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GUIDELINES FOR WRITING A PROFESSIONAL PAPER:

ASSIGNMENTS AND UNDERGRADUATE THESIS




- HANDBOOK FOR STUDENTS OF FIRST CYLCE -








Sarajevo, December 2011


Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 4
1. Assignments .................................................................................................................................... 5
1.1. Preparation of paper ................................................................................................................ 5
1.1.1. The topic and the literature .................................................................................................. 5
1.2. Basic elements of the assignment ............................................................................................ 6
1.2.1. Title page ......................................................................................................................... 6
1.2.2. Content ............................................................................................................................ 6
1.2.3. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 7
1.2.4. Main body of the paper .................................................................................................... 7
1.2.5. Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 7
1.2.6. Reference list ................................................................................................................... 8
2. Undergraduate thesis (graduate or diploma paper) .......................................................................... 9
2.1. Choosing the area of interest and approaching a professor ..................................................... 9
2.2. Preparation of paper ................................................................................................................ 9
2.2.1. Area of choice and literature ........................................................................................... 9
2.2.2. Determining the structure of paper ................................................................................ 10
2.3. Basic elements of paper ......................................................................................................... 10
2.3.1. Cover and title page ....................................................................................................... 10
2.3.2. Content .......................................................................................................................... 14
2.3.3. Introduction ................................................................................................................... 14
2.3.4. Main part of the paper ................................................................................................... 15
2.3.4.1. Elaboration of the topic ............................................................................................. 15
2.3.5. Conclusion ..................................................................................................................... 16
2.4. Registration, submission and presentation of graduate paper ............................................... 17
2.4.1. Registration of work ...................................................................................................... 17
2.4.2. Submission of work ....................................................................................................... 17
2.4.3. Presentation of graduate paper ...................................................................................... 18
3. Rules on technical processing of the assignment and graduate paper ....................................... 18
3.2. Referencing ....................................................................................................................... 19
3.2.1. System author-date Harvard System of referencing ............................................... 20
3.2.2. Numerical referencing system ....................................................................................... 21
3.3. Illustrations ........................................................................................................................ 22
3.4. Appendices ........................................................................................................................ 24
3.5. Reference list ..................................................................................................................... 24
3.6. List of illustrations and appendices ................................................................................... 24
3.7. Page numbering ................................................................................................................. 25
3.8. Layout, printing and binding work .................................................................................... 25
4. Plagiarism ...................................................................................................................................... 26
Reference list: ........................................................................................................................................ 27




























Introduction

The professional paper is related to the written forms of student activities in the certain field.
The professional paper does not have to be a primary research and it does not have to contain
new, original scientific findings and results. Its primary goal is collection and interpretation of
already known facts, information, attitudes and theories in the way that contributes to
expanding scientific insights, developing new approaches in interpretation, application and
adoption of known scientific results to needs of modern theory and practice.

There are many different types of the professional papers, but the two mostly used by students
of the first cycle are:
a) Assignments
b) Undergraduate thesis




















1. Assignments

Assignments are the kind of the professional work consisted of independent interpretation of
the specific topic from the course syllabus of the first cycle program. The purpose of the
assignment is widening and deepening the theoretical and practical knowledge in the certain
field, developing skills of using different sources of data and specialization of the writing
skills. By writing the assignments, students acquire first experiences in writing professional
and scientific papers.
During the first cycle of study, student has to write at least two assignments in different
subjects. According to the new ETCS concept of study, it is possible that students need to do
assignments in different subjects during each year of the study. The decision whether the
assignment is obligatory part of the examination and in which percentage, is made by each
course lecturer and it has to be written in the course syllabus. Assignments might be
individual or group work.

1.1. Preparation of paper
1.1.1. The topic and the literature

The topic of the assignment is given by the course lecturer. The basic instructions and
guidelines are given in the course syllabus or by the teaching assistant.

Literature can be found in the Library and Information Centre at SEBS and this represents the
first source of the information. Further literature can be found on Internet, in different
websites or online libraries. The SEBS students have the possibility to use different online
libraries (ProQuest database, EBSCO database, Emerald database, Google Scholar, InfoBiro,
DOAJ, REPEC, CEEOL, etc). from the schools computers using the password of the
University.





1.2. Basic elements of the assignment

Each assignment has obligatory parts, which are partially evaluated. Those are: cover and title
page, content, introduction, the main part, conclusion and list of used literature/references.

1.2.1. Title page

Title page should contain
Name of the University and School
Title of the Assignment
Name of the Student
Index number
Name of the Lecturer and Teaching Assistant
Place and date of submission

Title page should clearly outline the standardized arrangement of elements.. On title page, the
institution is written in caps letters and information about the mentor, the student, place and
date in small letters. The title is written in capital letters sized 16 pts. Title page should not
contain any graphics and accessories. Title page is not numbered.

1.2.2. Content

Content is written after writing the text and marking the number of the page. The content
should contain the names of all the chapters and subchapters, marked by the multilevel list (1.
first chapter, 1.1. First subchapter and so on). Word "Content" is written in capital letters in
Times New Roman, sized 14pts, bold style, with one space between the letters, centered.
Titles of chapters should be written in large letters sized 12 pts, bold style, and titles
subsections with two or more levels in small letters sized 12 pts, regular style.



1.2.3. Introduction

The aim of the introduction is to arouse the reader's interest and to preliminarily meet with
subject matter the processes at work. Introduction, therefore, should be short (around 1-2
pages) concise, clear, informative and interesting. If the work is without a preface,
introduction further contains elements that are usually in the preface. Commonly, all chapters
that are presented in the assignment are briefly explained in one or two paragraphs. When the
assignment does not have a methodology part separated, than the information that is usually
included in methodology, are given in the introduction.

1.2.4. Main body of the paper

The main part of the paper refers to the elaboration of selected topics. This section is the
largest and usually divided into more parts. Parts must be proportionate, harmonized and
logically connected into a unified whole. Usually, each part/chapter, needs to have at least two
subchapters. All parts should be focused on explaining and solving the given problem. Topic
should be explained in a logical and concise way. It is important to point out only what is
directly related to the topic and what is important, to avoid lengthy explanations and
repetitions. Each position must be explained and justified. It is desirable that the views are
followed by appropriate examples - examples might be hypothetical or real ones taken from
various documents, books or practice. The work should be written in simple, clear and concise
style, and to be grammatically correct and spelling.

1.2.5. Conclusion

The conclusion is the final part of professional work. The results and insights, which have
been reached during the elaboration of topics, are presented in the concise, succinct, precise
and logical way. The conclusion contains answers to questions asked in the introduction. The
most important findings and views from the main part of work are repeated, taking care not to
use the same wording and the same sentences. The conclusion should not contain tables and
illustrations. As a rule, any footnotes are not included in the conclusion. The conclusion is
written on a separate page, and its length should range from one or two page text.
1.2.6. Reference list

Details of all cited documents are listed at the end of work in the section entitled Reference
list. This list does not include any other document except directly quoted/rephrased sources.
Students should use the Handbook for Referencing in order to properly list the literature (and
other) sources.


















2. Undergraduate thesis (graduate or diploma paper)

Each student is obliged to write an undergraduate thesis in order to complete his/hers college
education and get diploma. An undergraduate thesis is written in the end of the third year of
the first cycle of the study. Writing an undergraduate thesis is similar in many ways to writing
an assignment, with main difference being that the theme of the thesis is more complex and
demanding, the methodological approach is more severe and the volume of work is usually at
least twice as large.

2.1. Choosing the area of interest and approaching a professor

A major pre-step when starting to work on an undergraduate thesis is, of course, choosing an
area of interest and identifying a professor in the area which would be most suitable to be
your mentor. Approaching the professor during his office hours with a proposition to start
working on the thesis is next natural step. Of course, professor should be available, meaning
that he is not already overbooked with number of previously selected thesis in the academic
year. If professor is available, it is possible that he/she will have some suggestions for your
thesis.

2.2. Preparation of paper

2.2.1. Area of choice and literature

After the chosen area, student defines thesis of work. Topics can be development of a
theoretical question, practical exploration of certain events or case studies.
After finding the basic literature in the catalogs of BIC, a student may continue with further
research. The research may use the following reference and available forms of library
materials: books (monographs), articles from journals, proceedings from conferences and
symposia, government and statistical publications, newspapers, theses and dissertations,
Internet (database of electronic journals), publications of international institutions, CD-
ROMs, magazines, etc.
Access to databases is provided via IP address of school, which means that any computer in
the building of the School can access these databases (EBSCO database, InfoBiro, DOAJ,
REPEC, CEEOL, etc).

2.2.2. Determining the structure of paper

After the first review of the collected literature it is necessary to produce a thesis which will
form the basis for the write operation. Theses reflect the structure of a future paper and its
development.
2.3. Basic elements of paper

Each paper has obligatory parts, which are partially evaluated. Those are: cover and title page,
content, introduction, the main part, conclusion and list of used literature/references.

2.3.1. Cover and title page

Besides title page, the graduate paper contains also the cover page. The cover page contains
Name of the University and Faculty
The logo of the Faculty
Name of the Student
Title of the Graduate paper
Indication that it is graduate paper
Place and the Year of graduating

Title page should contain
Name of the Faculty
Title of the Graduate paper
Indication that it is graduate paper
Course in which the graduate paper is done
Name of the Student
Number of index
Name of the mentor and members of commission
Place and date of submission

Cover and title page should clearly write the standardized arrangement of elements. All the
elements of cover are capitalized in Times New Roman, sized 14 pts, bold style, centered. The
institution is written in caps letters and information about the mentor, the student, place and
date in small letters. The title is written in capital letters sized 16 pts. Cover and title page
should not contain any graphics and accessories. Cover and title page is not numbered.




















Example of cover page:



UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO
SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS IN SARAJEVO







SNJEZANA BRKIC






CONTEMPORARY INTEGRATION PROCESSES
IN THE WORLD ECONOMY


UNDERGRADUATE THESIS




SARAJEVO, JUNI 2006
Example of title page:

UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO
SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS IN SARAJEVO






CONTEMPORARY INTEGRATION PROCESSES
IN THE WORLD ECONOMY

UNDERGRADUATE THESIS


Course: International Economics
Mentor: prof. Dragoljub Stojanov, PhD
Student: Snjezana Brkic
Index no: 128/2005
Stream: Economics
Major: International Economics


Sarajevo, juni 2006
2.3.2. Content

Content is written after writing the text and marking the number of the page. The content
should contain the names of all the chapters and subchapters. Word "Content" is written in
capital letters in Times New Roman, sized 14pts, bold style, with one space between the
letters, centered. Titles chapters should be written in large letters sized 12 pts, bold style, and
titles subsections with two or more decimal units in small letters sized 12 pts, your regular
style.

Example of content:













2.3.3. Introduction

The aim of the introduction is to arouse the reader's interest and to preliminarily meet with
subject matter the processes at work. Introduction, therefore, should be short (around 500-800
words) concise, clear, informative and interesting. If the work is without a preface,
introduction further contains elements that are usually in the preface. When the paper does not
Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 4
1. Assignments ..................................................................................................................................... 5
1.1. Preparation of paper ............................................................................................................... 5
1.1.1. The topic and the literature ................................................................................................. 5
1.2. Basic elements of the assignment ........................................................................................... 6
1.2.1. Title page ......................................................................................................................... 6
1.2.2. Content ............................................................................................................................. 6
1.2.3. Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 7
1.2.4. Main body of the paper .................................................................................................... 7
1.2.5. Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 7
1.2.6. Reference list ................................................................................................................... 8


have a methodology part separated, than the information that is usually included in
methodology, are given in the introduction.

2.3.4. Main part of the paper

Based on the problems of research student defines the case of research; based on issues and
items placed in the main research the hypotheses must be developed. The hypothesis is certain
claim (assumption) which explains a phenomenon using respective methods to verify and
prove. The hypothesis is actually the answer to the question in the problem.

For example, if student selected a topic from finance, and in its paper he/she wants to see the
effects of new financial products/services on profitability of company (problem), hypothesis
could be formulated as follows:

H1: New financial products and services are significantly influencing companys profitability.

2.3.4.1. Elaboration of the topic

The main part of the paper refers to the elaboration of selected topics. This section is the
largest and usually divided into more parts.

