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96074

A NEW PEAK POWER TRACKER FOR COST-EFFECTIVE


PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEM
Yongho Kim, Hyunmin Jo, and Deokjung Kim
Power electronics
Samsung electronics CO, LTD
82-3 Dodang-Dongwonmi-ku
Buchun,Kyunggi-do,Korea,42 1 - 1 30
Phone : 32-680-1 328
Fax : 32-680- I 3 17
ABSTRACT
Solar arrays are the most expensive components in
photovoltaic power systems. Thus solar arrays should be
operated at the maximum power point in order to reduce the
overall cost of the system. This paper presents a new peak
power tracker (PP?) which forces a photovoltaic systemto
extract the maximum power fromsolar arrays, regardless of
the change of load demand, insolation and temperature. The
benefits of the PPT are simplicity, cost-effectiveness and
flexibility.
INTRODUCTION
In recent years, attention toward natural energy resources
such as solar and wind power has increased as concerns
about energy security as well as the environment pollution
and disruption. Solar energy is inexhaustible, clean, and easy
to use, causing the efforts on solar power actively. But solar
arrays are still very expensive and spacious. In the interest
of efficiency, the energy fiom a solar array should be
maximized under all conditions. The power output fiom a
solar array depends on the load demand, insolation, and
teniperature Figure 1 shows the characteristics of a solar
array depending on insolation. The peak power point, for
example, moves along the h e P. The power output at point
A, B, C, and D is higher than other points in same solar
array. TO extract the maximumpower fiom LI solar array, it
is necessary to know the peak power point at each instant.
The use of maximumpower point tracker (MFPT) optimizes
the electrical operation condition of the array. The MPPT
consists of two components, power and control. In the some
application, solar arrays would be directly connected to
battery. The battery establishes the systemvoltage and
forces the solar array to operate at battery bus voltage
which is chosen such that the array operales at its maxinium
power point at noon on clear day. In such applications, the
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temperature variance at most sites prevents a good voltage
match. For a battery-less direct solar array system, several
different topologies of dc to dc converters have been
implemented in the design of an MPPT. A solar array, in
practice, is operated under different conditions of
temperature, insolation, and irradiation angle of the solar
array. There is need to connect a solar array in senes andor
parallel. Selecting the boost converter as a dc to dc converter
is useful for protecting the battery fromovercharging The
method to control these dc/dc converters depends on control
type. voltage type and current type. For simplicity, one
method that the controller puts the operation point at a fixed
percentage( 78 %) of its open circuit voltage[l] But this
method cant cornpelistile for the temperature and insolation
effects. Some sought to approach the peak power by
maxmiziiig the solar array voltage[2,3,4] Others used
complex mathematicd algorithms and a microprocessor[5,6]
Th~s type of controller is fit to large systems and IS too
expensive for small systemsuch as automotive applications,
road lighting, and so on . It is not suitable to attach the
MPPT systemto solar array in large systems. However, in
small systems, the photovoltaic power system requires a
battery to accuinulate energy and then to feed the load during
the dark period The output of the battery can be adapted to
any type of load : DC load and DC lo AC converter for AC
load. What is important is how to convert power eficiently
and extract maximum power from the solar array Ilie
controller, taking iito account the overall cost of a
photovoltaic power system, uses relatively low cost
technology found 111 appliance and consumer products This
study proposes a simple and cost-effective peak power
tracker implemented with analog circuitry and logics that can
be easily integrated mto one chip. And it makes the overall
potovoltaic power system simple and flexible The
controller senses the battery voltage to prevent battery
overcharging.
0-7803-3547-3-711 6 $4.00 0 1996 IEEE
Peak Power Point
Im Isc
current,(A)
FIGURE 1. CHARACTERIS7?CS OF SOLAR ARRAY
POWER CIRCUIT
In general, solar arrays should be protected from damage
due to reverse flowing current and not be discharged from
dark current leakage in a system when its load is a battery.
And it also needs to be disconnected from the array to
prevent overcharging.
As shown in Fig 2, the power section of the MPPT system
is a boost converter. The &ode, D1, contributes to preventing
this system from the problems mentioned above and to
blocking interference among the systems when operated in
parallel. When the battery is fully charged, the controller
turns off the switch, S1, in order to prevent battery
overchargmg. In this case, if Vs is lager than Vo, the battery
continues its charge through the diode resulting in battery
damage. The selection of a solar array depends upon the
battery voltage and load demand In a steady state, if the
difference between Vs and Vo is large, the efficiency of the
boost converter becomes lower and the ripple of inductor
current becomes larger. To maximlze the efficiency and
mnimize the size of the inductor, the criteria for selecting
array voltage is as follows
0
Voc(max) =Vo(max) ----_---
where,
Voc(max) : open circuit voltage of a array at 100% sun
Vo(max) : full-charged battery voltage
The switching frequency of the converter is set to 45KHz
A MOSFET was chosen as a switching device because of its
ease of control, high efficiency, and fast switching speed. And
a Schottky diode was used for its low forward drop voltage
and low EMI noise. If the inductor value is set for the
converter to be operated in continuous current mode over at
steady state, the difference between Vs and Vo is small and
the duty is small, too. This makes current ripple small and
efficiency high. The inductor value is calculated as follows,
L >(V * dt) / di = (Vm* t ON) / di(nppi+------- @
where,
Vm=the peak power point voltage of array at 100% sun
di(nppie) =10% ripple of the inductor current at 100% sun
SOLAR
ARRAY 1.1
FIGURE 2. POWER SECTION
CONTROL SECTION
Control Stratea
As show m Fig 1, the extracted power of a solar array
vanes wth current There is an unique point at which the
power become maxunum We can fmd the point by using the
technique, hll-climbmg Figure 3 shows the power as a
function of tune and the current varies linearly from zero to
Isc At the left side of peak power pomt, the former area A
mdicatmg tune-integral of power is smaller than the latter
area B. It means that the operating current needs to be
mcreased more Otherwise, at the nght side of that point, the
former area C is larger than D In this case, operating
current needs to be decreased As a result, the operating
current should be kept around the peak power point In
companng the former power and latter, we used the time-
lntegral method of power to make the controller noise-
mune and stable from fluctuations of current and
voltage
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Peak Power Tracker
Figure 5(a) is the PPT circuit, and Fig.S(b),(c),(d) show
each of the control modes. The real power of solar array,
Pout, is converted into two identical current sources. The
frequency of the control signal is much smaller than the gate
drive clock. Each sampling period can be divided into three
portions; Tdl, Td2, and TQ. Tdl and Td2 is 45% percent of
sampler period, Ts, and Td3 are the 10 % of Ts. In Fig&),
switch S1 is turned on and S2 is turned off during Tdi,
charging the PPT capacitor. Fig.4(c) shows the operation of
PPT during Tdz Switch S2 (Sl) turns on(ofQ and the PPT
capacitor is discharged. At the beginning of T d3, the amount
of charge is compared by a simple comparator in order to
issue the signal which indicates whether the Pout is increasing
or decreasing. Both Switch S1 and S2 are turned on during
the Td3 to make voltage across the PPT capacitor zero The
overall operation of the PPT can be explained as follows:
MODE 1 where the power level remains the same :
Since the average power of solar arrays for the first time
duration (Tdl) is the same as that of the inext time duration
(Td2), the current source ipvdi) equal to ipvdz) , and the
amount of the charge is the same as the amount of discharge.
The comparator output remains low for this period.
MODE 2 where the power level increases
The current source i ppdi ) charges the PPT capacitor for the
first time duration, and the current source ipqdz) discharge the
capacitor for the second time duration. However, in this
case, the current source ipqdi) is smaller than ipvdz) of the
next time period. The comparator output changes fromlow
to high. The output of the D flip flop remains high.
MODE 3 Where the power level decreases
In thmpenod, the charging current is larger than the
discharging current. Thus the comparator output become
low, and the output of the D flip flop changes fromhigh
to low. This causes the output state to change, reversing
the direction of current.
power,
peak
Dower
V
I . I 1
_ . . . .
_ . - .
. . .
