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Design and Analysis of Main Landing Gear Structure of a Transport Aircraft and Fatigue Life Estimation For The Critical Lug

22

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF MAIN LANDING GEAR STRUCTURE

OF A TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT AND FATIGUE LIFE ESTIMATION

FOR THE CRITICAL LUG

1

R RAVI KUMAR,

2

P. K DASH,

3

S R BASAVARADDI

1

Product Design and Mfg, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum, India

2

Chairman, Bangalore Aircraft Industries Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore

Mechanical Engineering, KLE College of Engg., Belgaum, India

Email: Ravi.kr727@gmail.com

Abstract: The current work includes the design and analysis of a mediumsize transport aircraft landing gear unit. A typical

landing load case will be assumed for which structural analysis will be carried out.

During landing, there will be three different types of loads

i. Vertical load

ii. Drag load

iii. Side load

Each of these loads will cause axial compression, bending and torsion on the strut of the landing gear. As a first

approximation the landing gear space structure will be idealized as a statically determinate structure and a stress analysis will

be performed using strength of Material approach. The stresses developed because of all three types of loading on the

structural members of the landing gear will be calculated.

A finite element model of the landing gear structure will be developed and analyzed. The FEA stress and deformation results

will be compared with that obtained from SOM approach.

These stresses and internal loads can then be used for the design of various structural members of the landing gear unit.

Fatigue life to crack initiation will be estimated for a critical lug of the landing gear unit by considering the constant

amplitude landing cycles

I. INTRODUCTION

Landing gear is one of the primary structural

components of the airframe. Landing gear enables the

airplane to take off and land on ground. Its design

considerations are significantly different .A variety of

landing gear configurations and types are in use

today. The most common type being tri-cycle

arrangement with a nose landing gear and a main

landing gear[2]. Impact loads during landing are the

main design loads for the landing gear design.

Landing gears should also be checked for various

other ground handling loads as specified in the

regulatory requirements [1]. The landing gear

withstands the ground impact load and absorbs the

impact energy and diffuses the load to the

surroundings attachment.

II. METHODOLOGY

Fig A : Methodology

Conceptual Model

Conceptual model of main landing gear is as shown

in figure B

Fig B : landing gear conceptual model

Landing Gear Analysis Problem

Fig c : landing loads and dimensions

International J ournal of Mechanical and Production Engineering, ISSN: 2320-2092, Volume- 1, Issue- 4, Oct-2013

Design and Analysis of Main Landing Gear Structure of a Transport Aircraft and Fatigue Life Estimation For The Critical Lug

23

The landing loads shown in fig C acting at the wheel

axle will be transferred to the supporting structure at

points A, B, C through the landing gear structure. The

vertical and drag components of the unknown

reactions are shown at point A, B and C. Calculation

of these reactions is required to carry out the stress

analysis of the landing gear. These calculation are

done and reaction acting on each members are shown

in the fig D .

Fig D: reactions of the structure

Design of the landing gear structure

The forces obtained on the members are taken and

design for the members are done in my previous

paper [5]

Material Used: Al7075T6

Youngs modulus=73GPa

Yield strength=503MPa

FOS=1.5

Calculated Designed dimensions [5] taken for

analysis

For, Strut G d=57.41mm

Strut F d=55.42mm

Strut C d=42.9 mm

Oleo strut OE d=80 mm

Member AB d=112.5mm

III. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE

LANDING GEAR

Stages of FEA

Steps used for analysis of FEM model

The important steps are done from creation of

geometry model to until get results for FEM model.

The geometry is modeled for given dimensions by

using MSC PATRAN.

The geometric structure is discretized using

CBAR2 elements as shown in fig E

After meshing, have to check things like

equivalence, duplicates and boundary and after that

we have to check the quality of mesh.

Important criteria considered here to check the

quality of mesh, like aspect ratio, normal offset,

wrap, and Jacobean ratio.

Type of material, elastic modules and Poisson ratio

are input given for analysis.

Material properties are given for different

subgroups.

Loads/Boundary conditions given to meshed model.

In Analysis we give output requests for

displacements,stresses, grid point force balance,

elemental forces etc..,

From analysis after applying the above requests we

get BDF file, its containing all input data given to the

model.

To solve the problem of analysis model

MSC/NASTRAN is used as solver.

After solving the problem from MSC/NASTRAN,

We get the XDB file, it Contains output results.

Finally the post processing results are checked

through MSC/PATRAN.

Main quantities observed in result sheet are von

misses stress, stress components, elemental stresses,

free body loads

Fig E : Meshed model of the landing gear

IV. RESULTS

Free body diagrams calculated theoretically and

obtained through software does matches as shown in

fig F tells us that the calculations are correct

International J ournal of Mechanical and Production Engineering, ISSN: 2320-2092, Volume- 1, Issue- 4, Oct-2013

Design and Analysis of Main Landing Gear Structure of a Transport Aircraft and Fatigue Life Estimation For The Critical Lug

24

Fig F :FBD of the landing gear structure

The maximum stress obtained in the member is 278

MPashown in fig G which is less than the yield

strength of the structure taken 324 MPa. Thus states

that the design is safe

Fig G: Stress distribution of the landing gear structure

Design and analysis of Critical lug attachment of

landing gear Conceptual model

A lug is a member which is a connecting member

between wing or fuselage and the landing gear.

