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Human activities take place on a spatial matrix largely defined by three types of

transportation networks. These involve matter (streets, roads, highways, railways,

and airport networks), energy (the power grid) and information (Internet,

telephone networks). One of the oldest human-made webs is the city. At a lower

scale, whether in parts of a large modern city or in smaller settlements,

decentralized growth of human settlements, then the street networks are

observed throughout the whole history of the city. Many of these networks do

not result from a planning process; rather they emerge or evolve in an

incremental way through a physical process involving local aggregation rule or

demand. It follows that in many cases, the resulting topologies are complex and

deviate from simple regular patterns such as square-grids. The common traits of

such street networks are largely unknown and their quantitative description is

lacking.

As discussed by some authors, two key requirements need to be fulfilled in road

networks, namely avoid large detours and reduce the cost, which are assumed

proportional to the length of the paths. Using Boltzmann and Darwinian

strategies, optimal solutions can be found. Such methods deal with global energy

functions, and require solving a class of frustrated optimization problems. Not

surprisingly, the optimal networks are somewhere located between two extreme

situations. A different approach, which we take here, is to explore the topological

organization of street networks as a static object. Such an approach is of value in

those cases where no evidence for a planned building is at work (and thus no

global optimization is involved). In this case, the network is the result of local

decisions performed by a distributed set of individuals who made their decisions

based on multiple constraints, not necessarily associated to global detour lengths

or efficient traffic.

In this paper, we make use of graph theory as a powerful tool to characterize and

determine the topological properties of street network of non-planned

settlements of Kavre district.

Image of Road Network: Kavre

Equivalent representation of the network:

LEGEND

Branch Link

Node (Important place)

Scheer Memorial

Hospital

Naya Basti

Tribhuvan Chowk

Spinal

Injury Child

Hospital

Kathmandu

University

Dhulikhel

IT Park

Bansdol

Panauti Bus Park

/ Malpi College

5.95

2.44

1.03

0.58

4.25

2

1.79

1.54

1.18

4.34

4.11

Data of Street Network

We have the network road of Kavre District extracted from the google earth. The

selected network encompasses the obligatory points as settlement areas,

hospitals, academic centers and bus parks, i.e the edges and nodes correspond

exclusively to public spaces. The main characteristics of the network, number of

nodes n, mean degree k, average path length and assortativity coefficient T are

shown in table.

Topological Patterns and Analysis

Street networks can be described by an embedded planar graph G = (V,E) where

V = {(vi,xi, yi), (i = 1, . . . ,n)} is the set of n nodes characterized by their (x, y)

position and diameter, and E = {(v

i

, v

j

)} the set of m edges/connections between

nodes and characterized by their length d

ij

. The edges correspond to sub-sections

of streets connecting two nodes. The nodes correspond to the squares, the

intersections between streets and their dead ends.

The three topological measures are namely degree, path length and clustering

coefficient are briefly describe here. For a vertex or node, its degree is the

number of other vertices directly connected to it. The average of degree of all

individual nodes is that of the graph. Formally it is defined by:

Path length of a graph is to measure how compact a graph is. For a graph, if every

vertex is connected to every other, then it is very compact, thus the smallest path

Node

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Node Name

Tribhuwan

Chowk

Nayabasti

Sheer

Memorial

Spinal

Injury

Dhulikhel Bansdol

KTM

Universtiy

IT Park

Panauti

Buspark

(d

Eucl

/dij)

