i

Jaipur

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
In
Energy Engineering


















Guided By:
Dr. G. D. Agrawal
Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Submitted By:
Mevin Chandel
M. Tech. (Energy Engg.)
2010 PME 104





DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY JAIPUR
June 2012

ii

MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
JAIPUR – 302017 (RAJASTHAN) INDIA





CERTI FICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Exploring Opportunities for Energy
Supply through Solar Technologies for Garment Zone of Sitapura Industrial Area,
J aipur‖ that is being submitted by Mr. Mevin Chandel M.Tech-IV Sem (2010
PME104) requirement for partial fulfillment of award of the degree of Master of
Technology, Energy Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, Malaviya
National Institute of Technology, Jaipur is found to be satisfactory and is hereby
approved for submission.









Date



Dr. G. D. Agarwal
Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Malaviya National Institute of Technology
Jaipur, Rajasthan

iii

Acknowledgement
It gives me immense pleasure to express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness
to my supervisor Dr. G. D. Agrawal, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical
Engineering for his constant encouragement and guidance from inception to
completion of this dissertation work by taking interest and giving personal attention to
the same. His valuable feedback, criticism and moral support have been a great source
of inspiration for broadening my horizons in this area of research.
I am extremely grateful to the esteemed professors of the Department of Mechanical
Engineering - Prof. Rakesh Jain, Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr.
Ing. Jyotirmay Mathur, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical
Engineering and all the faculty members for their encouragement and moral support. I
would also like to thanks all Technical and Non-Technical Staff of the Workshop and
office of Mechanical Engineering Department MNIT, Jaipur for support.
I would also like to thank managing bodies of the garment industries of Sitapura
industrial area, Jaipur for providing me with valuable information and data. My
special thanks to Mr. U. Kalirajan, Ms. Anita Agrawal and Ms. Sumedha Basu,
IT Power, Gurgaon for their guidance and support. Finally I would like to thanks my
parents, my friends and my well wishers. All the support and cooperation rendered by
them has come a long way towards providing a favorable atmosphere for
accomplishment of this dissertation.




(Mevin Chandel)

iv

Abstract
In present industrial scenario, most of the Indian industries are using conventional
source of energy (fossil fuels) for meeting their energy requirements. Fossil fuels are
limited, polluting and day by day getting costlier. As the world‘s supply of fossil fuels
shrinks, there is a great need for clean and affordable renewable energy sources in
order to meet growing energy demands. Alternatives to the use of non-renewable and
polluting fossil fuels have to be used in industries. One such alternative is solar
energy. Solar energy is the largest available carbon-neutral energy source. Sun
provides the earth with more energy in one hour than is consumed on the planet in an
entire year.
A study has been carried out to check the feasibility and economic viability of solar
systems for meeting the energy requirements in a group of industries of garment zone
of Sitapura industrial area, Jaipur, Rajasthan in place of existing fossil fuel based
energy supply systems. Two forms of energy – heat and power are required in the
zone. Presently Electricity is being supplied by the state grid while the heat is
obtained in the form of steam by diesel fired and electric fired boilers, which are quite
inefficient and polluting. The estimated energy requirement of the selected garment
zone for the year 2011 was 2.21 MW. In order to improve the energy efficiency and
to shift energy supply towards renewables, solar energy system has been proposed to
meet the energy requirements of the garment zone.
Solar energy supply options such as parabolic trough collector type solar power plant
and solar photovoltaic power plant have been identified to meet the energy
requirement of the zone. To meet the present energy demand and expected increase in
the demand for next fifteen years a 2.5 MW capacity parabolic trough collector type
solar power plant and a SPV plant is proposed. A 1.9 MW steam supply and
distribution system is also proposed. Looking to the scarcity and cost of the land near
the city, off-site proposal of the power plants has also been considered and compared
with on-site option. Feasibility study has been performed to identify the best suitable
option among the all available options. Four economic scenarios were analyzed for
the proposed system and their financial performance is evaluated. For the onsite solar
thermal power plant internal rate of return is 19.21%, NPV @ 10% discount rate is
v

372.77 million INR, simple payback period is 5 years and discounted payback period
@10% is 7 years and 4 months, while for the off-site power plant IRR is 25.31%,
NPV is 468.12 million INR, simple payback period is 3.86 years and discounted
payback period is 5.14 years. Levelised cost of energy is Rs 9.41 and Rs 6.89 per
kWh for onsite and offsite sola thermal plant and Rs 13.22 and Rs 9.68 per kWh for
onsite and offsite solar PV plant respectively. On site solar parabolic trough collector
steam system is considered for steam supply only, off-site parabolic trough collector
type solar power plant is better for electricity generation. Off-site SPV option is better
than on-site SPV option due to very costly land.

vi

Contents
Abstract ....................................................................................................................... iv
Contents ....................................................................................................................... vi
List of tables ............................................................................................................... viii
List of figures ............................................................................................................... xi
Abbreviations .............................................................................................................. xii
Nomenclature ............................................................................................................. xiv
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1
1.1. Background ...................................................................................................... 1
1.2. Solar Energy ................................................................................................... 1
1.3. Objectives of study .......................................................................................... 3
2. Literature review .................................................................................................. 4
2.1. Global solar energy scenario .......................................................................... 4
2.2. Indian scenario ................................................................................................ 5
2.3. Studies on utilization of solar energy in industries .......................................... 7
2.4. Techno-economic analysis of solar technologies ............................................ 9
2.5. Studies on recent solar technologies .............................................................. 12
2.6. Recommendations based on the literature survey ......................................... 17
3. Energy demand estimation of the garment zone .............................................. 18
3.1. About garment zone of Sitapura industrial area ............................................ 18
3.2. Data collection ............................................................................................... 19
3.3. Electrical Energy demand .............................................................................. 20
3.4. Heat Requirement .......................................................................................... 23
3.5. Existing methods of meeting energy demand ................................................. 24
3.6. Solar technologies for meeting energy demand ............................................. 25
4. Solar parabolic trough power plant ................................................................... 27
4.1. On-site solar parabolic trough power plant .............................................. 27
4.1.1 Solar resource assessment .................................................................... 27
4.1.2 Design of solar field ............................................................................. 29
4.1.3 Power block ......................................................................................... 40
4.1.4 Steam properties and power cycle ...................................................... 42
4.1.5 Steam consumption in turbine ............................................................. 43
vii

4.1.6 Pumps and pumping system ................................................................ 43
4.1.7 Auxiliary power consumption.............................................................. 45
4.1.8 Pipes and piping system ....................................................................... 46
4.1.9 Cost and incentives .............................................................................. 48
4.1.10 Energy yield and capacity factor .......................................................... 52
4.1.11 Levelised cost of electricity ................................................................ 54
4.1.12 Economic Assessment ........................................................................ 56
4.2. Off-site solar parabolic trough power plant .............................................. 66
4.2.1. Site assessment..................................................................................... 66
4.2.2. Solar resource assessment .................................................................... 67
4.2.3. Design of solar field ............................................................................. 67
4.2.4. Economic Assessment ......................................................................... 68
4.3. Onsite solar steam supply system ............................................................... 79
4.3.1. Design of solar field ............................................................................ 79
4.3.2. Steam distribution system ................................................................... 80
4.3.3. Financial analysis ................................................................................ 83
5. Solar photovoltaic power plant ........................................................................... 87
5.1. On site solar photovoltaic power plant .......................................................... 87
5.1.1. Panel generation factor ...................................................................... 87
5.1.2. Total Watt peak rating for PV modules .............................................. 87
5.1.3. PV modules ........................................................................................ 88
5.1.4. Inverter sizing .................................................................................... 88
5.1.5. Battery sizing ..................................................................................... 89
5.1.6. PV modules circuit ............................................................................. 89
5.1.7. Land required ..................................................................................... 90
5.1.8. Project cost ......................................................................................... 91
5.1.9. Capacity factor ................................................................................... 92
5.1.10. Levelised cost of electricity ................................................................ 92
5.1.11. Financial analysis ................................................................................ 92
5.2. Off site solar photovoltaic power plant ......................................................... 98
6. Result and discussion ........................................................................................ 108
6.1. Technical analysis ......................................................................................... 108
6.2. Financial analysis .......................................................................................... 112
6.3. Carbon emission analysis ............................................................................ 114
viii

7. Conclusion and recommendation .................................................................... 116
Publications ....................................................................................................... 119
References ........................................................................................................... 120
Appendix ............................................................................................................ 126

ix

List of tables
S.
No.
Title Table.
No.
Pg.
No.
1 Data collected for Electricity requirement (kWh) of the industries
for year 2011
3.1 20
2 Monthly energy consumption for the thirteen industries 3.2 21
3 Monthly Power consumption of the zone 3.3 23
4 Steam requirement of the industries 3.4 23
5 Monthly averaged DNI data of Jaipur from different sources 4.1 28
6 Mean sunshine hours for Jaipur 4.2 28
7 Equivalent number of no-sun or black Days for Jaipur 4.3 29
8 Altitude angles for different time period and their corresponding
solar radiations
4.4 35
9 Technical specifications of the turbine 4.5 40
10 Technical specifications of the steam generator and preheater 4.6 40
11 Technical specifications of reheater 4.7 41
12 Steam properties at different states 4.8 43
13 Auxiliary power consumption 4.9 45
14 Pipe sizing 4.10 47
15 Heat loss from pipes 4.11 47
16 Capital cost norms released by the Indian Central Electricity
Regulatory Commission
4.12 48
17 Project cost of 2.5 MW solar power plant 4.13 48
18 Operation and maintenance cost 4.14 49
19 Monthly capacity factor and energy yield 4.15 53
20 Accumulated degradation and annual energy yield 4.16 53
21 Levelised cost of energy 4.17 55
22 Capital recovery factor for different discount rates 4.18 56
23 Regulatory and Financial Assumptions for assessment of CSP
economics in India used by World Bank
4.19 56
24 Financial analysis for pre-tax scenario 4.20 62
25 Financial analysis for post-tax scenario 4.21 63
26 Financial analysis for pre-tax with equity 4.22 64
x

27 Financial analysis for post-tax with equity 4.23 65
28 Site assessment parameters 4.24 66
29 Project cost 4.25 68
30 Operation and maintenance cost 4.26 68
31 Monthly open access charges specified by Rajasthan electricity
regulatory commission
4.27 69
32 Monthly capacity factor and energy yield 4.28 70
33 Variation of LCOE 4.29 71
34 Accumulated degradation and annual energy yield 4.30 72
35 Financial analysis for pre-tax scenario 4.31 75
36 Financial analysis for post-tax scenario 4.32 76
37 Financial analysis for pre-tax with equity 4.33 77
38 Financial analysis for post-tax with equity 4.34 78
39 SopoHelio solar collector specifications 4.35 79
40 Specifications of solar field 4.36 80
41 Length and diameter of distribution pipes for steam distribution
system
4.37 81
42 Cost of solar field 4.38 84
43 Financial analyses for steam generation system 4.39 86
44 Characteristics of HIP-215NHE5 PV module 5.1 88
45 Project cost of on-site PV power plant of 2.5 MW capacity 5.2 91
46 Levelised cost of energy for SPV plant for different discount rates
and project life
5.3 92
47 Financial analysis for pre-tax scenario 5.4 94
48 Financial analysis for post-tax scenario 5.5 95
49 Financial analysis for pre-tax with equity 5.6 96
50 Financial analysis for post-tax with equity 5.7 97
51 Project cost of off-site PV power plant of 2.5 MW capacity 5.8 101
52 Levelised cost of energy for off-site SPV plant 5.9 102
53 Financial analysis for pre-tax scenario 5.10 104
54 Financial analysis for post-tax scenario 5.11 105
55 Financial analysis for pre-tax with equity 5.12 106
56 Financial analysis for post-tax with equity 5.13 107
xi

57 Energy scenario of the garment zone in existing system 6.1 109
58 Design parameters of solar thermal power plant 6.2 110
59 Design parameters of solar photovoltaic power plant 6.3 112
60 Design parameters of solar steam generation and distribution
system
6.4 112
61 Comparison between Solar thermal and PV power plants 6.5 113
62 Average cost of electricity generation 6.6 113
63 Steam supply system 6.7 114
64 Carbon emission analysis 6.8 115
65 Industries detail A.1 126
66 Monthly Averaged Hourly Insolation data for Jaipur C.1 129
67 Thermal conductivity of mineral wool at different temperatures E.1 137
68 Quotations from different suppliers G.1 142
69 Financial Year 2010-11 Renewable Purchase Obligation specified
by State Electricity Regulation Commissions
H.1 143
70 Floor and forbearance price of REC J.1 145
71 Fees and Charges for REC J.2 145
72 Open Access Charges calculation K.1 147
73 Steam mass flow rate of distribution pipe M.1 149


xii

List of figures
S.
No
Title Fig. No Pg. No.
1 Concentrating solar power technologies 1.1 2
2 Solar radiation intensity variation 2.1 6
3 Satellite view of garment zone, Sitapura industrial area 3.1 18
4 Conversion process from fabric to garment 3.2 19
5 Month wise energy requirement of the garment zone 3.3 22
6 Layout of existing energy supply system in garment zone 3.4 25
7 Energy flow chart for solar power plant 4.1 30
8 SkyTrough
®
thermal efficiency curve 4.2 31
9 Receiver tube of solar collector 4.3 33
10 Geometry of solar collector element 4.4 33
11 Solar collector assembly-consisting of eight SCEs 4.5 34
12 Solar collector assembly loop-Consisting of four SCAs 4.6 34
13 Phenomenon of shading losses- three cases 4.7 35
14 Geometry of the distance between two SCAs 4.8 36
15 Layout of solar field 4.9 37
16 Layout of power block & administrative block 4.10 37
17 Air cooled condenser 4.11 41
18 Temperature- Entropy curve of power cycle 4.12 42
19 Solar power plant layout 4.13 42
20 Clean Development Mechanism 4.14 51
21 Dimensions of PV panel 5.1 90
22 PV array consisting 16 PV panels 5.2 90
23 On-site solar PV power plant 5.3 90
24 Off-site solar PV power plant 5.4 100
25 Layout of PV solar field 5.5 100
26 Month wise availability of solar resource 6.1(a) 109
27 Monthly variation of the energy demand for garment zone 6.1(b) 109
28 Variation in the energy demand of garment zone and solar
resource with different months
6.1(c) 109
29 On-site solar PV power plant 6.2 111
30 Off-site solar PV power plant 6.3 111
31 Comparison of Monthly Average Direct Normal Insolation C.1 129
32 Operational framework of REC mechanism I.1 144
33 Sample renewable energy certificate J.1 146
34 Basic structure and cell surface structure of the HIT cell L.1 148

xiii

Abbreviations
ADB Asian Development Bank
CDM Clean Development Mechanism
CER Certified Emissions Reductions
CERC Central Electricity Regulatory Commission
CLFR Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector
CPV Concentrating Photovoltaics
CPVT Concentrating Photovoltaics and Thermal
CRF Capital Recovery Factor
CRS Central Receiver System
CSP Concentrating Solar Power
DNI Direct Normal Irradiation
DSCR Debt-Service Coverage Ratio
DSG Direct Steam Generation
EAI Energy Alternatives India
EPC Engineering procurement & construction
GEF Global Environment Fund
HFC Heliostat Field Collector
HTF Heat Transfer Fluid
IDC Interest During Construction
INR Indian National Rupee
IRR Internal Rate of Return
ISCCS Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System
LCOE Levelized cost of energy
LFR Linear Fresnel Reflector
MNES Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources
MNRE Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracker
NPV Net Present Value
PDC Parabolic Dish Collector
PGF Panel Generation factor
PI Proportional Integral
xiv

PID Proportional Integral Derivative
PMMA poly-methyl-methacrylate
PPA Power Purchase Agreement
PTC Parabolic Trough Collector
PV Photovoltaic
REC Renewable Energy Certificate
ROE Return on equity
RPO Renewable Purchase Obligation
SCA Solar collector assembly
SCE Solar collector elements
SD Stirling Dish
SEC Solar Energy Centre
SEGS Solar Electric Generating System
SERC State Electricity Regulatory Commissions
SPT Solar Parabolic Trough
TRC Tradable Renewable Certificates
TTH Torque Tube Heliostat

xv

Nomenclature
A Cross sectional area of pipe (m
2
)
A
coll
Collector aperture area (m
2
)
C
o
Capital cost
C
O&M
Variable O&M cost
C
p
Heat capacity of fluid (kJ/kg K)
d
0
outside diameter of pipe (mm)
F
c
Capacity factor
F
R
Capital recovery factor
g Gravitational acceleration (m/sec
2
)
h Head across pump (meters)
h Heat transfer coefficient (W/m
2
K)
I
b
Beam irradiance (W/m
2
)
I
r
Discount rate
k Thermal conductivity of insulation
ṁ Mass flow rate of heat transfer fluid (kg/sec)
n System life time
O
f
Fixed O&M cost
P Permissible pressure (MN/m
2
)
P Power consumption (W)
P
n
Net power output
P
o
Peak power output
xvi

P
rated
Nominal electrical power of the turbine (W)
Q Heat transfer rate (W)
Q
c
Heat collected in receiver
Q
h
Heat to power block
q
L
Receiver heat loss rate, W
SE Electricity generated in a whole year (kWh)
t thickness of wall (mm)
T
a
Average ambient temperature (˚C)
T
h
Hot surface temperature (˚C)
t
k
thickness of insulation
v velocity of steam (m/sec)
υ Specific volume of fluid
V Flow velocity
β Altitude angle
ΔP Pressure rise across pump (N/m
2
)
ΔT Temperature change during heat transfer
η Thermal efficiency
η
pump
Efficiency of pump
η
0
Optical efficiency
η
auxiliary
Auxiliary efficiency
η
reciever
Receiver efficiency
η
turbine
Turbine efficiency
ρ Density of fluid (kg/m
3
)
σ Permissible working stress (MN/m
2
)
1

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1. Background
The textile industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. Textile industry grew
out of the industrial revolution in the 18th Century. Since then different energy
sources have been utilized in the textile industry. Before 1760 manpower and
animal power were used to operate the looms in garment industries. In 1764 the first
water-powered cotton mill in the world was constructed at Royton, Lancashire,
England. Later the water powered mills were supplemented by steam driven water
pumps and in 1775, water wheels were superseded by the steam engines [1].
Nowadays garment industries consume energy mainly in the form of electricity. The
industry faces a number of problems like power cuts, discontinuous power supply and
high cost of power [2]. This is due to being dependent on fossil fuels for power
generation. Fossil fuel reserves are diminishing rapidly across the world, intensifying
the stress on existing reserves day-by-day due to increased demand. Not only that,
fossil fuels, presently contributing to 80% of world primary energy, are inflicting
enormous impacts on environment. Climatic changes, in particular the production of
greenhouse gas emissions, directly impact the environment. A secure and accessible
supply of energy is thus very crucial for the sustainability. There is an urgent need for
a quicker switch over of energy systems from conventional to renewables that are
sustainable and can meet the present and projected energy demand. Solar power is one
of the most promising renewable. It is reliable and less vulnerable to changes in
seasonal weather patterns.
1.2. Solar energy
There are two main stream categories of solar devices utilized for the purpose of
power generation— solar photovoltaics and solar thermal. The former involves the
use of solar cells to generate electricity directly via the photoelectric effect. The latter
employs different methods of capturing solar thermal energy for use in power
producing heat processes.
There are two general categories of solar thermal collectors. The first includes
stationary, non-concentrating collectors, in which the same area is used for both
2

interception and absorption of incident radiation. The second category consists of sun-
tracking, concentrating solar collectors, which utilize optical elements to focus large
amounts of radiation onto a small receiving area and follow the sun throughout its
daily course to maintain the maximum solar flux at their focus. Concentrating solar
power technologies use system of mirrored concentrators to focus direct beam solar
radiation to receivers that convert the energy to high temperatures for power
generation.

Figure 1.1 Concentrating solar power technologies
There are four main configurations that are commercially available:
 Parabolic troughs
 Solar towers
 Linear Fresnel reflectors
 Parabolic dishes
3

Parabolic trough systems consist of parallel rows of mirrors (reflectors) curved in one
dimension to focus the sun‘s rays. Solar towers, also known as central receiver
systems (CRS), use many small reflectors (called heliostats) to concentrate the sun‘s
rays on a central receiver placed at top of a fixed tower. Linear Fresnel reflectors
(LFRs) approximate the parabolic shape of trough systems but by using long rows of
flat or slightly curved mirrors to reflect the sun‘s rays onto a downward-facing linear,
fixed receiver. Parabolic dishes concentrate the sun‘s rays at a focal point propped
above the centre of the dish. The entire apparatus tracks the sun, with the dish and
receiver moving in tandem.
1.3. Objectives of study
In the present study of exploring opportunities for energy supply through solar
technologies for garment zone of Sitapura industrial area - Jaipur, following are the
main objectives:
(i) To carry out literature survey on the topic and find state of art in the field
(ii) To study existing energy sources, collect data and estimate annual energy demand
of garment zone of Sitapura industrial area
(iii)To propose solar technologies for meeting energy (electricity and heat) demand
(iv) To design and optimize the selected solar options
(v) To verify the techno- economic feasibility of selected solar options
(vi) To estimate the environmental benefits due to proposed solar options

4

Chapter 2
Literature Review
Solar power generation systems have been successfully operating in India and other
countries for many decades. Solar power can be harnessed by both thermal and
photovoltaic systems. Keeping this view in mind, it is decided to check the feasibility
of solar systems for generating power and heat for meeting the energy needs of the
garment zone of Jaipur. A detailed literature survey has been carried out on the topic.
2.1. Global solar energy scenario
Commercial concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) plants were first developed in
the 1980s. CSP plants such as solar electric generation systems (SEGS) project in the
United States have a levelized energy cost (LEC) of 12–14 ¢/kWh [3].
SEGS is the largest solar energy generating facility in the world. It consists of nine
solar power plants in California‘s Mojave Desert, where insolation is among the best
available in the United States. The SEGS plants have a 354 MW installed capacity,
making it the largest installation of solar plants of any kind in the world. The average
gross solar output for all nine plants at SEGS is around 75MWe with a capacity factor
of 21%. The facilities have a total of 936384 mirrors and cover more than 1600 acres
(6.5 km
2
). The SEGS power plants were built by Luz Industries [4], and
commissioned between 1984 and 1991. The 11 MW PS10 power tower in Spain,
completed in late 2005, is Europe‘s first commercial CSP system, and a total capacity
of 300MW is expected to be installed by 2013 [5].
Solar photovoltaic cells convert sunlight into electricity and many solar photovoltaic
power stations have been built, mainly in Europe. As of October 2009, the largest
photovoltaic (PV) power plants in the world are the Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant
(Canada, 80MW), Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park (Spain, 60MW), the Strasskirchen
Solar Park (Germany, 54MW), the Lieberose Photovoltaic Park (Germany, 53MW),
the Puertollano Photovoltaic Park (Spain, 50MW), the Moura Photovoltaic Power
Station (Portugal, 46MW), and the Waldpolenz Solar Park (Germany, 40MW) [6].
Some photovoltaic power stations which are presently proposed will have a capacity
of 150MW or more [7].
5

