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pp 1 Tribology
Chapter 4
Surfaces, Tribology, Dimensional
Characteristics, Inspection and
Product Quality Assurance
pp 2 Tribology
CROSS-SECTION OF METAL SURFACE
FIGURE 4.1 Schematic illustration of the cross-section of the surface structure of
metals. The thickness of the individual layers depends on processing conditions
and the environment. Source: After E. Rabinowicz and B. Bhushan.
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pp 3 Tribology
FIGURE 4.5 (a) Schematic illustration of the interface of two contacting surfaces,
showing the real areas of contact. (b) Sketch illustration the proportion of the apparent
area to the real area of contact. The ration of the areas can be as high as four to five
orders of magnitude.
REAL AREA OF CONTACT
pp 4 Tribology
FRICTION FORCE vs. NORMAL FORCE
FIGURE 4.6 Schematic illustration of the relation between friction force F and normal force N.
Note that as the real area of contact approaches the apparent area, the friction force reaches a
maximum and stabilizes. Most machine components operate in the first region. The second
and third regions are encountered in metalworking operations, because of the high contact
pressures involved between sliding surfaces, i.e., die and workpiece.
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pp 5 Tribology
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION

= =
r
r
A
A
N
F
k
m
i

=
friction factor or
shear factor
Note: k is the shear yield stress
of the softer material
COULOMB
COEFFICIENT
TRESCA
FACTOR
pp 6 Tribology
COEFFICIENTS OF FRICTION IN
METALWORKING
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION () PROCESS
COLD HOT
Rolling
Forging
Drawing
Sheet-metal forming
Machining
0.05-0.1
0.05-0.1
0.03-0.1
0.05-0.1
0.5-2
0.2-0.7
0.1-0.2
-
0.1-0.2
-
Table 4.1 Coefficient of friction in metalworking processes.
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pp 7 Tribology
FIGURE 4.7 (a) The effects of lubrication of barreling in the ring compression test: (a) With good
lubrication, both the inner and outer diameters increase as the specimen is compressed; and with
poor or no lubrication, friction is high, and the inner diameter decreases. The direction of barreling
depends on the relative motion of the cylindrical surfaces with respect to the flat dies. (b) Test
results: (1) original specimen, and (2-4) the specimen under increasing friction. Source: A. T.
Male and M. G. Cockcroft.
FRICTION AND BARRELING
pp 8 Tribology
FRICTION IN RING COMPRESSION TESTS
FIGURE 4.8 Charts to determine friction in ring compression tests: (a) coefficient of friction, ; (b)
friction factor m. Friction is determined from these charts from the percent reduction in height and by
measuring the percent change in the internal diameter of the specimen after compression.

m
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pp 9 Tribology
FRICTION TESTS
Pin on flat Twist compression Twist compression with
confined workpiece
Strip drawing
Bulk deformation
Bulk deformation
with sliding
Pushing through
Flat bar drawing
pp 10 Tribology
CHANGES IN SURFACE PROFILES AFTER WEAR
FIGURE 4.9 Changes in originally (a) wire-brushed and (b) ground-surface
profiles after wear. Source: E. Wild and K. J. Mack.
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pp 11 Tribology
FIGURE 4.10 Schematic illustration of (a) two asperities contacting, (b) adhesion between two
asperities, and (c) the formation of a wear particle.
FIGURE 4.11 Schematic illustration of abrasive wear in sliding. Longitudinal scratches on a
surface usually indicate abrasive wear.
pp 12 Tribology
WEAR COEFFICIENTS
Table 4.2 Approximate order of magnitude for wear coefficient k in air
UNLUBRICATED k LUBRICATED k
Mild steel on mild steel
60-40 brass on hardened tool
steel
Hardened tool steel on
hardened tool steel
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
on tool steel
Tungsten carbide on mild steel
10
-2
to 10
-3
10
-3
10
-4
10
-5
10
-6
52100 steel on 52100
steel
Aluminum bronze on
hardened steel
Hardened steel on
hardened steel
10
-7
to 10
-10
10
-8
10
-9
Archard wear law:
p
W L
k V
3

=
V = volume of material removed by wear
from the surface
k = wear coefficient
L = length of travel
p = indentation hardness of the softer body
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pp 13 Tribology
TYPES OF WEAR IN HOT FORGING
FIGURE 4.12 Types of wear observed in a single die used for hot forging.
pp 14 Tribology
FIGURE 4.13 Types of lubrication generally occurring in metalworking operations.
REGIMES OF LUBRICATION
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pp 15 Tribology
LUBRIFICANTI: FUNZIONI E CARATTERISTICHE
Funzioni di un lubrificante:
ridurre lattrito
diminuire lusura degli stampi
costituire una barriera termica

Caratteristiche:
facilit di applicazione
infiammabilit, tossicit
odore
reattivit
adattabilit a diverse condizioni di processo:
temperatura, velocit, pressione,
Selezione:
processo;
compatibilit con pezzo e utensili;
necessit di preparazione delle superfici;
metodi di applicazione e rimozione;
compatibilit con altri lubrificanti;
trattamento lubrificanti esausti;
immagazzinamento e conservazione;
considerazioni ecologiche e biologiche
pp 16 Tribology
Oli minerali:
derivati degli idrocarburi (petrolio)
lubrificazione boundary
largamente usati come composti
Oli naturali, grassi e derivati:
derivati di origine vegetale, animale e
marina
liquidi e semiliquidi
derivati: cere, saponi
Fluidi sintetici:
composti siliconici ed esteri
stabilit alle alte temperature
Lubrificanti composti: