Abstract This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of
induced voltages on overhead distribution lines due to some
lightning and line configuration parameters variations. The
sensitivity analysis was made initially varying just one parameter
individually and then was varied whole parameters at the same
time analyzed by means of nonlinear regression models. This
analysis shows the parameters that have more influence on the
induced voltages. It was also obtained an approximate equation to
calculate the maximum induced voltage along the line. The
obtained equation was also compared with other approximate
equations such as Rusck and Jankov.
Index TermsLightning, Simulation, Power distribution lines
I. INTRODUCTION
IGHTNING induced voltages have an important effect on
the overhead distribution lines performance. This
phenomenon is more frequent that direct lightning strikes
therefore its continue incidence especially in a high ground
stroke density zone as Colombia [1] makes that this
disturbance be one of the most important reason for flashover
and line outage.
It is very important to know widely this phenomenon in
order to take the pertinent actions for decrease the distribution
line faults. This phenomenon has been studying theoretically
frombeginnings 1908 by Warner [2]. Different authors have
proposed and complemented methodologies for modeling the
induced voltages on distribution lines [3][8]. Nowadays the
Agrawal model [12] is the most accepted coupling model for
describing the induced voltage on a distribution line, and it is
indeed the model that allows in a straightforward way to take
into account the ground conductivity. This model is also one of
the most tested model using experimental results [13]  [14].
In two decades the induced voltages have been widely
studied and some improvements on the modeling have been
adopted for better calculations [15][19]. These studies have
This work was supported in part by the Colombian Institute for Science
and Technology Development  COLCIENCIAS and the National University
of Colombia.
E. Perez is with the research group PAASUN of the National University
of Colombia, (email: eperez@paas.unal.edu.co) http://www.paas.unal.edu.co
J. Herrera is with the research group PAASUN of the National University
of Colombia, (email: javierh@paas.unal.edu.co) http://www.paas.unal.edu.co
H. Torres is with the research group PAASUN of the National University
of Colombia, (email: htorres@paas.unal.edu.co) http://www.paas.unal.edu.co
allowed including the influence of the ground conductivity, the
corona produced by the induced voltages, the influence of the
surge arresters, treeshaped distribution lines, etc.
Several works have been made dealing with a sensitivity
analysis of various lightning and line parameters on the
induced voltages on distribution lines [20][24]. These studies
in general have been made varying the parameters individually
and observing their influence on the waveformand maximum
amplitude of the induced voltages.
The sensitivity analysis made in this paper was done in two
ways: one, varying each parameter individually, and other one
varying whole parameters at each time. For the analysis of
latter method were used multivariate regression techniques.
This study allows classifying these parameters in
importance order and may be useful to have more criteria
when it is necessary to neglect a variable.
From the multivariate analysis was found a simplified
equation for calculate the induced voltages which includes
parameters such as ground conductivity and incidence angle of
lightning strike point to the line.
II. INDUCED VOLTAGES CALCULATION METHODOLOGY
The study of induced voltages has been focused on three
main subjects for the calculation of the induced voltages.
These subjects establish the main steps of the most accepted
methodology that have to be taken into account for an accurate
calculation [16].
Adopt a model for the description of the return stroke
current along the lightning channel
Calculate the electromagnetic field along the line
caused by the lightning current
Calculate the induced voltages by means of a coupling
model.
The following models and approximations were used in
order to calculate the induced voltages and make the
sensitivity analysis.
It was used the Modified Transmission Line model (MTL)
for the representation of the return stroke current along the
lightning channel [25]. In this model the channel base current
was represented by the Heidler equation [26].
The electromagnetic field was calculated using the Master
and Uman [27] equations for the lightning electromagnetic
field. In order to take into account the ground conductivity, it
was used the CoorayRubinstein equation [28], [29] for the
calculation of the horizontal electric field.
Ernesto Perez, Student Member IEEE, J avier Herrera, Student Member IEEE and Horacio Torres, Member IEEE
Sensitivity Analysis of Induced Voltages on
Distribution Lines
L
0780379675/03/$17.00 2003 IEEE
Paper accepted for presentation at 2003 IEEE Bologna Power Tech Conference, June 23th26th, Bologna, Italy
The induced voltages produced by the lightning
electromagnetic field are calculated using the Agrawal model
[5].
III. UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS
The univariate sensitivity analysis was made using the
following parameters: front time, decay time, amplitude
current, channel velocity, ground conductivity, lightning strike
point, line height and line configuration (horizontal or
vertical). These parameters were varied individually starting
froma base case, then, in order to observe if there is some
relationship between parameters it was changed the values of
the other parameters and was made the same analysis. It was
obtained the waveform of the induced voltage and was
analyzed the front time and maximumamplitude of the signal.
A. Line Configuration
For the induced voltages calculation it was taken a 500m
oneconductor line with an ACSR 2/0 cable lumped at the end
with resistors with same values of the surge impedance as
shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Line configuration and measurements point
B. Simulated Cases
It was taken 6 base cases where for each base case just one
parameter was varied between its extreme values. For each
base case each parameter was varied individually for several
times between its typical values meanwhile the other
parameters were fixed. The evaluation of each parameter
between each base case allows observing if the effect that have
one parameter in the induced voltages is affected when the
other parameters are varied as well.
C. Front time effect
The front time (tf) parameter affects the amplitude and the
front time of the induced voltages as it is shown in Fig. 2. The
induced voltages amplitude decreases when tf increases,
having greater effect on the middle of the line. The induced
voltage could be decreased between 35 and 70%, when tf is
between 0.5 and 7.5s. The influence on the induced voltages
front time is in general terms proportional to tf.
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
x10
5
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
time [s]
I
n
d
u
c
e
d
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
[
k
V
]
Induced Voltage Varying Lightning Front Time
0.5 [s]
1 [s]
1.8 [s]
5 [s]
Fig. 2. Induced voltage, varying the Lightning front time. Simulation made on
a 500mline with a striking point 100m far away perpendicular to the line and
current peak of 10 kA.
D. Decay time effect
In general this parameter doesnt affect the induced
voltages, it is just observed a small variation on the induced
voltage amplitude, when the decay time (td) is varied and the
front time is lower than 1s.
E. Amplitude current effect
The lightning amplitude current has a proportional
relationship with the induced voltage, and non relationship
with induced voltages front time. This influence is the same
along the whole line. Moreover, this parameter is not
influenced by the other parameters.
F. Return stroke velocity
The return stroke velocity (v) is a parameter that affects the
induced voltage waveformon its magnitude, front time and
even the decay time. The effect of v is different along the line
and its influence on the induced voltage also depends on the
lightning strike location and ground conductivity. In general
the induced voltage amplitude variations are low; greater
variations could be observed at the end of the line when the
ground conductivity is low.
When v is varied between 100 and 280 m/s, the maximal
induced voltage could increase its magnitude between 10
120%, depending of the other parameters and the measurement
point, especially when the ground conductivity is low.
G. Ground Conductivity
The main effects of the ground conductivity on the induced
voltage are the changes on the magnitude and shape of the
waveforms. Depending on the strike lightning location related
with the line, the line observation point and the ground
conductivity magnitude, the induced voltages could have a
double polarity type; even the magnitude of the negative peak
could be higher than the positive one as shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Induced voltage varying the ground conductivity. Simulation made on
a 500m line with a striking point 300m far away parallel to the line and
current peak of 10 kA.
In general the induced voltage amplitude measured on the
end points increases when the ground conductivity decreases
as well. In the middle of the line the effect of the ground
conductivity is low except when the lightning strike point is
near the middle of the line. It can be observed in Fig. 4,
meanwhile the ground conductivity decreases, the induced
voltage increases at the beginning of the line.
When the conductivity varies between 0.001 and infinity
the magnitude of the induced voltage due to the conductivity
could increase between 20 and 200% on the beginning and
200 and 4000% at the end of the line, the biggest changes are
observed when the lightning strike location is collinear to the
line.