1. Historical and theoretical, retrospective or explanatory part
The first part gives a theoretical knowledge about the problem, results of previous
explorations, and main claims.
2. Analysts co-experimental part
Student should give some facts, information, data and ideas that he found in his own research
and analysis.
3. Perspective part
The third section gives a concrete solution to the problem or trying to predict further
developments of the problem.



Principles that should be used:
o Brevity and succinctness;
o Harmony and unity of the parts;
o Adequate emphasis;
o Correct reasoning;
o Listing of examples;
o Adequate balance between their own and others' texts;
o And style, grammar and spelling rules


2.3.5. Conclusion

The conclusion is the final part of professional work. In conclusion, the concise, succinct,
precise and logical ways to present the results and insights that have been reached in the
processing threads. The conclusion contains answers to questions asked in the introduction; it
is confirmed or rejected by the hypotheses.

The conclusion should not contain tables and illustrations. As a rule, the conclusion can not
include quotations or footnotes. The conclusion is written on a separate page, and its length
should range from one or two page text.










2.4. Registration, submission and presentation of graduate paper


The registration, submission and presentation of graduate paper is significantly different than
the registration, submission and presentation of assignments.


2.4.1. Registration of work

Students can compose the graduate paper within boundaries of courses they have listened and
claimed during the study, according to the plan and program and syllabus. According to the
rules of School of Economics and Business Sarajevo (SEBS), the student is obliged to choose
the subject and to figure out the topic of their graduate paper together with the teacher/mentor
in the VIII semester.

As the teacher isn't obliged to confirm his/hers mentorship for more than 20 graduate papers,
students are suggested to start the process of selection of the topic of the graduate paper
earlier. The teacher makes an evidence of the topic and the data about the candidate and in
that way opens up the process of thesis preparation.


2.4.2. Submission of work

When the graduate paper has been written, the work should be submitted to the
teacher/mentor. When the mentor/teacher accepts the work fully, the candidate has to prepare
at least five copies of the graduate paper as well as a CD Rom on which the work is written in
the pdf. form. One copy is printed for the student/candidate, three for the members of the
commission for presentation of graduate paper. One copy and the CD will be kept in the
archive in the library information center of our School.




2.4.3. Presentation of graduate paper

Following documents have to be submitted to the Students Admission Office by the
candidate:
Index
Form approval for the presentation of graduate paper, filled and signed by the mentor
Confirmation of not owing books given by the Library Information Center of our
school
Form for the registration of the graduate paper
Form of the payment for the presentation of the graduate paper
Three printed and bounded copies of the graduate paper for the members of the
commission. One copy of the printed work and the CD-Rom with the recorded version
of graduate paper has to be delivered to the library information center, but after the
finished presentation.
The date of the presentation has to be determined at least seven days before.
The student presents his/her work in front of the commission, consisted of three members.
The members are suggested by the mentor. President of the commission is the mentor. The
other two members are teachers of similar courses.
The presentation is public besides the commission and the candidate, it is possible for all
interested to attend the presentation.






3. Rules on technical processing of the assignment and graduate paper

Technical processing is the final phase of the assignment, in which special attention should be
paid to the systematic approach, visibility and linguistic-stylistic rules of writing. The
technical processing of work includes:
Making a title page (and cover page for undergraduate thesis)
Making a table of contents
Formatting the text according the rules
Citing the literature
Adding the illustrations
Creating the reference list
Adding the appendices
Creating the list of illustrations
Creating the list of appendices
Page numbering
Printing and binding the assignment
Note that rules on making title page as well as making content are described in the section
above.
3.1. Formating titles and subtitles

When writing titles and subtitles, following is recommended:

Titles of chapters (e.g. 1., 2., 3., ...) should be written using capital letters , Times New
Roman, size 14, bold style
Subtitles within chapters with two decimal places ( e.g. 1.1., 1.2., 1.3., ...) should be
written using capital letters , Times New Roman, size 12, bold style
Subtitles within chapters with three decimal places ( e.g. 1.2.1, 1.2.2..1.2.3, ...) should
be written using capital letters , Times New Roman, size 12, bold style

All above mentioned titles should be written indrawn from left margin in size of 5-10 letters.