World solar photovoltaic market installations reached a record high of 7.3GW in
2009, representing growth of 20% over the previous year. This was revealed in the
Marketbuzz 2010 Report from Solarbuzz [8].
The PV industry generated $38.5 billion in global revenues in 2009, while
successfully rising over $13.5 billion in equity and debt, up 8% on the prior year.
European countries accounted for 5.60 GW, or 77% of world demand in 2009. The
top three countries in Europe were Germany, Italy and Czech Republic, which
collectively accounted for 4.07GW. The third largest market in the world was the
United States, which grew 36% to 485 MW. Following closely behind was a
rejuvenated Japan, which took fourth spot, growing 109%. In August 2009, ―First
solar‖ also announced plans to build a 2000MW photovoltaic system in Ordos City,
Inner Mongolia, China in four phases consisting of 30MW in 2010, 970MW in 2014,
and another 1000MW by 2019.
The analysis in the new Marketbuzz 2010 report refers 112 countries across the world
in 2009. World solar cell production reached a consolidated figure of 9.34 GW in
2009, up from 6.85GW a year earlier, with thin film production accounting for 18%
of that total. China and Taiwanese production continued to build share and now
account for 49% of global cell production. The excess of solar cell production over
market demand caused weighted crystalline silicon module price average for 2009 to
crash 38% over the prior year level [8].
2.2. Indian scenario
India is located in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, thereby receiving abundant
radiant energy from the sun. The India Meteorological Department maintains a
nationwide network of radiation stations, which measure solar radiation, and also the
daily duration of sunshine. In most parts of India, clear sunny weather is experienced
250 to 300 days a year. The annual global radiation varies from 1600 to 2200
kWh/m
2
, which is comparable with radiation received in the tropical and sub-tropical
regions. The equivalent energy potential is about 6,000 million GWh of energy per
year. Figure 2.1 shows map of India with solar radiation levels in different parts of the
country. It can be observed that the highest annual global radiation is received in
Rajasthan, northern Gujarat and parts of Ladakh region.
6


Figure 2.1 Solar radiation intensity variation (Source: Teri)
India‘s electricity installed capacity is 185 GW in year 2011. Currently there is peak
power shortage of about 10 % and overall power shortage of 7.5 %. Ministry of
Power targets to add 100 GW of installed capacity between 2012 to 2017 and
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has set up target to add 14500 MW by 2012
from new and renewable energy resources out of which 50 MW would be from solar
energy [9].
Industrial sector is the largest consumer of energy in India, consuming about half of
the total energy consumption. The transport sector is the next biggest consumer at
22% of total commercial energy consumption. It consumes nearly half of the oil
products, mainly in the form of diesel oil and gasoline. Agriculture sector mainly
consumes electric power and diesel oil, major portions of which go into pump sets
used for irrigation purposes. Residential sector is another significant consumer in
India. Indian electric power sector now consumes over 40% of primary energy, with
an overwhelming contribution by coal (70%), hydroelectricity (25%), followed by
natural gas, nuclear power, oil and renewables, which account for the remaining 5%
[10].
In India the first Solar Thermal Power Plant of 50kW capacity has been installed by
Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) following the parabolic
trough collector technology at Gwalpahari, Gurgaon, which was commissioned in
1989 and operated till 1990, after which the plant was shut down due to lack of
7

spares. The plant is being revived with development of components such as mirrors,
tracking system etc. [11]
A Solar Thermal Power Plant of 140MW at Mathania in Rajasthan has been proposed
and sanctioned by the Government in Rajasthan. The project is an integrated solar
combined cycle power plant involves a 35MW solar power generating system and a
105MW conventional power component and the Global Environment Fund (GEF) has
approved a grant of US$ 40 million for the project. The Government of Germany has
agreed to provide a soft loan of DM 116.8 million and a commercial loan of DM
133.2 million for the project. NTPC, India‘s largest power generation company, has
two CSP plants in development: a 15 MW plant in Rajasthan and a 25 MW plant in
Uttar Pradesh [11].
Bright Source Energy, a U.S. based solar thermal company, partnered with the French
conglomerate Alstom, bringing an investment of INR 2.78 billion (USD 55 million) to
the solar thermal market in India. Indian company Cargo Power and Infrastructure, a
part of Cargo Motors, claimed to be the first CSP developer with a Power Purchase
Agreement (PPA) in hand [12]
Asia‘s first central receiver solar tower power plant of 10 MW capacity was jointly
developed by an Indian company ACME and U.S. based company eSolar at
Bherukhera village which is 30 km away from Bikaner district of Rajasthan. The
power plant employed a 46 meter high tower and 14280 heliostats [13].
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Reliance Power Limited jointly build
country's largest solar photovoltaic power plant of 40-megawatt capacity Dahanu
solar plant Power Project located in Jaisalmer district in the western state of Rajasthan
The project is completed on 1
st
April 2012 and will generate 720,00,000 kWh of
power. The cost of the power plant is about $147.5 million [14].
2.3. Studies on solar energy utilization in industries
Mekhilef et al. [15] studied the utilization of solar energy systems for industrial
applications and looked into the industrial applications which are more compatible to
be integrated with solar energy systems. Authors have found that both solar thermal
and PV systems are suitable for industrial process applications. Solar energy systems
can be considered either as the power supply or applied directly to a process. Large
scale solar thermal systems with large collector fields are economically viable due to
8

the usage of stationary collectors. Solar PV systems are reliable substitutes to be
considered as an innovative power source in building, processes industries and water
desalination systems.
Gupta [16] made out a case for the use of solar energy in meeting the energy
requirements of the textile industry. He gives a brief review of the energy resources
available in India and the requirements of the textile industry, and concludes that there
is great potential for solar energy in Indian garment industry. Three case studies and
details of the solar systems for textile processing are also discussed. In case solar
water heating in La France Industries considered, they utilized 6000 sq. feet of high
performance, high temperature solar collectors to provide 5000 litres of hot water for
dyeing, at 80-90°C. Solar Process steam producing systems and solar air heating
system are considered in other two case studies.
Abdel-Dayem et al. [17] presented feasibility study to obtain the potential of solar
energy utilization in the textile industry. Two categories were considered in this study.
The first category is the preheating solar system that can feed the boiler with hot
water. The second category is to feed the process of textile dyeing that needs low
temperatures (up to 85°C) directly with hot water. Economic comparison between the
two categories was provided to determine the optimal system that can be used
efficiently. The solar system that can feed the dyeing processes with hot water was the
optimal one and more economic than the system that can be used as a preheat system
for the boiler.
Kulkarni et al. [18] designed a solar system with concentrating collectors,
pressurized hot water storage and load heat exchanger. Solar input has been integrated
to a wide variety of industrial processes in the system. A large number of industrial
processes demand thermal energy in the temperature range of 80–240˚C. In this
temperature range, solar thermal systems have a great scope of application.
Integration has done on the basis of collectors, working fluid and sizing of
components. The analysis lays an emphasis on the component sizing. The design
procedure follows a methodology called design space approach. An economic
optimization is carried out to design the overall system. In economic optimization,
total annualized cost of the overall system has been minimized. It has been shown that
23% reduction in the total system cost may be achieved as compared to the existing
design.
9

Muneer et al. [19] introduced built-in-storage water heaters for Pakistani textile
industry. It has low cost and simple construction as compared to thermosyphon
heaters. A new design has been adopted within built-in-type heaters by introducing
fins within its construction. Fins not only improve the thermal efficiency of the heater
but also add to the structural stability of heater, the fins joined to the top and bottom
layers of heater can provide additional strength against hydrostatic forces and can help
overcome the bulging problems that usually arise in such designs. Muneer et al.
constructed to compare thermal performance of both the heater designs—plain and
newly designed finned type. Three months of experimental data were collected for the
two heaters. The solar fractions for this period were found to be 63 and 73%,
respectively. The monetary and embodied energy payback periods for the two heaters
were, respectively, found to be 6.7 and 6.1 years, and 185 and 169 days.
2.4. Techno-economic analysis of solar technologies
Poullikkas [20] carried out a feasibility study is in order to investigate the installation
of a parabolic trough solar thermal technology for power generation in the
Mediterranean region is economically feasible. A parametric cost–benefit analysis is
carried out by varying parameters, such as, plant capacity, capital investment,
operating hours, carbon dioxide emission trading system price, etc. For all above
cases the electricity unit cost or benefit before tax, as well as after tax cash flow, net
present value, internal rate of return and payback period are calculated. Parabolic
troughs require land area approximately 25 m
2
/kW. The results indicate that under
certain conditions such projects are profitable.
Purohit and Purohit [21] performed a technical and economic assessment of
concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies in India. To analyze the techno-
economic feasibility of CSP technologies in Indian conditions two projects namely
PS-10 (based on power tower technology) and ANDASOL-1 (based on parabolic
trough collector technology) have been taken as reference cases for the study. These
two systems have been simulated at several Indian locations. The preliminary results
indicate that the use of CSP technologies in India make financial sense for the north-
western part of the country (particularly in Rajasthan and Gujarat states).
Shimy [22] investigates the feasible sites in Egypt to build a 10MW PV-grid
connected power plant from techno-economical and environmental points of view.
10

Available PV-modules are assessed and a module is selected for this study. The long-
term meteorological parameters for each of the 29 considered sites in Egypt from
NASA renewable energy resource website (Surface meteorology and Solar Energy)
are collected and analyzed in order to study the behaviors of solar radiations, sunshine
duration, air temperature, and humidity over Egypt, and also to determine the
compatibility of the meteorological parameters in Egypt with the safety operating
conditions (SOC) of PV-modules. The project viability analysis is performed using
RETScreen version 4.0 software through electric energy production analysis, financial
analysis, and GHG emission analysis. The study show that placement of the proposed
10MW PV grid connected power plant at Wahat Kharga site offers the highest
profitability, energy production, and GHG emission reduction.
Beerbaum and Weinrebe [23] analyze the potential and the cost-effectiveness of
centralized and decentralized STE-generation in India. Comparing the levelized
electricity costs (LEC) for STE with the corresponding LEC for the electricity
generating options used at present and find that STE is an economically viable
technology under favorable conditions, i.e. in areas with high insolation levels and
provided that capital is available at low interest rates. Calculations show that the LEC
of solar thermal power plants range from 4.6 to 15.8 cts/kWh for centralized energy
generation and from 11.7 to 39.9 cts/kWh for decentralized energy generation.
Chong et al. [24] presented a technical and economic feasibility study of an
innovative wind–solar hybrid renewable energy generation system with rainwater
collection feature for electrical energy generation. The system integrates and
optimizes several green technologies; including urban wind turbine, solar cell module
and rain water collector. The techno-economic analysis is carried out by applying the
life cycle cost (LCC) method. The LCC method takes into consideration the complete
range of costs and makes cash flows time-equivalent. The estimated annual energy
savings was 195.2MWh/year.
Hongxing et al. [25] recommend an optimal design model for designing hybrid solar–
wind systems employing battery banks for calculating the system optimum
configurations and ensuring that the annualized cost of the systems is minimized
while satisfying the custom required loss of power supply probability (LPSP). The
proposed method has been applied to design a hybrid system to supply power for a
11

telecommunication relay station along southeast coast of China. Good complementary
characteristics were found between the solar and wind energy.
Luzzi et al. [26] carried out a techno-economic investigation of a solar thermal plant
using ammonia-based thermo-chemical energy storage. Capital investment of AUD
180 million will be necessary for a 10 MW base-load, solar-only power plant using
ANU‘s 400-m paraboloidal dish solar collector technology. This in turn would lead to
Levelised costs of less than AUD 0.25 per kWh, provided the technology is applied in
a sunny area such as Central Australia.
Celik [27] performed techno-economic analysis for autonomous small scale
photovoltaic–wind hybrid energy systems. An optimum combination of the hybrid
photovoltaic–wind energy system provides higher system performance than either of
the single systems for the same system cost for every battery storage capacity. It is
also shown that the magnitude of the battery storage capacity has important bearings
on the system performance of single photovoltaic and wind systems. The single
photovoltaic system performs better than a single wind system for 2 day storage
capacity, while the single wind system performs better for 1.25 day storage capacity
for the same system cost.
Hang et al. [28] evaluated the solar water heating systems for the U.S. typical
residential buildings, from the energetic, economic and environmental perspectives,
and includes two different types of solar collectors (i.e. flat-plate and evacuated-tube
solar collectors), two types of auxiliary systems (i.e. natural gas and electricity), and
three different locations (i.e. Los Angeles, Atlanta, and Chicago). The results showed
that the flat-plate solar water heating systems using natural gas auxiliary heater has
the best performance among all the types and at all locations. The energetic and
environmental payback periods for solar water heating systems are less than half of a
year, and the life cycle cost payback for solar water heating systems vary from 4 to 13
years for different cities and different configurations.
Kalogirou [29] studied thermal performance, economics and environmental
protection offered by thermosiphon solar water heating systems. The results show that
considerable percentage of the hot water needs is covered with solar energy. This is
expressed as the solar contribution and its annual value is 79%. The system gives
positive and very promising financial characteristics with payback time of 2.7 years
12

and life cycle savings of 2240 € with electricity backup and payback time of 4.5 years
and life cycle savings of 1056 € with diesel backup. The saving is about 70% for
electricity or diesel backup compared to a conventional system.
Robak et al. [30] conducted an economic evaluation of a latent heat thermal energy
storage (LHTES) system for large scale concentrating solar power (CSP) applications.
The concept of embedding gravity-assisted wickless heat pipes (thermosyphons)
within a commercial-scale LHTES system is explored through use of a thermal
network model. A new design is proposed for charging and discharging a large-scale
LHTES system. The size and cost of the LHTES system is estimated and compared
with a two-tank sensible heat energy storage (SHTES) system. The results suggest
that LHTES with embedded thermosyphons is economically competitive with current
SHTES technology, with the potential to reduce capital costs by at least 15%.
Muneer et al. [10] suggest solar PV electricity as the solution of future energy
challenges. The modular approach adopted to meet the year 2025 energy demand of
six major cities in India: Chennai, Delhi, Jodhpur, Kolkata, Mumbai and Trivandrum.
A cost analysis of solar and fossil fuel electricity has been done and suggested that at
present fossil fuel electricity is more economical than the former while the projected
future scenario indicates that solar electricity will see a substantial drop in its cost due
to a gradual evolution of involved technologies, i.e. PV modules, electrolysis,
hydrogen storage and fuel cells. The price trend indicates that by the year 2025 solar
PV electricity will be more economical than fossil fuel electricity.
2.5. Studies on recent solar technologies
This section discusses the recent developments in the design modifications, methods
for reducing losses and operating parameters for improving performance of different
solar power options. Studies related to central receiver tower, parabolic trough
collectors, linear Fresnel reflectors, parabolic dish and concentrated photovoltaics are
covered including theoretical work, computational work, and actual experimental and
field studies.
2.5.1. Central receiver towers
Segal and Epstein [31] worked on the concept of the reflective solar tower which is
based on inverting the path of the solar rays originating from a heliostat field to a
13

solar receiver that can be placed on the ground. Reflective solar tower system is based
on the property of a reflective quadric surface to reflect each ray oriented to one of its
foci to its second focus. Two shapes of surfaces can be used: one is concave — the
ellipsoid and the other is convex — the hyperboloid (with two sheets). The study
analyzes the achievable optical performances of these types of reflectors and proves
that the hyperboloidal surface is a superior reflector.
Segal and Epstein [32] further analyzed the optics of various types of solar tower
configurations and receivers. The power values for a given field and different optical
arrangements at specified operating temperatures (above 1100 K), are compared. A
model for calculating the efficiencies of central solar receivers with secondary
concentrators was presented.
Landfill gas and biogas can be used to supplement gas produced by the reformer. The
design and operation of a large-scale reformer are discusses by Segal and Epstein
[33]. The synthesis gas produced by this technology can also be utilized for the
production of methanol.
Segal and Epstein [34] presented a method of optimization for design parameters,
such as the receiver working temperature and the heliostat field density. This method
aims at maximizing the overall efficiency of the three major subsystems that
constitute the entire plant, namely, the heliostat field and the tower, the receiver and
its accompanying secondary optics, and the power block. The principal result
demonstrates that the operating temperature has an optimal value and its further
increase can lower the overall efficiency of the system.
Segal and Epstein [35] examined the option to use the beam down optics of a solar
tower system for large-scale and grid-connected concentrated photovoltaic (PV) cells.
The rationale is to use this system to split the solar spectrum. Part of the spectrum can
be utilized for PV cells. For instance, but not limited to, mono-crystalline silicon cells
can convert the 600–900 nm band to electricity at an efficiency of 55–60%. The rest
of the spectrum remains concentrated and it can be used thermally to generate
electricity in Rankine–Brayton cycles or to operate chemical processes.
Buck [36] worked on a new dual receiver concept that improves the adaptation of the
central receiver to the steam cycle in a solar thermal power plant. By combination of
14

an open volumetric air heater with a tubular evaporator section the dual receiver
concept profits from the advantages of these two basic concepts while their
characteristic problems are avoided. The results show several benefits of the new
concept, especially higher thermal efficiency of the receiver, lower receiver
temperature and lower parasitic losses. Due to these improvements the annual output
could be increased by 27%, compared to the solar air heating system.
Buck and Friedmann [37] studied the combination of a solarized micro-turbine with
an absorption

chiller and the results were presented in the paper.

The solar-hybrid
trigeneration system consists of a small heliostat field,

a receiver unit installed on a
tower, a modified micro-turbine,

and an absorption chiller. The components are
described, as well

as the required modifications for integration to the complete
system.

Several absorption chiller models were reviewed. System configurations were
assessed

for technical performance and cost.
Ortega [38] described the basic concept in Central receiver system solar power plant
using molten salt as heat transfer fluid demonstration project, reviewed

the experience
accumulated in the previous Solar TWO project, and

presented design innovations, as
a consequence of the development work

performed by SENER and CIEMAT and of
the technical conditions

imposed by Spanish legislation on solar thermal power
generation.
2.5.2. Parabolic trough collectors
Coventry [39] described the performance of a parabolic trough photovoltaic/thermal
collector with a geometric concentration ratio of 37 and measured results under
typical operating conditions show thermal efficiency around 58% and electrical
efficiency around 11%, therefore a combined efficiency of 69%. The impact of non-
uniform illumination on the solar cells is investigated using purpose built equipment
that moves a calibrated solar cell along the line of the receiver and measures short
circuit current.
Valenzuela et al. [40] used a new prototype parabolic-trough collector system that
was erected at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) (1996–1998) to investigate
direct steam generation (DSG) in a solar thermal power plant under real solar
conditions. The main objective of the control system is to obtain steam at constant
15

temperature and pressure at the solar field outlet, so that changes in inlet water
conditions and/or in solar radiation affect the amount of steam, but not its quality or
the nominal plant efficiency.
Valenzuela et al. [40] presents control schemes designed and tested for two operating
modes, ‗‗Recirculation‘‘, for which a proportional-integral-derivative (PI/PID) control
functions scheme has been implemented, and ‗‗Once-through‘‘, requiring more
complex control strategies, for which the scheme is based on proportional-integral
(PI), feed forward and cascade control. Experimental results of both operation modes
are discussed.
Eck et al. [41] developed a transient non-linear simulation tool which is based on the
modelica language to study the dynamic behavior of the layout of the collector field.
The impact of over-all and local shadings of a 1000 m collector loop is simulated.
Different feed water control systems are developed, implemented and evaluated. The
reaction of the controlled loop is simulated under a variety of irradiation disturbances.
A key finding is that the orientation of the collector field relative to the moving clouds
has large impact on the peak values during transients.
2.5.3. Linear Fresnel reflectors
Mills and Morrison [42] evaluated Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR)
concepts suitable for large scale solar thermal electricity generation plants. In the
CLFR, it is assumed that there will be many parallel linear receivers elevated on
tower structures that are close enough for individual mirror rows to have the option of
directing reflected solar radiation to two alternative linear receivers on separate
towers. This additional variable in reflector orientation provides the means for much
more densely packed arrays. Mills [43] worked also on multi-tower line focus Fresnel
array project.
Chaves and Collares-Pereira [44] worked on optimally-matched two-stage
concentrators with multiple receivers. If the heliostats are spaced from each other,
some light will miss them and be lost. If the heliostats are close to each other, they
will block part of each other‘s reflected light, also producing losses. One possible way
to minimize these losses is to intersect two focusing Fresnel concentrators forming a
Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector – CLFR. Although improving on a simple focusing
16

Fresnel concentrator, these optics are still not optimal. Here new geometries for
Fresnel reflectors are explored, minimizing their losses and increasing their
concentration. This is achieved by changing the overall shape of the primary, making
it a wave-shaped trough surface and/or by allowing for a variable size and shape of
the heliostats as a function of the position in the heliostat field.
Singh [45] studied and compared thermal performance of the four identical
trapezoidal cavity absorbers for linear Fresnel reflecting solar device. Rectangular and
round pipe sections were used as absorber by placing in the trapezoidal cavity.
Thermal efficiency of the solar device with round pipe absorber was found higher (up
to 8%) as compared to rectangular pipe absorber.
Singh [46] studied overall heat loss coefficients of the trapezoidal cavity absorber
with rectangular and round pipe in the laboratory. Two identical rectangular pipe
absorbers (section size: 100 × 23 mm, thickness: 2.5 mm and length 2170 mm) and
two round pipe absorbers (a set of six mild steel round tubes of 16 mm diameter and
2.5 mm thickness brazed together in single layer making 100 mm width) were
fabricated.
2.5.4. Parabolic dish collectors
Tsoutsos [47] presented a feasibility study on a solar power system based on the
Stirling dish (SD) technology. They reviewed and compared the available Stirling
engines in the perspective of a solar Stirling system. The system is evaluated, as a
parameter to alleviate the energy system of the Cretan island while taking care of the
CO
2
emissions. In the results a sensitivity analysis was implemented, as well as a
comparison with conventional power systems.
Reddy and Kumar [48] proposed a 3-D numerical model to investigate the accurate
estimation of natural convection heat loss from modified cavity receiver (WOI) of
fuzzy focal solar dish concentrator. A comparison of 2-D and 3-D natural convection
heat loss from a modified cavity receiver is carried out. The results show that the 2-D
and 3-D are comparable only at higher angle of inclinations (60˚≤ β ≤ 90˚) of the
receiver.
Lovegrove [49] developed ammonia based thermochemical energy storage for dish
power plants. And also investigated theoretically the possibility of operating the
17

ammonia based system using trough concentrators, and the preliminary results
indicate encouraging energy storage efficiencies in the region of 53%.
2.5.5. Concentrated photovoltaics
Segal and Epstein [50] worked on hybrid concentrated photovoltaic and thermal
power conversion at different spectral bands. The option to use the beam down optics
of a solar tower system for large-scale and grid-connected concentrated photovoltaic
(PV) cells is examined. The rationale is to use this system to split the solar spectrum.
Part of the spectrum utilized for PV cells.
A new approach for concentrating photovoltaic systems that can easily attain the
maximum flux levels commensurate with solar cell technology is proposed. The
collection unit is a miniature paraboloidal dish that concentrates sunlight into a short
glass rod. The flux distribution of the transported light is homogenized in a miniature
glass kaleidoscope that is optically coupled to a small, high-efficiency solar cell.
Ryu [51] propose a new configuration of solar concentration optics utilizing
modularly faceted Fresnel lenses to achieve a uniform intensity on the absorber plane
with a moderate concentration ratio. The uniform illumination is obtained by the
superposition of flux distributions resulted from modularly faceted Fresnel lenses.
2.6. Recommendations based on the literature survey
Based on the detailed literature survey carried out on the topic following are the
recommendations:
1. Solar energy is a viable and dependable source of energy for meeting the
energy needs.
2. High temperature heat can be obtained using solar concentrating collectors and
can be used for power generation and for direct thermal uses.
3. Electricity can be produced using solar photovoltaic panels for large scale
power plant.
4. Since industries are located near the city and land required for solar power
generation is costly hence on site and off site options are studied and used.

18

Chapter 3
Energy requirement of the zone
3.1. About garment zone of Sitapura industrial area
The study is carried out for garment zone of Sitapura industrial area, Jaipur (latitude
26˚46’N, longitude 75˚50’E). The Garment zone is situated in southern part of Jaipur
in Rajasthan state of India. The satellite view of the garment zone is shown in figure
3.1. Garment zone comprises of forty four working units of small scale industries.
Details of these forty-four industries are given in appendix A.