?+
TT
. . . +
FIGURE 3. CONTROL STRATEGY
The control block of MPPT systemis shown in Fig.4. The
instantaneous current and voltage are directly sensed, and
converted to power through an analog multiplexer. The PPT
converts the output of the multiplier into two very identical
current sources, which charge a capacitor for first time
duration (Tdl) and discharge for second time duration (Td2),
and then compares the amount of charge at the end of the
Td2. If the output of comparator is positive, it means the
power is decreasing, this causes change in the direction of
current. If it is negative, it means the power is increasing,
this maintains the direction of the current, increasing or
decreasing. To produce a continuos current command, Is*, a
toggle flip flop located at the output of the PPT charges or
discharges the integrator shown in Fig.4. The current control
block is composed of a comparator and a RS latch. The gate
drive signal is first turned on by the high frequency clock, and
turned off when the sensed array current intersects with the
output of the integrator, Is*. Around the peak power point,
the output of the integrator would continually oscillate at half
the frequency of the sampler.
array multiplier
PPT
current
sampler clock
EXPERIMENTALRESULTS
A prototype peak power tracker has been built and tested
with a 63W(peak power) solar array. As already stated, the
sampling Gequency is about one-hundredth of the converter
frequency, and the sampling time is about 100 times as short
as the integration constant which determines the response that
solar array reaches to its peak power point. The following
waveforms are measu 2dunder the following parameters;
solar array ; VOC =14V, Vm=1 lV, Isc =6.6A, Im=5.7A,
Pmax =63W, Fill factor F f =0.68
battery ; 12V
power secbon parameters ; L 1= 380uH, C1 =0.1 SuF, C2 =
0.47uF, C3 =lOOuF
FIGURE 4. CONTROL SECTION
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t
a)
Vref
Vref
i p
FIGURE 5 . a) PPT CIRCUIT b), c), AND d)
DURING Tdl, Td2, AND Td3
Figure 6 shows the characteristics of the used solar array-
voltagevs power, Fig.6 a) and voltagevs current, Fig.6 b).
The steady state waveforms, current, voltage, and power, are
shown in Fig.7 The operating power is well operated
around the peak power point. Figure8 shows the power of
solar array as it reaches its maximumpoint within 150 msec
after starting up, and oscillates continuously at its peak
power point. The terminal voltages of the PPT comparator
are proportional to the power in spite of the 45KHz switching
noise. Figure 9 shows the power, voltage, current, and the
output of flip flop which determines the direction of current
command after start up. The voltage, Vs, is decreased from
its open circuit voltage, VOC, to its maximumvoltage, Vm,
and then it oscillates at Vm. The current and power increase
fromzero and then stay at its maximumpower point, also. In
the steady state, the current ripple and voltage ripple
degending on control signal (output of flip flop ) are about
10% of maximumvaluesJm, but power ripple is within 1 YO
of its peak value. Even if the frequency of control signal is
lower than the sampler frequency, the tracking efficiency of
the PPT is more than 99%.
0
13-NOV-95
9 57 35
At E I S
x
v
[E-j
-) 58 pi5
20 PI5
10 kS/s
0 STOPPED
13-Nov-95
9:58:16
At 0 0 1s
x
E 88 V
U
8.88 V
-> 58 pis
ZB 145
1 2 V D C M
8 8QnV DC fi
3 8QnV OC 1 4 OC 1.92 V
f 8QmV DC
b)
10 kS/s
0 STOPPEO
FIGURE 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLAR ARRAY
a) VOLTAGE VS POWER b) VOLTAGE VS CURRENT
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At 0. 0 RO
f;q R HR v
->
20 " 5
1 2 v o c a
a ea v oc I
3 O O ~ V oc B -r- 2 uc o 27 v
0 8 OPV UC :o
a)
13-Nou-U5
7:19:31
A1 E. O
/F/
0. 80 U
.ZbW x s / s
0 STOPPED
-> 58 i i h
28 ms
1 2 v O C I
0 aenv oc 8