E

dij - 1.03 0.58 2.44 3.79 5.95 2 1.54 5.88

d

Eucl

- 0.93 0.5 1.15 2.9 3.57 1.77 1.42 4.88

d

Eucl

/dij 0.9029126 0.47131 0.765172 0.6 0.885 0.922078 0.829932 5.376 0.075

dij 1.03 - 1.61 3.47 4.82 6.98 3.03 2.57 6.91

d

Eucl

0.93 - 1.03 0.83 3.87 3.38 2.69 2.23 5.38

d

Eucl

/dij 0.9029126 0.23919 0.802905 0.48424 0.88778878 0.867704 0.778582 4.963 0.069

dij 0.58 1.61 - 3.02 4.37 6.53 2.58 2.12 6.46

d

Eucl

0.5 1.03 - 1.55 2.92 4.05 1.91 1.77 5.31

d

Eucl

/dij 0.862069 0.6397516 0.51325 0.668192 0.62021 0.74031008 0.834906 0.821981 5.701 0.079

dij 2.44 3.47 3.02 - 6.23 8.39 4.44 3.98 8.32

d

Eucl

1.15 0.83 1.55 - 3.91 2.59 2.77 2.01 4.66

d

Eucl

/dij 0.4713115 0.2391931 0.513245 0.627608 0.3087 0.62387387 0.505025 0.560096 3.849 0.053

dij 3.79 4.82 4.37 6.23 - 9.74 1.79 2.97 7.31

d

Eucl

2.9 3.87 2.92 3.91 - 5.6 1.24 2.21 4.92

d

Eucl

/dij 0.7651715 0.8029046 0.6681922 0.62761 0.57495 0.69273743 0.744108 0.673051 5.549 0.077

dij 5.95 6.98 6.53 8.39 9.74 - 7.95 7.49 4.11

d

Eucl

3.57 3.38 4.05 2.59 5.6 - 4.43 3.45 3.47

d

Eucl

/dij 0.6 0.4842407 0.6202144 0.3087 0.574949 0.5572327 0.460614 0.844282 4.450 0.062

dij 2 3.03 2.58 4.44 1.79 7.95 - 1.18 5.52

d

Eucl

1.77 2.69 1.91 2.77 1.24 4.43 - 1.01 4.32

d

Eucl

/dij 0.885 0.8877888 0.7403101 0.62387 0.692737 0.55723 0.855932 0.782609 6.025 0.084

dij 1.54 2.57 2.12 3.98 2.97 7.49 1.18 - 4.34

d

Eucl

1.42 2.23 1.77 2.01 2.21 3.45 1.01 - 3.66

d

Eucl

/dij 0.9220779 0.8677043 0.8349057 0.50503 0.744108 0.46061 0.8559322 0.843318 6.034 0.084

dij 5.88 6.91 6.46 8.32 7.31 4.11 5.52 4.34 -

d

Eucl

4.88 5.38 5.31 4.66 4.92 3.47 4.32 3.66 -

d

Eucl

/dij 0.829932 0.7785818 0.8219814 0.5601 0.673051 0.84428 0.7826087 0.843318 6.134 0.085

Sum 48.081 0.668

Table 2

5

6

7

8

9

Dhulikhel

Bansdol

KTM

Universtiy

IT Park

Panauti

Buspark

Tribhuwan

Chowk

1

2

3

4

Nayabasti

Sheer

Memorial

Spinal Injury

length. On the other hand, if all the vertices are connected as a linear chain, then

it is organized in a very loose way with the largest path length. Formally path

length is defined as:

where d(i, j) denotes the distance between two vertices i and j , which is the

minimum length of the paths that connect the two vertices, i.e., the length of a

graph geodesic. This can be determined through the procedures any shortest path

problem.

Clustering coefficient is to measure the clustering degree of a graph. It is the

probability that two neighbors of a given node are linked together, i.e., a ratio of

the number of actual edges to that of possible edges. The average clustering

coefficient of individual vertices is that of their graph, i.e.,

c(G) =

Degree correlations

Another important quantity of a network is the correlation between the degree of

connected vertices. In fact, it may happen either that high-degree nodes are

preferentially attached to other high-degree nodes, or that they are connected to

the low-degree ones. Degree correlations were estimated by calculating the

assortativity coefficient as proposed by Newman. It is defined as:

where j

i

and k

i

are the degrees of the vertices at the ends of the i

th

edge, with i =

1, . . . , m, c = 1/m and m being the number of edges. When T = 0, nodes are

connected independently from their neighbor degree. T >0 indicate an assortative

network where nodes with a given degree connect preferentially with nodes

having similar degrees, while T <0 corresponds to disassortative networks where

nodes connect preferentially with nodes having a different degree to them.

Network efficiency

The efficiency(E) of a network represents the efficiency of flow within the

network, namely how easily it is to get from one node to another. The local

measure of efficiency, for a pair of nodes I and j, is the ratio of the Euclidean

distance d

ij

Eucl

to the distance along the shortest path through the network d

ij

.

The global efficiency of the network is the average value of efficiency for every

pair of nodes, and is given by the formula:

Network Robustness

Beyond the efficiency associated to a given network topology, an additional and

complementary approach is the analysis of fragility against random failures. For

road networks, failures can consist in streets interrupted by landslides, floods,

crumbled buildings, or by more temporary events such as demonstrations.

The robustness of a network is measured by studying how it becomes fragmented

as a fraction of nodes is removed. The network fragmentation is usually measured

as the fraction of nodes contained by the largest connected component.

Fragmentation

The degree of fragmentation F of the network is defined as the ratio between the

numbers of pairs of nodes that are not connected in the fragmented network to

the possible number of pairs in the original fully connected network. Suppose

there are m clusters in the fragmented network, since all members of a cluster

are, by definition, mutually reachable, the measure F can be written as follows

Here, N

j

is the number of nodes in cluster j, m is number of clusters in the

fragmented network, and N the number of nodes in the original fully connected

network. For an undamaged network, F = 0. For a totally fragmented network, F =

1. The quantity C defined in the equation can be regarded as the connectivity of

the network. When C = 1 the network is fully connected while for C = 0 it is fully

fragmented.

The problem is defined as finding the statistical properties of the fragmented

networks after removing nodes (or links) from the original fully connected

network using a certain strategy. Many different removal strategies have been

developed for various purposes, e.g., mimicking the real world network failures,

improving the effectiveness of network disintegration, etc. Examples include

random removal (RR) strategy, the high degree removal (HDR) strategy and the

high centrality removal strategy. Given their spatially extended character and

decentralized origins, the removal of high degree nodes has an important impact

on network reliability, hence the robustness. Conversely, removal of low degree

nodes has little effects.

Results and Discussions

The value of cluster coefficient, 0.233 shows that network is not clustered or

many of this network nodes are not common. It depicts that the links between

nodes are minimum. Assortativity coefficient is less than zero (-0.55) means that

nodes connect preferentially with nodes having a different degree to them, which

is as expected for our network. Global efficiency of network is calculated to be

0.668, i.e about 67% is efficient. Node 1 has high degree or more specifically node

1 t has high betweenness centrality. If this node is removed, the degree of

fragmentation of network, is 0.722 and when other nodes are removed is 0.222.

This suggest the network is more vulnerable if node 1 has any disruptions or this

node has serious impact on network reliability. While the removal of other nodes

have not such significance. Thus corrective measures may be taken to enhance

the robustness of the transport system. These measures include the introduction

of a certain redundancy or spare capacity into the system and minimize the

interdependency of system components or link. Here it is to make node 1 free

from disturbance and build its alternative routes.

Further works

Here network topological patterns are determined and its efficiencies and

reliability is analyzed through static indicators. However reliability and robustness

of road network shall be analyzed by road features such as road traffic capacity,

traffic volume, travel time, cost and dynamic characteristics of traffic flow such as

difference of traffic volume in each links, sudden change in demand or supply,

sudden disruption, accidents etc, behavior of drivers etc.

References

www.kuleuven.be/traffic/dwn/P2004F.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assortativity

borgatti - NAS - The Key Player Problem 3

B. Jiang, 2007. A topological pattern of urban street networks: universality and peculiarity. Phys.

A. 384, 647655.

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