Relation between the Induced Overvoltages and Ground
Conductivity
0,000
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
0,001 0,010 0,100 1,000
Conductivity [s/m]
I
n
d
u
c
e
d
O
v
e
r
c
o
l
t
a
g
e
s
[
k
V
]
Case 1 i
Case 2 i
Case 3 i
Case 4 i
Case 8 i
Case 9 i
T i d M t
Fig. 4. Relation between the Induced voltage and the ground conductivity for
10 different base cases
H. Lightning Strike Point Effect
This parameter produces that the induced voltages
waveforms vary considerably. The amplitude decreases almost
inversely proportional when the striking point is moving away
from the line. When the incidence angle is increased the
induced voltage magnitude is decreased.
I. Line Height effect
Line height produces a proportional influence to the
induced voltage when the ground conductivity is neglected.
The ground conductivity can produce that the effect that has
the line height on the induced voltages decreases considerably,
especially at the end of the line.
J. Multiconductor effect
In general the induced voltages on one conductor in a
Multiconductor line are reduced by the effect of the other
conductors. This reduction could be between 15 or 40% lower
than those corresponding to a single line. This reduction is
greater when the number of conductors is increased, the
conductors spacing, arrangement configuration (vertical or
horizontal) and the measuring point. The highest reductions
are presented at the end of the line.
IV. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
Taking into account the results of the prior analysis, it was
observed that some parameters are influenced by others. For
this reason it was made a multivariate analysis in order to
describe in a better way the influence that have the lightning
and line parameters on the induced voltages calculation.
A. Line Configuration
For this analysis it was taken a 1km single conductor
distribution line with an ASCR 2/0 cable lumped at the ends
with resistor with the same value that has the line surge
impedance magnitude.
B. Parameter variation
It was made more than 400 simulations where all
parameters were varied at the same time. In order to have a
model that describes the results of the induced voltages for
each parameter at any value between its ranges, it was chosen
for each simulation randomly parameter values with an
uniformprobability distribution for each case between theirs
known values. It was used the probability distribution function
proposed by Baran [30] for the lightning current amplitude and
front time.
The parameters were varied between the following ranges.
Front time [0.5 12 s]
Decay Time [25  200s]
Current amplitude [10100 kA]
Return stroke velocity [50 280m/s]
Ground Conductivity [0.1 0.001 s/m]
Line height [5 14m]
Lightning strike point
o Distance (R) [502000m]
o Angle () [0  ] rad
The Distance R, represents the distance between the
lightning strike point and the measurement point i. The angle
() is that one between the distribution line and the strike
point, as shown in Fig. 5. In order to avoid considering the
strikes point that could be direct impacts, it was considered
that the closest distance to the line that a lightning may strike
is 50m.
Fig. 5. Base case configuration for multivariate analysis
The induced voltage was observed on three different points
(beginning (i), middle(m), end, (e)), and also it was observed
the maximum induced voltage along the line. Taking into
account the symmetry of the system it was reduced the
lightning striking zone to that shown in Fig. 5.
C. Regression Model
In order to observe the behavior of all parameters, it was
used nonlinear multivariate regression model. Thus the
representation of the induced voltage could be more complex.
The nonlinear model chosen could be simplified to a linear
model by means of logarithms. See (1).
( )
z b x a y e x y
z b x a y z x y
bz a
b a
+ = =
+ = =
) ln( ) ln(
) ln( ) ln( ln
(1)
D. Results Analysis
The parameters that have more influence on the induced
voltage are: the Current amplitude, the lightning strike distance
and the angle of incidence; and the parameter that has the
lowest influence is the decay time. The other parameters vary
between low, moderate and high influence depending the
measurement point and induced voltage polarity.
The level of influence that has all analyzed parameters on
the induced voltage for each measured point is shown in table
1.
At the measurement point (e), the induced voltage may have
even positive or negative maximummagnitude of the induced
voltage. This change of polarity depends strongly on ground
conductivity and incidence angle. In table 1, the effect of the
parameters is separated for positive and negative maximum
magnitudes.
It was observed also, that, in order to the induced voltage
has a maximum negative magnitude it is necessary that the
incidence angle be greater than (/2) 90, and the ground
conductivity lower than 0.1s/m.
It is worth mentioning that the lines height has almost no
influence on the negative induced voltage at the end of the
line. This effect is produced mainly by the ground
conductivity and the incidence angle.
TABLE 1
PARAMETER EFFECTS ON THE INDUCED VOLTAGE FOR THE THREE
DIFFERENT MEASUREMENT POINTS
Measurement Point
Influence Beginning (i) Middle (m) End (f) () End (f) (+)
Distance (R) I I
Current
Amplitude (I)
R I
High
Angle of
Incidence ()
R R
Line Height (h) tf tf tf
Moderate
Conductivity () h v h
Velocity (v)
Low
Front Time (tf) v
v
tc tc
Very Low Decay Time (td) tc
h
As an additional result of the multivariate analysis it was
obtained and approximate equation to describe the maximum
induced voltage along the line (2).
[ ] kV 08 . 5
18 . 0 885 . 0 1 . 0 89 . 0
4 . 0 98 . 0 755 . 0
max
f
t R
v I h
V
=
(2)
where:
h: lines height [m]
D: Distance between the striking point and the beginning
of the line [m]
: Incidence angle [rad]
: Ground conductivity [s/m]
I: Lightning peak current [kA]
tf: Front time of the lightning current waveform[s]
v: return stroke velocity [m/s]
This equation calculates the induced voltage with the same
polarity of the lightning current. It is not able to evaluate the
changes of polarity. However, it is worth mention that for the
400 cases simulated, more than 80% of the maximum induced
voltage magnitude has the same polarity of the lightning return
stroke current.
When the ground conductivity is neglected, the value of ,
in (2) may be fixed in 1.
V. EQUATION COMPARISON
Equation (2) was compared with other two equations used
for induced voltages calculations, Rusk [10] approximate
formula and J ankov [31] equation. For this comparison it was
taken the Agrawal model as pattern.
A. Rusck Equation
An analytical solution is proposed by Rusck [10], where by
means of certain approximations accomplish to solve the
electromagnetic field equations and the coupling model.
Rusck assume that the electric field on the line is the same that
the electric field on ground, the current waveformis assumed
as a step function, the line is assumed infinite on perfect
conductor plane. Rusck find that for this solution the
maximuminduced voltage occurs on the nearest line point to
stroke location. The maximuminduced voltage could be easily
calculated by (3).
[ ] kV
2
1
2 2
0 0
0
+ =
v c
v
y
h I Z
V (3)
where:
= 30
4
1
0
0
0
Z
h : Lines height [m]
I
0
: Return stroke peak current [kA]
Y : Distance to lightning strike point [m]
v : return stroke speed [m/s]
c : light speed =300[m/s
B. Jankov Equation
Frommultivariate regression techniques J ankov [31], have
found approximate equations for induced voltage calculation.
In order to obtain this equation it was simulated more than
300 cases with different values of T (Heidler equation front
time [15] [s]), (Heidler equation decay time[s]) and h
(lines height [m]), and was found the relation between the
maximal induced voltage (V
max
) and the distance between the
striking point and the line (D). For the simulations it was used
the Agrawal model as coupling model, TCS model was used to
describe the return stroke channel and the Heidler equation for
the base channel current; in this study is assumed ground as a
perfect conductor and a lossless unifilar line. The approximate
equation for calculate induced voltage is shown in (4)
( ) [ ] kV ln ln exp
5
5 1 0 0 max
D k D k k I k V
u
+ + = (4)
where:
( )
( ) ( ) s T T k
s T e k
k k
k
e k
h
T
h
k
T
T
u
1 . 0 , 10 ) 02 . 0 5 . 7 9 . 0
1 . 0 , 10 15 . 1 667 . 0 1 18 . 0 4 . 0
45 . 3
25 . 3 25 . 2
4
10 333 . 3 8 . 0 01875 10
100
4
5
4 85 . 28
85 . 28
19 . 0
19 . 0
5
0 0
1
55 . 0
1 . 0
0
6 . 0
4
4 . 1
45 . 1
+ =
>
]
]
]
.

'
]
]
.

'
+ =
=
+ =
(
D: Perpendicular Distance between the striking point and
the beginning of the line [m]
C. Comparison Methodology
In order to compare these three equations there were
simulated 400 different cases with varying the whole
parameters values randomly and assuming the ground as a
perfect conductor. It was used the same line configuration as
in the multivariate analysis shown in section IVA. Taking
into account that the Rusck and J ankov equations use the
perpendicular distance to the line, and dont take into account
the incidence there was restricted the lightning strike area as
shown in Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Line configuration for equation comparison
In order to observe how much could be increased the errors
of these equations, when the ground conductivity is
considered, it was simulated the same above cases including
this parameter with random values on the induced voltage
calculation.