3 D O N oc 6 r- 2 uc o 27 v
4 8 ORV DC 5 0 STOPPCD
L5FI L V s
b)
FIGURE 7. STEADY STATE CHARACTERISTICS OF
SOLAR ARRAY a) P-V, b) I-V
13-Nov-95
8 21 211
[E l
pq
5a DS
1 2 v D c g
2 2 v O C e
3 V O C E J 4 D C 1 7 6 V
fl 8Qi'lW DC 16 0 STUPPEO
100 hS/ s
FIGURE 8. TERMINAL VOLTAGE OF THE PPT
COMPARATOR, POWER, AND CONTROL SIGNAL
AFTER START W
1 2 v o c g
1 8QnV DC g
3 8QnV OC g 1- 2 DC 1 4 4 V
4 8QnV DC
100 hS/s
0 STOPPED
0 STOPPED
IXiuRE 9 VOLTAGE, CURRENT, POWER, AND
CONTROL SIGNAL AFTER START UP a) ORIGINAL
WAVES b) FIL'IBRED WAVES
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11-Oct-95
14:52:54
nt 0.0 pis
7 1 GQ nV
Y
-> 10.0 !I5
1 4 HFREJ -52.014
HARDCOPY
output t o 1
RS232
Centronics I
protoco 1-
HP 7476
HP 7550
TI FF conpr
50 kS/s
0 STOPPED
FIGURE 10. VOLTAGE VERSUS POWER OF SOLAR
ARRAY AROUND ITS PEAK POWER
Figure 10 indicates the ripple of power is within 1%. The
conversion efficiency, rl c , is defined as follow,
c =Pm- ( 0.5 * Pnpple) / Pm
-------
0
where, Vm =maximumpower at 100% sun
P npple =ripple value around the maximum power
CONCLUSION
A simple and inexpensive PPT designed and optimized
for a small system such as load lighting and automotive
applications has been presented. In case of non-
homogeneous insolation, temperature, and irradiation angle, it
is essential to achleve partial maxL power to ma w e
the overall efficiency of the solar array. So the controller
must be compact, cost-effective, and easy to connect to each
module in parallel and/or in series The PPT is designed with
simple analog circuitry - two identical current sources
proportional to the power of the solar array, a simple
comparator, and a capacitor. Therefore, the control section
can easily be integrated on one chip A new PPT extracts
average power fromthe array over 99% of the maximum
power. This is the benefit of this system
CONCLUSION
and inexpensive PPT designed and optimized
for a small systemsuch as load lighting and automotive
applications has been presented. In case of non-
homogeneous insolation, temperature, and irradiation angle, it
is essential to achieve partial maximumpower to maximize
the overall efficiency of the solar array. So the controller
must be compact, cost-effective, and easy to connect to each
module in parallel and/or in series. The PPT is designed with
simple analog circuitry - two identical current sources
proportional to the power of the solar array, a simple
comparator, and a capacitor. Therefore, the control section
can easily be integrated on one chip. A new PPT extracts
average power fromthe array over 99% of the maximum
power. This is the benefit of this system.
A simple
REFERENCES
1. Schoeman, J J , and Vanwyk, J. D, 1982, A Simplified
Maximal Power controller for Terrestrially Photovoltaic Panel
Array,, conference record of PESC, pp. 361-367.
2 Landsman,E. E , 1978, Maximum Power Tracker for
Photovoltaic Arrays,MlT/Lincoln laboratory, Boston
3. Martlin, R. W, Sarles, F. W, and Rangarajan, A, 1981,
PV Water Pumping with Reciprocating volumetric(Jack)
Pumps, proceeding of the 15th IEEE photovoltaic specialist
conference, Orlando, FL, U.S.A.
4. Schaefer, T f, and Wise, L, 1984, An Expensive Vmp
Photovoltaic Array MaximumPower Point traclung DC to
DC Converter, new Mexico solar array institute NMSEUTN-
84-1, las cruses, NM, U.S.A.
5 Requier, J . P, Barlaud, M, and Rouan. E, 1981,
"Optimization of Photovoltaic Solar Pump by Means of Static
Converter Driven by Microprocessor, Proceeding of the
15th IEEE , Orlando, FL, U.S.A.
6. Bucciarelli, L. L, Grossman, B. L, Lyon, E. F, and
Rasmussen, N. E, 1980, The Energy Balance associated wth
the Use of Maximum Power Tracker in a 1 OOkW-Peak Power
system, 14th IEEE photovoltaic specialist conference, San
Diego, CA, U S.A.
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