3.2. Referencing

The student has the right to use other peoples words, ideas and information in his/her
assignment and graduate paper, but the student has to indicate that these ideas and information
are not his/her own. To accomplish that origin of taken data needs to be noted and that is
called referencing. Full information on the use of a source is called a bibliographic reference.
A reference represents the information that the reader needs to identify and locate the used
source.

References should be indicated, if used in the text:
A direct quote from another source
Paraphrased text
Information obtained from other studies
Statistical data
Theories or ideas of another author
A fact that is not general knowledge

In general, there are two types of referencing systems used by students of School of
Economics and Business in Sarajevo. Those are:
System author date such as Harvard system, APA, MLA, etc.
Numerical system such as Chicago, Turabian, Footnote, Oxford Style, etc.

3.2.1. System author-date Harvard System of referencing

When citing the literature according this system, it is needed to outline surname of author,
year of publishing and page number. Brackets are used just after finished quote or in the end
of the sentence. Page number is written only in the case when using direct quote from the
original source, summarizing ideas from specific page or copying tables, diagram and
graphics.

Example of Harvard citing in the text:


The success of Cook's voyages has been attributed, in part, to improved means
of navigation and nutrition (Blainey 1966, pp. 11-13).


Your List of References should contain full details of all your textual references, except for
personal communications. If you include sources other than those you have cited in your text,
then the list is called a Bibliography. Both the List of References and Bibliography are set out
in the same manner - alphabetically by author, and then in chronological order. Books, articles
and journals are written in the same list. The main scheme is following: Surname of the
author, Initials. Year of Publishing, The title of the book, Name of Publisher, Place of
publishing.

Example of entry in Reference list:



3.2.2. Numerical referencing system

In numerical referencing system, there are two subsystems of referencing print and electronic
material and those are footnote and endnote. Those two subsystems are very similar; in both
cases we write the number of reference right after cited text in above corner like superscript.
In case of footnote, these numbers can be written chronologically from beginning until end of
the paper or written with new starting on each page. In case of using endnote, the numbers are
always written chronologically from beginning until end of the paper.
When you are using footnote, full information about source of original text can be always
found in the bottom of the page where the text is written, while in the case of using the
endnote full information about the sources is written in the Reference list in the end of the
chapter or in the end of the paper.
In this handbook, the focus will be put on the footnote system. Below you can find example of
entries according to footnote system of referencing.


Popper, K.R. 1961, The Poverty of Historicism, Routledge & Kegan
Paul, London.


Example of entries in footnote system:










3.3. Illustrations

The illustrations are an integral part of the work, and are used for simple and more consisted
representation of phenomena that are treated descriptively in the text. Illustrations that are
most commonly used in expert term papers are pictures, tables, charts and diagrams.

Each illustration in the work should have its own serial number and title, an indication of the
source of data, and any remarks. When it is necessary to provide an explanation regarding the
title or content of the illustrations, a remark is used which is written below the illustration, and
before the data source.

The type and number of illustrations should be written in letters sized 12 pts, while the title
should be written in letters of the same size, bold. These elements are written above the
illustration. Sources and notes in the illustrations should be typed letter-sized 10 pts and they
are written below the illustration, while the size of the letters for the data contained in the
illustration is custom stated (usually used is size letters 11 or 12 pts).

Book (single author):
__________________
1
Paul Krugman, The Age of Diminished Expectations: U.S. Economic Policy in 1990's,
3rd ed., (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997.), p. 213


Book (two authors):
___________________
2
Paul A. Samuelson and William D. Nordhaus, Ekonomija, (Zagreb: Mate, 1992.), p. 234


Book (more than three authors):
___________________
3
John Smith et al, The History of the World Wide Web, 2nd ed., (Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2004.), p. 267


Example of table:

Table 1: Intra- and inter-regional trade: EU, North America and East Asia in 1992.

Trade with
(% of total export and
import)
European Union North America East Asia
European Union 59,8 8,0 8,0
North America 17,0 38,9 27,4
East Asia 14,3 22,9 45,0
Source: Thomas D. Lairson i David Skidmore, International Political Economy: The Strugglef or Power and
Wealth, 2nd ed. (s.l.: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1997.), p. 161



Example of graph:

Graph 1: Intra- and inter-regional trade: EU, North America and East Asia in 1992.