Fig 3.1. Satellite view of garment zone, Sitapura industrial area (Source: Google Earth)
Garment zone as the name suggests deals in garments. The industries in garment zone
use fabric as their main input and convert this into garments. The main product of
zone is cotton cloths. The conversion process from fabric to garment is shown in flow
chart (fig 3.2). In conversion process from an ordinary fabric to garment these
industries use different machines and power presses. Sewing machines, power
presses, interlocking machines, hydro machines (create wrinkles), washing machines
and drier machines are mainly used by these industries.
19


Figure 3.2. Conversion process from fabric to garment
Sewing machines, interlocking machines, hydro machines, washing machines, drier
machines and lightning equipments consume energy in the form of electricity while
power presses consume steam. Electricity is outsourced from state grid (Rajasthan
Vidhyut Utpadan Nigam Limited) and steam is produced by diesel fuel fired boiler.
Steam is required as process heat in the industries. After expansion, steam comes out
at a lower pressure and temperature from diesel fired boiler which can be used
directly as process heat. Steam required in this zone is at 3 kg/cm
2
pressure and
160˚C temperature. The Electricity demand and quantity of steam required for
different industries are presented in table 3.1 and table 3.4 respectively.
3.2. Data collection
A questionnaire based survey was carried out from July to September, 2011 for
energy demand estimation in garment zone of Sitapura, Jaipur. After the primary
survey questionnaire was modified according to the data required and information
provided by the industries and used. Questionnaire comprised of demand of heat and
power for individual industry, number of different type of machines used, their energy
consumption and duration of operation etc. Questionnaire has been shown in
Appendix B. Industries in existing system are using steam as heat for steam presses.
The steam is being generated by diesel based boiler but some small scale industries
are generating steam by the electricity based boiler also. The electricity is being used
for most of the machines and devices apart from the illumination.
Quantity of steam required by individual industry is calculated by the number of
steam press in that industry and steam consumption per press. Power required data is
collected by monthly electricity bills. This data is being collected by interviewing
Output
Garment
Process
Machines (Sewing & Interlocking) Power press
Input
Fabric Energy

20

management and technical persons of the industries, and by self observations of each
individual industry.
3.3. Energy demand estimation
Energy requirement of garment zone is in the form of electricity and steam. Electricity
requirement is shown in table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Data collected for Electricity requirement (kWh) of the industries for year 2011
S
n
o
Month
Monthly electricity requirement in kWh
Monthly
Average
kWh
Jan Feb March Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
1 A & A Exports 4544 4621 4527 4412 4471 4171 3549 3510 3741 3840 4107 4174 4138.92
2 Alacrity* 16000.00
3 Aman Exports 26541 26851 26514 26314 26841 23014 21034 19324 19985 24513 25841 25741 24376.08
4 Aravali Exports 2512 2412 2485 2548 2514 2314 1425 1647 1874 2410 2531 2514 2265.50
5 Arayavat 16412 16850 16542 16580 16720 14271 14200 13241 14570 16410 16473 16789 15754.83
6 Cheer Sagar 21450 21745 21340 21456 21025 19540 15201 16931 16210 19620 20314 21062 19657.83
7 Cot Fab India 10258 10568 11123 10589 8965 9658 9856 8795 8956 9658 9987 9856 9855.75
8 Garmef* 10000.00
9 Goyal Arts* 7500.00
10 Gupta Feb tech pvt. Ltd. 34418 34563 34940 33484 16578 16232 16323 18422 22391 34534 33106 32469 27288.33
11 Hariram Exports 12471 12412 12473 12195 12401 7521 6452 6321 8410 9654 12014 12147 10372.58
12 Harsha International 10356 10235 10561 10581 10241 9652 8745 8632 9856 10581 10894 10478 10067.67
13 High Choice 20154 20348 21486 20474 16454 16895 14254 18795 18546 21548 20145 20546 19137.08
14 Innovation* 18000.00
15 Jalaj Exports* 2500.00
16 Jimmy Mode
International
5623 5641 5648 56471 5623 4521 4832 3145 3852 4821 5631 5698 9292.17
17 Kagzi Exports 26334 25318 31188 12587 16727 16047 13740 18423 26551 25114 24471 26989 21957.42
18 Kailino Arts* 10000.00
19 Khatri Exports 2140 2310 2094 2147 2150 1354 1247 1741 1821 1964 2147 2034 1929.08
20 Leela Niryat 11456 11546 11489 11256 11478 9876 8562 8425 9652 11420 11894 11985 10753.25
21 Lodha Impex-1 22756 22238 22723 20432 17128 12430 10128 13210 16312 22249 21122 23746 18706.17
22 Lodha Impex-2* 33000.00
23 M. K. Exim* 8500.00
24 MA'AM Arts 21541 21432 21710 21035 21305 20154 13487 13264 11041 17231 18324 20147 18389.25
25 Miya bazaz 8450 8412 8471 8423 8012 6415 6314 5014 6214 7410 8254 8319 7475.67
26 Nash Fashion* 20000.00
27 NSPL IMPEX 1766 1652 1602 1589 1235 1154 1124 1022 1563 1589 1574 1478 1445.67
28 Ocean Exim India 10568 10589 10587 10234 10521 8520 7412 5231 5965 9856 9756 10231 16798.42
29 Paisley Industries 5123 5147 5214 5110 5124 4121 3562 3214 2981 4721 5081 5147 4545.42
30 Pawan Febtech 26416 26227 26521 26896 12237 10515 10309 10709 14311 26723 26511 26864 20353.25
21

31 Priya International* 1500.00
32 Ratan Textile 19234 19201 19541 19207 19310 15201 14210 15214 12471 16471 18214 19201 17289.58
33 Registan Exports* 15000.00
34 Rupayan-1 19723 19587 18617 11720 13625 14671 13310 11740 12787 16625 21188 22181 16314.50
35 Rupayan-2* 5000.00
36 S. K. India International 6214 6352 6984 6124 6017 6014 4120 4078 3752 5981 6421 6147 5683.67
37 Sabby Exports 7541 7812 7621 7631 7521 6451 6014 5980 6124 7410 7520 7621 7103.83
38 Savi Exports 27722 28872 24322 8212 10720 9878 11740 8241 12512 20723 26736 27447 18093.75
39 Shekhawati Impex* 1500.00
40 Shivangi Inc. Exports 12723 10200 11737 5210 5530 5430 4416 4620 6878 10578 11123 13758 8516.92
41 Shri Ram Omex 21581 21458 21654 21471 20365 16478 12487 11457 16235 21478 21450 21958 19006.00
42 Somani Fabric 17456 17852 17512 17123 17231 16241 13254 13210 9852 16325 16895 17012 15830.25
43 Suprint Textile 8569 8745 8923 8956 8752 7523 7421 5823 6952 7412 8962 8521 8046.58
44 The Choice fashion 27863 27567 28877 28679 14600 11515 11029 11595 15753 28651 28894 27186 21850.75
Total Energy kWh 469915 468763 475026 469164 371421 327777 289757 290974 328118 437520 457580 469446
Monthly %
consumption of
electricity
9.68 9.65 9.78 9.66 7.65 6.75 5.97 5.99 6.76 9.01 9.42 9.67
* Industries given their average consumption only
Thirteen Industries of the garment zone have not given their monthly electricity
consumption, only monthly average energy consumption is provided. For these
industries it is assumed that their monthly energy consumption pattern is similar to
other industries. This means that these industries consume energy according to energy
consumption of other industries. For example industries consume 9.68% of total
consumption in the month of January and 9.65% in the month February and so on
(last column of table 3.1). Now using these data of monthly average of electricity
consumption the monthly electricity consumption of remaining thirteen industries
have been calculated. For example, consider one industry ―Alacrity‖ at serial no. 2 of
table 3.1.
Monthly average electricity consumption for the industry Alacrity is 16000 kWh and
total annual consumption is 16000 ×12 kWh. In January total 44 industries consume
9.68% of annual electricity consumption.
So for industry ―Alacrity‖ electricity consumption in January = 16000 × 12 × 9.68%
= 18582 kWh
Electricity consumption for February = 16000 × 12 × 9.65%
= 18536 kWh
22

Similarly for other months energy consumption have been calculated and tabulated in
table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Monthly energy consumption for the thirteen industries (kWh)
S
no
Month
Monthly electricity requirement in kWh Monthly
Average kWh Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Alacrity 18582 18536 18784 18552 14687 12961 11458 11506 12975 17301 18094 18563 16000
2 Garmef 11614 11585 11740 11595 9179 8101 7161 7191 8109 10813 11309 11602 10000
3 Goyal Arts 8710 8689 8805 8696 6885 6076 5371 5393 6082 8110 8482 8702 7500
4 Innovation 20905 20853 21132 20871 16523 14582 12890 12944 14597 19464 20356 20884 18000
5 Jalaj Exports 2903 2896 2935 2899 2295 2025 1790 1798 2027 2703 2827 2901 2500
6 Kailino Arts 11614 11585 11740 11595 9179 8101 7161 7191 8109 10813 11309 11602 10000
7 Lodha Impex-2 38325 38231 38742 38263 30292 26733 23632 23731 26761 35683 37319 38287 33000
8 M. K. Exim 9872 9847 9979 9856 7803 6886 6087 6113 6893 9191 9613 9862 8500
9 Nash Fashion 23227 23171 23480 23189 18359 16202 14322 14383 16219 21626 22618 23204 20000
10 Priya International 1742 1738 1761 1739 1377 1215 1074 1079 1216 1622 1696 1740 1500
11 Registan Exports 17421 17378 17610 17392 13769 12151 10742 10787 12164 16220 16963 17403 15000
12 Rupayan-2 5807 5793 5870 5797 4590 4050 3581 3596 4055 5407 5654 5801 5000
13 Shekhawati Impex 1742 1738 1761 1739 1377 1215 1074 1079 1216 1622 1696 1740 1500
14 Other 31 Industries 469915 468763 475026 469164 371421 327777 289757 290974 328118 437520 457580 469446 404621
Total 642378 640804 649365 641327 507736 448074 396100 397764 448540 598094 625516 641737 553120
Power Requirement (MW) # 2.07 2.21 2.10 2.14 1.63 1.49 1.28 1.28 1.49 1.93 2.08 2.07 1.84
# Refer table 3.3
The bar chart in figure 3.3 shows the monthly energy demand of industries of the
garment zone. First twelve bars represent the energy demand of twelve months,
starting from January to December, while the last bar represent the average annual
energy demand. Energy demand for January to April and October to December is
higher than average demand while for May to September energy demand remains
lower than average demand.
23


Figure 3.3. Month wise energy requirement of the garment zone
In the last row of table 3.2 month wise power requirement of the zone is given. Power
requirement is calculated by dividing the monthly energy demand by total operating
hours in the month. Working hours of the industries are from 9.00 am to 7.00 pm (10
hours operation). Industries operated in weekends also.
So power requirement = Monthly energy demand / Total operating hours in the month
Power requirement of January =

= 2072.19 kW
= 2.07 MW
Similarly, power requirements of other months have also been calculated and shown
in table 3.3
Table 3.3 Monthly Power consumption of the zone
Monthly electricity requirement in kWh Monthly
Average
kWh Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Total energy
requirement
(MWh) (1)
642.37 640.80 649.36 641.32 507.7 448.07 396.10 397.76 448.54 598.09 625.51 641.73 553.12
Operating hours 10* 31 10*29 10* 31 10* 30 10* 31 10* 30 10* 31 10* 31 10* 30 10* 31 10* 30 10* 31
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
P
o
w
e
r

R
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t

(
M
W
)

Month
Monthly variation in power requirement
24

(hr) (2)
Power
Requirement
(MW)= (1) / (2)
2.07 2.21 2.10 2.14 1.63 1.49 1.28 1.28 1.49 1.93 2.08 2.07 1.84
3.4. Heat Requirement
Heat requirement is calculated according to the number of steam presses being used in
the industries. Steam consumption in a steam press is 3.5 kg/ hr [52]. Table 3.4 gives
the details of steam required for the industries.
Table 3.4 Steam requirement of the industries
S. No.
Industry (1) Number of steam press (2) Steam required (kg/hour) (3) = (2) × 3.5
1 A & A Exports 8 28
2 Alacrity 25 87.5
3 Aman Exports 24 84
4 Aravali Exports 2 7
5 Arayavat 15 52.5
6 Cheer Sagar 26 91
7 Cot Fab India 12 42
8 Garmef 9 31.5
9 Goyal Arts 14 49
10 Gupta Feb tech pvt. Ltd. 29 101.5
11 Hariram Exports 8 28
12 Harsha International 10 35
13 High Choice 26 91
14 Innovation 17 59.5
15 Jalaj Exports 4 14
16 Jimmy Mode International 7 24.5
17 Kagzi Exports 11 38.5
18 Kailino Arts 10 35
19 Khatri Exports 4 14
20 Leela Niryat 12 42
21 Lodha Impex-1 60 210
22 Lodha Impex-2 26 91
23 M. K. Exim 4 14
24 MA‘AM Arts 24 84
25

25 Miya bazaz 8 28
26 Nash Fashion 20 70
27 NSPL IMPEX 2 7
28 Ocean Exim India 15 52.5
29 Paisley Industries 2 7
30 Pawan Febtech 12 42
31 Priya International 2 7
32 Ratan Textile 15 52.5
33 Registan Exports 10 35
34 Rupayan-1 10 35
35 Rupayan-2 7 24.5
36 S. K. India International 6 21
37 Sabby Exports 4 14
38 Savi Exports 3 10.5
39 Shekhawati Impex 4 14
40 Shivangi Inc. Exports 4 14
41 Shri Ram Omex 40 140
42 Somani Fabric 16 56
43 Suprint Textile 9 31.5
44 The Choice fashion 12 42
Total 588 2058

Total steam required for industries are 2058 kg/hour.
Steam is required at 3 kgf/cm
2
pressure (abs) and 160˚C temperature. For this
temperature and pressure 1 kg of steam required 664.7 kcal heat.
So 2058 kg steam will require = 1367.95×10
3
kcal
So heat required for industries is 1367.95×10
3
kcal/ hour
or 1590.64 kWh / hour [1kWh = 860 kcal]
or 1.59 MW
3.5. Existing methods of meeting energy demand
It is already known that energy required in this zone is in the form of heat and power.
Sewing machines, interlocking machines, hydro machines, washing machines, drier
machines and lightning equipments consume energy in the form of electricity. In
26

summer, air conditioning load is also there but that load is very less in comparison to
complete power load due to very less number of air conditioners in the industries.
Other form of energy which is required in the zone is steam. Power presses needed
energy in the form of steam. Moreover, most of the industries operating in single shift
from 9 A.M. to 7 P.M. and due to availability of proper day light very small power
consumption is required for illumination purpose.
3.5.1. Electricity needs – Grid supply
Electricity needs of the zone are fulfilled by state grid supply. The layout of existing
energy supply system is shown in figure 4.1. Electricity is needed to run machines,
lighting equipments, and cooling equipments such as fan and air conditioners.
Industries also have diesel generators as standby power supply source. Diesel
generators are used when state electricity grid has power cut.
Boiler
Power presses
Sewing Machines
Drier Machine Hydro Machine
Industry Boundary
Power from grid

Figure 3.4 Layout of existing energy supply system in garment zone
3.5.2. Thermal needs - boiler
Steam is produced by diesel fuel fired boiler. In some small scale industries electric
boilers are also used. Steam is required as process heat in the industries. After
expansion, steam comes out at a lower pressure and temperature from diesel fired
boiler which can be used directly as process heat. Steam required in this zone is at 3
kg/cm
2
gauge pressure and 160˚C temperature. The boilers have efficiency of about
80-85%.
27

3.6. Solar technologies for meeting energy demand
All types of Energy requirements of the garment zone can be fulfilled by solar
options. There are two main categories of solar energy utilization for power
generation viz. solar photovoltaics and solar thermal. Solar photovoltaics involve the
use of solar cells to generate electricity directly via the photoelectric effect and solar
thermal employs different methods of capturing solar thermal energy for power
production and heat processes.
There are two general categories of solar thermal collectors, concentrating and
non-concentrating (flat plate). Flat plate devices include stationary, non-concentrating
collectors, in which the same area is used for both interception and absorption of
incident radiation. Concentrating collector utilize optical elements to focus large
amounts of radiation onto a small receiving area and follow the sun throughout its
daily path to maintain the maximum solar flux at their focus. In the present study five
solar energy supply options are considered and these proposed four schemes are as
follows:
1. On site solar parabolic trough (SPT) collector power plant: Electricity supply
by solar parabolic trough power plant at the site
2. Remote SPT power plant: Power generation at remote solar parabolic trough
power plant and supply through existing grid
3. On site SPV: Power supply by solar photovoltaic power plant has been
considered for both, onsite and offsite cases
4. Remote SPV power plant: Power generation at remote solar photovoltaic
power plant and supply through existing grid
5. On site solar steam generation system: Steam is supplied by solar parabolic
trough steam generation system.
Option 1 2 and 5 of SPT power plant and steam supply system is discussed in
chapter 4. Option 3 and 4 is discussed in chapter 5.

28

Chapter 4
Solar parabolic trough
Various solar options for meeting the energy demand in garment zone of Sitapura
industrial area Jaipur are onsite and offsite solar parabolic trough, onsite and offsite
SPV and onsite steam generation through SPT. Energy supply through solar parabolic
trough is discussed in this chapter.
4.1. On site solar parabolic trough power plant
In this section electricity supply by solar parabolic trough power plant at the site is
considered. Design of solar parabolic trough power plant consists of solar resource
assessment, design of solar field, design of power block, pump and pumping system
and design of piping system.
4.1.1. Solar resource assessment
Solar resource is the prime consideration for any solar power plant. It is essential to
assess the solar resource for the specified site. Solar resource assessment has
following steps:
i. Comparison of monthly averaged DNI data from different sources
ii. Monthly averaged hourly insolation
iii. Mean sunshine hours
iv. Clearness index
(i) Comparison of monthly averaged DNI data from different sources
Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) is the amount of solar energy which is incident on a
unit surface placed normal to it in one day. DNI is expressed in kWh/m
2
/day or
kJ/m
2
/day. Direct Normal Irradiation is on the prime consideration while designing
solar power plant. The output of solar power plant is mainly depends on average DNI
of the site. There are different irradiation data available. In this study data is taken
from four sources namely NASA solar data, ISHRAE weather data, Solar Energy
Centre (SEC) data and Energy Alternatives India (EAI). Comparison of monthly
averaged Direct Normal Irradiation data from these sources is shown in figure 4.1 and
given in table 4.1.



29

Table 4.1 Monthly averaged DNI data of Jaipur from different sources (kWh/m
2
/day)
S. No.
DNI Source Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Avg
1 NASA [53] 6.16 6.25 6.16 6.16 6.03 5.59 3.80 3.52 5.00 5.84 6.13 6.01 5.55
2 ISHRAE [54] 6.10 6.19 6.14 6.16 6.03 5.60 3.84 3.54 4.99 5.80 6.05 5.94 5.53
3 SEC [55] 4.25 5.00 6.11 7.08 7.25 6.56 4.13 3.88 5.45 5.04 4.27 4.74 5.31
4 EAI [56] 3.90 4.67 5.40 5.99 6.35 6.21 5.08 4.65 5.05 4.75 4.04 3.66 4.98
These data show that
 All the data sources show the same pattern of weather variations, however
there is significant month to month variation between them.
 There is a major dip in the direct solar radiation coinciding with the
monsoon‘s arrival in June to October. The dip is mainly due to the presence of
cloud in the atmosphere.
(ii) Mean sunshine hours
Mean sunshine hour is the average number of hours of bright sunshine of each day in
a calendar month or year, calculated over the period of record. Sunshine hours include
only the ―bright‖ sunshine, which is less than the amount of ―visible‖ sunshine. For
example, sunshine immediately after sunrise and just before sunset is visible, but
would not be bright enough to consider in mean sunshine hours. The fraction of
―bright‖ sunshine for each hour in a day is given in table 4.2. The sum of bright
sunshine hours i.e. the mean sunshine hours for each day is shown in the last column
of table 4.2.
Table 4.2. Mean sunshine hours for Jaipur [55]
Time 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Daily
sunshine
hours
January 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.3 0 9.4
February 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.3 0 9.8
March 0 0.3 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.3 0 9.1
April 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.4 0 9.5
May 0 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.2 9.3
June 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.7 10.1
July 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.2 8.3
August 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.2 8.4
30

September 0 0.3 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.6 0 9.4
October 0 0.2 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.2 0 9
November 0 0.6 0.7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.9 0.7 0.2 0 10.1
December 0 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.3 0 9.5
Average 9.325
Equivalent number no sunshine or black days for different months at Jaipur is given in
table 4.3.

Table 4.3. Equivalent number of no-sun or black days for Jaipur [53]
Period Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 day 0.93 0.88 0.77 0.64 0.64 0.91 0.96 0.87 0.95 0.79 0.70 0.82
3 day 1.93 1.53 1.20 1.08 0.91 2.08 2.47 1.88 1.94 2.15 1.38 1.36
7 day 2.08 2.90 1.83 1.51 1.31 2.68 4.32 3.09 3.60 3.18 2.16 1.50
14 day 2.66 3.04 2.80 1.77 1.84 3.51 4.83 5.38 3.26 3.13 3.05 2.39
21 day 3.64 2.95 3.20 1.67 2.18 3.48 5.83 4.54 3.42 2.92 3.43 2.99
Month 4.96 3.44 3.52 2.06 2.57 3.36 5.83 5.00 3.63 2.71 3.17 2.90
(iii) Monthly averaged hourly insolation
Solar insolation is the power of solar radiations per unit area incident on a surface.
Insolation is measured in watts per meter square (W/m
2
). Monthly averaged hourly
insolation data for Jaipur is shown in Appendix C.
Annual mean irradiation can be calculated by DNI and average sunshine hours.
Mean DNI for Jaipur = 5.55 kWh/m
2
/day [Table 4.1]
Mean sunshine hours = 9.32 hours [Table 4.2]
Solar irradiation =


=

= 595.5 W/m
2

4.1.2. Design of solar field
A parabolic trough power plant's solar field consists of a large, modular array of
single-axis-tracking parabolic trough solar collectors. Many parallel rows of these
solar collectors span across the solar field, aligned on a north-south horizontal axis.
The basic component of a parabolic trough solar field is the solar collector assembly
or SCA. A solar field consists of hundreds of solar collector assemblies. Each solar
31

collector assembly is an independently tracking, parabolic trough solar collector
composed of the following key subsystems:
• Concentrator structure
• Mirrors or reflectors
• Linear receiver or heat collection element
• Collector balance of system
Also, each parabolic trough solar collector assembly consists of multiple, torque-tube
or truss assemblies (often referred to as solar collector elements or modules).
(A) Collector aperture area calculation
Solar field aperture area depends on the net power output from the solar power plant
and direct normal irradiance. Energy received, Energy collected and losses in solar
power plant are shown with the help of energy flow chart in figure 4.1. Total energy
collected by collectors is the product of the collector aperture area and DNI. Out of
this some heat is lost depending upon the efficiency of collectors, remaining collected
heat is sent to power block. Before power block some heat is lost in pipes in the form
of piping losses. In power block some energy is lost due to turbine inefficiency and
some of the energy developed is utilized for operating tracking system and pumps.
The remaining energy is the net output of the plant. Thus,
Net power output = Solar collector area × DNI × Thermal efficiency of solar
field ×(1- Piping losses) ×Turbine efficiency×(1- auxiliary
consumption)× plant availability
Solar collector area = Net power output / {DNI × Thermal efficiency of
solar field × (1- Piping losses) × Turbine efficiency ×
(1- auxiliary consumption) × plant availability}
32


Figure 4.1. Energy flow chart for solar power plant
Thermal efficiency of solar parabolic trough collectors
Thermal efficiency is the proportion of incident radiation that the trough turns into
useful heat, and is calculated as solar energy captured less heat lost from the receiver.

Dividing through by

where,
η = thermal efficiency
η
0
= optical efficiency
I
b
= beam irradiance, W/m
2

A
coll
= collector aperture area, m
2
q
L
= receiver heat loss rate, W
Thermal efficiency combines optical efficiency and receiver heat loss. Thermal
efficiency is plotted versus heat transfer fluid temperature in figure 4.2.
The trough has thermal efficiency of 0.737 at average operating temperature (350˚C)
Direct Normal Irradiation
DNI recieved = Solar collector area x DNI
Heat collected
Q
c
= DNI recieved x efficiency of collector
Heat to power block
Q
h
= Q
c
x η
reciever heat loss
x η
piping losses
Peak power output
P
o
= Q
h
x η
turbine
Net power output
P
n
= P
o
x η
auxiliary
33


Figure 4.2 SkyTrough
®
thermal efficiency curve [57]
Solar irradiation for Jaipur = 595.5 W/m
2

Turbine efficiency = 37.7% [Section 4.1.3]
Piping losses = 3.75% [Section 4.1.8]
Auxiliary consumption = 14.8% [Section 4.1.7]
Plant availability = Total available days for plant operation - Number of days for
Plant maintenance and servicing
Total days for plant operation = 365- Number of black days
Number of black days = 43 days [Table 4.3]
Total days for plant operation = 365-43 = 322 days
Number of days for Plant maintenance and servicing = 20 days
Plant availability = 322-20 = 302 days
Plant availability % =

of bright sunshine days

Overall efficiency of solar thermal power plant
η
0
= Thermal efficiency of solar collector × (1- Piping losses) × Turbine
efficiency × (1- auxiliary consumption) × plant availability
0 = 0.73× (1- 0.037) × 0.377 × (1 – 0.148) × 0.94
34

0 = 21.15%
Solar collector area =



To meet the present energy demand and expected increase in the demand a 2.5 MW
PTC type solar power plant is proposed in the present study of garment zone of
Sitapura industrial area.
A
c
=

A
c
= 19849.42.6 m
2
~ 19850 m
2

Aperture area required for solar field collector is 19850 m
2
.
(B) Number of components required in solar field
Receiver tube
Receiver tube is the basic component of the parabolic trough collector. The main
components and dimensions of a receiver tube are shown in figure 4.3 [57].
Receiver type = SCHOOT PTR™80
Absorber tube diameter = 80 mm
Glass envelope diameter = 125 mm
Receiver length = 4.72 m

Figure 4.3 Receiver tube of solar collector [57]
Solar collector elements (SCE)
Solar collector element (SCE) or module consists of three receiver tubes and one
reflector mirror.
1 SCE = 3 Receiver tubes
Dimensions of solar collector element are given bellow:
35

Solar collector element length = 14 m
Solar collector element width = 6 m
Solar collector element aperture area = 82 m
2

Mirror area to aperture area ratio = 1.12
Focal length = 1.71 m
Rim angle = 82.5˚
Geometric concentration = 75:1

Figure 4.4. Geometry of solar collector element
Solar collector assembly (SCA)
One solar collector assembly consists of eight modules or Solar collector elements, 1
Drive Pylon, 6 Intermediate Pylon, 2 Shared/End Pylon
1SCA = 8 SCE +1 Drive Pylon + 6 Intermediate Pylon + 2 Shared/End Pylon
Solar collector assembly length = 115 m
Net aperture area = 656 m
2

Total mirror area = 750 m
2

36


Figure 4.5. Solar collector assembly-consisting of eight SCEs
Solar collector assembly loop
One solar collector assembly loop consists of four solar collector assemblies
Aperture area of one loop = 656 X 4 = 2624 m
2


Figure 4.6. Solar collector assembly loop-Consisting of four SCAs
Number of loop required =



=

= 7.56
~ 8 loops
Number of solar collector assemblies required =
= 32 SCAs
Number of solar collector elements required = 32 X 8
= 256 SCEs
Number of Receiver tubes required = 256 X 3
= 768 Receiver tubes
Thus, for meeting the electricity demand of the garment zone of the Sitapura
industrial area total eight solar collector assembly loops (area 2624 m
2
of each loop)
are to be used which consists of total 768 receiver tubes.
37

(C) Distance between two solar collector assembly rows
Distance between two consecutive solar collector assembly rows should be kept in
such manner that the shading losses are minimum. Shading losses are the losses which
are caused due to blocking of the incident direct solar radiations by the adjacent SCA
which is next to it. The phenomenon of shading loss is shown in figure 4.7. Shading
losses depend upon the distance between two consecutive rows of SCA and the solar
altitude angle (β). Altitude angles for different time period and their corresponding
radiations are given in table 4.4.

a) Full shading

b) Partial shading

c) No Shading
Figure 4.7. Phenomenon of shading losses- three cases
Table 4.4 Altitude angles for different time period and their corresponding solar radiations [53]
S.
No
Time
(IST)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1

7:01-
8:00
I(W/m
2
) 0 0 72 455 511 399 222 133 160 73 14 0
β

1.86 5.07 11.2 18.3 22.8 23.7 21.6 19.1 16.5 13.1 8.42 4.29
2 8:01-
9:00
I(W/m
2
) 141 417 543 761 747 532 376 290 463 525 516 224
β 13.6 17.6 24.3 31.7 36.1 36.7 34.7 32.5 29.7 25.6 20.0 16.6
3 9:01-
10:00
I(W/m
2
) 502 779 870 860 716 618 526 401 592 702 789 562
β 24.3 29.3 36.9 44.9 49.5 50.0 48.1 45.8 42.5 37.1 30.4 25.6
Solar power plant normally starts working when the solar intensity exceeds 500
W/m
2
, but for some months starting point depends upon altitude angle also. For
example in November month solar radiations exceeds 500 W/m
2
between 8:00 – 9:00
am, but for this time interval mean altitude angle is just 20˚, which will cause
significant shading losses or the distance between SCA has to be increased. Thus
Starting time of solar power plant is a function of solar intensity and altitude angle. So
in order to optimize the distance between two SCAs the altitude angle has to be
optimized and optimum altitude angle for workable solar intensity is taken as 30˚.
36

Distance between two SCAs (D)

Figure 4.8. Geometry of the distance between two SCAs
Consider triangle ABC in figure 4.8 where,
AC = Distance between two SCAs
AB = Solar collector element width
Angle ACB = Solar altitude angle β
Distance between two SCAs =

=

= 12 meters
Thus, 12 m distance is required between two consecutive SCAs.
(D) Land required for solar field
Layout of solar field is shown in figure 4.9. There are eight SCAs loops in one solar
power plant and each loop has four solar collector assemblies. The length of the field
is twice the length of the SCA i.e. 230 meters, and in the width of the solar field there
are sixteen SCAs of six meter width of each and 12 meter distance between two
consecutive SACs, So
Total width of solar field =
Area required for solar field =
= 15.6 Acres [4047 m
2
= 1 Acres]
For the proposed solar power plant of 2.5 MW capacity at the site of garment zone of
Sitapura industrial area Jaipur about 15.6 Acres of land area is required for the
installation of solar collector assemblies only.
37

2
3
0

m
1
1
5

m
12
276 m
Loop 8 Loop 7 Loop 6 Loop 1 Loop 2 Loop 3 Loop 4 Loop 5
S
C
A

1
S
C
A

2
S
C
A

3
S
C
A

4

Figure 4.9 Layout of solar field
The layout required for power block and administrative block is shown in figure 4.10.
The total area required for power block is estimated by the power block layout:
Area required for power block = 30×10 = 300 square meter
Total land required for power plant = 63480 + 300 = 63780 m
2
= 15.76 Acres


Figure 4.10 Layout of power block & administrative block
(E) Heat collected from solar field
Heat collected from solar field depends upon the intensity of incident solar radiations
and thermal efficiency of solar field.
Thermal efficiency of the trough type solar field = 73.7% [Section 4.1.2(A)]
Average solar irradiation for Jaipur = 595.5 W/m
2

38

Collector aperture area = Number of SCA loops ×Aperture area of one loop
= 8×2624 = 20992 m
2

Heat collected from solar field = Solar irradiation × Collector aperture area × Thermal
efficiency
= 595.5 W/m
2
×20992 m
2
× 0.737
= 9.2×10
6
W = 9.2 MW
The heat has been collected by using suitable heat transfer fluid
(F) Heat transfer fluid
Heat is collected from the solar collectors of solar field by passing heat transfer fluid
(Therminol VP-1 is used as heat transfer fluid) through each loop and the collected
heat is transferred to the working fluid (water gets converted into steam) in the power
block. Properties of Therminol VP-1 are [58]:
Freezing point = 13˚C
Upper operating temperature = 400˚C
Density at 300˚C = 815 kg/m
3

Viscosity at 300˚C = 0.2 cp
Heat capacity at 300˚C = 2.319 kJ/kg K
Operating temperature range of heat transfer fluid while passing through each
SCA loop
Fluid temperature at the inlet of first SCA in each loop = 290˚C
Fluid temperature at the outlet of each loop i.e. from fourth SCA = 391˚C
Mass flow rate of heat transfer fluid
Total heat collected from the solar field = 9.2 MW [Section 4.1.2(E)]
Heat capacity of Therminol VP-1 = 2.319 kJ/kg K
From heat transfer equation
Q = ṁ C
p
ΔT
Where,
Q = heat transfer rate (W)
ṁ = mass flow rate of heat transfer fluid (kg/sec)
C
p
= Heat capacity of fluid (kJ/kg K)
39

ΔT = temperature change during heat transfer (K)

 ṁ = 39.3 kg/sec ~ 40 kg/sec
Total quantity of heat transfer fluid required can be estimated from the pipe
dimensions and solar field specifications and flow velocities.
Total quantity of heat transfer fluid required = (Cross-sectional area of pipe × Length
of pipe) + (Cross-sectional area of receiver tube × Length each of receiver tube
×number of receiver tubes) + Volume of expansion tank
,

- ,

-

or

(G) Tracking system
Tracking is particularly important in solar energy collection systems that operate
under concentrated sunlight. East-West single axis tracking is used for the system.
The tracker computes the sun‘s position and then uses this to compute the proper
tracking angle of the SCA. The SCA is rotated to this angle with the hydraulic drive
unit, and its position is verified with an inclinometer. Several times a minute the SCA
is adjusted to keep accurate positioning.
Specifications of tracking system are given below:
Tracking = East west single axis tracking
Actuator = SkyTrakker
TM

Sun tracking accuracy = ±0.06˚
Type of drive system = Self locking rotary hydraulic actuator
Controller communications = Network RS485 wired or 2.4GHz wireless radio
frequency Local PC Universal serial bus (USB)
Total range of travel = -60˚ to +180˚
Maximum collector rotation speed = 18˚/min
Total number of actuators required in the solar field is 32 because one actuator is
required for each solar collector assembly.
40

4.1.3. Power block
(A) Turbine
Siemens ―SST-120‖ turbine is selected for the solar power plant. It is a condensing
type steam turbine. Technical specifications of the turbine are given in table 4.5.
Table 4.5 Technical specifications of the turbine
S. No. Parameters Values
1 Condition of input steam at stop valve
Nominal pressure, bar (abs) 100
Nominal temperature, ˚C 350
Nominal steam consumption, tons/hour 36
2 Output steam nominal pressure, bar (abs) 1.2
3 Turbine rotor, rpm 7500
Output reducer rotor, rpm 3000
4 Turbine setting efficiency, % 39.3
5 Generator efficiency, % 96
6 Turbine overall efficiency, % 37.7
7 Electrical power at generator terminal, kW 2500
(B) Steam generator and preheater
The steam generator selected for the solar power plant is a tube in shell type heat
exchanger for combined water preheating and steam generation. Technical
specifications of the steam generator and preheater are given in table 4.6.
Table 4.6 Technical specifications of the steam generator and preheater
S. No. Parameters Values
1 Type of the steam generator Tube-in-shall
2 Temperature of the HTF at inlet of steam generator, ˚C 390
3 Temperature of the HTF at outlet of steam preheater, ˚C 281
4 Steam pressure at desired output, bar (abs) 103
5 Steam temperature at steam generator outlet, ˚C 375
6 Water temperature at preheater inlet, ˚C 105
7 Flow of steam at desired output, kg/sec 10
(C) Reheater
A shall in tube type reheater is selected to reheat the steam between low pressure and
high pressure turbine. Technical specifications of the reheater for reheating of steam
between low pressure and high pressure are given in table 4.7.
Table 4.7 Technical specifications of reheater
41

S. No. Parameters Values
1 Type of the reheater Tube-in-shall
2 Temperature of the HTF at inlet of reheater, ˚C 390
3 Temperature of the HTF at outlet of reheater, ˚C 240
4 Steam pressure at desired output, bar (abs) 18.5
5 Steam temperature at reheater outlet, ˚C 371
6 Steam temperature at reheater inlet, ˚C 220
7 Flow of steam at desired output, kg/sec 10
(D) Air cooled steam condenser

Figure 4.11 Air cooled condenser
One of the key challenges of solar power plant is to design a condenser that preserves
precious water resources. At the same time, heat exchange has to take place with
maximum efficiency, whilst operating costs have to be kept as low as possible. Air
Cooled Condensers meet these criteria in full. An Air Cooled Condenser does not rely
on water for cooling and hence there are no waste water disposal problems. This
makes it ideal for water scarce areas, zero discharge plants, or situations that mandate
plume elimination.
V-type Air Cooled Condenser used for the solar power plant. An air cooled condenser
is shown in figure 4.11.
42

4.1.4. Steam properties and power cycle
Temperature- Entropy diagram of power cycle is shown in figure 4.12.

Figure 4.12 Temperature- Entropy curve of power cycle

Figure 4.13. Solar power plant layout
Figure 4.13 shows the layout of the solar power plants. The power plant cycle has
following processes.
Process 1-2 Heating of water in pre heater
Process 2-3 Steam generation in boiler
Process 3-4 Super heating of steam in super heater
Process 4-5 Expansion of steam in high pressure turbine
Process 5-6 Reheating of steam
Process 6-7 Expansion of steam in low pressure turbine
Process 7-8 Condensation of steam in air cooled steam condenser
Process 8-1 Pumping of water in steam generator and preheater
43

Table 4.8 Steam properties at different states
Point State Pressure
Bar(abs)
Temperature
(˚C)
Enthalpy
kJ/kg
Entropy
kJ/kg K
C
p
kJ/kg K
Specific
volume
m
3
/kg
1 Preheater inlet 113 105 448.5 1.354 4.198 0.00104
2 Steam generator inlet 108 315 1430.9 3.398 6.275 0.00147
3 Super heater inlet 105 315 2719.1 5.59 7.4156 0.01703
4 Super heater outlet 103 375 3008.08 6.06 3.501 0.02365
5 Reheater inlet 19.5 220 2830.6 6.4374 2.902 0.10514
6 Reheater outlet 18.5 371 3187.09 7.071 2.198 0.15599
7 Turbine outlet 1.2 110 2690 7.32 2.07 1.4498
8 Condenser outlet 1.0 99.61 417.44 1.3025 4.216 0.00104
4.1.5. Steam consumption in turbine
Power output from turbine is given by
Power (P) = ṁ {(h
6
– h
7
) + (h
4
– h
5
)} × η
turbine
 2500 = ṁ {(3187.09 – 2690) + (3008.08 – 2830.6)}×0.377
 ṁ =

 = 9.83 kg/ sec
 = 35.38 Ton /hour
4.1.6. Pumps and pumping system
There are four pumps used in the solar power plant
i. For feeding heat transfer fluid into the solar field
ii. For Feeding water into steam generator
iii. One 18.25 kW pump For feeding water to the demineralization plant
iv. One 18.25 kW pump For feeding water to the overhead tank from the
underground condensate water tank
(i) Heat transfer fluid pump
Pressure rise across pump (ΔP) = 20-1 = 19 bar = 19×10
5
N/m
2

Head (h) =

where,
h = pressure head (meters)
ΔP = Pressure rise across pump (N/m
2
)
ρ = density of fluid (kg/m
3
)
g = gravitational acceleration (m/sec
2
)
44

 h =

= 237.64 meter of Therminol VP – 1
Flow rate of heat transfer fluid = 39.3 kg/sec [Section 4.1.2(F)]
Pump efficiency = 82%
[Pump is selected by pump characteristic curve, operated at best efficiency point BEP]
Pump power consumption
P =

Where,
P = power consumption (W)
m = mass flow rate (kg/sec)
h = head across pump (meters)
η = efficiency of pump
 P =

= 111729.34 W
 P = 111.73 kW
(ii) Pump for working fluid pumping
Pressure rise across pump (ΔP) = 113-1 = 112 bar = 112×10
5
N/m
2

Head (h) =

=

= 1190.78 meter of water [

]
Flow rate of working fluid = 9.83 kg/sec [Section 4.1.5]
Pump efficiency = 82%
Pump power consumption (P) =

= 140.04 kW
4.1.7. Auxiliary power consumption
A little fraction of total power produced by the power plant is consumed by the
auxiliaries of power plant itself, this amount of power is known as auxiliary power
consumption. In a solar power plant power mainly consumed by pumps, solar tracking
systems and some other auxiliaries.
Tracking Power consumption
Power consumed by all actuators is known as the tracking system power
consumption. Tracking system power consumption can be calculated as follows:
45

Number of actuators required in the system = 32 [Section 4.1.2(G)]
Power consumption in each actuator = 1.85 kW [57]
Tracking system Power consumption = Number of actuators × Power consumption in
each actuator
 32 × 1.85 = 59.2 kW
Total auxiliary power consumption
Total auxiliary power consumption at SPT power plant is shown in table 4.9.
Table 4.9 Auxiliary power consumption at SPT power plant
S. No. Component Power consumed (kW)
1 Pump 1 111.73
2 Pump 2 140.04
3 Pump 3 18.25
4 Pump 4 18.25
5 Tracking system 59.2
6 Miscellaneous 23
Total 370
Auxiliary power consumption in terms of percentage of total power generation
Percentage auxiliary consumption =

 Percentage auxiliary consumption = 14.8%

46

4.1.8. Pipes and piping system
In the solar power plant two piping systems are used, one for heat transfer fluid i.e.
Therminol VP-1 and other for working fluid i.e. steam. Estimation of pipe size,
insulation thickness and heat loss is made here.
(A) Pipe material
Material used for pipes should have properties like low emissivity, cheaper cost and
easily available. These properties are available in steel pipe so steel pipe is selected
for the power plant because of these properties.
(B) Pipe sizing
Diameter of pipe between preheater and steam generator
Specific volume of fluid (υ) = 0.00147 m
3
/kg [Section 4.1.4. (Point 2)]
Mass flow rate (ṁ) = 9.83 kg/s
Volume flow rate (Q) = ṁ × υ = 0.01445 m
3
/s
Flow velocity (V) = 20 m [59]
Volume flow rate (Q) = V × A
Where, A = Cross sectional area of pipe =

(m
2
)
V = flow velocity (m/s)
 Q = V ×

 d=30.33mm (Inner diameter)
Available standard diameter
Inner diameter = 32.6 mm
Outer diameter = 42.2 mm
Wall thickness = 4.8 mm
Strength testing
Permissible steam pressure on steel and iron pipes is given by [60]:

where,
P = Permissible pressure (MN/m
2
)
σ = permissible working stress (MN/m
2
) (For steel tubes σ = 140 MN/m
2
)
d
0
= outside diameter of pipe (mm)
47

t = thickness of wall (mm)

P = 20.038 MN/m
2
= 200.38 bar

Actual pressure applied inside pipe = 107 bar
Permissible pressure for the pipe is more than the actual applied pressure, so design is
safe.
Similarly, dimensions for the other pipes have been calculated and given in table 4.10.
The calculations for determining size of other pipes are given in Appendix-D.
Table 4.10 Pipe sizing
S
.

N
o
.
Pipe Pipe Size (mm)
Inner
diameter
Outer
diameter
Pipe
thickness
1 Between preheater and steam generator 32.6 42.2 4.8
2 Between steam generator & super heater 84.8 101.6 8
3 After super heater 73.7 88.9 7.6
4 Before reheater 154.1 168.3 7.1
5 After reheater 178.4 193.7 7.64
6 Before condenser 391.6 400 4.2
7 Between condenser and preheater 24.3 33.4 4.55
8 Heat transfer fluid pipe 54.7 60.3 2.8
(C) Pipe insulation and heat loss
Mineral wool is used as insulation for pipes. Thickness of insulation material is 28
mm as per the calculations shown in Appendix E. Heat loss from the pipes has been
calculated and shown in table 4.11. Detailed Calculations for pipe heat loss are given
in Appendix F.
Table 4.11 Heat loss from pipes
S. No
Pipe Heat loss (kW)
1 Heat transfer fluid pipe 85.47
2 Between preheater and steam generator 0.213
3 Between steam generator and super heater 0.344
4 After super heater 1.1
5 Before reheater 2.7
6 After reheater 3.84
Total 93.67
Heat loss from pipes in terms of percentage of total power generation
Percentage heat loss from pipes =

= 3.75%
48

4.1.9. Cost and incentives
Project cost
Project cost is decided by taking quotations from different suppliers and from
different case studies of solar power plants all over the world. Quotations received
from different suppliers are given in Appendix G.
Table 4.12 Capital cost norms released by the Indian Central Electricity Regulatory Commission
[61].
S. No. Item description Capital Cost Norm for Solar
Thermal (million INR/MW)
1 Direct Cost 134.8
2 Solar Block 129.0
3 Power Block
4 Land 1.8
5 General civil and structural works 4.0
6 Indirect Cost 18.2
7 Preliminary & pre-operative expenses
8 Contingency
9 IDC (Interest during construction)
10 TOTAL CAPITAL COST 153.0
Quotations received are compared with the capital cost norms given by the Indian
Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) as shown in table 4.12.
Project cost of the SPT power plant as provided by ACME is used for financial
analysis in the present study. The details of project cost are presented in table 4.13.
Table 4.13 Project cost of 2.5 MW SPT power plant
S. No. Particular Cost (million INR)
1 Mirrors/frames/HTF/Receivers/ Balance of system of solar field 199.5
2 Solar field construction / Engineering procurement & construction
(EPC)
10.0
3 Land cost 150.0
4 Total Solar field Cost 359.5
5 Steam turbine generator/ mechanical & electrical equipment 87.5
6 Construction for power block 53
7 Power block total cost 140.5
8 Preliminary / Pre-operation expanse 24
9 Contingency 7
10 IDC(Interest during construction) 17.75
11 Total project cost 539
49

Operation and maintenance cost
Operation and maintenance costs cover operations, maintenance and, where
appropriate, costs for fuels. Solar energy plants tend to be very low on operating costs
in comparison with fossil fuel generators.
Table 4.14 Operation and maintenance cost
S. No. Particular Cost (Million INR)
1 Onsite staff 1.80
2 Maintenance and repair
3 Solar field 0.75
4 HTF system 0.76
5 TES system 0.80
6 Power block 1.10
7 Office & Administration 0.15
8 Contract service 0.40
9 Miscellaneous cost 0.50
10 Total annual O&M cost 6.26
Incentives
Government of India and state governments provide incentives for the growth of solar
power plants in India. Some of these incentives are discussed here.
A) Renewable Purchase Obligation & Renewable Energy Certificate
Renewable Purchase Obligation
Under Section 86(1)(e) of the Electricity Act (EA) 2003, the State Electricity
Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) are empowered to specify the percentage of
electricity to be procured by the obligated entities from the renewable sources of
energy. Most SERCs have put significant emphasis on this provision and have issued
Orders/Regulations specifying such percentages. This percentage is referred to as
‗Renewable Portfolio Standard‘ (RPS) or Renewable Purchase Specification (RPS) or
‗Renewable Purchase Obligation‘ (RPO). Renewable Purchase Obligation for
financial year 2010-11 specified by State Electricity Regulation Commissions shown
in Appendix H. For Rajasthan RPO is 9.5% which is quite high due to availability of
high solar intensity as compared to other states.

50

Renewable Energy Certificate
A Renewable Energy Certificate (REC), also known as Green tags, Renewable Energy
Credits, Renewable Electricity Certificates or Tradable Renewable Certificates
(TRCs), is a tradable environmental asset that represents the environmental attributes
of one Megawatt hour (MWh) or 1000 units of renewable electricity. RECs are sold
separately from the actual power generated to consumers who want to essentially
"green" their existing power source. This arrangement provides the renewable energy
generator an additional revenue stream while allowing the REC purchaser to keep
their existing utility and make the environmental stewardship claim that a certain
percentage of their electricity is generated from renewable resources. Operational
framework for the REC mechanism is given in Appendix I.
Calculation for REC benefit
Annual energy yield in first year = 8472 MWh/a [Table 4.16]
1 REC = 1 MWh of renewable energy generated
 Total REC earned in first year = 8472
1 REC worth Rs. 9900 [62]
 Total REC benefit in first year = 8472 × 9900
= INR 83.87 million
Similarly REC benefits have been calculated for different four cases for 2012 to next
25 years i.e. 2037 and shown in table 4.20 to 4.23.
B) Clean Development Mechanism
Although India has ratified the Kyoto Protocol, it has not agreed to legally binding
targets to reduce emissions. The Kyoto Protocol includes a flexibility mechanism
known as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) whereby projects that reduce
emissions in countries such as India are credited with Certified Emissions Reductions
(CERs) that can then be used by Annex 1 countries (those that have committed to
reduce their emissions) to meet their targets. The Mechanism (CDM) is explained in
figure 4.14.
51


Figure 4.14 Clean Development Mechanism
Calculation for CDM benefit
Annual energy yield in first year = 8472 MWh/a [Table 4.16]
For India 1 MWh electricity generation is equivalent to 0.7 ton of CO
2
emission [75]
 Total emission reduction in first year = 8472 × 0.7
= 5930.4 ton of CO
2
emission reduction
1 CER = 1 ton of CO
2
emission reduction
 Total CER earned in first year = 5930.4 CERs
1 CER worth 7 Euro [76]
Total CER benefit in first year = 5930.4 × 7 × 69 = INR 2.86 million
[1 Euro = 69 INR as on April 2012]
Similarly CER benefits have been calculated for different four cases for 2012 to next
25 years i.e. 2037 and shown in table 4.20 to 4.23.
C) Financial subsidies
Renewable energy power plants are often capital intensive with relatively low
running costs. Therefore, governments offer financial subsidies for renewable
electricity technologies in terms of specific Rs/kW grants, or grants set as a
percentage of total investment. Investment subsidies are the oldest, and still a very
common type of support. This may be explained by the fact that such systems are
often politically feasible and easy to administer. However, a major disadvantage of
this instrument is the lack of incentive to operate the plant as efficiently as might be
the case if production-based financial support were offered As a result of these
concerns, a growing number of countries have begun to apply financial incentives on
a production basis.
52

D) Tax incentives
A wide array of tax incentives can be grouped in this category including:
exemption of renewable electricity from energy taxes, tax refunds for renewable
electricity, lower VAT rates for renewable electricity, and exemption of investments
in renewable electricity plants from income or corporate taxes. For first ten years of
operation of solar power plant no tax will be collected. They all increase the
competitiveness of renewable electricity, and may be based on investment or on
production.
4.1.10. Energy yield and capacity factor
Capacity factor
―Capacity factor‖ measures the annual efficiency of energy generation facilities,
specifically the actual percentage that a facility produces at its maximum rated power
capacity as measured over 365 days/24 hours per year. Due to fluctuations in the
availability of the primary energy source and outages due to maintenance of the
equipment, the capacity factor is never 100%. In fact, for renewable energy sources, it
is mostly below 50%. The capacity factors of solar plants are particularly low. After
all, the sun is only half of the time above the horizon. Capacity factor is given by the
following formula [63]

where,
SE = Electricity generated in a whole year (kWh)
λ = Conversion factor from kWh to J
τ = Time (seconds) in one year.
P
rated
= Nominal electrical power of the turbine (W)
Electricity generated in a whole year
= Solar insolation on per unit area in a year × Overall efficiency
= 2019 kWh/m
2
× 0.2232 = 450.64 kWh / m
2
/ annum
Nominal electrical power of the turbine per unit area
=


=

=132.98 W/m
2

53

Time in one year =

= 0.3868 = 38.68%
Similarly monthly capacity factor and monthly energy yield have been calculated for
SPT power plant and shown in table 4.15.
Table 4.15 Monthly capacity factor and energy yield
S.
No.
Month Monthly sum of DNI
(kWh/m
2
)
Energy yield
(kWh)
Time
(hours)
Monthly Capacity
Factor (%)
1 Jan 189 793074.24 744 42.64
2 Feb 175 734328 696 42.20
3 Mar 190 797270.4 744 42.86
4 Apr 185 776289.6 720 43.13
5 May 187 784681.92 744 42.19
6 Jun 168 704954.88 720 39.16
7 Jul 119 499343.04 744 26.85
8 Aug 110 461577.6 744 24.82
9 Sep 150 629424 720 34.97
10 Oct 180 755308.8 744 40.61
11 Nov 182 763701.12 720 42.43
12 Dec 184 772093.44 744 41.51
13 Annual Avg 168.25 706003.92 732 38.58
14 Annual Sum 2019 8472047.04 8760 38.58
Plant degradation and year wise energy yield
Due to continuous operation plant gradually degrades with time and the annual energy
yield of power plant drops. The accumulated degradation and annual energy yield of
the plant is given in table 4.16.
Table 4.16 Accumulated degradation and annual energy yield
Year Total operating hours Accumulated degradation (%) Annual energy yield (MWh/a)
0 0 0.00 0
1 3404 0.50 8472.00
2 6808 0.99 8430.06
3 10212 1.47 8388.53
4 13616 1.95 8347.42
5 17020 2.43 8306.71
6 20424 2.90 8266.41
7 23828 3.36 8226.50
8 27232 3.83 8186.99
9 30636 4.28 8147.87
10 34040 4.74 8109.14
11 37444 5.18 8070.80
12 40848 5.63 8032.83
13 44252 6.07 7995.23
14 47656 6.50 7958.01
15 51060 6.93 7921.16
16 54464 7.36 7884.68
54

17 57868 7.78 7848.55
18 61272 8.20 7812.78
19 64676 8.61 7777.37
20 68080 9.02 7742.31
21 71484 9.43 7707.59
22 74888 9.83 7673.22
23 78292 10.23 7639.19
24 81696 10.62 7605.49
25 85100 11.01 7572.13
4.1.11. Levelised cost of energy
Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) is equivalent to the average price consumers would
have to pay to exactly repay the investor for capital, O&M and fuel costs with a rate
of return equal to the discount rate. Thus LCOE is minimum price at which energy
must be sold for an energy project to break even. LCOE approach often used to help
assess economic profitability of a planned electricity generation plant or to compare
two or more alternative plant investments. Typically LCOE is calculated over the
lifetime of project and given in the units of currency per kilowatt-hour (e.g. €/kWh).

(

)

where,
F
R
= Capital recovery factor (% per annum)
O
f
= Fixed O&M cost (% per annum)
F
c
= Capacity factor
C
o
= Capital cost (INR)
P = Installed capacity (kW)
C
O&M
= Variable O&M cost (INR)

= Cost of inputs / conversion efficiency (INR/kWh)

INR 9.04 / kWh is the LCOE for 25 years of plant operation at 10% discount rate for
INR 215600 /kW installed cost.
LCOE depends on discount rate, project life and installed cost and changes if any of
these three parameters varies. Variation of LCOE is shown in table 4.17.

55


56

Capital recovery factor
A Capital Recovery Factor (CRF) converts a present value into a stream of equal
annual payments over a specified time, at a specified discount rate (interest).

.

/
where,
I
r
= Discount rate
Δt = Interest cycle ( Δt = 1 for interest on yearly basis)
n = System life time
Capital recovery factor for 10% discount rate and 25 years system lifetime is

(

) = 0.1102 = 11.02%
Capital recovery factor depends upon the discount rate. The representative values of
capital recovery factor for different discount rates have been calculated and shown in
table 4.18.
Table 4.18 Capital recovery factor for different discount rates
I
r
4 %/year 5 %/year 7 %/year 10 %/year
F
R
6.40 %/year 7.09 %/year 8.58 %/year 11.02 %/year
4.1.12. Economic Assessment
Regulatory and financial assumptions
Kulichenko [64] presented on behalf of the World Bank considering some
fundamental analysis of CSP costs versus the Solar Mission phase 1 tariff cap. The
analysis started with what are considered to be realistic financial parameters for the
Indian situation as shown in Table 4.19.
Table 4.19 Regulatory and Financial Assumptions for assessment of CSP economics in India used by World
Bank [64]
S. No. Regulatory and Financial Assumptions used by World Bank
1 Analysis Period 25 years
2 Inflation Rate 5.5%
3 Real Discount Rate 15%
4 Minimum Alternative Tax 18.5%
5 Property Tax 0%
6 VAT+ Excise Duties 5% on 100% of Direct Costs
7 Depreciation Schedule 7% first 10 years |1.33% afterwards
8 Loan Term 12 years
9 Loan Rate 11.75%
10 Debt Fraction 70%
11 Return on equity (ROE) 19%
12 Min required IRR 15%
13 Min required DSCR 1.5
57

Financial Performance indicators
A comparison of the cost benefits of the project is required to be made to judge the
profitability of the investments made in the project. A wide variety of financial
efficiency measures or appraisal criteria have been suggested which relates the worth
of the investment to the other quantities such as time, capital requirement, acceptable
rate of return, etc. Three appraisal criteria are considered – (i) Payback period, (ii) Net
present value and (iii) Internal rate of return.
(A) Project payback period
The payback period essentially measures the time elapsed between the point of initial
investment and the point at which accumulated savings, net of other accumulated
costs are sufficient to offset the initial investment outlay. Payback periods are of two
types- simple payback period and discounted payback period.
(i) Simple payback period
In the case of simple payback period the interest rate is assumed to be equal to zero
and the payback period is computed as the smallest value of n that satisfies the
equation

where B
n
and C
n
respectively represent the cash receipts (benefits) and cash expanses
(costs) associated with the investment at the end of each period n.
Consider cumulative cash flow shown in table 4.20. By the year 5 the cumulative
inflows have more than recovered the initial investment. Obviously the simple
payback for the project would occur in fifth year. If it is assumed that the cash flow of
Rs 111.44 is uniformly distributed over the fifth year, the exact value of simple
payback period can be determined as
Simple payback period =

(ii) Discounted payback period
As a modification of the simple payback period the cost and benefits may be adjusted
to account for the changing value of money over time. This leads to estimation of a
58

discounted payback period which is the length of time required for the project‘s
equivalent receipts to exceed the equivalent capital outlays. Mathematically
discounted payback period n
dp
is the smallest value of n that satisfies the equation

where i is the interest rate.
(B) Present worth factor
The factor needed to transform any future payment into its present worth is known as
the single payment present worth factor. The practice of normalizing cash receipts and
distributions to a single point in time using a given interest rate is called discounting.
The resultant value of discounted cash flow stream is called its present value. Thus,
the present worth factor when multiplied by the actual cash flow amount yields the
present worth amount. Present worth is a common denominator which can be used to
measure the present monitory value of several cash flow alternatives to facilitate
comparison. Present worth (P) of a future payment (F) at the end of n periods will be
[

]
where i is discount rate.
(C) Net present value
The difference between the present value of the benefits and the costs resulting from
an investment is the Net Present Value (NPV) of the investment. A positive NPV
means a positive surplus indicating that the financial position of the investor will be
improved by undertaking the project. Obviously, a negative NPV would indicate
financial loss. An NPV of zero would mean that the present value of all benefits over
the useful lifetime is equal to the present value of the costs. In mathematical terms,

where
B
j
= benefits at the end of period j
C
j
= costs at the end of period j
59

n = useful life of the project
i = interest rate
The equation of NPV involves subtracting of the costs from the benefits at any period
and then multiplying the result by the single payment present worth factor for that
period. Finally the NPV is determined by algebraically adding the result for all the
periods under consideration.
(D) Internal Rate of return
Internal Rate of return (IRR) is a widely-accepted discounted measure of investment
worth and is used as an index of profitability for the appraisal of project. The IRR is
defined as the rate of interest that equates the present value of a series of cash flows to
zero. In other words, it is the interest rate at which the NPV of an investment is zero.
Mathematically, the internal rate of return is the interest rate i
*
that satisfies the
equation

where,
B
n
= Benefits associated with n
th
year
C
n
= Cost associated with n
th
year
Financial analysis scenarios
Four scenarios are considered for financial analysis of the project. The project is
analyzed for (i) Pre-tax scenario, (ii) Post-tax scenario, (iii) Pre-tax with equity and
(iv) Post-tax with equity.
In pretax scenario financial performance indicators for the project are determined
without considering the tax and duties. In table 4.20 financial analyses for pre-tax
scenario is given. The analysis is done for 25 year of plant operation. The net present
value of the project at 10% discount rate is Rs. 407.9 million and at 15% Rs. 149.61
million. Internal rate of return is 20%. 4.77 years is the payback period of the project
while 6.85 years and 9.15 years are the discounted payback periods for 10% and 15%
discount rate respectively.
In table 4.21 financial analyses for post-tax scenario is given. VAT and Excise Duties
are taken as 5% of the direct cost [64]. 0% tax for first 10 years and 4% afterwards is
60

specified for the solar power plant in Rajasthan. 7% depreciation is considered for
first 10 years and 1.33% afterwards [64]. The net present value of the project at 10%
discount rate is Rs. 372.77 million and at 15% Rs. 121.13 million. Internal rate of
return is 19.21%. 5.01 years is the payback period of the project while 7.36 years and
10.20 years are the discounted payback periods for 10% and 15% discount rate
respectively.
In table 4.22 equity analysis for pre-tax scenario is given. 70% of total investment has
been done by taking loan from bank. Loan term and interest rate is taken as specified
by World Bank. An additional cash flow i.e. installment of the bank loan has come
into the analysis. Annual installment is calculated in next section which has got near
Rs. 60.21 million per annum. The net present value of the project at 10% discount rate
is Rs. 377.97 million and at 15% Rs. 193.91 million. Internal rate of return is 33.27%.
3.03 years is the payback period of the project while 3.81 years and 4.39 years are the
discounted payback periods for 10% and 15% discount rate respectively.
In table 4.23 equity analysis for post-tax scenario is given. Here also 70% of total
investment has been done by taking loan from bank. In this case annual installment is
Rs. 63.22 million per annum. VAT and Excise Duties are taken as 5% of the direct
cost [64]. 0% tax for first 10 years and 4% afterwards is specified for the solar power
plant is taken. 7% depreciation is considered for first 10 years and 1.33% afterwards
[64].The net present value of the project at 10% discount rate is Rs. 342.88 million
and at 15% Rs. 168.53 million. Internal rate of return is 30.07%. 3.38 years is the
payback period of the project while 4.36 years and 5.12 years are the discounted
payback periods for 10% and 15% discount rate respectively.
Cumulative cash flow for four financial analysis scenarios i.e. pre-tax scenario, post-
tax scenario, pre-tax with equity and post-tax with equity are shown in figure 4.15.

61

Annual installments
In the case when a fraction of the total investment is made by taking loan from a
financial institution an additional cash outflow in the form of annual installments
occurs. Annual installments are calculated here.
Capital cost = 539 million INR
Debt Fraction = 70% [Table 4.19]
Capital invested =
Loan amount =
Interest rate = 11.75%
Loan term = 12 years
Annual installments

[

]

where,
A = Loan amount
i = interest rate
N = loan term
 =

[

]

 = 60.21 million INR/annum
66

4.2. Remote solar parabolic trough power plant
Since garment zone of Sitapura industrial area is located in vicinity of Jaipur city and
there is scarcity of land and the land which is available is very costly. Looking to the
scarcity and cost of the land near the city, off-site proposal of the power plant has
been considered in this section.
4.2.1. Site assessment
Without suitable site, no project can proceed. Site selection for the solar power plant
is very important. Assessment of the site must be done carefully. Assessment
parameters for site selection are given in table 4.24. A suitable site is selected near
Jodhpur at Latitude 26.3˚N & Longitude 73.02˚E.
Table 4.24 Site assessment parameters
S. No. Assessment Parameters
1 General Assessment Location
Area available for the plant for
construction
Geographical coordinates
Present use
Ownership of land
Seismic zone
2 Geo climatic data Temperature
Rainfall
Wind
Flood etc
3 Topography and soil Water logging possibility
4 Water availability and quality of water
5 Accessibility and infrastructure Road
Rail
Power
6 Evacuation and grid interface options
7 General environment dust pollution
8 Socio economic environment
9 Shading analysis

67

4.2.2. Solar resource at the selected site
Solar insolation is the power of solar radiations per unit area incident on a surface.
Insolation is measured in watts per meter square (W/m
2
). Annual mean irradiation can
be calculated by DNI and average sunshine hours.
Mean DNI for Jodhpur = 5.77 kWh/m
2
/day [53]
Mean sunshine hours = 9.35 hours [53]
Solar irradiation =



=

= 617.11 W/m
2

4.2.3. Design of solar field
A parabolic trough power plant's solar field consists of a large, modular array of
single-axis-tracking parabolic trough solar collectors. Many parallel rows of these
solar collectors span across the solar field, aligned on a north-south horizontal axis.
The basic component of a parabolic trough solar field is the solar collector assembly
or SCA. Size/Number of each component is shown is Table 4.25.
Collector aperture area calculation
Solar field aperture area depends upon the net power output from the solar power
plant and direct normal irradiance.
0 = 21.15% [Calculated in section 4.1.2]
Solar collector area =



A
c
=

A
c
= 19154.26 m
2
~ 19160 m
2
Aperture area required for solar field collector is 19160 m
2
for generation of 2.5 MW.
Number of loop required =



=

= 7.30 ~ 8 loops
Both off-site and on-site SPT power plant required 8 solar collectors assembly loops
in the solar field although the solar collector aperture area is different. For on-site SPT
plant required aperture area is 19850 m
2
and for off-site SPT plant is 19160 m
2
which
68

results in 7.56 loops for on-site plant and 7.30 loops for off-site plant and the required
number of SCA loop is turn out to be 8 by rounding off to the next integer.
Since the number of SCA loops required for off-site power plant is equal to the on-
site power plant therefore the other parameters of the off-site SPT plant will also be
identical. Thus technical specifications for both on-site and off-site SPT power plants
are similar.
4.2.4. Economic Assessment
(A) Project cost
Project cost is decided by taking quotations from different suppliers and from
different case studies of solar power plants all over the world. Quotations from
different suppliers are given in Appendix G. Project cost given by acme is selected for
financial analysis. The detail of project cost is given in table 4.25
Table 4.25 Project cost
S. No. Particular Cost (million INR)
1 Mirrors/frames/HTF/Receivers/BOS of solar field 199.5
Solar field construction / EPC 10.0
Total Solar field Cost 209.5
2 STG/ Mech. equipment/ Electrical equipment 87.5
Construction for power block 53
Power block total cost 140.5
3 Preliminary / Pre-operation expanse 24
4 Contingency 7
5 IDC(Interest during construction) 17.75
6 Total project cost 399
(B) Operation and maintenance cost
Operation and maintenance costs cover operations, maintenance and, where
appropriate, costs for fuels. Detail of Operation and maintenance cost is given in
Table 4.26.
Table 4.26 Operation and maintenance cost
S. No. Particular Cost (INR)
1 Onsite staff 1800000
Maintenance and repair
2 Solar field 750000
69

3 HTF system 760000
4 TES system 800000
5 Power block 1100000
6 Office & Administration 150000
7 Contract service 400000
8 Miscellaneous cost 500000
9 Total annual O&M cost 62,60,000
(C) Open access charges
The term Open Access has been defined in section 2 (47) of the Electricity Act, 2003
as ―the non-discriminatory provision for the use of transmission lines or distribution
system or associated facilities with such lines or system by any licensee or consumer
or a person engaged in generation in accordance with the regulations specified by the
Appropriate Commission‖.
This means that a large individual consumer/group of consumers get together (bulk
consumers) and exercise their choice to purchase power either directly from the
generation company or intermediaries such as traders or distribution companies.
Open access charges include transmission charges, energy losses for transmission,
wheeling charges, energy losses for distribution, cross subsidy surcharge and
operating charges. Monthly open access charges specified by Rajasthan electricity
regulatory commission are shown in Table 4.27. Net open access charge for the power
plant is Rs. 1.17/kWh. Detailed of net open access charge is given in Appendix K.
Table 4.27 Monthly open access charges specified by Rajasthan electricity regulatory commission
S. No. Particular Charges
1 Transmission charges Rs. 94780 /MW/month
2 Energy losses for transmission 4.40%
3 Wheeling charges Rs. 0.11 /kwh
4 Wheeling Loss 3.80%
5 Operating Charge (SLDC Charges) Rs.100/MW/day
6 Reactive Energy Charges 5.50 paisa/KVArh
7 OA Application Registration fee Rs. 5000/ year
8 Cross subsidy surcharge Rs. 0.38 /kWh
70

(D) Capacity factor
―Capacity factor‖ measures the annual efficiency of energy generation facilities,
specifically the actual percentage that a facility produces at its maximum rated power
capacity as measured over 365 days/24 hours per year. Monthly capacity factor and
monthly energy yield is given in Table 4.28.
Table 4.28 Monthly capacity factor and energy yield
S.
No.
Month Sunshine
hours
DNI
(kWh/m
2
/day)
Monthly
sum of
DNI
(kWh/m
2
)
Energy
yield
(kWh)
Time
(hours)
Monthly
Capacity
Factor
1 Jan 10.7 5.96 184.76 775282.52 744 41.68%
2 Feb 11.3 5.88 170.52 715529.20 696 41.12%
3 Mar 12 6.3 195.3 819510.05 744 44.06%
4 Apr 12.7 6.72 201.6 845945.86 720 47.00%
5 May 13.4 6.86 212.66 892355.39 744 47.98%
6 Jun 13.7 6.3 189 793074.24 720 44.06%
7 Jul 13.6 4.58 141.98 595770.80 744 32.03%
8 Aug 13 4.46 138.26 580161.08 744 31.19%
9 Sep 12.3 5.35 160.5 673483.68 720 37.42%
10 Oct 11.5 5.54 171.74 720648.52 744 38.74%
11 Nov 10.9 5.85 175.5 736426.08 720 40.91%
12 Dec 10.5 5.53 171.43 719347.71 744 38.67%
13 Annual Avg 12.13 5.78 176.10 738961.26 732 40.38%
14 Annual Sum 2113.25 8867535.12 8784 40.38%
(E) Levelised cost of energy
Levelised cost of energy for the power plant for 25 years operational life and at 10%
discount rate is INR 6.89/ kWh. LCOE depends on discount rate, project life and
installed cost. LCOE can be changed if any of the three parameters varies. Variation
of LCOE is shown in Table 4.29.

