You are on page 1of 12

2009 Bechtel Corporation. All rights reserved.

1
INTRODUCTION
E
lectrical system studies are carried out to
verify that major electrical equipment is
adequately rated, determine the conditions
for satisfactory and reliable operation, and
highlight any operational restrictions required
for safe operation.
The various units within the Jamnagar Export
Refinery Project (JERP) were engineered at
Bechtel engineering centres (London, Houston,
Frederick, Toronto, and New Delhi), the Bechtel/
Reliance Industries Limited joint venture (JV)
office in Mumbai, and the sites of non-Bechtel
engineering contractors. The core Electrical
group based in Bechtels London office (the
London core group) was tasked with preparing
a combined model of the electrical system and
with conducting the system studies.
The system studies for this project presented
unique challenges because of the sheer size of the
captive power generation (with a new 800 MW
power plant operating in parallel with an existing
400 MW power plant), the Jamnagar plants
extensive power distribution network, and the
engineering work distributed amongst various
Bechtel engineering centres and non-Bechtel
engineering contractors around the world.
System studies are normally conducted on a
selected set of study cases, and their results
are used to determine the system behaviour
under all operating conditions. For this project,
it was difficult to select the cases to simulate and
study because of the large number of possible
operating configurations for such a complex
industrial electrical network. The system studies
themselves were a challenge because so many
study cases (particularly transient stability
analysis studies) had to be evaluated.
This paper presents an overview of system study
execution on the complex electrical network of
the JERP, along with a brief report on the various
studies conducted as part of this project.
OVERVIEW OF THE JERP
R
eliance Industries operates the Jamnagar
Domestic Tariff Area (DTA) oil refinery
and petrochemical complex located in Gujarat,
India. The complex processes 650,000 barrels
per stream day (650 kbpsd) of crude oil
and produces liquefied petroleum gas (LPG);
naphtha; gasoline; kerosene; diesel; sulphur;
coke; polypropylene; and numerous aromatic
products, including paraxylene, orthoxylene,
Issue Date: December 2009
AbstractElectrical system studies are carried out to verify that major electrical equipment is adequately
rated, determine the conditions for satisfactory and reliable operation, and highlight any operational restrictions
required for safe operation.
The system studies for the Jamnagar Export Refinery Project (JERP) presented unique challenges because of
the sheer size of the captive power generation (with a new 800 MW power plant operating in parallel with an
existing 400 MW power plant), the plants extensive power distribution network, and the engineering work
distributed amongst various Bechtel engineering centres and non-Bechtel engineering contractors around the
world. The large number of system study cases (particularly transient stability analysis studies) to be evaluated
also made the task challenging.
This paper presents an overview of system study execution on the complex JERP electrical network, along with
a brief report on the various studies conducted as part of this project.
Keywordsanalysis, electrical system studies, Electrical Transient Analysis Program (ETAP), Jamnagar
Export Refinery Project (JERP)
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM STUDIES FOR
LARGE PROJECTS EXECUTED AT
MULTIPLE ENGINEERING CENTRES
Rajesh Narayan
Athiyarath
rnaraya1@bechtel.com
Bechtel Technology Journal 2
and benzene. The original project, which
Bechtel designed and constructed, was the
worlds largest grassroots single-stream
refinery. The complex includes a captive power
plant (CPP) designed to produce 400 MW of
power (backed up by a 132 kV grid supply) to
meet the refinerys power demands.
The JERP comprises a new export-oriented
refinery located in a special economic zone
(SEZ) adjacent to the DTA site. The project aims
to almost double the capacity of the Jamnagar
refinery to more than 1,200 kbpsd; add crude
distillation, associated secondary conversion
facilities, and an 800 MW CPP; and modify the
existing refinery to ensure the efficient operation
of both it and the new refinery.
On completion of the JERP, the Jamnagar
complex will be the worlds largest refinery,
surpassing Venezuelas 940 kbpsd Paraguana
refining complex.
ENGINEERING THE JERP
T
he JERP required approximately 6 million
engineering jobhours within a short and
challenging project schedule. Hence, project
engineering was split up amongst the various
Bechtel offices, headed by the London core
group (Figure 1). The key task of conducting
overall system studies on the JERP and DTA
electrical networks was handed over to the
London core group.
POWER GENERATION AND DISTRIBUTION
A
simplified depiction of the JERP power
generation and distribution system is
portrayed in Figure 2.
JERP Power System
As the JERP power source, the CPP consists of six
125 MW, 14.5 kV gas turbine generators (GTGs),
with space allocated for three future GTGs. The
GTGs are connected to the 220 kV switchyard
bus via their dedicated 14.5/231 kV, 161 MVA
step-up transformers. Eight 220/34.5 kV, 174 MVA
refinery service transformers (RSTs) connected
to the 220 kV switchyard feed the JERP plant
substations through 33 kV switchboards in two
main receiving stations (MRS-1 and MRS-2). Two
11 kV, 25 MW steam turbine generators (STGs)
are connected to the switchboards in MRS-1
via 11/34.5 kV, 38 MVA step-up transformers.
