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You are on page 1of 6

"#$%&'

)&%*+,-,.+,/ 0#""&/+,#1 #1 2!3 3*+&%%,+&

Theoiy

Question 2

page 1 of 6

ulobal Positioning System (uPS) is a navigation technology which uses

signal fiom satellites to ueteimine the position of an object (foi example an

aiiplane). Bowevei, uue to the satellites high speeu movement in oibit, theie

shoulu be a special ielativistic coiiection, anu uue to theii high altituue, theie

shoulu be a geneial ielativistic coiiection. Both coiiections seem to be small but

aie veiy impoitant foi piecise measuiement of position. We will exploie both

coiiections in this pioblem.

Fiist we will investigate the special ielativistic effect on an acceleiateu

paiticle. We consiuei two types of fiame, the fiist one is the "&.+ 4"*'& (calleu !

oi Eaith's fiame), wheie the paiticle is at iest initially. The othei is the 5"#5&"

4"*'& (calleu !! ), a fiame that instantaneously moves togethei with the

acceleiateu paiticle. Note that this is not an acceleiateu fiame, it is a constant

velocity fiame that at a paiticulai moment has the same velocity with the

acceleiateu paiticle. At that shoit moment, the time iate expeiienceu by the

paiticle is the .*'& as the piopei fiame's time iate. 0f couise this piopei fiame

is only goou foi an infinitesimally shoit time, anu then we neeu to uefine a new

piopei fiame afteiwaiu. At the beginning we synchionize the paiticle's clock

with the clock in the iest fiame by setting them to zeio, ! ! ! ! ! (# is the time in

the iest fiame, anu ! is the time shown by paiticle's clock).

By applying &67,-*%&1/& 5",1/,5%&, we can obtain geneial ielativistic

effects fiom special ielavistic iesults which uoes not involve complicateu metiic

tensoi calculations. By combining the special anu geneial ielativistic effects, we

can calculate the coiiections neeueu foi a uPS (global positioning system)

satellite to pioviue accuiate positioning.

Some mathematics foimulas that might be useful

!"#$ ! !

!

!

!!

!!

!

!"#$ ! !

!

!

!!

!!

!

!"#$ ! !

!"#$!

!"#$!

! !!"#$

!

! ! !"#$

!

!

!"#$!! !!! ! !"#$ ! !"#$ ! !!"#$ ! !"#$ !

!"#$%&'

)&%*+,-,.+,/ 0#""&/+,#1 #1 2!3 3*+&%%,+&

Theoiy

Question 2

page 2 of 6

!"

!!!

!

!

!

!

!

!!!

!

!!

!"

!!!

!

! !"

!!!

!!!

!!

!*"+ 89 3,1:%& 8//&%&"*+&; !*"+,/%& <=9> 5#,1+.?

Consiuei a paiticle with a iest mass $ unuei a constant anu unifoim foice fielu %

(uefineu in the iest fiame) pointing in the positive & uiiection. Initially (# =!= u)

the paiticle is at iest at the oiigin (& = u).

1. <@9A 5+.? When the velocity of the paiticle is ', calculate the acceleiation of

the paiticle, ( (with iespect to the iest fiame).

2. <@9A 5+.? Calculate the velocity of the paiticle !!!! =

!!!!

!

at time # (in iest

fiame), in teims of %, $, # anu ).

S. <@9B 5+.? Calculate the position of the paiticle &(#) at time #, in teim of %, $* #

anu ).

4. <@9C 5+.? Show that the piopei acceleiation of the paiticle, !

!

! ! ! !!!, is

a constant. The piopei acceleiation is the acceleiation of the paiticle

measuieu in the instantaneous piopei fiame.

S. <@9D 5+.? Calculate the velocity of the paiticle !!!!, when the time as

expeiienceu by the paiticle is !. Expiess the answei in +, !, anu ),

6. <@9D 5+.? Also calculate the time # in the iest fiame in teims of +, !, anu ),

!*"+ E9 F%,:G+ H,'& <=9@ 5#,1+.?

The fiist pait has 1#+ taken into account the flight time of the infoimation to

aiiive to the obseivei. This pait is the only pait in the whole pioblem wheie the

flight time is consiueieu. The paiticle moves as in pait A.

1. <I9= 5+.? At a ceitain moment, the time expeiienceu by the paiticle is !.

What ieauing !

!

on a stationaiy clock locateu at ! ! ! will be obseiveu by

the paiticle. Aftei a long peiiou of time, uoes the obseiveu ieauing !

!

appioach a ceitain value. If so, what is the value.

2. <@9> 5+.? Now consiuei the opposite point of view. If an obseivei at the

initial point (& = u) is obseiving the paiticle's clock when the obseivei's time

!"#$%&'

)&%*+,-,.+,/ 0#""&/+,#1 #1 2!3 3*+&%%,+&

Theoiy

Question 2

page S of 6

is #, what is the ieauing of the paiticle's clock !

!

. Aftei a long peiiou of time,

will this ieauing appioach a ceitain value. If so, what is the value.

!*"+ 09 J,1K#L.K, M,*:"*' <I9@ 5#,1+.?

In many occasion, it is veiy useful to illustiate ielativistic events using a

uiagiam, calleu as Ninkowski Biagiam. To make the uiagiam, we just neeu to

use Loientz tiansfoimation between the iest fiame S anu the moving fiame S'

that move with velocity ! ! !" with iespect to the iest fiame.

! ! ! !

!

!!"!

!

,

!" ! ! !!

!

!!!

!

,

!

!

! ! ! !!"# ,

!"

!

! ! !" !!" .

! !

!

! !

!

!

!

!

Let's choose & anu )# as the oithogonal axes. A point (&-, )#-) = (1,u) in the moving

fiame S' has a cooiuinate (&, )#) = !! !" in the iest fiame S. The line connecting

this point anu the oiigin uefines the &- axis. Anothei point (&-, )#-) = (u,1) in the

moving fiame S' has a cooiuinate (&, )#) = !"! ! in the iest fiame S. The line

connecting this point anu the oiigin uefines the )#- axis. The angle between the &

(./ x' (&01 01 !, wheie !"#! ! !. A unit length in the moving fiame S' is equal to

! ! !!

!

!

!!!

!

!!!

!

in the iest fiame S.

To get a bettei unueistanuing of Ninkowski uiagiam, let us take a look at this

example. Consiuei a stick of piopei length 2 in a moving fiame S'. We woulu like

to finu the length of the stick in the iest fiame S. Consiuei the figuie below.

&

)#

&-

)#-

!

!"

!

!

!"#$%&'

)&%*+,-,.+,/ 0#""&/+,#1 #1 2!3 3*+&%%,+&

Theoiy

Question 2

page 4 of 6

The stick is iepiesenteu by the segment AC. The length AC is equal to

!!!

!

!!!

!

! in

the S fiame. The stick length in the S fiame is iepiesenteu by the line AB.

!" ! !" !!"

! !" !"# ! !!" !"#! !"#!

! ! ! !!

!

1. <@9A 5+.? 0sing a Ninkowski uiagiam, calculate the length of a stick with

piopei length 2 in the iest fiame, as measuieu in the moving fiame.

2. <@9A 5+.? Now consiuei the case in pait A. Plot the time )# veisus the

position & of the paiticle. Biaw the &- axis anu )#- axis when

!"

!

! ! in the

same giaph using length scale !!!

!

!! anu !"!!

!

!! .

!*"+ M9 HL# 8//&%&"*+&; !*"+,/%&. <=9B 5#,1+.?

Foi this pait, we will consiuei two acceleiateu paiticles, both of them have the

same piopei acceleiation + in the positive & uiiection, but the fiist paiticle staits

fiom & = u, while the seconu paiticle staits fiom & = 2. Remembei, MN ONH

consiuei the flight time in this pait.