D. Results Analysis
When it is evaluated neglecting the ground conductivity, the
three equations have similar results, (2), and (4) have a mean
error of 16% and 20% for (3). Although, the mean errors for
the three equations are similar, the equation that has better
results is (2) because errors ever are lower than 50%,
meanwhile, (3) and (4) could have errors higher than 100%, as
it is shown in Fig. 7.
Cumulative Probabiity for Relative Error
0,0%
10,0%
20,0%
30,0%
40,0%
50,0%
60,0%
70,0%
80,0%
90,0%
100,0%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Error [%]
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
[
%
]
Ec. (2)
Rusck1
J anckov
Fig. 7. Cumulative probability distribution of the Relative errors of the
approximate equations, when are compared with the Agrawal model
considering infinite ground conductivity
When ground conductivity is not neglected, it is observed
that (2) has errors lower than those when the ground
conductivity is not considered. The J ankov equation increases
its mean error up to 30%, meanwhile the Rusck Equation
continue having 20% of mean error, as it is shown in Fig. 8.
Cumulati ve Probability for Relative Error
0,0%
10,0%
20,0%
30,0%
40,0%
50,0%
60,0%
70,0%
80,0%
90,0%
100,0%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Error [%]
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
[
%
]
Ec. (2)
Rusck
J anckov
Fig. 8 Cumulative probability distribution of the Relative errors of the
approximate equations, when are compared with the Agrawal model
considering finite ground conductivity
VI. CONCLUSIONS
By means of this sensitivity analysis it was found the
parameters that most influence have on the induced voltages
calculation.
It is observed that current amplitude and lightning strike
position are one of the parameters that have a high influence
on the induced voltages magnitude. However parameters such
as ground conductivity and line height may be considered as
well.
It was found that nonlinear regression models are a good
methodology to determine the most influential parameters on
complex models.
It was obtained and approximate equation to calculate the
maximum induced voltage on a distribution line that has
reasonable results. This equation includes parameters such as
angle of incidence and ground conductivity. It is worth
mention that the equation just calculate the maximumvoltage
with the same polarity that the lightning current.
The comparison of the equation shows the three equations
compared with the Agrawal model have reasonable results,
with a mean error less than 16 % for (2) and (4) and 20% for
(3). When the ground conductivity is taking into account, the
errors of (3) and (4) increase up to 30%.
VII. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors will like to thank to the Colombian Science
Council COLCIENCIAS, Research ProgramPAASUN, and
National University of Colombia.
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Ernesto Prez was born in Bogota, Colombia, South
America on November 21st, 1976. He received the
BSc (1999) and MSc (2002) degrees from the National
University of Colombia in Electrical Engineer and
High Voltage, nowadays he is doing his PhD courses
on the National University of Colombia.
He has been working on the research group PAAS
UN in Colombia since 1998. His special fields of
interest included high voltage, induced voltages and
lightning protection.
Javier Herrera was born in Bogota, Colombia, on
July 28, 1976. He received his BSc degree in electrical
engineering fromthe National University of Colombia,
Bogot, in 1998. In the same year he joined the
Research Program on Acquisition and Analysis of
Signals PAASUN.
In 2002, he obtained his Msc. Degree on electrical
engineering fromthe National University of Colombia.
He has been engaged in lightning protection
systems and power systems transients with emphasis on
lightninginduced voltages. At present he is starting his
PhD. Studies at the National University of Colombia.
Horacio Torres was born in Bogota, Colombia, on
May 1
st
of 1949. He received his Bsc and MSc degrees
in Electrical Engineering fromthe National University
of Colombia in 1975 and 178 respectively. He made
his studies of PhD in Technische Universitaet
Darmstadt, TUD, Germany.
He leads the research group PAASUN since 1993,
and is titular professor of Electrical Engineering on the
National University of Colombia. His special fields of
interest included high voltage, lightning discharge and
lightning protection. He is author or coauthor of more than 45 national
international related with his fields of interest.