Finally, a pair of 220/132 kV, 107 MVA auto-
transformers are provided as the interconnecting
The key task of
conducting overall
system studies on
the JERP and DTA
electrical networks
was handed over
to the London
core group.
ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS, AND TERMS
AVR automatic voltage regulator
BSAP Bechtel standard application
program (a software application
that Bechtel has determined
to be suitable for use to
support functional processes
corporate-wide)
CPP captive power plant
DTA Domestic Tariff Area
DWI discipline work instruction
EDMS electrical distribution
management system
EMS energy management system
ETAP Electrical Transient Analysis
Program (a BSAP)
FEED front-end engineering
and design
GTG gas turbine generator
HVDC high-voltage direct current
ICT interconnecting transformer
IEC International Electrotechnical
Commission
IEEE Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers
IHD individual harmonic distortion
JERP Jamnagar Export Refinery Project
JV joint venture
LMS load management system
LPG liquefied petroleum gas
LV low voltage
MRS main receiving station
MV medium voltage
OLTC on-load tap changer
PC personal computer
RST refinery service transformer
SEZ special economic zone
STG steam turbine generator
THD total harmonic distortion
VSD variable-speed drive
December 2009 Volume 2, Number 1 3
transformers (ICTs) between the JERP and DTA
electrical systems.
The JERP electrical system incorporates an energy
management system (EMS) that comprises an
electrical distribution management system
(EDMS) to control and monitor the electrical
network and a load management system (LMS) to
carry out load shedding, if required, within the
JERP and DTA electrical networks.
DTA Power System
The DTA CPP consists of nine 28 MW GTGs
and six 25 MW STGs that feed the five
33 kV switchboards, from which power is further
distributed to the DTA plant substations.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM STUDIES
S
ystem studies is the generic term for a
wide range of simulations conducted on
System studies
is the generic term
for a wide range
of simulations
conducted on
a model of an
electrical system
under various
operating
conditions
encountered or
anticipated
during operation
of the network.
BECHTEL HOUSTON/
SHANGHAI
CFP, Crude &
Alkylation Units
BECHTEL FREDERICK
Captive Power
Plant (CPP)
JAMNAGAR
ENGINEERING
OFFICE (JEC)
JAMNAGAR (SITE)
Merox, ATU, SWS, PRU Units
FCC/VGO Units (Balance)
DTA Revamp
BECHTEL NEW DELHI
Captive Power
Plant (CPP)
THIRDPARTY AND
LICENSOR OFFICES
Coker (FWHouston)
Sulphur & TGTU
(BVPIKansas City)
Sulphur Granulation
Hydrogen (LindeMunich)
Acid Regeneration
(MECSSt. Louis)
BECHTELRELIANCE JV
MUMBAI
Offsites & Utilities
CFP, Crude & Alkylation
Units (Balance)
BECHTEL LONDON

DTA Expansion Group
DTA Revamp FEED
FCC Group
FCC/VGO Units
BANTREL TORONTO
Aromatics Unit
CNHT/KHT Units
BECHTEL
LONDON
CORE
FUNCTIONS
Interconnection
to DTA
Four Sets 33 kV
Main Receiving Switchgear
6.6 kV/415 V Distribution
Network for Each Unit
220 kV Switchgear
(1Breaker Scheme)
Two 25 MW STGs
Captive Power Plant
(Six 125 MW GTGs)
Figure 1. Project Execution Locations
Figure 2. JERP Power System Generation and Distribution
ATU amine treating unit
CFP clean fuel plant
CNHT cracked naphtha hydrotreater
CPP captive power plant
DTA Domestic Tariff Area
FCC fuid catalytic cracker
FEED front-end engineering and design
FW Foster Wheeler
JEC Jamnagar Engineering Offce
KHT kerosene hydrotreater
Merox (mercaptan oxidation process)
PRU propylene recovery unit
SWS sour water stripper
TGTU tail gas treatment unit
VGO vacuum gas oil

Bechtel Technology Journal 4


a model of an electrical system under various
operating conditions encountered or anticipated
during operation of the network. System
studies analyse the behaviour of the electrical
network components under various steady-state,
dynamic, and transient conditions, and the
results are used to predict the networks
behaviour under actual operating conditions.
System studies are conducted at different
stages of a project. The results of system studies
performed during the front-end engineering and
design (FEED) and detailed engineering stages
enable proper selection of equipment ratings,
identification of the electrical system loading
and operational modes for maximum reliability
and safety, and selection of the control modes for
major equipment. These early system studies can
also assess the ability of the electrical network to
meet present and future system energy demands.
System studies conducted after the power
system network is operational generally study
the feasibility or effects of system expansion,
check conformance with any changes in codes
and standards, or analyse system behaviour
to identify the underlying causes of a network
disturbance or equipment failure.
In the case of the JERP, the electrical system is
planned to operate in parallel with the existing
DTA electrical system and the grid supply from
the local electricity utility. The JERP electrical
system also has to be adequate for the addition
of future units and high-voltage direct current
(HVDC) links to the local electricity utility supply.
Hence, this combination of large-scale greenfield
project/major expansion of an existing network
becomes a special case for system studies.
The sheer size of the JERP and DTA electrical
networks (with a combined power generation
of 1.2 GW), the extensive power distribution
network within the JERP and DTA plants, and
the crucial need to ensure reliability of the power
supply under all operating conditions make
it important to conduct reliable and accurate
system studies. Further, the study results
can help in the design of a reliable electrical
system suitable for the projects present and
future requirements.
Three key elements are at the heart of a proper
system study:
A dependable and versatile system study
software program
A reliable model of the electrical network
Selection of studies to be conducted and
study cases to be simulated
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM STUDY
SOFTWARE PROGRAMS
S
ystem studies entail the analysis of the
interactions amongst the various components
of the electrical network to determine the power
flows between elements and the voltage profile
at the various buses in the network. Many
mathematical computations are required to
analyse even a small network, precluding the use
of manual calculation techniques to conduct any
but the most rudimentary system studies.
These circumstances have led to an effort
since the late 1920s to devise computational
aids for network analysis. From about 1929 to
the 1960s, special analogue computers in the
form of alternating current network analysers
were used for system studies. These network
analysers contained scaled-down versions of the
network components, such as power sources,
cables, transmission lines, and loads, that were
interconnected using flexible cords to represent
the system being modelled. Although limited in
scope and complexity, the network analysers were
used to study power flows and voltage profiles
under steady-state and transient conditions.
The next stage in the evolution of system study
software programs was the use from the late
1940s of digital computers to conduct system
studies. These programs were initially limited
in scope due to the programming methods
used (punched-card calculators). However, the
availability of large-scale digital computers
from the mid-1950s gave a boost to the use
of computer programs for system studies.
Although these programs originally required
mainframe computing power and specialised
programming techniques, the growth in the
computing power of desktop PCs and laptops
has seen these programs become an essential
tool for the electrical engineer. Current system
study programs offer flexible and easy-to-use
techniques for system modelling, analysis,
and presentation.
One of the more commonly used system study
software programs is Operation Technology,
Inc.s (OTIs) Electrical Transient Analysis
Program (ETAP

), which has been qualified


as a Bechtel standard application program
(BSAP). The offline simulation modules of
ETAP 6.0.0, the most current release at the time
of project execution, were used to conduct the
JERP power system studies.
The sheer size of
the JERP and DTA
electrical networks,
the extensive
power distribution
network within
the JERP and DTA
plants, and the
crucial need to
ensure reliability
of the power
supply under
all operating
conditions make
it important to
conduct reliable
and accurate
system studies.
December 2009 Volume 2, Number 1 5
MODEL OF THE JERP ELECTRICAL NETWORK
T
he various Bechtel and third-party
engineering centres prepared models of the
electrical networks for the individual JERP units.
The London core group integrated these various
submodels into a composite model of the overall
plant electrical network.
It was necessary to ensure that all the engineering
centres used uniform modelling principles to
prepare the individual models, to speed the
process of integrating them. The London core
group issued specific discipline work instructions
(DWIs) to the engineering centres and held a
series of conferences to explain the modelling
principles to be followed to ensure uniformity.
These work instructions covered key points such
as model structure, division of responsibility
for preparing and using the model, key data
required, instructions for dealing with cases of
incomplete/missing data related to network or
equipment required for the model, and use of
library data (accompanied by a common library
database to be used to populate the model).
The major items modelled were the GTGs/STGs
along with their control systems (governors,
exciters, and power system stabilisers), plant
loads, and interconnecting power cables. The
modelling of certain complex portions of the
GTG control system required software such
as Simulink

, a specialised program used to


model and simulate dynamic control systems.
OTI constructed the models, which were later
integrated with the overall model.
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM STUDIES AND
STUDY CASES
A
wide range of system studies can be
conducted on electrical networks to study
the behaviour of the system under steady-state
conditions as well as conditions in which it is
subjected to disturbances in normal operation
(e.g., step loading or load sharing amongst
generators) or unplanned events (e.g., electrical
fault, generators tripping). Because it is not
possible to analyse every expected operating
condition, it is very important to select the study
cases whose results can be used to predict the
system behaviour under all operating conditions.
As a result, the studies are usually conducted on
the most onerous conditions expected during the
refinery operation.
The following system studies were carried out
to analyse the behaviour of the JERP and DTA
electrical networks. In line with the specification
requirement for the JERP, the engineering centres
used International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC) standards as the basis for evaluating the
results of all studies except harmonic analysis.
Load Flow Analysis
Once the refinery is commissioned and fully
operational, the electrical system is expected to
operate in a stable condition. Load flow analysis
is a steady-state analysis that calculates the active
and reactive power flows through each element
of the network and the voltage profile at the
networks various buses. A balanced load flow
analysis is adequate because the vast majority
of loads in the refinery are inherently balanced
(e.g., three-phase motors).
Load flow analyses help identify any abnormal
system conditions during steady-state operation
that can be harmful for the system in the long
run. They also provide the initial basis for other
detailed analyses such as motor starting and
transient stability. It is also to be noted that the
results of the load flow analysis affect these
other analyses. For example, an electrical system
operating under steady-state conditions is more
likely to satisfactorily survive a transient event
such as the step-loading or tripping of one of
the operating generators if its initial operating
conditions are favourable (e.g., voltages within
limits, sufficient margin in the loading of various
network elements).
Some of the main parameters examined in a
load flow analysis are presence of overvoltage
or undervoltage at any point in the electrical
network, overloading of any network element,
and very low system power factor.
To study system behaviour at the JERP under all
expected operating conditions, the London core
group carried out load flow analyses under these
three sets of conditions:
Normal system configuration, i.e., with
redundant power feeds, where available,
to various plant switchboards that simulate
the normal operating condition of the
electrical network
Loss of redundant power feed, i.e., with single
power feed to the various plant switchboards
(This condition of single-ended operation
can occur in the electrical network under a
contingency like loss of plant transformers.)
No-load conditions (This study case
was selected to assist in identifying any
dangerous overvoltage that may occur
when the network is operating under
no-load or lightly loaded conditions [e.g.,
plant startup conditions]).
It is
very important
to select the
study cases
whose results
can be used
to predict the
system behaviour
under all operating
conditions.
Bechtel Technology Journal 6
The results of these analyses revealed some
instances in which the bus voltages exceeded
the acceptable limits. The London core group
recommended that the tap settings of the
upstream transformers associated with these
switchboard buses be changed to bring the
voltages within the specified limits. The core
group also highlighted cases of potential
overloading of transformers under loss of
redundant power feed (second case) for
observation during actual plant operation.
Short Circuit Analysis
A short circuit condition imposes the most
onerous short-time duty on the system electrical
equipment. This fault condition arises as a result
of insulation failure in the equipment or wrong
operation of the equipment (e.g., closing onto an
existing fault or closing circuit breakers when the
associated earth switch is closed), leading to the
flow of uncontrolled high currents and severely
unbalanced conditions in the electrical system.
The four main types of short circuits are:
Three-phase short circuit with or without
earthing (This is usually the most severe
short circuit condition.)
Line-to-earth (single-phase-to-earth) fault
(In certain circumstances, the short circuit
current for a line-to-earth fault can exceed
the three-phase short circuit current.)
Line-to-line (phase-to-phase) fault
Double line-to-earth fault
The electrical equipment has to be rated
for the short circuit level of the system, which
basically requires all of the following conditions
to be met:
The electrical equipment must be able to
withstand the short circuit current until
the protective equipment (relays) detects
the fault and it is cleared by opening circuit
breakers (i.e., thermal withstand short
circuit current). The IEC standards specify a
standard withstand duration of 1 second or
3 seconds. The JERP used switchgear rated
for 1-second withstand time.
The circuit breakers must be suitable to
interrupt the flow of the short circuit current
(i.e., breaking duty).
The circuit breakers must be suitable to close
onto an existing fault (i.e., making duty).
Additionally, the protective system of the
network has to be set to enable reliable detection
of any short circuit condition (minimum and
maximum short circuit conditions).
The calculation of the short circuit current
for these conditions is made more complex
by the behaviour of the short circuit current
immediately after the fault. Depending on
the network characteristics, behaviour of the
generators in the network, and the exact instant
of the fault, the short circuit current may contain
significant amounts of transient alternating
and direct current components, which decay to
zero over time, depending on the characteristics
of the network and the rotating machines. It
is very difficult to account for the effects of
these phenomena through manual calculation
methods. This is particularly true because the
presence of a large direct current component in
the short circuit current imposes a very stringent
breaking duty on the circuit breakers, since a
natural current zero may not be achieved.
The results of the short circuit analysis calculated
the following various components of the short
circuit current at each bus:
i
p
Peak current in the first cycle after the
short circuit
IdcDirect current component at the instant
the circuit breaker opened
Ib sym and Ib asymSymmetrical and
asymmetrical root mean square currents at
the instant the circuit breaker opened
IthThermal withstand short circuit current
for 1-second rating
These results were cross-checked with the
equipment ratings to verify that the equipment
short-time ratings were suitable for the short
level of the system.
Stability Analysis
It is relevant to note the concept of stability as
defined in standards such as Standard 399 of
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers, Incorporated (IEEE

). [1] IEEE 399


states that a system (containing two or more
synchronous machines) is stable, under a
specified set of conditions, if, when subjected
to one or more bounded disturbances (less
than infinite magnitude), the resulting system
response(s) are bounded.
System stability requirements can be generally
categorised into steady-state stability, dynamic
stability, and transient stability. [2]
Steady-State Stability Analysis
Steady-state stability is the ability of the system
to remain stable under slow changes in system
loading. The power transfer between two
synchronous machines (generator G and motor
A short circuit
condition imposes
the most onerous
short-time duty
on the
system electrical
equipment.
December 2009 Volume 2, Number 1 7
Mrefer to Figure 3) with internal voltages of
E
G
and E
M
, respectively, and a phase angle of
between them is represented in Equation 1: [1]
(1)
The maximum power that can be transferred
occurs when = 90 degrees, per Equation 2:
(2)
For particular values of E
G
and E
M
, the
machines lose synchronism with each other if
the steady-state limit of P
max
is exceeded. The
steady-state stability study determines the
maximum value of machine loading that is
possible without losing synchronism as the
system loading is increased gradually.
Dynamic Stability Analysis
A steady-state scenario never exists in actual
operation, however. Rather, the state of the
electrical system can be considered dynamic,
whereby small, random changes in the system
load constantly occur, followed by actions of the
generator governor, exciter, and power system
stabiliser to adjust the output of the machine and
match the load requirement. The system can be
considered stable if the responses to these small,
random disturbances are bounded and damped
to an acceptable limit within a reasonable time.
The dynamic stability analysis of any system
is only practical through specialised computer
programs such as ETAP.
Transient Stability Analysis
Transient stability is the ability of the system to
withstand sudden changes in generation, load,
or system characteristics (e.g., short circuits,
tripping of generators, switching in large
bulk loads) without a prolonged loss of
synchronism. [1] Traditionally, transient stability
analysis focused on the ability of the system
to remain in synchronism immediately after
the occurrence of the transient event (i.e.,
the first swing of the machines, generally
within 1 second of the event). Also, the
traditional transient stability analysis ignored
the action of the machine governor, exciter,
and automatic voltage regulator (AVR) because
they were slow-acting compared with the
duration of the analysis.
This approach to transient stability analysis
has been modified in recent times since the
advent of governors, exciters, and AVRs based
on fast-acting control systems. It has also been
seen that different sections of an interconnected
network may respond at different times to a
transient event that sometimes may be outside
the traditional 1 second window for transient
analysis. Also, the behaviour of different sections
of the network may be different for the same
transient event. Hence, to verify whether system
stability is retained, the transient stability
analysis needs to be carried out for a longer
duration (preferably over a range of transient
events having varying severities and durations).
This kind of analysis was not possible in earlier
years due to the high complexity of modelling
and limited computing power, but today such
an analysis can be performed because of the
availability of practically unlimited computing
power on desktop and laptop computers,
coupled with specialised computer programs
such as ETAP. Hence, the dividing line between
dynamic stability analysis and transient stability
analysis has been virtually eliminated.
A range of stability analyses was carried out
on the JERP refinery system. They covered the
operation of the JERP electrical network while
in a standalone condition as well as in parallel
operation with the DTA electrical network. The
stability analyses can be broadly classified into
the following categories.
Transient and Extended Dynamic
Stability Analysis
Fault withstand study: This study entailed
simulation of single-phase and three-phase
faults at various locations in the electrical
network. It analysed the behaviour of the
power system in the pre-fault stage, during
the fault, and after the fault was cleared by
the systems protective devices.
Load throw-off study: A load throw-off
condition can cause the machines to over
speed. Temporary overvoltage conditions
can also occur in the system. Hence, the
behaviour of the electrical system was
studied for all probable cases of load throw-
off in which a substantial portion of the
operating load was suddenly tripped.
Stability analyses
carried out
on the JERP
refinery system
covered the
operation of
the JERP electrical
network in
standalone condition
as well as in
parallel operation
with the DTA
electrical network.
G
E
G
E
M
jX M
Figure 3. Power Transfer Between Machines
sin
M
=
E
G
E
P
X

M
=
E
G
E
P
X
max
Bechtel Technology Journal 8
Load sharing on tripping of tie circuit
breaker between JERP and DTA electrical
systems: The behaviours of the JERP and
DTA electrical systems were studied on
disconnection of the JERPDTA tie line.
This study was carried out for various
combinations of operating GTGs/STGs in
the JERP and DTA electrical systems (i.e.,
various power flow scenarios between JERP
and DTA systems). When system stability
could not be achieved by load sharing
amongst the operating GTGs/STGs in each
individual network, load shedding was
simulated to try to achieve a stable system.
Contingency Analysis
Load sharing on tripping of JERP/DTA
GTG: The behaviour of the power system
was studied when one or more of the
operating GTGs/STGs tripped, causing a
loss of generation. This study was carried
out for various combinations of operating
GTGs/STGs in the JERP and DTA electrical
systems. When system stability could not
be achieved by load sharing amongst the
remaining operating GTGs/STGs, load
shedding was simulated to try to achieve
a stable system.
Operational Analysis
Step-load addition study: A sudden addition
of load on operating machines can cause loss
of stability. A step-load addition scenario can
occur in a variety of ways in an electrical
system, the most probable being loss of one
of the operating machines, which can cause
a sudden increase in the load demand on the
other operating GTGs/STGs. The behaviour
of the system was studied for all probable
scenarios of step-load addition.
The results of these stability analyses helped
define the limits of safe operation of the
power system under various generation/
load scenarios.
Motor-Starting Study
At the instant of starting, synchronous and
induction motors draw a starting current that is
several times the full-load current of the motor.
In the absence of assisted starting, this starting
current is typically between 600% and 720% of
the normal full-load current. This high current
causes a voltage drop in the upstream electrical
network, as well as in the motor feeder cable.
The effects of this voltage drop include:
The combined voltage drop in the supply
network and the motor cable reduces the
voltage available at the motor terminals
during the starting period. Because the motor
torque is directly proportional to the square
of the applied voltage, excessive voltage
drops can mean that insufficient torque is
available to accelerate the motor in the face
of the load torque requirement, leading to
very long starting times or a failure to start.
The voltage drop at the switchboard buses
can affect the other operating loads, mainly
in the form of nuisance tripping of other
loads on the network (e.g., voltage-sensitive
loads or contactor-fed loads where the
control voltage for the contactor is derived
from the switchgear bus). There can also be
cases in which the reduction in the terminal
voltage for the operating motors causes the
motor-torque curve to shift downwards.
This reduction in the motor torque can cause
the running motors to stall.
For the other operating loads, a reduction
in the motor terminal voltages causes the
current drawn by the motors to increase
as they strive to produce the power the
process demands of them. This condition
exacerbates the voltage problem because the
increased current gives rise to an increased
voltage drop in the system.
Depending on the size of the motor being started
and the generating capacity available, motor
starting can impose a very high short-term
demand on the operating generators.
Studying motor starting can help identify these
voltage-drop-related problems at the design
stage. Usually, the worst-case motor-starting
scenario is the starting of the highest-rated motor
(or the highest-rated standby motor) at each
voltage level with the operating load of the
plant as the standing load. However, other
worst-case scenarios may require evaluation in
certain situations:
Motors with an unusually long supply cable
circuit
Motors fed from a weak power supply (e.g.,
starting on emergency power supplied from
a diesel generator set of limited rating)
Simultaneous starting of a group of motors
In the event of an unfavourable outcome from
the motor starting study, various improvement
measures are available, including:
Specifying that motors be designed with
a lower value of starting current, which is
particularly feasible for the larger medium-
voltage (MV) motors
The results
of stability
analyses help
define the limits of
safe operation of
the power system
under various
generation/load
scenarios.
December 2009 Volume 2, Number 1 9
Specifying lower impedance for the upstream
transformer after verifying the suitability
through a short circuit analysis
Starting the largest motors in the network
with a reduced standing load
Using larger cable sizes for the motor feeder
to improve the motor terminal voltage
Providing assisted starting, if required, for
the larger HV/MV motors instead of direct
on-line starting
Using motor unit transformers to feed power
to large MV motors, which ensures that the
effect of the voltage drop on the rest of the
electrical system is reduced
Increasing upstream bus voltage temporarily
(e.g., through on-load tap changers [OLTCs])
before starting large motors
Various motor starting scenarios were modelled
for the JERP, and the results indicated that the
motors could be started satisfactorily.
Transformer Energisation Studies
The inrush phenomenon in transformers can
inflict a very severe, albeit short-term, effect
on the voltage profile at the refinerys various
switchboard buses. The inrush current taken
by the transformers is due to the behaviour of
the magnetic circuit. The constant flux linkage
theorem states that the magnetic flux in an
inductive circuit cannot change suddenly. Hence,
the magnetic flux immediately after energisation
(t = 0
+
) should be equal to the magnetic flux
immediately before energisation (t = 0

).