1. <@9B 5+.? Aftei a while, an obseivei in the iest fiame make an obseivation.

The fiist paiticle's clock shows time at !

!

. What is the ieauing of the seconu

clock !

!

, accoiuing to the obseivei in the iest fiame.

2. <I9@ 5+.? Now consiuei the obseivation fiom the fiist paiticle's fiame. At a

ceitain moment, an obseivei that move togethei with the fiist paiticle

!"#$%&'

)&%*+,-,.+,/ 0#""&/+,#1 #1 2!3 3*+&%%,+&

Theoiy

Question 2

page S of 6

obseiveu that the ieauing of his own clock is !

!

. At the same time, he

obseiveu the seconu paiticle's clock, anu the ieauing is !

!

. Show that

!"#$

!

!

!

!

!!

!

! !

!

!"#$

!!

!

!

!

wheie 31 is a constant. Beteimine 31.

S. <I9@ 5+.? The fiist paiticle will see the seconu paiticle move away fiom him.

Show that the iate of change of the uistance between the two paiticles

accoiuing to the fiist paiticle is

!"!

!!

!

! !

!

!"#$

!!

!

!

!"#$

!

!

!!

!

!!

!

!

!

wheie 32 is a constant. Beteimine 32.

!*"+ P9 Q1,4#"'%R 8//&%&"*+&; F"*'& <=9C 5#,1+.?

In this pait we will aiiange the piopei acceleiation of the paiticles, so that the

uistance between both paiticles aie constant accoiuing to each paiticle. Initially

both paiticles aie at iest, the fiist paiticle is at & = u, while the seconu paiticle is

at & = 2.

1. <@9> 5+.? The fiist paiticle has a piopei acceleiation +1 in the positive &

uiiection. When it is being acceleiateu, theie exists a fixeu point in the iest

fiame at &=&p that has a constant uistance fiom the fiist paiticle, accoiuing to

the fiist paiticle thoughout the motion. Beteimine &p.

2. <I9B 5+.? uiven the piopei acceleiation of the fiist paiticle is +1, ueteimine

the piopei acceleiation of the seconu paiticle +2, so that the uistance

between the two paiticles aie constant accoiuing to the fiist paiticle.

S. <@9S 5+.? What is the iatio of time iate of the seconu paiticle to the fiist

paiticle

d!

2

d!

1

, accoiuing to the fiist paiticle.

!*"+ F9 0#""&/+,#1 4#" 2!3 <=9= 5#,1+.?

Pait E inuicates that the time iate of clocks at uiffeient altituue will not be the

same, even though theie is no ielative movement between those clocks.

!"#$%&'

)&%*+,-,.+,/ 0#""&/+,#1 #1 2!3 3*+&%%,+&

Theoiy

Question 2

page 6 of 6

Accoiuing to the &67,-*%&1/& 5",1/,5%& in geneial ielativity, an obseivei in a

small closeu ioom coulu not tell the uiffeience between a giavity pull + anu the

fictitious foice fiom acceleiateu fiame with acceleiation +. So we can concluue

that two clocks at uiffeient giavitational potential will have uiffeient iate.

Now let consiuei a uPS satellite that oibiting the Eaith with a peiiou of 12 houis.

1. <@9S 5+.? If the giavitational acceleiation on the Eaith's suiface is 9.78 m.s

-2

,

anu the Eaith's iauius is 6S8u km, what is the iauius of the uPS satellite

oibit. What is the velocity of the satellite. Calculate the numeiical values of

the iauius anu the velocity.

2. <I9= 5+.? Aftei one uay, the clock ieauing on the Eaith suiface anu the

satellite will uiffei uue to both special anu geneial ielativistic effects.

Calculate the uiffeience uue to each effect foi one uay. Calculate the total

uiffeience foi one uay. Which clock is fastei, a clock on the Eaith's suiface oi

the satellite's clock.

S. <@9D 5+.? Aftei one uay, estimate the eiioi in position uue to this effect.

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