Source: Thomas D. Lairson i David Skidmore, International Political Economy: The Strugglef or Power and
Wealth, 2nd ed. (s.l.: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1997.), p. 161


0
10
20
30
40
50
60
1 2 3
European Union
North America
East Asia

Example of scheme:

Scheme 1: Elements of New Economy










Source : P. G. McKeown, Information Technology and the Networked Economy, (Fort Worth: Harcourt College
Publishers, 2001.), p. 15.

3.4. Appendices

While writing your assignment and thesis there is often a need to add some attachments after
the text such as: questionnaires, results of statistical analysis, data tables, examples of
transport documents and etc. Each attachment should have a serial number, data source and
any notes.

3.5. Reference list

After the conclusion to the work and attachments (if any) there should be a list of used
sources. At the top of the page there should be a title Reference list all capital letters in
Times New Roman, size of 14 pts, bold style, centered.

3.6. List of illustrations and appendices

ZNANJE
EKONOMSKI ODNOSI
RAUNARI
VEZE
If the text of the assignment and thesis contains illustrations or attachments, it is necessary to
make their list. In the paper first there should be a lists of illustrations, and after that a list of
appendices.

3.7. Page numbering

Cover and title page of your paper should not be numbered. Pages were preface (if any) and
table of contents are numbered in the Roman numerals (I, II, ...). All other pages in the paper
are numbered in chronological order in Arabic numerals, usually in the lower right corner.

3.8. Layout, printing and binding work

Before printing a text, layout should be performed. There should be taken into that the title of
each chapter is located on the top of the page. The paper is printed out one sided on white
paper format A4 (210 x 297 mm). After the mentor reviews the work, the student is obliged to
correct all possible mistakes, and then again print it out and bind the paper.

The assignment is presented in single copy in soft binding. Besides printed copy of
assignment, an e-form (PDF or Word format) should be also sent to the mentor. Assignment
should contain about 15 pages of text.
Graduate paper is printed in five bound copies in paperback or semi-binding. Besides printed
copies of undergraduate thesis, an e-form (PDF or Word format) should be also sent to the
mentor. The minimum volume of graduate paper, title page, contents, literature, lists of
illustrations and attachments are not included, should be 25 pages long.







4. Plagiarism

Any student who submits course work for credit (i.e. an assignment or an examination) that is
the work of another person or that is copied from an existing work, who colludes in the
production of plagiarized work, or who knowingly allows their work to be used in this way,
will be disciplined and penalized. The SEBS regards plagiarism as an extreme violation of
academic standards and deals with it accordingly.

In order to ensure that this does not happen, students have to be sure that if they in any way
adopt, reproduce, use, recycle or demonstrate the influence of the ideas, words, statements,
designs, concepts or indeed any type of work belonging to another person (including that of
another student) they must acknowledge their work as a source they have used, in both the
text and the bibliography of their assignment/work. This is known as referencing and there
is a number of different systems available for referencing the system recommended in the
SEBS, and in details described in its handbooks, is the Harvard System of Referencing. The
students have to use this referencing system in all of their assignments.

The SEBS pays a lot of attention to developing ethical behavior among students and to detect
and avoid plagiarism and ensure academic integrity by using Turnitin (www.turnitin.com) a
leading academic plagiarism detector. Any student who submits course work for credit (i.e. an
assignment or an examination) that is the work of another person or that is copied from an
existing work, who colludes in the production of plagiarized work or who knowingly allows
their work to be used in this way, will be disciplined and penalized. All students are also
obliged to sign a statement which confirms the originality of their diploma papers starting
from the year 2010. The SEBS publishes a guide for using the Harvard referencing system,
and is available on-line and in hard-copy form free of charge for all students and faculty
members of the SEBS.





Reference list:

Brki S., Mehi E. & Kenji V. 2006, Uputstvo za izradu seminarskog i diplomskog rada,
Ekonomski fakultet u Sarajevu


Undergraduate thesis is evaluated on the following criteria: