
6
g/ m

8b
=
1cm
1.14x10
6
g
x (2.5 1) atm x
32 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00418 kJ/mol

8
=
8a
+
8b

=-2.961 kJ /mol +0.00418
= -2.96 kJ/mol

H
8
=0.00465 mol/h x -2.96 kJ /mol
=-1.38 x10
-2
kJ/h





8

O
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm)

O
2
(v, -78 C, 2.5 atm)

8a

8b



O
2
(v, -78 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM 13@D-302
Conditions: Gas phase, T = -78
O
C and P = 2.5 atm.

Component CH
4
:







1a
= (19.87 +5.021 x 10 T +1.268 x 10 T
195
298
11x10 T)dT
=-4487 J /mol
=-4.487 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
810.424 kg/h
2.71 m /h

=299.394 kg/m
= 299394 g/ m

1b
=
1cm
299394 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
16 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00796 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b

=-4.487 kJ /mol +0.00796 kJ /mol
= -4.48 kJ /mol

H
1
=50534 mol/h x -4.48 kJ /mol
=-2.26 x10
5
kJ/h

1


CH
4
(v, 298K, 1 atm) CH
4
(v, 195 K, 2.5 atm)

1a

1b

CH
4
(v, 195 K, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
6
:







2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
78
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-6037 J /mol
=-6.037 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
424.218 kg/h
1.1926 m /h

=355.683 kg/m
= 355683 g/ m

2b
=
1cm
355683 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0126 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b

=-6.037 kJ /mol +0.0126 kJ /mol
= -6.02 kJ/mol

H
2
=14112 mol/h x -6.02 kJ /mol
=-6.02 x 10
3
kJ/h




2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(v, -78 C, 2.5 atm)

2a

2b

C
2
H
6
(v, -78 C, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
4
:






3a
= (40.75 +11.47x10 T 6.891x10 T+
78
25
17.66x10 T)dT
=-4972 J /mol
=-4.972 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1021.392 kg/h
2.665 m /h

=383.26 kg/m
= 383260 g/ m

3b
=
1cm
383260 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
28 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0109 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b

=-4.972 kJ /mol +0.0109 kJ /mol
= -4.96 kJ/mol

H
3
=36421 mol/h x -4.96 kJ /mol
=-1.81 x 10
5
kJ/h





3

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(v, -78 C, 2.5 atm)

3a

3b

C
2
H
6
(v, -78 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
78
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-8072 J /mol
=-8.072 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466 kg/h
56.183 m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 0.5067 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
0.5067g
x (2.6 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0129 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=-8.072 kJ /mol+0.0129 kJ /mol
= -8.06 kJ/mol

H
4
=1.3821 x10
-8
mol/h x -8.06 kJ /mol
=-1.11 x10
-7
kJ/h





4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, -78C, 2.5 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, -78 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
78
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-7210 J /mol
=-7.210 kJ/mol


Density, =


=
28467 kg/h
54.644 m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 0.521 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
0.521 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0120 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=-7.210 kJ /mol+0.0120 kJ /mol
= -7.20 kJ/mol

H
5
=1.325 x10
-6
mol/h x -7.20 kJ /mol
=-9.54 x10
-6
kJ/h




5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, -78 C, 2.5 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, -78 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
:






6a
= (28.84 +0.00765 x 10 T +0.3288 x 10 T0.8698
78
25
x10 T)dT
=-4067 J /mol
=-4.067 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
731.7 kg/h
10.474 m /h

=69.8591 kg/m
= 69859 g/ m

6b
=
1cm
69859 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00429 kJ/mol

6
=
6a
+
6b

=-4.067 kJ /mol +0.00429 kJ /mol
= -4.06 kJ/mol

H
6
=363184 mol/h x -4.06 kJ /mol
=-1.48 x10
6
kJ/h





6

H
2
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
(v,-78 C, 2.5 atm)

6a

6b

H
2
(v, -78 C, 1 atm)
Component H
2
0 :






7a
= (33.46 +0.688 x 10 T +0.7604 x 10 T3.593
78
25
x10 T)dT
=-4677 J /mol
=-4.677 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
5392 kg/h
5.40 m /h

=997.986 kg/m
= 997986 g/ m

7b
=
1cm
997986 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00268 kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b

=-4.677 kJ /mol +0.00268 kJ /mol
= -4.68 kJ/mol

H
7
=0.0138 mol/h x -4.68 kJ /mol
=-6.46 x10
-2
kJ/h





7

H
2
O (v, 25 , C, 1 atm) H
2
O (v, -78C,2.5 atm)

7a

7b



H
2
O (v, -78 C, 1 atm)
Component O
2
:






8a
= (29.1 +1.158 x10 T 0.6076 x10 T+
78
25
1.311 x10 T)dT
=-4025 J /mol
=-4.025 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
0.000048 kg/h
4.21E08 m /h

=1.14 x10
3
kg/m
=1.14 x10
6
g/ m

8b
=
1cm
1.14 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
32 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00418 kJ/mol

8
=
8a
+
8b

=-4.025 kJ /mol +0.00418
= -4.02 kJ/mol

H
8
=0.001496 mol/h x -4.02 kJ /mol
=-6.02 x 10
-3
kJ/h





8

O
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm)

O
2
(v, -78 C, 2.5 atm)

8a

8b



O
2
(v, -78 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM REFLUX 2
Conditions: Liquid phase, T= -116
o
C and P= 2.5 atm

Component CH
4
:






1a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
162
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-5707 J /mol
=-5.707 kJ/mol

1b
=- v (CH
4
,-162
o
C) =-8.179 kJ/mol

1c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
116
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=1220 J /mol
= 1.220 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
4.54x10
7
kg/h
1.2810
9
m /h

=356kg/m
= 356000 g/ m

1d
=
1cm
0.356 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00796 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b
+
1c
+
1d


=-5.707 kJ /mol +-8.179 kJ /mol +1.220 kJ /mol +0.00796 kJ /mol
= -12.7 kJ/mol

1

CH
4
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) CH
4
(l, -116C, 2.5 atm)

1a

1b

1c

1d
CH
4
(v, -162
o
C, 1 atm) CH
4
(l,-162
o
C, 1 atm) CH
4
(l,-116
o
C, 1 atm)
H
1
=(3.23 x10
-5
mol/h) x (-12.7 kJ /mol)
=-4.08 x 10
6
kJ/h

Component C
2
H
6
:






2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
89
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-5091 J /mol
=-5.091 kJ/mol

2b
=- v (C
2
H
6
,-89
o
C) =-14.720 kJ/mol

2c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
116
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-945.563 J /mol
= -945.5 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
260452 x10
5
kg/h
732.26 m /h

=356 kg/m
= 0.356 g/ m

2d
=
1cm
0.356 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0126 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b
+
2c
+
2d


=-5.091 kJ /mol +-14.720 kJ /mol +-0.9455 kJ /mol +0.0126 kJ /mol
= -20.7 kJ/mol

2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(l, -116C, 2.5 atm)

2a

2b

2c

2d
C
2
H
6
(v, -89
o
C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(l,-89
o
C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(l,-116
o
C, 1 atm)
H
2
=(8.65 x10
6
mol/h) x (-20.7 kJ /mol)
=-1.79 x 10
8
kJ/h

Component C
2
H
4
:






3a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
104
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-4637 J /mol
=-4.637 kJ/mol

3b
=- v (C
2
H
4
,-104
o
C) =-13.540 kJ/mol

3c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
116
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-335.72 J /mol
= -0.33572 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
4.54x10
7
kg/h
1.2810
9
m /h

=356kg/m
= 356000 g/ m

3d
=
1cm
356000 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0109 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b
+
3c
+
3d


=-4.637 kJ /mol +-13.540 kJ /mol +-0.33572 kJ /mol +0.0109 kJ /mol
= -18.5 kJ/mol

3

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(l, -116C, 2.5 atm)

3a

3b

3c

3d
C
2
H
4
(v, -104
o
C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(l,-104
o
C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(l,-116
o
C, 1 atm)
H
3
=(7.99 x 10
6
mol/h) x (-18.5 kJ /mol)
=-1.48 x10
-4
kJ/h

Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
42
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-4429 J /mol
=-4.429 kJ/mol

4b
=- v (C
3
H
8
,-42
o
C) =42.070 kJ/mol

4c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
116
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-3643 J /mol
= -3.643 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1.07x10
5
kg/h
2.10 10
8
m /h

=507 kg/m
= 507000 g/ m

4d
=
1cm
50700 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0129 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b
+
4c
+
4d


=-4.429 kJ /mol +42.070 kJ /mol +-3.643 kJ /mol +0.0129 kJ /mol
= 34.0 kJ/mol

4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l, -116 C, 2.5 atm)

4a

4b

4c

4d
C
3
H
8
(v, -42
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-42
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-116
o
C, 1 atm)
H
4
=(2.42E x10
-4
mol/h) x (34.0kJ /mol)
=8.22 x10
-3
kJ/h

Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
48
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-4181 J /mol
=-4.181 kJ/mol

5b
=- v (C
3
H
6
,-48
o
C) =47.700 kJ/mol

5c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
116
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-3028 J /mol
= -3.028 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
6.90x10
4
kg/h
1.32 10
6
m /h

=521 kg/m
= 0. 521 g/ m

5d
=
1cm
521 coke gak g
x (2.5 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0120 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b
+
5c
+
5d


=-4.181 kJ /mol +47.700 kJ /mol +-3.028 kJ /mol +0.0120 kJ /mol
= 40.5 kJ/mol

5

C
23
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l, -116C, 2.5 atm)

5a

5b

5c

5d
C
3
H
6
(v, -48
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-48
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-116
o
C, 1 atm)
H
5
=(1.64 x10
-2
mol/h) x (40.5 kJ /mol)
=0.664 kJ/h

Component H
2
:






6a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
60
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-2460 J /mol
=-2.460 kJ/mol

6b
=- v (H
2
,-60
o
C) =-0.904 kJ/mol

6c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
116
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-1607 J /mol
= -1.607 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
760.27 kg/h
10.88 m /h

=69.9 kg/m
= 69900 g/ m

6d
=
1cm
069900 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
2 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00429 kJ/mol

6
=
6a
+
6b
+
6c
+
6d


=-2.460 kJ /mol +-0.904 kJ /mol +-1.607 kJ /mol +0.00429 kJ /mol
= -4.97 kJ/mol

6

H
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) H
2
(l, -116C, 2.5 atm)

6a

6b

6c

6d
H
2
(v, -60
o
C, 1 atm) H
2
(l,-60
o
C, 1 atm) H
2
(l,-116
o
C, 1 atm)
H
6
=(1.39 x10
4
mol/h) x (-4.97 x10
3
kJ /mol)
=-6.92 x 10
4
kJ/h

Component H
2
O:






7a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
100
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=4336 J /mol
=4.336 kJ/mol

7b
=- v (H
2
O,100
o
C) =-40.656 kJ/mol

7c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
116
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-7222 J /mol
= -7.222 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1.59 x10
2
kg/h
1.59 10
5
m /h

=998 kg/m
= 4 x10 g/ m4

7d
=
1cm
0.998 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
18 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00268 kJ/mol

7
=
7a
+
7b
+
7c
+
7d


=4.336 kJ /mol +-40.656 kJ /mol +-7.222 kJ /mol +0.00268 kJ /mol
= -43.5 kJ/mol

7

H
2
O

(v, 25 C, 1 atm) H
2
O

(l, -116C, 2.5 atm)

7a

7b

7c

7d
H
2
O

(v, 100
o
C, 1 atm) H
2
O

(l,100
o
C, 1 atm) H
2
O

(l,-116
o
C, 1 atm)
H
7
=(0.868 mol/h) x (-43.5 kJ /mol)
=-37.8 kJ/h

Component O
2
:






8a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
183
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-5848 J /mol
=-5.848 kJ/mol

8b
=- v (C
2
H
6
,-183
o
C) =-6.820 kJ/mol

8c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
116
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=1823 J /mol
= 1.823 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1.49x10
4
kg/h
1.3110
7
m /h

=1140 kg/m
= 1.140 g/ m

8d
=
1cm
1.140 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
32 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.00418 kJ/mol

8
=
8a
+
8b
+
8c
+
8d


=-5.848 kJ /mol +-6.820 kJ /mol +1.823 kJ /mol +0.00418 kJ /mol
= -10.8 kJ/mol

8

O
2
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) O
2
(l, -116C, 2.5 atm)

8a

8b

8c

8d
O
2
(v, -183
o
C, 1 atm) O
2
(l,-183
o
C, 1 atm) O
2
(l,-116
o
C, 1 atm)
H
8
=(3.15 x10
-3
mol/h) x (-10.8 kJ /mol)
=-3.42 x 10
-2
kJ/h
































BALANCE FOR STREAM BOILER 2
Conditions: Liquid phase, T = -23
O
C and P = 2.5 atm.

Component C
2
H
6
:






1a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
89
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-5091 J /mol
=-5.091 kJ/mol

1b
=- v (C
2
H
6
,-89
o
C) =-1.472 kJ/mol

1c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
23
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=2693 J /mol
= 2.693 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
260452 x10
5
kg/h
732.26 m /h

=356 kg/m
= 0.356 g/ m

1d
=
1cm
0.356 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0126 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b
+
1c
+
1d


=-5.091 kJ /mol +-1.472 kJ /mol +2.693 kJ /mol +0.0126 kJ /mol
= -3.86 kJ/mol

1

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(l, -23C, 2.5 atm)

1a

1b

1c

1d
C
2
H
6
(v, -89
o
C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(l,-89
o
C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(l,-23
o
C, 1 atm)
H
1
=(1.89 x10
-5
mol/h) x (-3.86 kJ /mol)
=-7.28 x 10
-5
kJ/h

Component C
2
H
4
:





2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
104
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-4637 J /mol
=-4.637 kJ/mol

2b
=- v (C
2
H
4
,-104
o
C) =-1.354 kJ/mol

2c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
23
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=2658 J /mol
= 2.658 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
4.54x10
7
kg/h
1.2810
9
m /h

=356 kg/m
= 356000 g/ m

2d
=
1cm
356000 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
28 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0109 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b
+
2c
+
2d


=-4.637 kJ /mol +-1.354 kJ /mol +2.658kJ /mol +0.0109 kJ /mol
= -3.32 kJ/mol

2

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(l, -23C, 2.5 atm)

2a

2b

2c

2d
C
2
H
4
(v, -104
o
C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(l,-104
o
C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(l,-23
o
C, 1 atm)
H
2
=(2.40 x 10
-9
mol/h) x (-3.32 kJ /mol)
=-7.98 x10
-9
kJ/h

Component C
3
H
8
:






3a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
42
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-4429 J /mol
=-4.429 kJ/mol

3b
=- v (C
3
H
8
,-42
o
C) =4.207 kJ/mol

3c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
23
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=1124 J /mol
= 1.124 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1.07x10
5
kg/h
2.10 10
8
m /h

=507 kg/m
= 507000 g/ m

3d
=
1cm
507000 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
32 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0129 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b
+
3c
+
3d


=-4.429 kJ /mol +4.207 kJ /mol +1.124 kJ /mol +0.0129 kJ /mol
= 0.915 kJ/mol

3

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l, -23 C, 2.5 atm)

3a

3b

3c

3d
C
3
H
8
(v, -42
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-42
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-23
o
C, 1 atm)
H
3
=(6.96 x10
6
mol/h) x (0.915 kJ /mol)
=6.37 x10
6
kJ/h

Component C
3
H
6
:





4a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
48
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-4181 J /mol
=-4.181 kJ/mol

4b
=- v (C
3
H
6
,-48
o
C) =4.770 kJ/mol

4c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
23
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=1288 J /mol
= 1.288 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
6.90x10
4
kg/h
1.32 10
6
m /h

=521 kg/m
= 521000 g/ m

4d
=
1cm
521000 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0120 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b
+
4c
+
4d


=-4.181 kJ /mol +4.770 kJ /mol +1.288 kJ /mol +0.0120 kJ /mol
= 1.89 kJ/mol

4

C
23
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l, -23C, 2.5 atm)

4a

4b

4c

4d
C
3
H
6
(v, -48
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-48
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-23
o
C, 1 atm)
H
4
=(8.76 x10
6
mol/h) x (1.89 kJ /mol)
=1.65 x 10
7
kJ/h
































BALANCE FOR STREAM 14 D-302
Conditions: Liquid phase, T= -23
o
C and P=2.5 atm.

Component C
3
H
8
:






1a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
42
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-4429 J /mol
=-4.429 kJ/mol

1b
=- v (C
3
H
8
,-42
o
C) =4.21 kJ/mol

1c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
23
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=1124 J /mol
= 1.124 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1.07x10
5
kg/h
2.10 10
8
m /h

=507 kg/m
= 507000 g/ m

1d
=
1cm
507000 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
32 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0129 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b
+
1c
+
1d


=-4.429 kJ /mol +4.207 kJ /mol +1.124 kJ /mol +0.0129 kJ /mol
= 0.915 kJ/mol

1

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l, -23 C, 2.5 atm)

1a

1b

1c

1d
C
3
H
8
(v, -42
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-42
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-23
o
C, 1 atm)
H
1
=( 6.46 x10
5
mol/h) x (0.915 kJ /mol)
=5.91 x10
5
kJ/h

Component C
3
H
6
:






2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
48
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-4181 J /mol
=-4.181 kJ/mol

2b
=- v (C
3
H
6
,-48
o
C) =4.770 kJ/mol

2c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
23
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=1288 J /mol
= 1.288 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
6.90x10
4
kg/h
1.32 10
6
m /h

=521 kg/m
= 521000 g/ m

2d
=
1cm
g
x (2.5 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0120 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b
+
2c
+
2d


=-4.181 kJ /mol +4.770 kJ /mol +1.288 kJ /mol +0.0120 kJ /mol
= 1.89 kJ/mol

2

C
23
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l, -23C, 2.5 atm)

2a

2b

2c

2d
C
3
H
6
(v, -48
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-48
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-23
o
C, 1 atm)
H
2
=(6.77 x10
5
mol/h) x (1.89 kJ /mol)
=1.28 x 10
6
kJ/h
































BALANCE FOR STREAM BOIL-UP 2
Conditions: Gas phase, T = -23
O
C and P = 2.5 atm.

Component C
2
H
6
:






1a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
23
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-2385 J /mol
=-2.385 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
424.218 kg/h
1.1926 m /h

=355.683 kg/m
= 355683 g/ m

1b
=
1cm
355683 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0126 kJ/mol

1
=
1a
+
1b

=-2.385 kJ /mol +0.0126 kJ /mol
= -2.37 kJ/mol

H
1
=1.85 x 10
-5
mol/h x -2.37 kJ /mol
=-4.39 x 10
-5
kJ/h


1

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(v, -23 C, 2.5 atm)

1a

1b

C
2
H
6
(v, -23 C, 1 atm)
Component C
2
H
4
:






2a
= (40.75 +11.47x10 T 6.891x10 T+
23
25
17.66x10 T)dT
=-1968 J /mol
=-1.968 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
1021.392 kg/h
2.665 m /h

=383.26 kg/m
= 3833260 g/ m

2b
=
1cm
3833260 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
28 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0109 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b

=-1.968 kJ /mol +0.0109 kJ /mol
= -1.96 kJ/mol

H
2
=2.37 x10
-9
mol/h x -1.96 kJ /mol
=-4.64 x 10
-9
kJ/h





2

C
2
H
4
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
4
(v, -23 C, 2.5 atm)

2a

2b

C
2
H
6
(v, -23 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
8
:






a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
23
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-3287 J /mol
=-3.287 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28466 kg/h
56.183 m /h

=506.678 kg/m
= 506683 g/ m

3b
=
1cm
506683g
x (2.5 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0129 kJ/mol

3
=
3a
+
3b

=-3.287 kJ /mol +0.0129 kJ /mol
= -3.27 kJ/mol

H
3
=6.32 x 10
6
mol/h x -3.27 kJ /mol
=-2.07 x10
7
kJ/h





3

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, -23C, 2.5 atm)

3a

3b

C
3
H
8
(v, -23 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






4a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
23
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-2878 J /mol
=-2.878 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28467 kg/h
54.644 m /h

=520.955 kg/m
= 520955 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
0.521 g
x (2.5 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0120 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=-2.878 kJ /mol +0.0120 kJ /mol
= -2.87 kJ/mol

H
4
=8.08 x 10
6
mol/h x -2.87 kJ /mol
=-2.32 x10
7
kJ/h





4

C
3
H
6
(v, 25C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, -23 C, 2.5 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
6
(v, -23 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM COND 3
Conditions: T= -26.28
o
C and P= 2.37 atm

Component C
2
H
6
:






2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
26.28
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-2526.47 J /mol
=-2.526 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
0.468 kg/h
1.3210
5
m /h

=356kg/m
= 356000 g/ m

2b
=
1cm
0.356 g
x (2.37 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0117 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b

=-2.526 kJ /mol +0.0117 kJ /mol
= -2.5143 kJ/mol

H
2
=(1.56 x 10
-1
mol/h) x (-2.5143 kJ /mol)
=-3.922x 10
-1
kJ/h


2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(v, -26.28 C, 2.37 atm)

2a

2b

C
2
H
6
(v, -26.28 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
26.28
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-3479.79 J /mol
=-3.479 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
6.1210
6
kg/h
12083.1 m /h

=507 kg/m
= 507000 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
0.507g
x (2.37 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0121 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=-3.479 kJ /mol +0.0121 kJ /mol
= -3.467 kJ/mol

H
4
=(1.39 x10
8
mol/h) x( -3.467 kJ /mol)
=-4.81 x10
8
kJ/h





4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, -26.28 C, 2.37 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, -26.28 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
26.28
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-3048.30 J /mol
=-3.039 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
2.9310
8
kg/h
5.6310
5
m /h

=520.426 kg/m
= 0.520 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
520426 g
x (2.37 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0112 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=-3.039 kJ /mol +0.0112 kJ /mol
= -3.0278kJ/mol

H
5
=(6.9710
9
mol/h) x (-3.028 kJ /mol)
=-2.11

kJ/h





5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, -26.28 C, 2.37 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, -26.28 C, 1 atm)
BALANCE FOR STREAM 15@D-303
Conditions: Liquid phase, T= -26.28
o
C and P= 2.37 atm

Component C
2
H
6
:






2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T +
88.6
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-3778.06 J /mol
=-3.778 kJ/mol

2b
=- v (C
2
H
6
,-88.6
o
C) =-14.72kJ/mol

2c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
26.28
88.6
7.28x10 T)dT
=2062.4 J /mol
= 2.062 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
4.54x10
7
kg/h
1.2810
9
m /h

=356kg/m
= 356000 g/ m

2d
=
1cm
356000 g
x (2.37 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0117 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b
+
2c
+
2d


=-3.778 kJ /mol +-14.72 kJ /mol +2.062 kJ /mol +0.0117 kJ /mol
= -16.4 kJ/mol

2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(l, -26.28 C, 2.37 atm)

2a

2b

2c

2d
C
2
H
6
(v, -88.6
o
C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(l,-88.6
o
C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(l,-26.28
o
C, 1 atm)
H
2
=(1.561x 10
-5
mol/h) x (-16.4 kJ /mol)
=-2.48x 10
-4
kJ/h

Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
42.07
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-2240.45 J /mol
=-2.240 kJ/mol

4b
=- v (C
3
H
8
,-42.07
o
C) =42.07 kJ/mol

4c
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
26.28
42.07
31.71x10 T)dT
=524.77 J /mol
=0.525 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
594.33 kg/h
1.17299 m /h

=507 kg/m
= 507000 g/ m

4d
=
1cm
507x10
3
g
x (2.37 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0138 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b
+
4c
+
4d

=-2.24 kJ /mol +42.07 kJ /mol +0.525 kJ /mol +0.0138 kJ /mol
= 40.4 kJ/mol

4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l, -26.28 C, 2.37 atm)

4a

4b

4c

4d
C
3
H
8
(v, -42.07
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-42.07
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-26.28
o
C, 1 atm)
H
4
=(13.489 x10
3
mol/h) x(40.4 kJ /mol)
=5.44 x 10
5
kJ/h

Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
47.71
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-2427.52 J /mol
=-2.428 kJ/mol

5b
=- v (C
3
H
8
,-47.71
o
C) =47.70 kJ/mol

5c
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
26.28
47.71
24.6x10 T)dT
=711.83 J /mol
=0.712 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
28463.04kg/h
54.636 m /h

=521.00 kg/m
= 521000 g/ m

5d
=
1cm
521000 g
x (2.37 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0128 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b
+
5c
+
5d

=-2.428 kJ /mol +47.70 kJ /mol +0.521kJ /mol +0.0128 kJ /mol
= 45.81 kJ/mol

5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l, -26.28 C, 2.37 atm)

5a

5b

5c

5d
C
3
H
6
(v, -47.71
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-47.71
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-26.28
o
C, 1 atm)
H
5
=(6.7610
5
mol/h) x (45.81 kJ /mol)
= -3.10

kJ/h










BALANCE FOR STREAM REFLUX 3
Conditions: Liquid phase, T= -26.28
o
C and P= 2.37 atm.

Component C
2
H
6
:






2a
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T +
88.6
25
7.28x10 T)dT
=-3778.06 J /mol
=-3.778 kJ/mol

2b
=- v (C
2
H
6
,-88.6
o
C) =-14.72kJ/mol

2c
= (49.37 +13.92x10 T 5.816x10 T+
26.28
88.6
7.28x10 T)dT
=2062.4 J /mol
= 2.062 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
4.68x10
3
kg/h
1.32810
5
m /h

=356kg/m
= 356000 g/ m

2d
=
1cm
356 000g
x (2.37 1) atm x
30 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0117 kJ/mol

2
=
2a
+
2b
+
2c
+
2d


=-3.778 kJ /mol +-14.72 kJ /mol +2.062 kJ /mol +0.0117 kJ /mol
= -16.4 kJ/mol

2

C
2
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(l, -26.28 C, 2.37 atm)

2a

2b

2c

2d
C
2
H
6
(v, -88.6
o
C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(l,-88.6
o
C, 1 atm) C
2
H
6
(l,-26.28
o
C, 1 atm)
H
2
=(1.561x 10
-1
mol/h) x (-16.4 kJ /mol)
=-2.56x 10
-4
kJ/h

Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
42.07
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-2240.45 J /mol
=-2.240 kJ/mol

4b
=- v (C
3
H
8
,-42.07
o
C) =42.07 kJ/mol

4c
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
26.28
42.07
31.71x10 T)dT
=524.77 J /mol
=0.525 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
6.12x10
6
kg/h
12081.88 m /h

=507 kg/m
= 507000 g/ m

4d
=
1cm
507000g
x (2.37 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0121 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b
+
4c
+
4d

=-2.24 kJ /mol +42.07 kJ /mol +0.525 kJ /mol +0.0138 kJ /mol
= 40.4 kJ/mol

4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l, -26.28 C, 2.37 atm)

4a

4b

4c

4d
C
3
H
8
(v, -42.07
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-42.07
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-26.28
o
C, 1 atm)
H
4
=(13.489 x10
8
mol/h) x(40.4 kJ /mol)
=5.60 x 10
9
kJ/h

Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
47.71
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-2427.52 J /mol
=-2.428 kJ/mol

5b
=- v (C
3
H
8
,-47.71
o
C) =47.70 kJ/mol

5c
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
26.28
47.71
24.6x10 T)dT
=711.83 J /mol
=0.712 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
2.93

kg/h
5.6310
5
m /h

=521.00 kg/m
= 521000 g/ m

5d
=
1cm
521000 g
x (2.37 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0112 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b
+
5c
+
5d

=-2.428 kJ /mol +47.70 kJ /mol +0.521kJ /mol +0.0112 kJ /mol
= 45.81 kJ/mol

5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l, -26.28 C, 2.37 atm)

5a

5b

5c

5d
C
3
H
6
(v, -47.71
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-47.71
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-26.28
o
C, 1 atm)
H
5
=(6.9710
9
mol/h) x (45.81 kJ /mol)
= -3.20

kJ/h






BALANCE FOR STREAM BOILER 3
Conditions: Liquid Phase, T= -19.34
o
C and P=2.47 atm.

Component C
3
H
8
:






4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
42.07
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-4429.63 J /mol
=-4.430 kJ/mol

4b
=- v (C
3
H
8
,-42.07
o
C) =42.07 kJ/mol

4c
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
19.348
42.07
31.71x10 T)dT
=1385.75 J /mol
= 1.386 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
3.11x10
8
kg/h
6.13 x10
5
m /h

=507 kg/m
= 507000 g/ m

4d
=
1cm
507000g
x (2.47 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0129 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b
+
4c
+
4d

=-4.430 kJ /mol +42.07 kJ /mol +1.386 kJ /mol +0.0129 kJ /mol
= 39 kJ/mol

4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l, -19.34 C, 2.47 atm)

4a

4b

4c

4d
C
3
H
8
(v, -42.07
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-42.07
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-19.34
o
C, 1 atm)
H
4
=(7.04 x10
9
mol/h) x(39 kJ /mol)
=2.75 x 10
11
kJ/h

Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
47.71
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-4181.6 J /mol
=-4.182 kJ/mol

5b
=- v (C
3
H
8
,-47.71
o
C) =47.70 kJ/mol

5c
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T +
19.34
47.71
24.6x10 T)dT
=1518.38 J /mol
=15183 8( nk timun ke ape ke)

Density, =


=
6.01

kg/h
1.1510
2
m /h

=521.00 kg/m
= 521000 g/ m

5d
=
1cm
521000 g
x (2.47 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.012 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b
+
5c
+
5d

=-4.182 kJ /mol +47.70 kJ /mol +1.518kJ /mol +0.012 kJ /mol
= 45 kJ/mol

5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l, -19.34 C, 2.47 atm)

5a

5b

5c

5d
C
3
H
6
(v, -47.71
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-47.71
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-19.34
o
C, 1 atm)
H
5
=(1.4310
6
mol/h) x (45 kJ /mol)
= 6.44

kJ/h






BALANCE FOR STREAM 17@D303
Conditions: Liquid phase, T= -19.34
o
C and P= 2.47atm.

Component C
3
H
8
:





4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
42.07
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-4429.63 J /mol
=-4.430 kJ/mol

4b
=- v (C
3
H
8
,-42.07
o
C) =42.07 kJ/mol

4c
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
19.348
42.07
31.71x10 T)dT
=1385.75 J /mol
= 1.386 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
3.11x10
8
kg/h
6.13 x10
5
m /h

=507 kg/m
= 507000 g/ m

4d
=
1cm
507000g
x (2.47 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.0129 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b
+
4c
+
4d

=-4.430 kJ /mol +42.07 kJ /mol +1.386 kJ /mol +0.0129 kJ /mol
= 39 kJ/mol

4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l, -19.34 C, 2.47 atm)

4a

4b

4c

4d
C
3
H
8
(v, -42.07
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-42.07
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(l,-19.34
o
C, 1 atm)
H
4
=(6.32 x10
5
mol/h) x(39 kJ /mol)
=2.475 x 10
7
kJ/h

Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
47.71
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-4181.6 J /mol
=-4.182 kJ/mol

5b
=- v (C
3
H
8
,-47.71
o
C) =47.70 kJ/mol

5c
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T +
19.34
47.71
24.6x10 T)dT
=1518.38 J /mol
=1.518 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
6.01

kg/h
1.1510
2
m /h

=521.00 kg/m
= 521000g/ m

5d
=
1cm
521000g
x (2.47 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.012 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b
+
5c
+
5d

=-4.182 kJ /mol +47.70 kJ /mol +1.518kJ /mol +0.012 kJ /mol
= 45 kJ/mol

5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l, -19.34 C, 2.47 atm)

5a

5b

5c

5d
C
3
H
6
(v, -47.71
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-47.71
o
C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(l,-19.34
o
C, 1 atm)
H
5
=(97.4mol/h) x (45 kJ /mol)
= 4.39

kJ/h



BALANCE FOR STREAM BOIL-UP 3
Conditions: Gas phase, T= -19.34
o
C and P= 2.47 atm.

Component C
3
H
8
:





4a
= (68.032 +22.59x10 T 13.11x10 T+
19.34
25
31.71x10 T)dT
=-3043.9 J /mol
=-3.044 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
3.1010
8
kg/h
6.1310
5
m /h

=507 kg/m
= 507000 g/ m

4b
=
1cm
507000 arm
x (2.47 1) atm x
44 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

= 0.0129 kJ/mol

4
=
4a
+
4b

=-3.044 kJ /mol +0.0129 kJ /mol
= -3.03 kJ/mol

H
4
=(7.04 x10
9
mol/h) x( -3.03 kJ /mol)
= -2.13 x10
10
kJ/h



4

C
3
H
8
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
8
(v, -19.34 C, 2.47 atm)

4a

4b

C
3
H
8
(v, -19.34 C, 1 atm)
Component C
3
H
6
:






5a
= (59.58 +17.71x10 T 10.17x10 T+
26.28
25
24.6x10 T)dT
=-19645 J /mol
=-19.65 kJ/mol

Density, =


=
6.0110
4
kg/h
1.1510
2
m /h

=521kg/m
= 521000 g/ m

5b
=
1cm
521000 g
x (2.47 1) atm x
42 g
mol
x
0.008314 kJ/ mol.K
82.05746 cm.atm/ mol.K

=0.012 kJ/mol

5
=
5a
+
5b

=-19.65 kJ /mol +0.012 kJ /mol
= -19.6/mol

H
5
=(1.4310
6
mol/h) x (-19.6 kJ /mol)
=-2.11

kJ/h

5

C
3
H
6
(v, 25 , C, 1 atm) C
3
H
6
(v, -26.28 C, 2.37 atm)

5a

5b

C
3
H
6
(v, -26.28 C, 1 atm)