The conceptual model of the attachment lug is shown

in fig

Design of lug

The material used for the members are Al7075T6,

where, E=73GPa, Yield strength=503MPa, FOS=1.5

Calculation of the diameter of the pin

To calculate the diameter of the pin, we take

allowable shear stress

We know that

Shear stress allowable =0.5*Yield stress

Here we know the yield stress of the material,

Shear stress allowable =162 N/mm2

Thus by knowing the shear stress we know that if the

material subjected to shear stress is taken as

Shear stress allowable=P/2A

Here we can calculate the area as we know by fig D

the maximum load which can be taken by the

material is 472821N which is a critical load which is

acting near strut G.

Thus diameter of the pin is 43.105mm

Once designed pin diameter we design the lug the

dimensions and relation is as shown in fig H

Fig H: Dimensions of lug

To find thickness of the member we can find it by

using normal stress formula

Stress=load/pin area

Here to take stress value we take nomial stress for the

design

Wkt,

Stress Intensity Factor =stressmax/stress nominal

Kt = max / nom

For loaded hole , stress intensity factor is taken as 4

by referring the stress intensity chart

Thus

nom = max / Kt

i.e nom=324/4 =81

we know the maximum load acts on member is

472821 N . we know the area subjected here for load

is (129.315-43.105)*t

thus thickness (t) =75 mm

Analysis of lug

The dimensions obtained is modeled in Msc

PATRAN and meshed as shown in fig I.

International J ournal of Mechanical and Production Engineering, ISSN: 2320-2092, Volume- 1, Issue- 4, Oct-2013

Design and Analysis of Main Landing Gear Structure of a Transport Aircraft and Fatigue Life Estimation For The Critical Lug

25

Fig I : meshed model of lug

Later, Boundary conditions are given and the model

is sent for processor to solve, the solver used is MSc

Nastran. The solver solves the problem and the

results are obtained from MSc Patran

The results obtained is shown in fig J

.

Fig J : stress plot of the critical lug

V. FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION

Fatigue is a phenomenon caused by repetitive loads

on a structure. It depends on the magnitude and

frequency of these loads in combination with the

applied materials and structural shape. Structural

members are frequently subjected to repetitive

loading over a long period of time. Here the lug joint

is subjected for the repetitive loads while landing,

taxing, takeoff, etc..., so these joints are tested for the

fatigue condition of failure.

Steps used in the fatigue design is that first we take

proper SN curve of the material of the lug joint

shown in fig K. Later we calculate the stress

amplitude and stress ratio by using

amp =

R=

Later we have plotted a table as shown in the fig l

Fig K : S-N curve for material AL7075T6

The damage accumulated in the member is calculated

for 1 flight, where it can be given by

D=n

i

/N

i,

The total damage accumulated was

di=2.389*10-4 per flight

The block load spectrum T when structure is failure

can be expressed as [25];

The total number of load blocks by Eqn. gives

4185.85blocks.which says that the crack initiation in

the structure takes plays after 4185.85 flight hours

and suggested that to replace for maintenance

department of aircraft

International J ournal of Mechanical and Production Engineering, ISSN: 2320-2092, Volume- 1, Issue- 4, Oct-2013

Design and Analysis of Main Landing Gear Structure of a Transport Aircraft and Fatigue Life Estimation For The Critical Lug

26

CONCLUSION

The landing gear space structure idealized as a

statically determinate structure its reactions,

forces acting on each member are determined

by using simple numerical approach.

From the dimensions obtained, Analysis of the

landing gear structure is done

The free body diagram of the landing gear

member which we got shows us that the

reactions calculated for the members through

analytical approach and the software validation

is done

The main landing gear structure which carries

load is connected to the wing through lug joint

The design of the maximum load carrying lug

is done and analyzed the same

As the lug joint is subjected to repetitive loads

the fatigue life estimation is done

It can be concluded that lug joint is a failsafe

design and recommended to change every time

after 4185.85 hours of flight.

REFERENCES

[1] E. F. Bruhn, Analysis and design of flight structure, 1973

[2] Michel-chun-yungniu, Aircraft structural design, 1995

[3] Aerospace engineering / March 1996 landing gear structural

integrity

[4] Dr.R.K. Bansal Strength of materials 4

th

edition

[5] Ravi kumar R ,Nithin Kumar , S R Basavaraddi Design of a

landing gear structure of a transport aircraft ICETE,2013

[6] J . C. Newman, J r, Advances in fatigue and fracture

mechanics analyses for aircraftstructures, Mechanics and

Durability Branch, NASA Langley Research Center,

Hampton,VA, USA.

[7] Grigory I. Nesterenko, Service life of airplane structures,

Central AerohydrodynamicInstitute (TsAGI), Russia, 2002.

[8] C.M. Sonsino, Course of SN-curves especially in the high-

cycle fatigue regimewith regard to component design and

safety, Int. J . of Fatigue 2007.

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