When a transformer is switched on, the
magnetic flux immediately after energisation
depends on the following factors that are
essentially random:
The point on the sine wave voltage
waveform where the transformer is switched
on, which decides the amount and direction
of the flux requirement
The amount and direction of the remnant
flux, which depends on the point on the
sine wave voltage waveform where the
transformer was last switched off
As explained by the constant flux linkage
theorem, the magnetic flux after energisation
retains a sinusoidal shape that is biased by the
flux requirement at the point of energisation
and the remnant flux. Depending on the design
of the transformer, this condition can cause the
flux requirement to be well above the knee-point
voltage on the transformer magnetising curve,
leading to very high excitation currents that may
reach large multiples of the full-load current
of the transformer. The inrush current decays
substantially within a few cycles.
Although modern protection systems are well-
equipped with algorithms to distinguish the
transformer inrush current from the short circuit,
the inrush current still causes a severe voltage
dip at the other switchboards in the network.
This voltage dip can cause nuisance tripping of
other network loads.
The London core group studied various probable
transformer energisation scenarios (including
group energisation of transformers) to confirm
that the network voltages recover without
tripping system operating loads.
Because ETAP could not directly model
transformer behaviour under inrush conditions,
the impact of the transformer inrush current
was simulated by switching a series of low
power-factor loads in and out at intervals of
5 milliseconds. The load values were selected
as exponentially decreasing to simulate the
inrush current decay. To ensure accurate
modelling, the inrush current data was based on
transformer manufacturers data supplemented
by the measurements recorded during site
testing and commissioning.
The results of the transformer energisation
studies established the network conditions
under which the JERP transformers can be safely
energised. This finding was crucial because in
certain scenarios, the JERP main transformers
were to be energised from the DTA electrical
system and any disruption to the DTA operating
loads could lead to tripping of the DTA refinery.
Harmonic Analysis
The amount of periodic waveform distortion
present in the power supply is one of the most
important criteria for measuring power quality.
Periodic waveform distortion is characterised by
the presence of harmonics and interharmonics
in the power supply.
Harmonics are sinusoidal voltages and currents
with frequencies that are integral multiples
of the fundamental frequency of the system.
Interharmonics are sinusoidal voltages and
currents with frequencies that are non-integral
multiples of the fundamental frequency of
the system.
For the JERP:
f
1
= fundamental frequency = 50 Hz
f
harmonic
= n x f
1
(n = 2, 3, 4, ) (3)
f
interharmonic
= m x f
1
(m > 0 and non-integral) (4)
The results of
the transformer
energisation
studies
established the
network conditions
under which the
JERP transformers
can be safely
energised.
Bechtel Technology Journal 10
Periodic waveform distortion is caused by non-
linear loads, which are loads that do not draw a
sinusoidal current when excited by a sinusoidal
voltage. The non-linear loads act as sources
of harmonic currents in the power system,
which cause a voltage distortion at the various
buses because of the harmonic voltage drops
across the impedances of the network. Hence,
the quantum of voltage distortion depends on
the harmonic currents injected into the system
and the impedance of the system (the voltage
distortion in a weak system, characterised by a
high system impedance, is higher).
The presence of excessive harmonics can lead to
premature aging of electrical insulation due to
dielectric thermal or voltage stress in equipment
such as motors, cables, and transformers. Other
possible effects of harmonics include reduced
power factors, incorrect operation of protection
systems, interference with communication
networks, and occurrence of series and parallel
resonant conditions that can lead to excessive
currents and voltages in the system. Hence, it
is important to carry out a harmonic analysis
wherever the non-linear load forms a significant
portion of the total load.
The JERP electrical network includes a large
number of harmonic-generating loads, mainly
22 kW and 37 kW low-voltage (LV) variable-speed
drives (VSDs) that act as sources of harmonic
currents. The London core group carried out a
harmonic analysis of the JERP electrical network
to verify that the voltage distortion at the
networks various switchboards caused by these
harmonic-generating loads is within the limits
specified in Table 11-1 of IEEE 519 (Table 1).
All harmonic-generating process loads were
modelled in the ETAP model used for harmonic
analysis. The power sources in the JERP network
(GTGs and STGs) were assumed to have no
harmonic distortion. As a worst-case scenario,
the harmonic analysis was carried out with
the minimum generation configuration under
normal operating conditions because this
configuration corresponds to the maximum
system impedance.
The results of the harmonic analysis highlighted
the switchboards whose power quality needs to
be monitored further during plant operation.
The London core group recommended that any
corrective action (such as adding harmonic filters)
to reduce the harmonics at these JERP plant
switchboards be undertaken after measuring the
actual harmonic levels at the various 6.6 kV/415 V
switchboards when the plant is operating.
CONCLUSIONS
T
he results of the system studies of the JERP
electrical network verified the adequacy of
the ratings for the systems major equipment.
The results also helped determine the conditions
for satisfactory and reliable system operation
and highlighted any operational restrictions
required for safe operation.
