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www.npl.co.uk
Abstract
The optoelectronic coupling for a pulse-driven
Josephson junction array (JJA) for use as a
quantum voltage synthesizer has been designed.
Since the drive system is electrically isolated
from the JJAs, they can be connected in series,
leading to a higher output voltage. A thin flm
circuit, including interdigitated capacitors to
couple a photodiode to the JJAs has been
designed and tested and shown to meet the
design goals.
EMRP project Q-wave:
A quantum standardfor
sampled electrical
measurements
To meet the demand from industry to provide
ac voltage calibration of high performance A/D
and D/A converters, a high frequency, real-time
quantum voltage digitizer, is being developed
as part of the European Metrology Research
Program (EMRP) Q-WAVE project (see CPEM
poster P15, Wednesday).
The quantum voltage digitizer uses a delta
sigma control loop to measure an arbitrary
voltage waveform in terms of the JJA output. The
comparator output is used to generate a pulse
stream which drives a Mach-Zehnder modulator,
creating a GHz rate pulse stream of optical pulses
which provide the JJA drive via a photodiode
located inside the cryostat. The resultant output
(fast, quantized-area voltage pulses) are fed back
around the loop via a low pass flter.
Pulse-driven Josephson
junction arrays
Quantum accurate sinusoidal voltage waveforms
have been demonstrated using programmable,
binary segmented JJAs up to kHz frequencies
[1]. However, this technology is not suitable for
higher frequencies since the electronics and the
interaction of the junctions require a fnite time
to stabilize after switching.
Pulse-driven JJAs, used here, can operate at
higher frequencies with hundreds of kHz being
demonstrated (for a review see [2]). An arbitrary
current pulse applied to the JJA generates a
voltage pulse of quantized area (e.g. [3]). The
desired quantum accurate voltage output is
generated by applying an appropriate sequence
of pulses to the JJA.
Array Design
JJAs are fabricated by Physikalisch-Technische
Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. They consist of
SNSNS junctions, where S is superconductor (Nb)
and N is normal metal (NbSi), which are linked in
a double-stacked design. These JJAs operate at
4.2 K in a liquid helium cryostat. Low pass
fltering of the output is provided on-chip.
Novel optoelectronic coupling
An optoelectronic input, using a photodiode
(PD) can be used to drive the JJA [4]. Several
JJAs can then be connected in series to provide
a larger (industrial level) output voltage whilst
being driven in parallel. Optoelectronic coupling
also reduces the electrical noise transmitted
from the room temperature electronics.
Photodiode Circuit Design
The electrical connections to the PD are made
using a custom made chip carrier. The capacitor
must be large enough to prevent signifcant
change in PD bias and the circuit must have low
inductance. On-chip interdigitated capacitors
(C) were designed (based on reference [5]),
fabricated and measured to have a capacitance
of 71 pF and 72 pF for design A and 71 pF and
63 pF for design B. This exceeded the design goal
(> 10 pF).
Preliminary Data
The temporal response of a commercial
InGaAs photodiode was characterised at room
temperature under a variety of conditions (spot
size, spot position, over-flled mode, under-
flled mode, power levels, and frequency) and
was found to be suitable for driving the JJAs.
The next stage of the project is to drive the JJAs
using the PD with the PD at room temperature
and then at 4.2 K.
Acknowledgements
This work was co-funded by the European Union within the European
Metrology Research Program (EMRP) joint research project SIB59 Q-WAVE and
by the UK National Measurement Ofce Electromagnetics and Time Program.
The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within
EURAMET and the European Union.
References
[1] J. M. Williams, D. Henderson, J. Pickering, R. Behr, F. Muller and
P. Scheibenreiter, Quantum-referenced voltage waveform synthesizer, IET Sci.
Meas. Technol., Vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 163 174 (2011).
[2] R. Behr, O. Kieler, J. Kohlmann, F. Mller and L. Palafox, Development and
metrological applications of Josephson arrays at PTB, Meas. Sci. Technol.,
Vol. 23, no. 12, 124002 (19 pp.) (2012).
[3] S. P. Benz, P. D. Dresselhaus, A. Rfenacht, N. F. Bergren, J. R. Kinard and
R. Landim, Progress toward a 1 V pulse-driven AC Josephson voltage
standard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 838 843 (2009).
[4] J. M. Williams, T. J. B. M. Janssen, L. Palafox, D. A. Humphreys, R. Behr,
J. Kohlmann and F. Muller, The simulation and measurement of the response
of Josephson junctions to optoelectronically generated short pulses,
Supercond. Sci. Technol., Vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 815 818 (2004).
[5] K. C. Gupta, R. Garg and I. J. Bahl, Microstrip lines and slotlines, Norwood:
Artech House, 1979, p 261
AN OPTOELECTRONIC
COUPLING FOR PULSE-DRIVEN
JOSEPHSON JUNCTION ARRAYS
Jane Ireland
1
, Dale Henderson
1
, Jonathan Williams
1
, Oliver Kieler
2
, Johannes Kohlmann
2
,
Ralf Behr
2
, Jarle Gran
3
, Helge Malmbekk
3
, Kre Lind
3
and Chi Kwong Tang
3
1
National Physical Laboratory, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW, UK
2
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany
3
Justervesenet, P.O. Box 170, NO-2027 Kjeller, Norway
jane.ireland@npl.co.uk