71


72

(F) Plant degradation and year wise energy yield
Due to continuous operation plant gradually degrades with time and the annual energy
yield of power plant drops. The accumulated degradation and annual energy yield of
the plant is given in Table 4.30.
Table 4.30 Accumulated degradation and annual energy yield
Year Total operating hours Accumulated degradation Annual energy yield (MWh/a)
0 0 0% 0
1 3404 0.50% 8867.53
2 6808 0.99% 8823.63
3 10212 1.47% 8780.17
4 13616 1.95% 8737.13
5 17020 2.43% 8694.53
6 20424 2.90% 8652.34
7 23828 3.36% 8610.57
8 27232 3.83% 8569.22
9 30636 4.28% 8528.27
10 34040 4.74% 8487.73
11 37444 5.18% 8447.59
12 40848 5.63% 8407.85
13 44252 6.07% 8368.51
14 47656 6.50% 8329.55
15 51060 6.93% 8290.98
16 54464 7.36% 8252.79
17 57868 7.78% 8214.97
18 61272 8.20% 8177.54
19 64676 8.61% 8140.47
20 68080 9.02% 8103.77
21 71484 9.43% 8067.43
22 74888 9.83% 8031.46
23 78292 10.23% 7995.83
24 81696 10.62% 7960.57
25 85100 11.01% 7925.65
(G) Financial analysis scenarios
Four scenarios are considered for financial analysis of the project. The project is
analyzed for (i) Pre-tax scenario, (ii) Post-tax scenario, (iii) Pre-tax with equity and
(iv) Post-tax with equity.
In pretax scenario financial performance indicators for the project are determined
without considering the tax and duties. In table 4.31 financial analyses for pre-tax
scenario is given. The analysis is done for 25 year of plant operation. The net present
value of the project at 10% discount rate is Rs. 497.53 million and at 15% Rs. 245.50
million. Internal rate of return is 27%. 3.67 years is the payback period of the project
73

while 4.82 years and 5.78 years are the discounted payback periods for 10% and 15%
discount rate respectively.
In table 4.32 financial analyses for post-tax scenario is given. VAT and Excise Duties
are taken as 5% of the direct cost [64]. 0% tax for first 10 years and 4% afterwards is
specified for the solar power plant in Rajasthan. 7% depreciation is considered for
first 10 years and 1.33% afterwards [64]. The net present value of the project at 10%
discount rate is Rs. 468.12 million and at 15% Rs. 122.81 million. Internal rate of
return is 25.31%. 3.86 years is the payback period of the project while 5.14 years and
6.24 years are the discounted payback periods for 10% and 15% discount rate
respectively.
In table 4.33 equity analysis for pre-tax scenario is given. 70% of total investment has
been done by taking loan from bank. Loan term and interest rate is taken as specified
by World Bank. An additional cash flow i.e. installment of the bank loan has come
into the analysis. Annual installment is calculated in next section which has got near
Rs. 44.57 million per annum. The net present value of the project at 10% discount rate
is Rs. 475.37 million and at 15% Rs. 278.29 million. Internal rate of return is 53.46%.
1.85 years is the payback period of the project while 2.15 years and 2.35 years are the
discounted payback periods for 10% and 15% discount rate respectively.
In Table 4.34 equity analysis for post-tax scenario is given. Here also 70% of total
investment has been done by taking loan from bank. In this case annual installment is
Rs. 46.80 million per annum. The net present value of the project at 10% discount rate
is Rs. 446.00 million and at 15% Rs. 257.89 million. Internal rate of return is 49.10%.
2.01 years is the payback period of the project while 2.37 years and 2.60 years are the
discounted payback periods for 10% and 15% discount rate respectively.
Annual installments
In the case when a fraction of the total investment is made by taking loan from a
financial institution an additional cash outflow in the form of annual installments
occurs. Annual installments are calculated here.
Capital cost = 399 million INR
Debt Fraction = 70% [Table 4.19]
Capital invested =
74

Loan amount =
Interest rate = 11.75%
Loan term = 12 years
Annual installments

[

]

where,
A = Loan amount
i = interest rate
N = loan term
 =

[

]

 = 44.57 million INR/annum
79

4.3. Solar steam supply system
In this section, solar steam generation and distribution system is designed for meeting
the heating requirement of the garment zone. The heat requirement of the zone is
already analyzed in chapter 3.
4.3.1. Design of solar field
Design of solar field consists of number of solar collectors required, Area required for
Project, Collector arrangement i.e. number of Rows and number of Collectors per
Row, Flow through each row and total system flow and system temperatures.
(A) Solar collector
Sopogy‘s SopoHelio process heat collectors are used for the system. Specifications of
the collector are shown in Table 4.35.
Table 4.35 SopoHelio solar collector specifications
Solar Field Efficiency 57 %
Collector Aperture Area 7.43 m
2

Thermal Energy per Collector 3.599835 kW
(B) Application Details
Feed water temperature: 30˚C
Steam operating pressure: 6 bar (a)
Steam Flow: 2,600 kg/h or 0.722 kg/s
Steam temperature at design pressure: 158.83 ˚C
Sensible heat =

=
= 391 kW
Sat. Liquid enthalpy at operating pressure = 670.38 kJ /kg
Sat. Vapor enthalpy at superheat temperature = 2756.10 kJ /kg
Latent heat =
=
= 1,506 kW
Thermal energy to application = Sensible Heat + Latent Heat
= 1,897 kW
80

(C) Solar field lay‐out
Number of collectors required
Thermal energy required to application = 1897 ~ 1900 kW
Thermal energy per collector = 3.5 kW
Number of collectors required =



= 544 collectors
Detailed calculation of the solar field lay-out is given in chapter 4. Similarly solar
field lay-out for steam supply system has been calculated. The details of the solar
field have been given in Table 4.36.
Table 4.36 Specifications of solar field for steam generation through SPT
S. No. Parameter Dimension
1 Project area (does not include clearances and other equipment) 7,277.65 m
2

2 Total project area 9000 m
2

3 Number of rows 16
4 Number of collectors per row 34
5 Working fluid Xceltherm‐600
6 Flow through each row 53 l/min
7 Total System flow 848 l/min
8 Solar array outlet temperature 250 ˚C
9 Solar array inlet temperature 180 ˚C
4.3.2. Steam distribution system
Steam distribution system consists of designing of the piping system for steam supply,
heat and pressure loss calculation and insulation thickness estimation.
A) Selection of pipe material
Material used for pipes should have properties like low emissivity, cheaper cost and
easily available. These properties are available in steel pipes so steel pipes are
selected for steam distribution.
B) Length and diameter of distribution pipes
Diameter of the pipe has been calculated by continuity equation i.e.

 (

)
 √

____(4.1)
where,
81

m = mass flow rate of steam (kg/hr)
ρ = density of steam (kg/m
3
)
A = Cross sectional area of pipe (m
2
) =

v = velocity of steam (m/sec)
Length and diameter of steam distribution pipes for industries has been shown in
Table 4.37. Length of the pipe is taken from data collected. Diameter of distribution
pipe is calculated from equation 4.1 but calculated diameter is not available in market
so nearest possible diameter is selected. Mass flow rate has also changed due to
modification in diameter of distributaries. Total modified mass flow rate is 2262
kg/hr. Modified mass flow rate for individual industries has been shown in Appendix
M.
Sample calculation for Table 4.37
Length of the pipe is estimated from the zone map.
Pipe diameter for steam flow has been calculated from equation 4.1 as follows:
Consider one industry ―A & A Exports‖ at serial no. 1 of Table 4.37. Mass flow rate
of steam for the industry ―A & A Exports‖ is taken from table 3.4 at serial no. 1,
which is 28 kg/hr.
m =

(From steam table at pressure 3 kgf/ sq. cm. and temperature 160˚C)
v = 30 m/sec [59]
d =14.8 mm
Pipe of calculated diameter size is not available in the market only nearest standard
size is available which is taken as pipe diameter [71].
Table 4.37 Length and diameter of distribution pipes for steam distribution system
S.
No.
Industry Length of pipe
required (meter)
Pipe diameter for
steam flow (mm)
Available
standard
diameter (mm)
1 A & A Exports 6 14.8 15.7
2 Alacrity 72 26.1 26.6
3 Aman Exports 24 25.6 26.6
4 Aravali Exports 6 7.4 7.7
5 Arayavat 24 20.27 20.9
6 Cheer Sagar 24 26.5 26.6
7 Cot Fab India 24 18.3 18.9
82

8 Garmef 6 15.7 15.7
9 Goyal Arts 24 19.59 20.9
10 Gupta Feb tech pvt. Ltd. 6 28.33 34.1
11 Hariram Exports 66 14.8 15.7
12 Harsha International 6 16.55 18.9
13 High Choice 6 26.5 26.6
14 Innovation 6 21.58 24.2
15 Jalaj Exports 24 10.47 10.7
16 Jimmy Mode International 6 13.8 13.9
17 Kagzi Exports 24 17.36 18.9
18 Kailino Arts 6 16.55 18.9
19 Khatri Exports 48 10.47 10.7
20 Leela Niryat 24 18.3 18.9
21 Lodha Impex-1 6 40.55 40.9
22 Lodha Impex-2 6 26.5 26.6
23 M. K. Exim 6 10.47 10.7
24 MA'AM Arts 24 25.6 26.6
25 Miya bazaz 110 14.8 15.7
26 Nash Fashion 6 23.41 24.2
27 NSPL IMPEX 6 7.4 7.7
28 Ocean Exim India 6 20.27 20.9
29 Paisley Industries 72 7.4 7.7
30 Pawan Febtech 6 18.3 18.9
31 Priya International 66 7.4 7.7
32 Ratan Textile 72 20.27 20.9
33 Registan Exports 24 16.55 18.9
34 Rupayan-1 48 16.55 18.9
35 Rupayan-2 48 13.8 13.9
36 S. K. India International 6 12.8 13.9
37 Sabby Exports 66 10.47 10.7
38 Savi Exports 24 10.47 10.7
39 Shekhawati Impex 24 10.47 10.7
40 Shivangi Inc. Exports 6 10.47 10.7
41 Shri Ram Omex 24 33.11 34.1
42 Somani Fabric 60 20.9 20.9
43 Suprint Textile 24 15.7 15.7
44 The Choice fashion 6 18.3 18.9
C) Length and diameter of main pipe
Length of pipe is 1100 meters as per map and optimum path of zone. Actual steam
flow rate 2262 kg/hr after modified diameter of distributaries without losses in main
pipe. Diameter of main pipe has been calculated by equation 4.1.

m = 2262 kg/hr
v = 30 m/sec
ρ = 2.782 kg/m
3
at supplied condition of steam
d = 9.766 cm
Standard pipe size available is 10.23 cm
83

After considering losses modified diameter of main pipe is calculated. Fitting losses
(leakage of steam) are also considered those are 15% of supplied steam [72].
Total steam is to be supplied is {2262+15% fitting losses} = 2250 kg/hr
For 2250 kg/hr mass flow rate modified diameter is 10.47 cm.
Standard diameter is 11.59 cm which is final diameter of pipe and steam flow rate
through this pipe is 2600 kg/hr. Steam would be supplied 2600 kg/hr according to
modified standard diameter available. Final steam flow rate is 2600 kg/hr and pipe
diameter is 11.59 cm.
D) Heat loss and pressure loss
Steam is supplied to individual industries by the main pipe of dia. 11.59 cm and
length 1100 m during this flow heat and pressure loss occurs. Maximum pressure loss
in steam flow is

⁄ pipe length [72]. It is assumed that the total
pressure loss in this steam distribution system (including distributaries) is 3 kgf/cm
2
.
It is also assumed that supplied steam temperature is 200 ˚C. Steam is supplied to
industries or generated from solar field at 6 kgf/cm
2
pressure and 200˚C temperature.
4.3.3. Financial analysis
Financial analysis comprises economic analysis of proposed steam supply system and
existing system of the garment zone by different financial performance indicators.
Financial performance indicators are already discussed in chapter 4.
Expenditure in existing system
In existing system heat is generated mostly by diesel fuel fired boilers and in some
industries steam is generated by electricity based boilers. As far as economics is
concerned for conventional system, running cost of the system is calculated. Running
cost of the existing system is cost of heat required by zone.
Steam requirement of the zone = 2100 kg/hours
Steam required for 8 hours in the industries
It is assumed that 350 operational days in a year
Total steam required for a year
= 5.88 ×10
3
kg steam
84

Steam is required at 3 kgf/cm
2
abs pressure and 160˚C temperature. For this
temperature and pressure 1 kg of steam required 664.7 kcal heat.
Total heat required for a year =

kcal
=

kJ (1 kcal = 4.1868 kJ)
Calorific value of diesel = 43400 kJ/kg
Efficiency of diesel fired boiler = 80%
Specific gravity of diesel = 0.85
Quantity of annual diesel consumption in liters

= 4.712 × 10
5
kg/year
=

= 554.35 ×10
3
l/ year
Price of diesel = Rs. 42 /liter
Total expense on diesel in a year =554.35 ×10
3
× 42 = Rs. 23.28 million
Proposed system cost
This cost contains land cost of the plant, cost of infrastructure of the plant, cost of the
solar field and its installation, cost of piping system for distribution of steam. This is
the fixed cost of the solar steam generation system.
Fixed cost = land cost of the plant + cost of infra structure of the plant +cost of the
solar field and its installation + cost of piping system for distribution of steam
Land cost: land area required for this plant is 9000 m
2
, which is purchased @4500 Rs.
/ m
2
(this is discounted cost of land by govt. of Rajasthan).
Land cost = Rs 40.5 million
Solar field cost
Solar field cost is given in Table 4.38. Total solar field cost is Rs 52.37 million.
Table 4.38 Cost of solar field
Particular Cost (million INR)
Mirrors/frames/HTF/Receivers/ Balance of system of solar field 49.87
Solar field construction / Engineering procurement & construction (EPC) 2.5
Total Solar field Cost 52.37
Cost of piping system and installation cost
85

This includes cost of main pipe and cost of distributaries and cost of insulating
material. Cost of main pipe and distributaries depend upon length and diameter of
pipe. Length of main pipe is 1100 m and diameter of the pipe is 11.59 cm. Length of
distributaries is 1147 m with different diameters. The steel pipe of diameter 11.59 cm
has cost Rs 2400/meter with erection.
Cost of the main pipe = 1100 × 2400 = Rs. 2.64 million
Cost of distributaries has been calculated at the rate of Rs. 1200/meter [73].
Cost of distributaries = Rs 1.514 million
Total piping system cost = 2.64 + 1.514 = 4.15 million
Installation cost of piping system with installation is almost 10% of piping system
cost [73]
Installation cost of piping system = Rs 0.415 million
Total cost of piping system with installation = Rs 4.565 million
Total project cost = land cost of the plant + cost of the solar field + cost of piping
system for distribution of steam
= 40.5 + 52.37 + 4.565 = Rs. 97.435 million
In Table 4.39 financial analyses for steam generation system is given. The analysis is
done for 25 year of plant operation. The net present value of the project at 10%
discount rate is Rs. 83.76 million and at 15% Rs. 34.18 million. Internal rate of return
is 22%. 4.70 years is the payback period of the project while 6.51 years and 8.30 years
are the discounted payback periods for 10% and 15% discount rate respectively.

86


87

Chapter 5
Solar photovoltaic power plant
Solar photovoltaics involve the use of solar cells to generate electricity directly via the
photoelectric effect. In this chapter both options of onsite and offsite solar
photovoltaic power plant have been discussed.
5.1. On site solar photovoltaic power plant
Design of solar photovoltaic power plant consists of PV modules sizing, inverter
sizing, battery sizing and module circuit design.
5.1.1. Panel generation factor
Panel Generation factor (PGF) is a key element for calculating the number of panels
required for a particular SPV plant. PGF is used while calculating the size of solar
photovoltaic cells. It is a varying factor depending upon the climate of the site
location. This factor is used in calculation of "Total Watt-Peak Rating" while
designing the size of solar photovoltaic cells.




Energy required from PV modules
Energy requirement of garment zone = 18437 kWh/day
Energy lost in the system = 30% [65]
Energy required from PV modules = kWh/day
5.1.2. Total watt peak rating for PV modules
Total Watt peak rating for PV modules depends upon the panel generation factor of
the location. It has been calculated by Energy required from PV modules and Panel
generation factor.




88

5.1.3. PV modules
SANYO HI P-215NHE5 PV modules are selected for the power plant. The SANYO
HIT (Hetero-junction with Intrinsic Thin layer) solar cell is made of a thin mono
crystalline silicon wafer surrounded by ultra-thin amorphous silicon layers. Basic
structure and cell surface structure of the HIT cell is shown in appendix L.
Characteristics of the HIT cell module are given in table 5.1.
Table 5.1 Characteristics of HIP-215NHE5 PV module
S
No
Parameter Units Values
1 Maximum power (P
max
) W 215
2 Max. power voltage (V
pm
) V 42.0
3 Max. power current (I
pm
) A 5.13
4 Open circuit voltage (V
OC
) V 51.6
5 Short circuit current (I
SC
) A 5.61
6 Warranted minimum power (P
min
) W 204.3
7 Output power tolerance % +10/-5
8 Maximum system voltage V
dc
1000
9 Temperature coefficient of P
max
%/ ˚C -0.3
10 Temperature coefficient of V
OC
V/ ˚C -0.129
11 Temperature coefficient of I
SC
mA/ ˚C 1.68
Note 1: Standard test conditions: Air mass 1.5, Irradiance = 1000 W/m
2
, Cell temperature = 25 ˚C
Note 2: The values in the above table are nominal


5.1.3.1. Number of PV modules required
Number of PV modules required for the system can be calculated by PV module peak
rated output and total watt peak rating.





5.1.4. Inverter sizing
Inverter size for the PV power plant is depends on the total peak watts required to the
load.
Total wattage required in garment zone = 2.21 MW [Table 3.2]
The inverter must be large enough to handle the total amount of watts garment zone
will be using at one time. The inverter size should be 25-30% bigger than total watts
of appliances and machines. [65]
89


APOLLO GTC-1500 inverter is considered for the power plant.
Number of inverter = 2
Inverter wattage = 2×1500 = 3000 kW = 3MW
p

Number of Maximum power point tracker (MPPT) = 12 (6 MPPT in each inverter)
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is an electronic system that operates the
Photovoltaic modules in a manner that allows the modules to produce all the power
they are capable of. MPPT is not a mechanical tracking system that ―physically
moves‖ the modules to make them point more directly at the sun. MPPT is a fully
electronic system that varies the electrical operating point of the modules so that the
modules are able to deliver maximum available power. Additional power harvested
from the modules is then made available as increased current. [66]
5.1.5. Battery sizing
Total watt hours used per day = 18.44 × 10
6
Wh/day
Battery loss = 15%
Depth of discharge for battery = 40%
Nominal battery voltage = 96 V




5.1.6. PV modules circuit
Maximum open circuit voltage = 780 V
dc

V
oc
of PV module = 51.6 V
dc
[Table 5.1]
Number of modules connected in series =

V
mp
of PV module = 42 V
dc
[Table 5.1]
Maximum power voltage V
mp
at inverter input = 16 × 42 = 672V
dc

Number of PV arrays of 672 Vdc =

5.1.7. Land required
Number of PV modules required = 19400 modules
Width of PV module or panel = 0.798 m
90

Length of PV module = 1.57 m

Figure 5.1 Dimensions of PV panel
Number of modules in an array connected in series = 16 modules
Width of PV array = 16 × 0.798 = 12.768 m
Length of PV module = 1.57 m

Figure 5.2 PV array consisting 16 PV panels

Figure 5.3 On-site solar PV power plant
Number of arrays in PV field = 1212 arrays
Number of arrays in a row = 16
Width of the solar field = 16 × 12.77 = 205 meters
Number of Rows in solar field = 76
Distance between two arrays = 3 meters [67]
Length of the solar field = 75 × 3 = 225 meters
91

Land Required for PV field = 205 × 225 = 46125 m
2
= 11.4 Acers
[1 Acer = 4047 m
2
]
5.1.8. Project cost
Module cost
Cost of PV modules = $ 528.9 /module [68]
Total module cost = $10530399
= INR 47.39 million
I nverter cost
Inverter cost = 21.3 million INR/inverter of 1.5MW capacity
Total inverter cost = 42.6 million INR
Design engineering and management cost
Labor cost for design, engineering and project management = Rs. 200/man hour
Design, engineering and project management hours per kW
p
= 2 hours [69]
Design, engineering and project management cost = 1.00 million INR
I nstallation labor cost
Labor cost for installation = Rs. 50 / man-hour
Installation man-hour required for per kW
p
= 12 hours
Total labor cost for installation = 1.5 million INR
Table 5.2 Project cost of PV power plant of 2.5 MW capacity
S. No. Particular Million INR
1 Module cost 473.9
2 Array structure 23.12
3 Land cost 207.56
4 Electricals 32.30
5 Inverters 42.60
6 Batteries 22.50
7 Design, engineering and project management cost 1.00
8 Total labor cost for installation 1.50
9 Installation hardware – civil, shade, Fencing 5.00
10 Packing & Freight 0.50
Total 809.98
Operation and maintenance cost
Fixed O&M cost = INR 5.48 million [70]
Variable O&M cost = INR 4.95/ MWh [70]
92

5.1.9. Capacity factor
The capacity factor is a key driver of a solar PV plant‘s economics. With the majority
of the expense of a PV power plant being fixed capital cost, LCOE is strongly
correlated to the power plant‘s utilization. The annual capacity factor has already
calculated in chapter 4, similarly for the PV power plant capacity factor has been
calculated



CF = 23.96 %
5.1.10. Levelised cost of energy
Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) is equivalent to the average price consumers would
have to pay to exactly repay the investor for capital, O&M and fuel costs with a rate
of return equal to the discount rate. LCOE has been calculated in chapter 4, similarly
LCOE for PV power plant is calculated. For this SPV power plant LCOE is Rs 13.22 /
kWh, taking 25 years life of power plant @ 10 % discount rate.
Table 5.3 Levelised cost of energy for SPV plant for different discount rates and project life
Discount rate 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% 11% 12% 15%
Life of plant (years) LCOE (Rs/kWh)
25 10.16 10.88 11.64 12.42 13.22 14.04 14.88 17.49
20 11.02 11.71 12.42 13.16 13.92 14.70 15.49 17.97
15 12.53 13.18 13.86 14.55 15.26 15.99 16.73 19.05
5.1.11. Financial analysis
Four scenarios are considered for financial analysis of the project. The project is
analyzed for (i) Pre-tax scenario, (ii) Post-tax scenario, (iii) Pre-tax with equity and
(iv) Post-tax with equity.
In pretax scenario financial performance indicators for the project are determined
without considering the tax and duties. In table 5.4 financial analyses for pre-tax
scenario is given. The analysis is done for 25 year of plant operation. The net present
value of the project at 10% discount rate is Rs. 221.05 million and at 15% Rs. -45.36
million. Internal rate of return is 13.88%. 6.78 years is the payback period of the
project while 12.1 years is the discounted payback periods for 10% discount rate.
93

In table 5.5 financial analyses for post-tax scenario is given. 0% tax for first 10
years and 4% afterwards is specified for the solar power plant in Rajasthan. 7%
depreciation is considered for first 10 years and 1.33% afterwards [64]. The net
present value of the project at 10% discount rate is Rs. 209.84 million and at 15% Rs.
-50.68 million. Internal rate of return is 13.74%. 6.78 years is the payback period of
the project while 12.20 years is the discounted payback periods for 10% discount rate.
In table 5.6 equity analysis for pre-tax scenario is given. 70% of total
investment has been done by taking loan from bank. Loan term and interest rate is
taken as specified by World Bank. An additional cash flow i.e. installment of the bank
loan has come into the analysis. Annual installment is Rs. 90.47 million per annum.
The net present value of the project at 10% discount rate is Rs. 176.07 million and at
15% Rs. 21.21 million. Internal rate of return is 16.14%. 8.75 years is the payback
period of the project while 13.69 years and 19.56 years are the discounted payback
periods for 10% and 15% discount rate respectively.
In table 5.7 equity analysis for post-tax scenario is given. Here also 70% of
total investment has been done by taking loan from bank. In this case also annual
installment is Rs. 90.47 million per annum. The net present value of the project at
10% discount rate is Rs. 164.86 million and at 15% Rs. 15.90 million. Internal rate of
return is 15.87%. 8.57 years is the payback period of the project while 13.86 years
and 20.44 years are the discounted payback periods for 10% and 15% discount rate
respectively.
98

5.2. Off site solar photovoltaic power plant
As discussed in chapter 3 Sitapura industrial area is located in vicinity of Jaipur city.
There is scarcity of land near the city and the land which is available is very costly.
Looking to the scarcity and cost of the land near the city, off-site proposal of the
power plant has been considered in this section.
5.2.1. Total watt peak rating for PV modules
Total Watt peak rating for PV modules depends upon the panel generation factor of
the location (calculated in sec 5.1.1.). It has been calculated by Energy required from
PV modules and Panel generation factor.




5.2.2. Number of PV modules required
Number of PV modules required for the system can be calculated by PV module peak
rated output and total watt peak rating.





5.2.3. Inverter sizing
Inverter size for the PV power plant is depends on the total peak watts required to the
load.
Total wattage required in garment zone = 2.21 MW [Table 3.2]
The inverter must be large enough to handle the total amount of watts garment zone
will be using at one time. The inverter size should be 25-30% bigger than total watts
of appliances and machines. [65]

APOLLO GTC-1500 inverter is considered for the power plant.
99

Number of inverter = 2
Inverter wattage = 2×1500 = 3000 kW = 3MW
p

Number of Maximum power point tracker (MPPT) = 12 (6 MPPT in each inverter)
I nput from PV modules
MPPT tracking voltage range (V
mp
of PV string) = 400 to 700 V
dc
Maximum open circuit voltage = 780 V
dc

AC output to grid line
Grid line voltage = 380/400/415 Volt (L-L)
Phase = 3 phase 4 wires
Frequency = 50 Hz
Power limit = 110%
Efficiency
Peak > 96.3%
5.2.4. PV modules circuit
Maximum open circuit voltage = 780 V
dc

V
oc
of PV module = 51.6 V
dc
[Table 5.1]
Number of modules connected in series =

V
mp
of PV module = 42 V
dc
[Table 5.1]
Maximum power voltage V
mp
at inverter input = 16 × 42 = 672V
dc

Number of PV arrays of 672 Vdc =

5.2.5. Land required
Number of PV modules required = 19400 modules
Width of PV module or panel = 0.798 m
Length of PV module = 1.57 m
Number of modules in an array connected in series = 16 modules
Width of PV array = 16 × 0.798 = 12.768 m
Length of PV module = 1.57 m
Number of arrays in PV field = 1212 arrays
Number of arrays in a row = 16
100

Width of the solar field = 16 × 12.77 = 205 meters
Number of Rows in solar field = 76
Distance between two arrays = 3 meters [67]
Length of the solar field = 75 × 3 = 225 meters
Land Required for PV field = 205 × 225 = 46125 m
2
= 11.4 Acers
[1 Acer = 4047 m
2
]

Figure 5.4. Off-site solar PV power plant

Figure 5.5 Layout of solar PV field

101

5.2.6. Project cost
Module cost
Cost of PV modules = $ 528.9 /module [68]
Total module cost = $10530399
= INR 47.39 million
I nverter cost
Inverter cost = 21.3 million INR/inverter of 1.5MW capacity
Total inverter cost = 42.6 million INR
Design engineering and management cost
Labor cost for design, engineering and project management = Rs. 200/man hour
Design, engineering and project management hours per kW
p
= 2 hours [69]
Design, engineering and project management cost = 1.00 million INR
I nstallation labor cost
Labor cost for installation = Rs. 50 / man-hour
Installation man-hour required for per kW
p
= 12 hours
Total labor cost for installation = 1.5 million INR

Table 5.8 Project cost of PV power plant of 2.5 MW capacity
S. No. Particular Million INR
1 Module cost 473.9
2 Array structure 23.12
3 Electricals 32.30
4 Inverters 42.60
5 Design, engineering and project management cost 1.00
6 Total labor cost for installation 1.50
7 Installation hardware – civil, shade, Fencing 5.00
8 Packing & Freight 0.50
Total 579.92
5.2.6.1. Operation and maintenance cost
Fixed O&M cost = INR 5.48 million [70]
Variable O&M cost = INR 4.95/ MWh [70]
5.2.6.2. Open access charges
102

Open access charges have been already discussed in detail in Chapter 5. Net open
access charge for the power plant is Rs. 1.17/kWh. Open access charges have
calculated in Appendix K.
5.2.7. Capacity factor
The capacity factor is a key driver of a solar PV plant‘s economics. With the majority
of the expense of a PV power plant being fixed capital cost, LCOE is strongly
correlated to the power plant‘s utilization. The annual capacity factor has already
calculated in chapter 4, similarly for the PV power plant capacity factor has been
calculated



CF = 23.96 %
5.2.8. Levelised cost of energy
Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) is equivalent to the average price consumers would
have to pay to exactly repay the investor for capital, O&M and fuel costs with a rate
of return equal to the discount rate. LCOE has been calculated in chapter 4, similarly
LCOE for PV power plant is calculated. For this SPV power plant LCOE is Rs 9.68 /
kWh, taking 25 years life of power plant @ 10 % discount rate.
Table 5.9 Levelised cost of energy for SPV plant for different discount rates and project life
Discount rate 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% 11% 12% 15%
Life of plant (years) LCOE (Rs/kWh)
25 7.48 8.00 8.54 9.10 9.68 10.27 10.87 12.73
20 8.10 8.59 9.11 9.63 10.18 10.73 11.30 13.08
15 9.18 9.65 10.13 10.63 11.14 11.66 12.19 13.85
5.2.9. Financial analysis
Four scenarios are considered for financial analysis of the project. The project is
analyzed for (i) Pre-tax scenario, (ii) Post-tax scenario, (iii) Pre-tax with equity and
(iv) Post-tax with equity.
In pretax scenario financial performance indicators for the project are determined
without considering the tax and duties. In table 5.10 financial analyses for pre-tax
scenario is given. The analysis is done for 25 year of plant operation. The net present
value of the project at 10% discount rate is Rs. 351.32 million and at 15% Rs. 100.53
103

million. Internal rate of return is 18.38%. 5.26 years is the payback period of the
project while 7.90 years is the discounted payback periods for 10% discount rate.
In table 5.11 financial analyses for post-tax scenario is given. 0% tax for first
10 years and 4% afterwards is specified for the solar power plant in Rajasthan. 7%
depreciation is considered for first 10 years and 1.33% afterwards [64]. The net
present value of the project at 10% discount rate is Rs. 339.96 million and at 15% Rs.
95.14 million. Internal rate of return is 18.24%. 5.26 years is the payback period of
the project while 7.90 years is the discounted payback periods for 10% discount rate.
In table 5.12 equity analysis for pre-tax scenario is given. 70% of total
investment has been done by taking loan from bank. Loan term and interest rate is
taken as specified by World Bank. An additional cash flow i.e. installment of the bank
loan has come into the analysis. Annual installment is Rs. 64.77 million per annum.
The net present value of the project at 10% discount rate is Rs. 319.12 million and at
15% Rs. 148.19 million. Internal rate of return is 27.44%. 3.78 years is the payback
period of the project while 5.03 years and 6.10 years are the discounted payback
periods for 10% and 15% discount rate respectively.
In table 5.13 equity analysis for post-tax scenario is given. Here also 70% of
total investment has been done by taking loan from bank. In this case also annual
installment is Rs. 64.77 million per annum. The net present value of the project at
10% discount rate is Rs. 307.91 million and at 15% Rs. 142.88 million. Internal rate
of return is 27.25%. 3.78 years is the payback period of the project while 5.03 years
and 6.10 years are the discounted payback periods for 10% and 15% discount rate
respectively.
108

Chapter 6
Result and discussion
Significant findings of the study are categorized in technical, economical and
environmental aspects of solar thermal and SPV technologies for meeting the energy
requirements of garment zone of Sitapura industrial area of Jaipur. Electricity and
heat requirement of the garment zone has been studied for existing system through
fossil fuel based energy supply system through state electricity grid and using diesel
fired boilers for supplying of steam. In order to replace or reduce the use of fossil fuel
based energy system renewable energy sources have been proposed. In this study on-
site and off-site SPT based thermal plant, on-site and off-site solar PV plant and SPT
type steam supply and distribution system for meeting the energy requirement of the
garment zone have been proposed, designed and analyzed. Techno-economic analysis
of these systems have been carried out and compared with the existing energy
scenario of the garment zone. Proposed renewable energy systems are technologically
feasible and economically viable options along with substantial environmental
savings in terms of carbon emission as solar option is clean and green source of
energy.
6.1. Technical analysis
Heat and electricity requirement of the garment zone in existing system of forty four
working industries have been shown in table 6.1. Maximum monthly energy demand
is considered in the analysis as there is month wise variation in energy demand
throughout the year due to different weather conditions.
Monthly variation of the energy demand for garment zone and month wise availability
of solar resource in terms of solar irradiance is shown in figure 6.1.
Figure 6.1 (a) it is clear that solar irradiance is lower in month from June to
September due to monsoon. During this period energy requirement of the garment
zone also goes down due to off season shown in figure 6.1 (b). Curve between solar
irradiance and power requirement fig 6.1 (c) in garment zone shows that the proposed
solar systems are highly compatible with the garment industries.

109


(a) Month wise availability of solar resource in terms of solar irradiance
(b) Monthly variation of the energy demand for garment zone

Figure 6.1 (c) Variation in the energy demand of garment zone and solar resource with different
months
Table 6.1 Energy scenario of the garment zone in existing system
S. No. Detail Requirement Remarks
1 Total heat requirement in the
system
2100 kg/hour (steam) Heat generated individually by
the industries through steam
2 Steam supplied at pressure
and temperature
3kgf/cm
2
& 160˚C Using diesel fired boilers
3 Total power requirement in
the system
2.21 MW Supplied by grid
Alternative systems are designed for meeting the energy requirements of the garment
zone which termed as proposed system in the study. On-site and off-site solar thermal
and PV power plant and steam distribution system is designed for proposed system.
Design parameters for solar thermal power plant have been shown in table 6.2.
On-site SPT power plant has been designed considering its installment at the site of
Sitapura industrial area, Jaipur where average solar irradiance is 600W/m
2
while off-
site SPT power plant is proposed near Jodhpur where average solar irradiance is
617W/m
2
. Since power required from on-site and off-site power plant is the same i.e.
2.5MW but solar irradiance is slightly different. Due to this both on-site and off-site
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
S
o
l
a
r

I
r
r
a
d
a
n
c
e

(
k
W
h
/
m
2
/
d
a
y
)

Solar resource
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
P
o
w
e
r

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t

(
M
W
)

Power requirement
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Avg
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
P
o
w
e
r

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t

(
M
W
)

S
o
l
a
r

I
r
r
a
d
a
n
c
e

(
k
W
h
/
m
2
/
d
a
y
)

Solar resource Power requirement
110

power plant require different aperture area of SPT power plant. For on-site SPT plant
required aperture area is 19850 m
2
and for off-site SPT plant is 19160 m
2
which
results in 7.56 Solar Collector Assembly (SCA) loops for on-site plant and 7.30 SCA
loops for off-site plant and the required number of SCA loop is turn out to be 8 by
rounding off to the next integer.
Since the number of SCA loops required for off-site power plant is equal to the on-
site power plant therefore the other parameters of the off-site SPT plant will also be
identical to on-site STP plant. Thus technical specifications for both on-site and off-
site SPT power plants are similar.
Table 6.2 Design parameters of proposed solar PT type thermal power plant
S. No. Design parameter Size/Number
1 Aperture area required for solar field collectors
19850 m
2
(onsite) 19160 m
2
(off-site)
2 Number of Solar collector assembly Loops 8
3 Number of Solar collector assembly 32
4 Number of Solar collector elements 256
5 Number of Receiver tubes 768
6 Distance between two SCA rows 12 m
7 Land required for solar field 15.6 Acres
8 Area required for power block 300 m
2

9 Land required for solar power plant 15.76 Acres
10 Heat transfer fluid used Therminol VP-1
11 Mass flow rate of heat transfer fluid 40 kg/sec
12 Quantity of heat transfer fluid required 18.75 Ton
13
Tracking
system
Tracking East west single axis tracking
Actuator SkyTrakker
TM

Number of actuators required 32
14 Steam turbine capacity 2500 kW
15 Steam consumption in turbine 35.38 TPH
Solar photovoltaic power plant is also an alternative for proposed solar thermal
system. Design parameters for solar photovoltaic power plant have been shown in
table 6.3.
On-site power plant required a battery bank and decentralized inverter inside each
industry for their roof top PV panels and a centralized inverter for remaining on-field
111

PV panels as roof have not sufficient area for installation of PV panels. A charge
controller is used with MPPT before batteries to prevent battery overcharging. On-site
solar PV power plant is shown in figure 6.2.
For off-site SPV power plant no battery bank has used as all the power generated by
SPV plant is supplied to the grid simultaneously. Off-site plant employed a
centralized inverter for whole power plant with a step-up transformer as shown in
figure 6.3. For off-site power plant no charge controller is used with MPPT.

Figure 6.2 On-site solar PV power plant

Figure 6.3 Off-site solar PV power plant
112

Table 6.3 Design parameters of proposed solar photovoltaic power plant
S. No. Design parameters Quantity
1 Number of PV modules required 19400 modules
2 Inverter sizing (gross capacity) 3000 kW
3 Battery capacity (On-site plant only) 376634 Ah
4 Number of modules connected in series 16 modules
5 Number of PV arrays 1212 array
6 Land required 11.4 Acers
Solar steam generation and distribution system is designed for meeting the heating
requirement of the garment zone. Design parameters of solar steam generation and
distribution system have been shown in table 6.4.
Table 6.4 Design parameters of proposed solar steam generation and distribution system
S.No. Design parameters Quantity
1 Project area (does not include clearances and other
equipment)
7,277.65 m
2

2 Total project area 9000 m
2

3 Number of rows 16
4 Number of collectors per row 34
5 Working fluid Xceltherm-600
6 Flow through each row 53 l/min
7 Total System flow 848 l/min
8 Solar array outlet temperature 250 ˚C
9 Solar array inlet temperature 180 ˚C
10 Length of main pipe 1100 m
11 Diameter of main pipe 11.59 cm
12 Pressure and temperature of supplied steam 6 kgf/cm2, 200˚C
6.2. Financial analysis
Different economic methods are useful for economic and financial analysis of a
project like payback period, internal rate of return (IRR) net present value (NPV), and
capital yield ratio (CYR). IRR, NPV and payback period methods are used in this
present economic analysis of the systems.

113

Table 6.5 Comparison between Solar thermal and PV power plants
S
.

N
o
.

Financial Indicators
On site
solar
thermal
plant
Off site
solar
thermal
plant
On site
solar
PV
plant
Off site
solar
PV
plant
1
IRR pre tax (%)
20.38 26.75 13.88 18.38
2
IRR post tax (%)
19.21 25.31 13.74 18.24
3
Equity IRR pre tax (%)
33.27 53.46 16.14 27.44
4
Equity IRR post tax (%)
30.07 49.10 15.87 27.25
5
Simple payback
period (years)
pre tax
4.77 3.67 6.78 5.26
6
post tax
5.01 3.86 6.78 5.26
7
Equity pre tax
3.03 1.85 8.75 3.78
8
Equity post tax
3.38 2.01 8.57 3.78
9
Discounted
payback period
@10% (years)
pre tax
6.85 4.82 12.10 7.90
10
post tax
7.36 5.14 12.20 7.90
11
Equity pre tax
3.81 2.15 13.69 5.03
12
Equity post tax
4.36 2.37 13.86 5.03
13
Discounted
payback period
@15% (years)
pre tax
9.15 5.78 Never 11.43
14
post tax
10.20 6.24 Never 11.50
15
Equity pre tax
4.39 2.35 19.56 6.10
16
Equity post tax
5.12 2.60 20.44 6.10
17
Net Present Value
@10% DR
(million Rs)
pre tax
407.90 497.53 221.05 351.32
18
post tax
372.77 468.12 209.84 339.96
19
Equity pre tax
377.97 475.37 176.07 319.12
20
Equity post tax
342.88 446.00 164.86 307.91
21
Net Present Value
@15% DR
(million Rs)
pre tax
149.61 245.50 -45.36 100.53
22
post tax
121.13 222.81 -50.68 95.14
23
Equity pre tax
193.91 278.29 21.21 148.19
24
Equity post tax
168.53 257.89 15.90 142.88
Table 6.6 Average cost of electricity generation (Rs/kWh)
S.
No.
Average cost of electricity
generation (Rs/kWh)
On site solar
thermal plant
Off site solar
thermal
plant
On site
solar PV
plant
Off site
solar PV
plant
1
25 years basis
9.04 6.89 13.22 9.68
2
20 years basis
9.51 7.23 13.92 10.18
3
15 years basis
10.40 7.89 15.26 11.14
114

From the financial analysis off-site solar thermal power plant is selected among the
four proposed solar options. From table 6.5 it is found that off-site solar thermal
power plant has maximum IRR i.e. 26.75%, 25.31%, 53.46% and 49.10% for pre tax,
post tax, equity pre tax and equity post tax respectively. Also off-site solar thermal
power plant option has minimum payback period of 3.67 years undiscounted payback
period, 4.82 years @10% discount rate and 5.76 years @15% discount rate for pre tax
as well maximum NPV of 497.53 million INR. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) i.e.
average cost of electricity generation for off-site solar thermal power plant is Rs
6.89/kWh for 25 year basis, Rs 7.23/kWh for 20 years basis and Rs 7.89/kWh for 15
year basis which is minimum among all considered options as shown in table 6.6.
Table 6.7 Steam supply system
S
.

N
o
.


Financial Indicators
Only
steam
Only
electricity
Both
electricity &
steam
supply
1 IRR 21.60% 26.75% 25.71
2 Simple payback period (years) 4.70 3.67 3.85
3 Discounted payback period @10% (years) 6.51 4.82 5.10
4 Discounted payback period @15% (years) 8.30 5.78 6.17
5 Net Present Value @10% DR (million Rs) 83.76 497.53 581.30
6 Net Present Value @15% DR (million Rs) 34.18 245.50 279.67
6.3. Carbon emission analysis
Proposed system reduces the carbon emission as solar is clean and green source of
energy. In existing system carbon is emitted through required power generation and
steam generation (diesel). Total amount of carbon emission by existing system is
9877.2 T CO
2
/ year. Since the proposed system is completely green and clean source
of energy which has negligible carbon emission. The total emission in existing system
has been mitigated by the proposed system. Results of carbon emission analysis of the
system have been in table 6.8.



115

Table 6.8 Carbon emission analysis
S. No.
Description Carbon emission ( T CO
2
/ year)
Net carbon
emission
reduction
1 System Existing system
Proposed
solar system
2
Source of
emission
Diesel Electricity Total NIL
3 Quantity 3669.9 6207.3 9877.2 NIL 9877.2
The use of solar energy for meeting the electricity and heat requirement in garment
zone will eliminate substantial use of fossil fuel and bring 9880 tons of CO
2
emission
reduction into the environment.
116

Chapter 7
Conclusion
This study has been carried out to assess the technical feasibility and economic
viability of solar systems for a group of industries in comparison to existing fossil fuel
based energy system of garment zone of Sitapura industrial area. The estimated power
requirement of the zone was 2210 kW and heat requirement in terms of steam was
2100 kg/hr.
On site and off site solar parabolic trough collector power plant and solar photovoltaic
power plant of 2.5MW capacity for power generation and parabolic trough steam
generating plant for steam generation are considered in the study. For SPT type
thermal power plant solar field requires eight solar collector assembly loops and each
loop has four solar collector assemblies. The solar field can collect 9.2 MW solar
energy in terms of hot thermic fluid and this heat is transferred to power block by the
heat transfer fluid i.e. Therminol VP-1. 18750 kg of heat transfer fluid circulates in
the solar field at the flow rate of 40 kg/sec. This heat is transferred to tube-in-shall
type steam generator where steam is generated at 375˚C temperature and 103 bar
pressure at the rate of 10 kg/second. This high pressure and high temperature steam is
utilized in condensing type steam turbine for 2.5 MW power generation. on-site SPT
plant required 19850 m
2
aperture area. Looking to the scarcity and cost of the land
near the city, off-site proposal of the power plant has been considered. For off-site
SPT plant required aperture area is 19160 m
2
which results in 7.30 Solar Collector
Assembly (SCA) loops which turn out to be 8 by rounding off to the next numeral.
Since the number of SCA loops required for off-site power plant is equal to the on-
site power plant therefore the other parameters of the off-site SPT plant will also be
identical to on-site STP plant. Thus technical specifications for both on-site and off-
site SPT power plants are similar.
The on-site SPT power plant can generate 8.47 GWh/year in first year of operation at
38.58% capacity factor while off-site SPT plant can generate 8.87 GWh/year at
40.38% capacity factor. 0.5% annual degradation is considered. Cumulative
degradation after 25 years will be 11.01% in both on-site and off-site power plants.
Due to degradation output of the power plant slightly goes down, after 25 years the
117

estimate output will be 7.57 GWh/year for onsite power plant and 7.92 GWh/year for
off-site power plant. For 25 years of plant life and 10% discount rate Levelised Cost
of Energy (LCOE) for the on-site PTC plant is Rs 9.04 per kWh and for off-site PTC
plant is Rs 6.89 per kWh.
On-site and off-site solar photovoltaic power plants of 2.5 MW capacities are also
considered in the study. Required number of PV modules for SPV power plant is
19400 modules. On-site power plant required a battery bank and decentralized
inverter inside each industry for their roof top PV panels and a centralized inverter for
remaining on-field PV panels as roof have not sufficient area for installation of PV
panels. A charge controller is used with MPPT before batteries to prevent battery
overcharging. For off-site SPV power plant no battery bank has used as all the power
generated by SPV plant is supplied to the grid simultaneously. Off-site plant
employed a centralized inverter for whole power plant with a step-up transformer. For
off-site power plant no charge controller is used with MPPT.
For financial analysis Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Net Present Value (NPV) and
payback periods are taken as indicators of financial performance. Financial
performance indicators are analyzed for four financial cases i.e. Pre-tax analysis, Post-
tax analysis, Equity pre-tax analysis and equity post-tax analysis. Off site solar
parabolic trough collector plant is the best suitable for the selected garment zone.
From the financial analysis the project seems very attractive with 26.48% Post-tax
IRR and NPV of Rs 506 million.
Thus the use of solar energy for meeting the electricity and heat requirement in
garment zone will eliminate or reduce substantial use of fossil fuel and bring down
CO
2
emission reduction into the environment.

118

Recommendations
i. The results of the study show that off-site SPT power plant should be used in
place of existing system.
ii. If this study is carried for bigger size of group of industries the results can be
more feasible.
iii. Compact linear Fresnel reflector power plant can be considered for the zone as
it requires minimum land area among all the solar plants looking at the limited
land availability.
iv. This may be include in government energy policy to establish a new industrial
area with solar power generation for whole industrial area and also introduced
solar power plant in existing industries if possible.
v. Energy efficiency in industries of the zone should be considered.
vi. Proposed system can be used with other process industries such as paper
industry, dairy industry, chemical industry, food processing industry etc.

119

Publications
[1] Mevin Chandel, Dr. G D Agrawal, Anuj Mathur, Nanomaterial Based
Refrigeration Systems - Performance Enhancement Study, International
Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology (E-ISSN 0976-3945), Volume
3, Issue 2, April-June, 2012. (Published)
[2] Mevin Chandel, Dr. G D Agrawal, Anuj Mathur, Nano Material Based Solar
Photovoltaic and Thermal System, International Journal of Environmental
Sciences (ISSN 0976 – 4402), Volume 3, Issue 1/2, 2012. (Accepted)
[3] Mevin Chandel, G. D. Agrawal, Recent advancements in central receiver solar
tower, Journal of Engineering Research and Studies (E ISSN 0976-7916).
(Accepted)
[4] Mevin Chandel, Dr. G D Agrawal, Anuj Mathur, Recent advancements in
solar parabolic trough collector power plants - A review, International
foundation for Modern education and scientific research. (communicated)
[5] Mevin Chandel, Dr. G D Agrawal, Anuj Mathur, Recent Advancements in
Linear Fresnel Reflector Power Plants,
[6] Mevin Chandel, Dr. G D Agrawal, Anuj Mathur, Techno-economic analysis of
solar parabolic trough type energy system for garment zone of Jaipur city (to
be communicated)

120

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126

Appendix A: Industries detail
S. No. Industry Address (Garment zone)
1 Lodha Impex-1 E-100
2 Gupta Feb tech pvt. Ltd. E-102,103
3 Pawan Febtech E-96
4 The Choice fashion E-97
5 Ocean Exim India E-98
6 Harsha International E-99
7 Kailino Arts E-99A
8 Rupayan-1 F-106
9 Rupayan-2 F-107
10 Khatri Exports F-112
11 Miya bazaz F-122
12 Savi Exports F-190
13 Alacrity F-191
14 Shri Ram Omex F-192,193
15 Ratan Textile F-200,201
16 Paisley Industries F-202,203
17 Somani Fabric F-209,210
18 Shivangi Inc. Exports G1-146
19 Innovation G1-151
20 A & A Exports G1-156
21 Jalaj Exports G1-184,185
22 Priya International G-136
23 Sabby Exports G-137
24 Aravali Exports G-140
25 Hariram Exports G-143,144
26 S. K. India International G-148,149
27 M. K. Exim G-150
28 Lodha Impex-2 G-153,154
29 Jimmy Mode International G-157
30 NSPL IMPEX G-160
31 Garmef G-162
32 High Choice G-165
33 Nash Fashion G-169-170
34 Cheer Sagar G-171-173
35 Registan Exports G-174-176
36 Kagzi Exports G-177-179
37 Leela Niryat G-180
38 Suprint Textile G-181
39 Shekhawati Impex G-182
40 Goyal Arts G-52
41 MA'AM Arts G-84,85
42 Cot Fab India G-86
43 Arayavat G-87
44 Aman Exports G-93

127

Appendix B: Questionnaire
Date: ____________________
1. Name of Industry______________________________________________________
2. Address_____________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
3. Operating hours:
Single shift (8hr) 2 shifts (16Hrs) 3 Shifts (24hrs)
4. Production (units /year /month /day ) _____________________________________
5. Boiler Specifications:-
Boiler Make and year : _____________________________________
Type of Boiler : _____________________________________
Fuel Fired : _____________________________________
Rated Working Pressure : _____________________________________
6. Boiler operating hours/day : _____________________________________

7. Fuel Consumption Detail ( Last 2 year) (liters/kg/m
3
/ other ____________ )
Month Fuel Consumed Month Fuel Consumed Month Fuel Consumed
1 9 17
2 10 18
3 11 19
4 12 20

8. Number of steam press :________________________________
9. Operating hours of steam press :________________________________
10. Quantity of steam required/press :________________________________
11. Other heating load, if any :________________________________
128

12. Total heating load of industry (kCal/day or kWh/day) : _______________________
13. (For 2/3 shift industry)
Is use of steam constant in all the shifts? Yes No
Electricity
1. Sanction load : _____________________________________
2. Average load /day : _____________________________________
3. Total load of machines:
SN Name of machine Number of
machines
Load per
machine
Operating
hours
Total load
1 Sewing machine
2 Interlocking
machine

3 Steam press
Total
4. Total load of equipments
Total electrical load in industry per day : __________________________
5. Electricity Consumption Detail ( Last 2 year bills)
Month Electricity
Consumed
Month Electricity
Consumed
Month Electricity
Consumed
Month Electricity
Consumed
1 5 9 13
2 6 10 14
3 7 11 15
4 8 12 16

SN Name of Device Number of
Devices
Load per
Device
Operating
hours
Total load

129

Appendix C: Solar resource

Figure C.1 Comparison of Monthly Average Direct Normal Insolation at Horizontal surface for
Jaipur
Table C.1 Monthly Averaged Hourly Insolation data for Jaipur [54]
S.
N
o
Time (IST) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1 5:01- 6:00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 6:01- 7:00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 7:01- 8:00 0 0 72 455 511 399 222 133 160 73 14 0
4 8:01- 9:00 141 417 543 761 747 532 376 290 463 525 516 224
5 9:01-10:00 502 779 870 860 716 618 526 401 592 702 789 562
6 10:01-11:00 767 956 935 938 760 659 504 360 664 747 947 768
7 11:01-12:00 712 930 907 858 726 757 491 335 562 697 899 736
8 12:01-13:00 709 909 843 823 774 590 460 316 563 588 751 669
9 13:01-14:00 592 743 699 801 660 646 370 312 506 560 641 526
10 14:01-15:00 521 640 645 739 743 555 318 260 552 533 478 436
11 15:01-16:00 318 457 572 661 635 440 274 263 354 356 304 224
12 16:01-17:00 227 386 420 500 476 434 244 213 294 238 175 99
13 17:01-18:00 46 145 213 310 306 289 164 143 145 69 7 3
14 18:01-19:00 0 0 10 71 132 140 73 49 6 0 0 0
15 19:01-20:00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Avg
D
i
r
e
c
t

N
o
r
m
a
l

I
r
r
a
d
i
a
n
c
e

(
k
W
h
/
m
2
/
d
a
y
)

Month
Monthaly Average Direct Normal Insolation at
Horizontal surface
NASA
ISHRAE
SEC
EAI
130

Appendix D: Pipe sizing calculations
Diameter of pipe between steam generator and super heater
Specific volume of fluid (υ) = 0.01703 m
3
/kg [Section 4.1.4. (Point 3)]
Mass flow rate (ṁ) = 9.83 kg/s
Volume flow rate (Q) = ṁ × υ
= 9.83 × 0.01703
= 0.1674 m
3
/s
Flow velocity (V) = 30 m/s [59]
Volume flow rate (Q) = V × A
 Q = V ×

*

+

 √


 d=84.29 mm (Inner diameter)
Available standard diameter
Inner diameter = 84.8 mm
Outer diameter = 101.6 mm
Wall thickness = 8 mm
Strength testing
Permissible steam pressure on steel and iron pipes is given by:

P = 16.638 MN/m
2
P = 166.38 bar
Actual pressure applied inside pipe = 104 bar
131

Permissible pressure for the pipe is more than the actual applied pressure, so design is
safe.
Diameter of pipe between super heater and turbine inlet
Specific volume of fluid (υ) = 0.02365 m
3
/kg [Section 4.1.4. (Point 4)]
Mass flow rate (ṁ) = 9.83 kg/s
Volume flow rate (Q) = ṁ × υ
= 9.83 × 0.02365
= 0.2354 m
3
/s
Flow velocity (V) = 60 m/s [59]
Volume flow rate (Q) = V × A
 Q = V ×

 √


 d=70.68 mm (Inner diameter)
Available standard diameter
Inner diameter = 73.7 mm
Outer diameter = 88.9 mm
Wall thickness = 7.6 mm
Strength testing
Permissible steam pressure on steel and iron pipes is given by:

P = 17.88 MN/m
2
P = 178.8 bar
Actual pressure applied inside pipe = 102 bar
132

Permissible pressure for the pipe is more than the actual applied pressure, so design is
safe.
Diameter of pipe for Reheater inlet
Specific volume of fluid (υ) = 0.10514 m
3
/kg [Section 4.1.4. (Point 5)]
Mass flow rate (ṁ) = 9.83 kg/s
Volume flow rate (Q) = ṁ × υ
= 9.83 × 0.10514
= 1.0335 m
3
/s
Flow velocity (V) = 70 m/s [59]
Volume flow rate (Q) = V × A
 Q = V ×

 √


 d =142.29 mm (Inner diameter)
Available standard diameter
Inner diameter = 154.1 mm
Outer diameter = 168.3 mm
Wall thickness = 7.1 mm
Strength testing
Permissible steam pressure on steel and iron pipes of diameter more than 125 mm is
given by [60]:

P = 7.653 MN/m
2
P = 76.53bar
Actual pressure applied inside pipe = 18.5 bar
133

Permissible pressure for the pipe is more than the actual applied pressure, so design is
safe.
Diameter of pipe for reheater outlet
Specific volume of fluid (υ) = 0.1559 m
3
/kg [Section 4.1.4. (Point 6)]
Mass flow rate (ṁ) = 9.83 kg/s
Volume flow rate (Q) = ṁ × υ
= 9.83 × 0.1559
= 1.5324 m
3
/s
Flow velocity (V) = 60 m/s [59]
Volume flow rate (Q) = V × A
 Q = V ×

 √


 d=180.33 mm (Inner diameter)
Available standard diameter
Inner diameter = 178.42 mm
Outer diameter = 193.7 mm
Wall thickness = 7.64 mm
Strength testing
Permissible steam pressure on steel and iron pipes of diameter more than 125 mm is:

P = 7.430 MN/m
2
P = 74.30bar
Actual pressure applied inside pipe = 17.5 bar
134

Permissible pressure for the pipe is more than the actual applied pressure, so design is
safe.
Diameter of pipe before condenser
Specific volume of fluid (υ) = 1.0036 m
3
/kg [Section 4.1.4. (Point 7)]
Mass flow rate (ṁ) = 9.83 kg/s
Volume flow rate (Q) = ṁ × υ
= 9.83 × 1.0036
= 9.865 m
3
/s
Flow velocity (V) = 75 m/s [59]
Volume flow rate (Q) = V × A
 Q = V ×

 √


 d = 409.24 mm (Inner diameter)
Available standard diameter
Inner diameter = 391.6 mm
Outer diameter = 400 mm
Wall thickness = 4.2 mm
Strength testing
Permissible steam pressure on steel and iron pipes of diameter more than 125 mm is
given by:

P = 1.19 MN/m
2
P = 11.9bar
Actual pressure applied inside pipe = 0.2 bar
135

Permissible pressure for the pipe is more than the actual applied pressure, so design is
safe.
Diameter of pipe between condenser and preheater
Specific volume of fluid (υ) = 0.00104 m
3
/kg [Section 4.1.4. (Point 1)]
Mass flow rate (ṁ) = 9.83 kg/s
Volume flow rate (Q) = ṁ × υ
= 9.83 × 0.00104
= 0.010223 m
3
/s
Flow velocity (V) = 20 m/s [59]
Volume flow rate (Q) = V × A
 Q = V ×

 √


 d =25.51 mm (Inner diameter)
Available standard diameter
Inner diameter = 24.3 mm
Outer diameter = 33.4 mm
Wall thickness = 4.55 mm
Strength testing
Permissible steam pressure on steel and iron pipes is given by:

P = 23.4493 MN/m
2
P = 234.493bar
Actual pressure applied inside pipe = 112 bar
Permissible pressure for the pipe is more than the actual applied pressure, so design is
safe.
136

Heat transfer fluid pipe diameter
Mass flow rate of heat transfer fluid (ṁ) = 39.3 kg/s [Refer section 4.1.2.(F)]
Density of Therminol VP – 1 (ρ) = 815 kg/m
3
[58]


Volume flow rate (Q) =

=

= 0.0482 m
3
/s
Flow velocity (V) = 20 m/s
Volume flow rate (Q) = V × A
 Q = V ×

 √


 D =55.4 mm (Inner diameter)
Available standard diameter
Inner diameter = 54.7 mm
Outer diameter = 60.3 mm
Wall thickness = 2.8 mm
Strength testing
Permissible steam pressure on steel and iron pipes is given by:

 P = 4.477 MN/m
2
 P = 44.77 bar
Actual pressure applied inside pipe = 19 bar
Permissible pressure for the pipe is more than the actual applied pressure, so design is
safe.

137

Appendix E: Calculations for pipe insulation
Mineral wool is used as insulation. Properties of mineral wool vary according to
temperature. Thermal conductivity of mineral wool at different temperatures is given
in table 4.11.
Table E.1 Thermal conductivity of mineral wool at different temperatures
S. No. Temperature (˚C) Thermal conductivity (W/m ˚C)
1 100 0.04
2 200 0.06
3 300 0.08
4 400 0.11
Mean temperature of insulation (for calculating thermal conductivity)

Thermal conductivity of insulation at mean temperature T
m
is taken from table 4.11.
k = 0.06 W/m˚C
Heat transfer coefficient
Heat transfer coefficient has been calculated by the following empirical relation
(

) (W/m
2
K) [74]
where,
h = Heat transfer coefficient (W/m
2
K)
T
a
= Average ambient temperature (˚C)
T
h
= Hot surface temperature (˚C)
( )
h = 21.2 W/m
2
K
Surface thermal resistance (R
s
)
R
s
=

Now heat flow from the pipe surface and the ambient can be expressed as follows
Heat flow (H)

138

Where,
R
1
= Thermal resistance of insulation
R
s
= Surface thermal resistance
From last two terms of the above equation

˚C-m
2
/W
Thermal resistance of insulation (R
1
)
R
1
=

˚C-m
2
/W
Where,
t
k
= thickness of insulation
k = thermal conductivity of insulation

Thickness of insulation material should be kept 28 mm.

139

Appendix F: Heat loss from pipes
(i) Heat loss from heat transfer fluid pipe
Heat loss from per unit surface area

From plant layout (figure 4.9) length of the heat transfer fluid pipe has been
calculated. Length of the pipe is twice the width of the field plus length of the
connecting pipes between second and third solar collector assembly of each loop.
Length of pipe = (276×2) + (12×8) = 648 meters
Diameter of pipe = 0.0603 meter
Heat transfer area = Perimeter of pipe × length of pipe


Heat loss from the pipe = Heat loss from per unit surface area× Heat transfer area
= 696.23×122.75 = 85466.30 W or 85.47 kW
(ii) Heat loss from steam flow pipe between preheater and steam
generator
Heat loss from per unit surface area

here,
T
h
= 315˚C
R
s
=

[h = (

) = 17.35 W/m
2
˚C]
R
s
=

= 0.058 ˚C-m
2
/ W
R
1
=

= 0.4668 ˚C-m
2
/ W [Calculated in Appendix E]

140

Length of pipe = 3 meters
Diameter of pipe = 0.042 meter
Heat transfer area = Perimeter of pipe ×length of pipe

Heat loss from the pipe = Heat loss from per unit surface area× Heat transfer area

= 539.39×0.396 = 213.51 W = 0.213 kW
(iii) Heat loss from steam flow pipe between steam generator and super
heater
Heat loss from per unit surface area

[Calculated in (ii) part]
Length of pipe = 2 meters
Diameter of pipe = 0.1016 meter
Heat loss from the pipe = Perimeter of pipe ×length of pipe × Heat loss from per unit
area
= 0.344 kW
(iv) Heat loss from steam flow pipe after super heater
Heat loss from per unit surface area

here,
T
h
= 375˚C
R
s
=

[h = (

) = 20.35 W/m
2
˚C]
R
s
=

= 0.049 ˚C-m
2
/ W
R
1
=

= 0.4668 ˚C-m
2
/ W [Calculated in Appendix E]

Length of pipe = 6 meters
Diameter of pipe = 0.0889 meter
Heat transfer area = Perimeter of pipe ×length of pipe
141

Heat loss from the pipe = Heat loss from per unit surface area× Heat transfer area

= 664.73×1.67 = 1.1 kW
(v) Heat loss from pipe before reheater
Heat loss from per unit surface area

[Calculated in (ii) part]
Length of pipe = 9.5 meters
Diameter of pipe = 0.1683 meter
Heat loss from the pipe = Perimeter of pipe ×length of pipe × Heat loss from per unit
area

(vi) Heat loss from steam flow pipe after reheater
Heat loss from per unit surface area

here,
T
h
= 371˚C
R
s
=

[h = (

) = 20.35 W/m
2
˚C]
R
s
=

= 0.049 ˚C-m
2
/ W
R
1
=

= 0.4668 ˚C-m
2
/ W [Calculated in Appendix E]

Length of pipe = 9.5 meters
Diameter of pipe = 0.1937 meter
Heat transfer area = Perimeter of pipe ×length of pipe

Heat loss from the pipe = Heat loss from per unit surface area× Heat transfer area

= 664.73×5.78 = 3842.8 W
= 3.84 kW
142

Appendix G: Quotations from different suppliers


143

Appendix H
Table H.1. Financial Year 2010-11 Renewable Purchase Obligation specified by State Electricity
Regulation Commissions (SERC)
S. No. State Wind % Solar % Other % Total %
1 Gujarat 4.50 0.25 0.25 5.00
2 Maharashta 0.25 5.75 6.00
3 Uttaranchal 0.25 3.75 4.00
4 Manipur 0.25 1.75 2.00
5 Mizoram 0.25 4.75 5.00
6 Jammu & Kashmir 1.00
7 Uttar Pradesh 0.25 3.75 4.00
8 Tripura 0.10 0.90 1.00
9 Jharkhand 0.25 1.75 2.00
10 Himachal Pradesh 10.10
11 Orissa 4.50
12 Assam
1.40
(draft)
13 Tamil Nadu 14.00
14 Delhi 1.00
15 Andra Pradesh 5.00
16 Karnataka 11.00
17 West Bengal 10.00
18 Rajasthan 9.50
19 Madhya Pradesh 10.00
20 Punjab 4.00
21 Haryana 10.00


144

Appendix I: Operational framework for the REC mechanism
Steps of operational framework for the REC mechanism
Step 1: Electricity Generation and Feeding to the Grid
Step 2: Request for issuance of REC
Step 3: Confirmation of Electricity Generation
Step 4: Creation and Issuance of RECs
Step 5: REC Sale by RE Generator
Step 6: Surrender/Redeeming of RECs
Step 7: Compliance Reporting
The schematic of operational framework for the REC mechanism is shown in figure
I.1

Figure I.1. Operational framework of REC mechanism

145

Appendix J: Price and Charges of REC
Table J.1 Floor and forbearance price of REC
Floor and forbearance price applicable from 1st June 2010 to 31st March 2012
Non Solar REC (INR/MWh) Solar REC (INR MWh)
Forbearance Price 3,900 17,000
Floor Price 1,500 12,000
Floor and forbearance price applicable from 1st April 2012, valid till FY 2016-17
Non Solar REC (INR) Solar REC (INR)
Forbearance Price 3,300 13,400
Floor Price 1,500 9,300
Table J.2 Fees and Charges for REC (INR)
Fee and Charges towards Accreditation Amount
Processing Fees (One Time) 5,000
Accreditation Charges (One Time) 30,000
Annual Charges 10,000
Revalidation Charge at the end of five (5) years 15,000
Fee and Charges towards Registration Amount
Processing Fees (One Time) 1,000
Registration Charges (One Time) 5,000
Annual Charges 1,000
Revalidation Charge at the end of five (5) years 5,000
Fee and Charges towards Issuance of REC Amount
Fees per Certificate 10


146


Figure J.1 Sample renewable energy certificate

147

Appendix K: Open Access Charges calculation
Base Energy Consumption (X) = 738961 kWh/month
Power Purchase cost assumed (Y) = 4 Rs./kWh
Duration = 1 Month
Load (Z) = 2.5MW

Particular Charges in Rs.
Transmission charges rate (Rs./MW/month) A 94780
Transmission charges (Rs./month) B = A×Z 236950
Wheeling charges rate (Rs./kWh) C 0.11
Wheeling charges (Rs./month) D = C × X 81286
Operating Charge (SLDC Charges) (Rs./MW/day) E 100
Total operating charges F = E×Z×30days 7500
Reactive energy charges (paisa/kVArh) G 5.50
Cross subsidy surcharge rate (Rs/kWh) H 0.38
Cross subsidy surcharge (Rs) I = H × X 280805
OA Application Registration fee (Rs. / year) J 5000
Total open Access Charges K = B+D+F+I 606541
Effective Open Access Charges (Rs./kWh) L = K / X 0.82

Net Open Access Charges calculation
Wheeling loss (%) M 3.80
Energy injected into system (kWh) N = X/(1-M/100) 768151
Transmission loss (%) O 4.40
Energy injected into system at G>T (kWh) P=N/(1-O/100) 803505
Loss (kWh) Q=P-X 64544
Loss in Rs. R=Q×Y 258176
Loss (Rs./kWh) S = R /X 0.35
Effective Open Access Charges (Rs./kWh)* T 0.82
Net OA Charge (Rs./kWh) U = S + T 1.17


148

Appendix L: Basic structure and cell surface structure of the HIT cell
Basic Structure of a HIT Cell

HIT Structure of the Cell Surface

149

Appendix M: Steam mass flow rate of distribution pipe
S.
No

Industry Pipe diameter
for steam flow
(mm)
Available
standard
diameter (mm)
Actual mass flow rate
according to available dia. of
pipe (kg/hr)
1 A & A Exports 14.8 15.7 31.47
2 Alacrity 26.1 26.6 91.34
3 Aman Exports 25.6 26.6 91.34
4 Aravali Exports 7.4 7.7 7.57
5 Arayavat 20.27 20.9 56
6 Cheer Sagar 26.5 26.6 91.34
7 Cot Fab India 18.3 18.9 45.6
8 Garmef 15.7 15.7 31.47
9 Goyal Arts 19.59 20.9 56
10 Gupta Feb tech pvt. Ltd. 28.33 34.1 148.46
11 Hariram Exports 14.8 15.7 31.47
12 Harsha International 16.55 18.9 45.6
13 High Choice 26.5 26.6 91.34
14 Innovation 21.58 24.2 74.77
15 Jalaj Exports 10.47 10.7 14.61
16 Jimmy Mode Int. 13.8 13.9 24.66
17 Kagzi Exports 17.36 18.9 45.6
18 Kailino Arts 16.55 18.9 45.6
19 Khatri Exports 10.47 10.7 14.61
20 Leela Niryat 18.3 18.9 45.6
21 Lodha Impex-1 40.55 40.9 213.58
22 Lodha Impex-2 26.5 26.6 91.34
23 M. K. Exim 10.47 10.7 14.61
24 MA'AM Arts 25.6 26.6 91.34
25 Miya bazaz 14.8 15.7 31.47
26 Nash Fashion 23.41 24.2 74.77
27 NSPL IMPEX 7.4 7.7 7.57
28 Ocean Exim India 20.27 20.9 56
29 Paisley Industries 7.4 7.7 7.57
30 Pawan Febtech 18.3 18.9 45.6
31 Priya International 7.4 7.7 7.57
32 Ratan Textile 20.27 20.9 56
33 Registan Exports 16.55 18.9 45.6
34 Rupayan-1 16.55 18.9 45.6
35 Rupayan-2 13.8 13.9 24.66
36 S. K. India International 12.8 13.9 24.66
37 Sabby Exports 10.47 10.7 14.61
38 Savi Exports 10.47 10.7 14.61
39 Shekhawati Impex 10.47 10.7 14.61
40 Shivangi Inc. Exports 10.47 10.7 14.61
41 Shri Ram Omex 33.11 34.1 148
42 Somani Fabric 20.9 20.9 56
43 Suprint Textile 15.7 15.7 31.5
44 The Choice fashion 18.3 18.9 45.6
Total 2261.93