LESSONS LEARNT
C
onducting electrical system studies on
a complex project such as the JERP and
working with execution centres and non-Bechtel
engineering contractors located across the globe
have highlighted three major areas, discussed
below, where existing Bechtel project procedures
can be improved or fine-tuned to increase
operating efficiency.
Distributing Work
The work distribution amongst the execution
centres, non-Bechtel engineering contractors,
and the London core group for carrying out
ETAP modelling must be clearly defined
through proper DWIs. Amongst other things,
the instructions should include the structure of
the model, the extent of modelling required, the
data required to be populated in the model, the
methodology of populating the data, the use of
assumptions and approximations, the common
library to be used to populate the standard data
in the model, and the tests that must be carried
out to ensure that sections of the model meet
all requirements before they are transferred to
the London core group for integration into the
overall model.
Table 1. Harmonic Limits as Defined by IEEE 519
Rated
Bus Voltage
Individual
Harmonic
Distortion
(IHD), %
Total
Harmonic
Distortion
(THD), %
69 kV and less 3 5
Greater than 69 kV
up to 161 kV
1.5 2.5
161 kV and greater 1 1.5
For shorter periods, during startups or unusual conditions,
these limits may be exceeded by 50%.
Conducting
system studies on
a complex project
such as the JERP
has highlighted
areas where
existing Bechtel
procedures
can be improved
or fine-tuned.
December 2009 Volume 2, Number 1 11
Handling Model Revisions
Proper work procedures for handling ETAP
model revisions need to be furnished to the
execution centres/non-Bechtel engineering
contractors so that the London core group
can integrate the revised models or revised
sections of same into the overall model without
causing rework or loss of data.
Identifying Study Cases
To increase engineering efficiency, it is essential
to optimise the types of studies to be conducted
on a project and the number of cases to be
analysed for each study. At the same time,
it is essential to ensure that the number
and types of study cases allow the engineer
to determine system behaviour under all
operating conditions.
This opportunity is particularly valuable because
the projects that Bechtel is bound to take up
(in the role of engineering contractor or as a
project management consultant or member of
a project management team) are more likely
to be of the scale of the JERP, and it is highly
likely that the engineering work for such
projects will be divided amongst various
execution centres.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to express his gratitude to
R.H. Buckle (chief engineer), R.D. Hibbett (lead
electrical engineerJERP), and David Hulme
(project engineering manager) for their support
and guidance during execution of the JERP
system studies. The author also wishes to
thank V. Shanbhag, B.S. Venkateswar, and
M.A. Mujawar from Reliance Industries for
their support and encouragement.
TRADEMARKS
ETAP is a registered trademark of Operation
Technology, Inc.
IEEE is a registered trademark of The Institute
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
Incorporated.
Merox is a trademark owned by UOP LLC,
a Honeywell Company.
Simulink is a registered trademark of The
MathWorks, Inc.
REFERENCES
[1] IEEE 399-1997, IEEE Recommended Practice
for Industrial and Commercial Power Systems
Analysis, The Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1998, pp. 79,
209214, access via http://standards.ieee.org/
colorbooks/sampler/Brownbook.pdf.
[2] D.P. Kothari and I.J. Nagrath, Power System
Engineering, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company Ltd., 2008, Chapter 12,
pp. 558560, access via http://highered.
mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0070647917/information_
center_view0/.
ADDITIONAL READING
Additional information sources used to develop
this paper include:
P.M. Anderson and A.A. Fouad, Power
System Control and Stability, 2nd Edition,
IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003, pp. 510,
access via http://www.amazon.com/
Power-System-Control-Stability-Engineering/
dp/0471238627#noop.
Systems, Controls, Embedded Systems, Energy,
and Machines, The Electrical Engineering
Handbook, 3rd Edition, Richard C. Dorf, ed.,
Chapter 5, 2006, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis
Group, LLC, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 5-1 5-3,
access via http://www.amazon.com/Controls-
Embedded-Machines-Electrical-Engineering/
dp/0849373476.
BIOGRAPHY
Rajesh Narayan Athiyarath
is a senior electrical engineer
in Bechtels OG&C Global
Business Unit. He has 16 years
of experience in engineering
oil and gas, petrochemical,
and GTG power plant projects
worldwide. During his 3 years
with Bechtel OG&C (London),
Rajesh has contributed to
system studies and relay coordination studies
on the JERP and to FEED for the Ruwais refinery
expansion project. He has also acted as the
responsible engineer for the energy management
system and load shedding system on the JERP.
Rajesh received a performance award for his work on
the JERP system studies.
Rajesh holds a BE from Mumbai University, India,
and is a chartered electrical engineer (CEng,
member of Institution of Engineering and Technology
[MIET], UK). He is a Six Sigma Yellow Belt.
Bechtel Technology Journal 12