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IVANE JAVAKHISHVILI TBILISI STATE UNIVERSITY

IVANE JAVAKHISHVILI INSTITUTE OF HISTORY AND ETHNOLOGY


ISSN 1987-6564


XII-XIII
THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTE
OF HISTORY AND ETHNOLOGY
XII-XIII

75
Dedicated to the 75th year anniversary
of Professor Tamaz Beradzes birth

Tbilisi
2012/2013
:
: , , ,
( ), ,
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Editor-in-Chief: Vazha Kiknadze
Editorial Board: Goneli Arakhamia, Dodo Chumburidze, Nino Gambashidze, Vakhtang Goiladze,
Khatuna Ioseliani, Hubertus F Jahn (Great Britain), Lavrenti Janiashvili,
Temo Jojua, Giorgi Kavtaradze (Deputy Chief editor), Seiichy Kitagawa (Japan),
Khatuna Kokrashvili, Eka Kvachantiradze, Shota Vadachkoria
Prepared for publishing by: Temo Jojua, Shalva Gloveli
, 2014

............................................................................................................................................................ 9
- 75

............................................................................................................................ 10
-
( ) ............................................................ 12

Giorgi L. Kavtaradze
On the Importance of the Caucasian Chronology for the Foundation
of the Common Near Eastern East European Chronological System........................................... 23


() ............................ 46

..................................................... 50



................................................................... 64
Vazha Kiknadze
The Saga of Yngvar the Traveler and Georgian Chronicle................................................................ 73

XIII-XIV ........................................................ 78

II-
I- .................................................................. ............. 81


1380
XII-XIII
(H-171)
V- (1366/1367-1387 .) VII- (1387-1407 .) ....................... 85

. ( K-38)
( ,
- ) ........................................................................................ 188
,
.......................................................................................... 234

,
,
......................................................................................................................... 258

1667
............................................ 332


.............................................................. 351


...................................................................................... 369

,
(1802-1815 .) .............................................. 379

XIX 50-70- ............................................................. 398

` ~
(1918-1919 .) ............................................................................................................. 404

(1921 .)
............................................................................................................ 435



........................................................................................ 445

............................................. 459
,
............................................. 467

,,--- ....................................................................... 478

,
.............................................................................................................................................. 487

................................................................................. 494

, ,

2011-2012 .................................................................................... 505


- -
( ) ................................................................. 527


. (12.1.1897 _ 15.10.1958)
( ) .............................................. 536
C O N T E N T S
Foreword of the Chief Editor.................................................................................................................. 9
TAMAZ BERADZE - 75
Giorgi Gotsiridze
Thoughts on Tamaz Beradze................................................................................................................... 10
Bibliography of Professor Tamaz Beradzes Scientific and Popular
(Publications compiled by Temo Jojua) ....................................................................................,........... 12
ARCHEOLOGY
Giorgi L. Kavtaradze
On the Importance of the Caucasian Chronology for the Foundation
of the Common Near Eastern East European Chronological System.......................................,........... 23
ANCIENT HISTORY
Nana Bakhsoliani
Cilicia () in the Context of Evidence of Assyrian Cuneiform Inscriptions.................................... 46
Giorgi L. Kavtaradze
The Term Kartli Its Essence and Origin............................................................................................. 50
MEDIEVAL HISTORY
Saba Saluashvili
Christianization of Kartli Kingdom The Armenian and Greek sources Some Tips...........................,........ 64
Vazha Kiknadze
The Saga of Yngvar the Traveler and Georgian Chronicle........................................................................ 73
Nino Megeneishvili
About one woman copyist (13th-14th cc.)................................................................................................... 78
Niko Javakhishvili
New Material on the History of the Relations between Kakhetian
Kings Alexandre II, Davit I and Svaneti....................................................................................................... 81
SOURCE STUDIES
Temo Jojua
The 12th-13th Century Evangelary of Uvali (H-171) Redeemed from the Persians in 1380 in
Jerusalem by Anton Onopriani, Protopresbyter of Etsery, and its Colophon Mentioning Kings
of Georgia Bagrat V (1366/67-1387) and Giorgi VII (1387-1407).............................................................. 85
Okropir Jikuri
Testaments and Colophons from the Gulani of St. George Church of Gelati Monastery (K-38)
(publication of the texts and their codicological, historical and source study analysis) ............................ 188
David Merkviladze, Papuna Gabisonia
The Holy Colchis of Archangelo Lamberti............................................................................................... 234
EPIGRAPHY
Temo Jojua, Giorgi Gagoshidze
Georgian Lapidary inscriptions From Kobairi, Hnevank and Akhtala Monasteries.................................... 258
Tamaz Gogoladze
1667 Years construction inscription of Arsen Mangleli from Manglisi church and
its importance for the history of the Abashishvils feudal house.................................................................... 332
MILITARY HYSTORY
Mamuka Tsurtsumia
The Evolution of the Shields Reinforced with Metal in the Middle Ages........................................................ 352
HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY
Papuna Gabisonia
From the Historical Geography of the Zugdidi region.................................................................................... 369
MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY HISTORY
Zurab Sulaberidze, Nikoloz Gurgenidze
From The History of The Tbilisi College of Nobles (1801-1815) .................................................................... 379
Otar Gogolishvili
The Problem of Unity of Georgians And Public Opinion
of Adjara in the 50-70s of the XIX century...............................................................................,,...................... 398
Shota Vadachkoria
Ottoman Empire and the Issue of the Muslim State of the South Caucasus (1918-1919)............................ 404
Lela Saralidze
Occupation of Georgia by Russia (1921) and the Attitude of European Countries to it................................... 435
ETHNOLOGY
Nino Ghambashidze
Universal and Some Peculiar Features of the Georgian Folk Calendar........................................................... 445
Nino Ghambashidze
Methodology and Some Issues of Studying the Folk Religion............................................................................ 459
Natia Jalabadze, Lavrnti Janiashvili
Some Aspects of Integration of Ethnic Minorities in Kvemo Kartli.................................................................... 467
David Chitanava
For the significance/meaning of mengrelian khvama-okhvame-okhvameri ................................................. 478
PHILOLOGY
Ketevan Asatiani, Anton Vacharadze
Ancha Gospel...................................................................................................................................................... 487
Teona Gelashvili
The Life and Activities of Metropolitan Romanos.............................................................................................. 494
EXPEDITION REPORT
Temur Khutsishvili, Levan Tsikarishvili, Shalva Koghuashvili
Expeditions for Studying Monuments of the Georgian
Culture in Artaani Region, Turkey in 2011-2012............................................................................................... 505
POLEMIC
David Merkviladze
About Historical-Geographical and Ethnic-Cultural Belonging
of Davit-Gareja Monastery Complex ................................................................................................................. 527
TRANSLATION
Julius Assfalg
P. Michael Tarchnischvili (12.1.1897 15.10.1958)
(bersetztung und Vorwort von Nugzar Papuashvili) ................................................................................... 536
Verba volent scripta manet
( _ )

- , XII-XIII
, 75 .
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. , XII-XIII
1380 .
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XI .
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: Ceterem cenceo ptaefatione non ess scribendam ,
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10

[. 50:]
giorgi qavTaraZe
ivane javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis instituti
ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti
termin qarTlis arsisa da warmomavlobis sakiTxisaTvis*
terminebis qarTlisa da qarTvelis mniSvnelobisa da warmomavlobis
sakiTxi imTaviTve qarTvel mecnierTa kvlevis obieqts warmoadgenda. gamoiTqva
araerTi gonebamaxviluri da TiTqos sakmaod kargad dasabuTebeli varaudi,
romlebic erTmaneTisagan ZiriTadad sakvlevi sabaziso masalis TaviseburebiT
gansxvavdebodnen. Tu zogierTi mkvlevari upiratesad qarTvelur masalas iyenebs,
sxvebi kavkasiuri, axloaRmosavluri Tu sulac evraziuli monacemebiT
xelmZRvaneloben.
Zvel qarTvel swavlulTa da mwignobarTa didi nawili endonim qarTvels
berZnul-romaul werilobiT wyaroebSi gamoyenebuli eqsonimis iberis
Sesatyvisad miiCnevdnen da am ukanasknels, imisda miuxedavad Tu ra konteqstSi iyo
igi gamoyenebuli, rogorc wesi, qarTvelad Targmnidnen xolme. am mxriv
sagulisxmoa, rom il. abulaZis Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikonis ganmartebis
mixedviT, termini qarTveli, garda kavkasieli iberielisa, aRniSnavs iberiis
naxevarkunZulis (espaneTis) iberielsac
1
. Tu Zvel qarTul werilobiT wyaroebSi
terminebi qarTli da qarTveli Seesatyviseba berZnul-romaul terminebs iberia
da iberieli, berZnul-romaul literaturaSi terminebi qarTli da qarTveli
ucnobia da mxolod erTi miniSneba mogvepoveba, rom fonetikuri msgavsebis gamo
eTno- toponim qarTl-s ukavSirebdnen karTagenelebis saxelwodebas. mxedvelobaSi
maqvs usa pitiaxSis parizuli sabeWdavis warweraSi asaxuli termini
(karTagenel iberTa), romelic garda libielTa da dasavleTis
iberielTa kavkasiaSi gadmosaxlebis legendarul cnobasTan misi savaraudo
kavSirisa, SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs masSi konkretuli geografiuli da, amave dros,
garkveuli xanebidan politikuri mniSvnelobis mqone cneba davinaxoT mTa qarTlis
(anu armazcixis) iberiis saxiT
2
. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom arcTu iSviaTad
berZnul-romaul samyarosaTvis ufro Cveul saxelebTan mimsgavsebisa Tu Targmnis
Sedegad iqmneboda xolme sxvadasxva mxareebis adgilobrivi saxelebis berZnul-
romauli variantebi.
termini qarTli pirvelad gvxvdeba iakob xucesis ax. w. V saukunis
hagiografiul nawarmoebSi SuSanikis martviloba (wameba wmidisa SuSanikisi
* did madlobas movaxseneb q-n lela miqiaSvils winamdebare teqstis daxvewisas gaweuli megobruli
daxmarebisaTvis.
1
il. abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni (masalebi) (Tbilisi, 1973), gv. 451 (qarTvel-i).
Sesabamisad, ar unda iyos moulodneli, rom Zvel qarTul TargmanebSi gvxvdeba iseTi ucnauri
termini, rogoricaa kelt-qarTvelni, miRebuli berZnul-romauli teqstebis eTnonimis kelt-
iberebis gadmoqarTulebis Sedegad. sainteresoa, rom qarTul mwignobrul wreebSi ara mxolod
iberia, aramed TviT qoronimi espaneTi/spania uSualod saqarTvelod iTargmneboda xolme, xolo
qarTul enas pirenel iberTa anu spanTa enasTan aigivebdnen (ix. g. qavTaraZe, arian-qarTlis
sakiTxisaTvis, istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis Sromebi, t. IX (Tbilisi, 2009), gv. 35.).
2
g. qavTaraZe, kavkasia da karTagenelebi, iberia-kolxeTi, saqarTvelos klasikuri da adremedievuri
periodis arqeologiur-istoriuli mkvlevari, # 4 (Tbilisi, 2008), gv. 112-119.
dedoflisa) da samive SemTxvevaSi _ rogorc qoronimi: viTarca moiwia igi
sazRvarTa qarTlisaTa, qveyanasa mas hereTisasa
3
, ...da mieriTgan ganiTqua yovelsa
qarTlsa
4
, aznaurni da uaznoni soflisa qarTlisani
5
; xolo yvelaze adreuli
ganmarteba topo- eTnonim qarTlis warmomavlobisa, romlisganac, Tavis mxriv,
warmodgeba eTnonimi qarTveli, mocemulia mefeTa cxovrebaSi: da ese qarTlos
movida pirvelad adgilsa mas, sada SeerTs arag mtkuarsa, da ganvida mTasa mas
zeda, romelsa ewodebis armazi. da pirvelad Seqmna simagreni mas zeda, da iSena mun
zeda saxli, da uwoda mTasa mas saxeli Tavisa Tsisa qarTli. da vidre
aRmarTebamde mun-zeda kerpi armazisi erqua mTasa mas qarTli, da mis gamo ewoda
yovelsa qarTlsa qarTli, xunaniTgan vidre zRuamde spe[. 51:]risa... mokuda
qarTlos da dafles igi Tavsa zeda qarTlisasa, romelsa aw ewodebis armazi. da
Semdgomad amissa colman misman aRaSena deda-cixe
6
. amrigad, mefeTa cxovrebis
monacemebis mixedviT, qarTlosi qarTvelTa eTnarq-eponimia.
toponimi qarTli gvxvdeba juanSerTanac, rodesac vaxtang mefem
sparselebTan mosalodneli brZolis win Tavisi laSqari, mematianis cnobiT,
daabanaka diRmiT vidre qarTlis karTamde
7
. vinaidan Semdgom juanSeri ixseniebs
mogvTis xidsac, cxadia qarTlis karni mcxeTis siaxloves, armazTan aris
saZebari
8
.
arqeologiuri Seswavlis Sedegad dadasturebulia, rom swored aq, mtkvris
marjvena napirze, sadac mTa qarTli, igive armaz/armazcixea
9
lokalizebuli, isaxeba
iberiis Zveli dedaqalaqis dedacixis rTuli safortifikacio nagebobebis mTeli
sistema; aqve unda yofiliyo samefo rezidencia da odnav moSorebiT sapitiaxSoc
10
.
ganaTxari masalis monacemebis safuZvelze armazcixe/qarTlis uZvelesi
ganaSenianeba _ armazcixe I _ aqemenianTa xaniT aris daTariRebuli. aq mikvleulia
persepolisSi arsebulis msgavsi, apadna-s tipis didi svetebiani darbazi, texili
zRudeebi, oTxkuTxa koSkebi da kontrforsebi, qvaTlilebis (kvadrebis) sagangebo
samagrebiT (xiT, rkiniT, e.w. uwyveti mercxlis boloebiT SeerTeba) da sxv.
aqemenianTaTvis damaxasiaTeli arqiteqturuli Taviseburebebi. Tumca Zeglis
mkvlevari a. afaqiZe SeniSnavs, rom adgilis SerCeva midamoze gabatonebuli
3
iakob xucesi, wamebai wmidisa SuSanikisi, dedoflisai, istoriuli cnobebi, komentarebi, ganmartebebi
da leqsikoni daurTo n. RambaSiZem. seria qarTli literatura komentarebiT 1 (Tbilisi, 2012), Tavi
II.
4
iqve, Tavi XI.
5
iqve, Tavi XVII.
6
leonti mroveli, cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTa, qarTlis cxovreba, tomi I, teqsti dadgenili yvela
ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier (Tbilisi, 1955), gv. 8: 6-11, 18-19.
7
juanSeri, cxovreba vaxtang gorgaslisa, qarTlis cxovreba, tomi I, teqsti dadgenili yvela
ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier (Tbilisi, 1955), gv. 179: 20.
8
s. kakabaZe, qal. armazi qal. mcxeTa, saistorio krebuli, w. III (tfilisi, 1928), gv. 6. xom ar imaleba
am saxelwodebaSi karsani an Tanamedrove RarTiskari, Tuki termin qarTlSi mcxeTa-armazs erTianad
moviazrebdiT?
9
Tu l. meliqseT-begi Tavdapirvelad toponim bagineTs mcxeTis midamoebis toponimikaSi arsebuli
iranizmebis gamovlinebad miiCnevda (. . -, , - ,
, . II (, 1938), c. 43), mogvianebiT manve gamoTqva mosazreba,
rom karsnis magnituri sadguris aSenebis Semdeg saxelwodeba magniti mavanTa mier bagniTad
gadakeTdao (ix. a. afaqiZe, qalaqebi da saqalaqo cxovreba Zvel saqarTveloSi (Tbilisi, 1963), gv. 169).
marTalia, termini bagineTi, savaraudod warmomdgari qarTulSi nasesxebi da bomonis, kerpTa taZris
aRmniSvneli sityvidan bagini, TiTqos zedgamoWriliviT Seesabameba armazcixes da mis religiur
daniSnulebas, magram Znelia angariSi ar gaewios mcxeTisa da misi Semogarenis iseTi brwyinvale
mcodnis gancxadebas, rogoric leon meliqseT-begi iyo. amis gamo, Tavs varideb naSromSi toponim
bagineTis gamoyenebas.
10
a. afaqiZe, armazcixis lokalizaciis sakiTxisaTvis, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis istoriis
institutis Sromebi, tomi IV, nakv. I (Tbilisi, 1958), gv. 96-97.
mdebareoba, cixisaTvis sagangebo saZirkvlis uqonloba, mSralad, uduRabod nawyob
qvaTlilebze amoyvanili didi zomis alizis kedlis wyobisa da Selesvis
Taviseburebebi, gamoyenebuli sazomi erTeulis _ e.w. qarTuli wyrTis sigrZis
faqtobrivi igiveoba urartul da winaaziur wyrTasTan armaz-mcxeTas damatebiT
urartuli cixe-simagreebis samSeneblo tradiciebTanac aaxloebs
11
.
texili zRudeebi, anu galavnis zigzagiseburi texili xazi, ufro
postaqemeniduri xanis kuTvnilebaa da ZiriTadad elinisturi xanis
cixesimagreebisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli
12
. rogorc Cans, urartuli
cixesimagreebis aqemenidur da gansakuTrebiT elinistur xanaSi gamoyeneba farTod
gavrcelebuli movlenaa ufro samxreTiT mdebare mxareebSi, maT Soris somxeTsa da
iranSi. arinberdis (erebuni) urartuli cixesimagre mniSvnelovan rekonstruqcias
daeqvemdebara aqemenidur xanaSi da Semdegac intensiurad iyo gamoyenebuli
elinistur xanaSi
13
.
mefeTa cxovrebis qvemoT moyvanili amonaridis Sinaarsis zegavlenis
Sedegad, sadac naTqvamia: xolo aman azon moarRvna zRudeni qalaqsa mcxeTas
safuZvliTurT, da dautevna oTxni igi cixeni, romelni mosdgmides pirsa
qarTlisasa: Tavadi cixe, romel ars armazi, da erTi cixe dasasrulsa armazisa
cxrisasa; da erTi Tavsa zeda mcxeTisasa; meoTxe cixe, dasavliT, mcxeTa mtkuarsa
zeda
14
, a. afaqiZe fiqrobda, rom qarTli am SemTxvevaSi did teritoriaze gaSlili
Zveli dedaqalaqis saxeli unda [. 52:] yofiliyo, romlis nawilebsac Seadgendnen:
pirvel mcxeTa, Zueli mcxeTa, Zueli qalaqi, armazi, armazis cixe, armaziT
kerZi qalaqi da muxnariT kerZi qalaqi
15
. Tumca Tu davakvirdebiT TviT qarTlis
cxovrebis teqstebs, SevamCnevT, rom sityva qarTli aq zogjer qalaqis
mniSvnelobiTac aris gamoyenebuli. mag., ...da ipyra igi zurgad, qalaqi xunani,
varianti: ...qarTli xunani
16
; ...mefe iqmnes Svilni maTni: armazs farsman da Sida
qalaqsa kaos, varianti: ...Sida qarTlsa kaos
17
; ...moaores tfilisi da armazi
qarTli, varianti: ...armazi qalaqi
18
. CvenTvis aq sainteresoa ara is, Tu am
sityvaTagan romelia ama Tu im nusxaSi marTebulad Casworebuli, aramed TviT faqti
terminebis _ qarTli da qalaqi urTierTmonacvleobisa. s. kakabaZec SeniSnavda,
rom Tu megrulad Tbiliss qarTi ewodeboda, qarTlur kiloze mas martivad,
aqemenidur xanaSi sparsulidan qarTulsa da somxurSi Semosuli saxeli qalaqi
erqva da orive es saxeli erTmaneTis sinonimi iyo; ufro adreul xanebSi ki qalaqis
aRmniSvnel saxelad, misi azriT, swored TbilisisaTvis megrulSi xmarebuli
saxeli qarTi unda yofiliyo gamoyenebuli
19
. misive dakvirvebiT, saxeli qarTli,
rogorc fonetikurad, aseve semantikurad, ueWvelad uaxlovdeba megrulsa da
dasavleTqarTul dialeqtebSi dadasturebul sityvebs oqarTe, qarTas,
11
a. afaqiZe, qalaqebi..., gv. 41, 42, 78, 79.
12
St. Kroll, Ancient Armenian sites in Armenia and north-western Iran: Hellenistic period, Archaeology of Armenia in Regional
Context, Proceedings of the International Conference dedicated to the 50
th
Anniversary of the Institute of Archaeology and
Ethnography Held on September 15-17, 2009 in Yerevan. P. Avetisyan & A. Bobokhyan (Eds) (Yerevan, 2012), pp. 219f.
13
iqve.
14
leonti mroveli, 19: 3-6.
15
a. afaqiZe, qalaqebi..., gv. 163, 164. k. grigolias azriTac, termini qarTli mcxeTasac faravda da igi
mTeli dedaqalaqis aRmniSvneli iyo (k. grigolia, axali qarTlis cxovreba (Tbilisi, 1954), gv. 75).
16
leonti mroveli, 31: 19.
17
leonti mroveli, 44: 9, 10.
18
juanSeri, 202: 19, 20; ix. s. yauxCiSvili, qarTlis cxovreba, tomi I (Tbilisi, 1955), gv. 425. k.
grigolia Tvlis, rom juanSeris mier armazi qarTlis xseneba unda mowmobdes, rom avtorma jer
kidev icis am ori toponimis sinonimuroba da maT marTebulad upirispirebs mcxeTas (k. grigolia,
dasax. naSromi, gv. 74).
19
s. kakabaZe, Tbilisi me-5 saukunis meore naxevarSi, mnaTobi, 10 (Tbilisi, 1958), gv. 99, 100.
mniSvnelobiT: SemozRuduli, moRobili adgili saqonlis samwyvdevad anu baki
20
. s.
kakabaZe, mis mier saerToqarTvelurad miCneul qarTs ukavSirebda iranul kerts
(amave formiT sparsulidan somxurSi nasesxebsa da cnobils saSualo saukuneebis
qarTulSi), slavur da rusul sityvebs grad, gorod da a.S.
21
a. afaqiZis azriTac, SedarebiT gviandeli da ucxouri warmomavlobis termin
qalaqze uwinaresi adgilobrivi, galavniT SemozRuduli uZvelesi dasaxlebis
aRsaniSnavad qarTuli cixis aRmniSvneli termini qarTi/qarTli unda yofiliyo
22
.
toponimi qarTli marTlac qalaqis, cixesimagris, galavniT Semovlebuli
gamagrebuli adgilis akropolisis aRmniSvneli unda yofiliyo. kasius dio
armazs/qarTls sulac akropoliss () anu deda-cixes uwodebs
23
da amiT
TiTqos amarTlebs termin qarTlis cixe-simagris saxelwodebidan warmomavlobas.
antikur xanaSi armazi/mcxeTa amierkavkasiis centraluri safortifikacio kvanZi iyo,
qveynis oTxive mxaris gzajvaredinis Camketi
24
. s. kakabaZe SeniSnavda, rom vinaidan
kasius dio Semdegdroindel armazs akropoliss anu zedaqalaqs uwodebs, anu im
mTas, romelsac erqva qarTli, akropolisi unda yofiliyo adgilobrivi
saxelwodebis berZnuli Targmani da saxelwodeba qarTli unda warmoadgendes
iseTi Ziris sityvas, romelic Tavisi mniSvnelobiT amarTlebda kasius dios mier
mocemul zeda-qalaqis saxelwodebas
25
. [. 53:]
g. meliqiSvili, iseve rogorc s. kakabaZe, termin qarTls aaxloebs
analogiuri mniSvnelobisa (zRude, galavani, Robe, SemoRobili adgili, meseri, baki,
gomi, wvrilfexa saqonlis gomuri) da aseve indoevropuli warmomavlobis
masalasTan, oRond amjerad msgavsi JReradobisa da mniSvnelobis mqone litvur (gar
das, gardin ys), germanul (garda) da albanur (gar) sityvebTan
26
.
sxva mkvlevarTagan gansxvavebiT, g. meliqiSvili termin qarTlis
warmomavlobis sakiTxs metad farTo sivrcobriv da qronologiur CarCoebSi
ganixilavs da swored am metad vrcel CarCoebSi moqceviT ganpirobebuli arcTu
mTlad mkafiod gamokveTili suraTis SeTavazebiT Semdgomi kvleva-Ziebis
mastimulirebel Tvalsazriss ayenebs. vinaidan analogiuri Ziridan nawarmoebi da
msgavsi Sinaarsis mqone sityvebi farTod aris gavrcelebuli indoevropul enebSi, g.
meliqiSvili fiqrobda, rom es sityva, mTel rig sxva qarTul-indoevropul
20
s. kakabaZe, qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis genezisis sakiTxebi, saistorio moambe, wigni I. tfilisi,
1924, gv. 5; s. kakabaZe, Tbilisi..., gv. 100. qarTuli enis dasavlur dialeqtebSi saqonlis sadgomis
mniSvnelobis mqone qarTa aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi dasturdeba sityva qaltas formiTac (al.
Rlonti, qiziyis toponimia (toponimikuri Ziebani, IV) (Tbilisi, 1982), gv. 6, Sen. 13), romelic
uaxlovdeba eTno- toponims xaldi || qaldi. es garemoeba mxolod lingvisturi TvalsazrisiT ar
unda iyos saintereso, vfiqrobT, gasaTvaliswinebelia misi mniSvneloba terminebis qarTisa da
xaldis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebis SesaZleblobis mxriv (Sdr. g. qavTaraZe, anatoliaSi qarTvelur
tomTa gansaxlebis sakiTxisaTvis (Tbilisi, 1985), gv. 47-48; ix., agreTve, . . , -
(, 1954), . 411, . 3). albaT, xald Zirs ukavSirdeba prokopi kesarielis mier moxseniebuli
okeniti Wanebis winaparTa mier ZvelTaganve nagebi da im droisaTvis ukve dangreuli, xolo Semdeg
iustiniane keisris mcdelobiT aRdgenili cixesimagre xartoni (Chartn, Procopius Caesariensis, De Aedificis,
III, 6, 15, p. 211), ufro gviandeli xanebis xarTi, trabzonis qedis samxreTiT da q. baiburTis Crdilo-
dasavleTiT.
21
s. kakabaZe, Tbilisi..., gv. 100.
22
a. afaqiZe, qalaqebi..., gv. 160.
23
E. Cary, Dios Roman History, with an English translation by E. Cary on the basis of the version of H. B. Foster, vol. III. The Loeb
Classical Library (London & Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1969); Dio, 37, 1, 4.
24
ix. a. afaqiZe, qalaqebi..., gv. 159-221.
25
s. kakabaZe, qarTuli..., gv. 5, 7.
26
g. meliqiSvili, saqarTvelos, kavkasiisa da maxlobeli aRmosavleTis uZvelesi mosaxleobis
sakiTxisaTvis (Tbilisi, 1965), gv. 237-240; g. meliqiSvili, qarTli (iberia) Zv. w. VI-IV saukuneebSi.
qarTlis samefos warmoqmna, saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, tomi I (Tbilisi, 1970), gv. 427-429. ix.,
agreTve, i. anTelava, saqarTvelos saistorio-wyaroTmcodneobiTi Ziebani (Tbilisi, 2002), gv. 492-501.
leqsikur paralelebTan erTad, qarTvelur enebSi dadasturebuli im ucnobi
warmomavlobis indoevropuli leqsikis fenis kuTvnilebas unda iyos, romelic
qarTvelur enebSi cnobili gzebiT (iranulidan, berZnulidan, somxuridan da sxv.)
ar unda moxvedriliyo
27
. g. meliqiSvilis azriT, sesxeba ufro adreul epoqaSia
savaraudebeli, vidre es zemomoxseniebuli saTanado kontaqtebis meSveobiT unda
yofiliyo mosalodneli da, Sesabamisad, gamoricxuli Cans sesxeba im indoevropuli
enebidan, romlebTanac qarTuls ukanaskneli 2000-2500 wlis manZilze intensiuri
urTierToba hqonda. Tumca, igi verc im ufro adreul indoevropul enebSi
(Trakiul-frigiulSi, xeTur-luviurSi da sxv.) xedavs sesxebis wyaros, romlebTanac
SesaZloa hqonodaT kontaqti qarTvelur enebs da SeniSnavs, rom vinaidan bevri am
sityvaTagani sxvadasxva qarTvelur enebSi kanonzomieri bgeraTSesatyvisobis dacviT
aris warmodgenili, isini qarTvelur enaTa diferenciamdel xanas ganekuTvnebodnen,
ris gamoc aucilebeli xdeba zemoaRniSnuli masalis warmomavlobis Zieba kidev
ufro adreul xanebSi
28
. g. meliqiSvilis TvalTaxedviT, radgan es ucnobi
warmomavlobis indoevropuli fena qarTvelur enebSi ariuli, somxuri, Trakiul-
frigiuli Tu xeTur-luviuri warmomavlobis mqoned ver CaiTvleba, Cndeba varaudi
mtkvar-araqsis kulturis matarebeli mosaxleobis indoevropuli kuTvnilebis
Sesaxeb, romelic Semdeg enobrivad asimilirebuli iyo qarTvelur tomTa mier da
romelTaTvisac aRniSnulma indoevropulma mosaxleobam substratis roli
Seasrula: mZlavri gavlena moaxdina gamarjvebulTa enis struqturasa da
leqsikaze
29
.
Tumca lingvistTa azriT, leqsikuri da struqturul-tipologiuri
Taviseburebebis mxriv indoevropul da qarTvelur enebs Soris arsebuli saocari
izomorfizmi, SesaZloa, aixsnas ara mxolod axlo kontaqtebiT proto-
indoevropulsa da proto-qarTvelurs Soris, aramed, safiqrebelia, rom isini
proto-qarTvelur-proto-indoevropuli wina-proto enobrivi erTobis Semadgenel
nawilebs warmoadgendnen da amdenad es msgavseba ufro unda metyvelebdes maT
saerTo warmomavlobaze
30
. specialistTa azriT, bevrad ufro advilia am or ojaxs
Soris Zalze Soreuli genetikuri kavSirebis mtkiceba, vidre ramenairi istoriuli
saxis urTierTobebisa proto-indoevropuli enis arsebobis periodis ganmavlobaSi
31
.
Tu enaTmecnierTa am mosazrebebs gaviziarebT, gagviWirdeba sityva qarTlis
etimologiis aseT farTo sivrcobriv da qronologiur [. 54:] CarCoebSi ganxilva da
misi mtkvar-araqsis kulturis matarebeli mosaxleobis indoevropuli Tu proto-
indoevropuli kuTvnilebiT axsna.
termin qarTlis raobis garkvevis araerT sxva mcdelobasac hqonia adgili,
romelTac amjerad aRar SevexebiT. viTvaliswinebT mxolod, rom arcTu iSviaTad,
erTi SexedviT metad maxvilgonierad SeniSnulma srulma an nawilobrivma
damTxvevam zogjer SesaZloa savsebiT gansxvavebul sivrcobriv Tu qronologiur
ganzomilebebSi gadagviyvanos da kvlevis sagans dagvaSoros. sazogadod,
lingvisturi Tu materialuri kulturis calkeuli nimuSebis identuroba Tu
27
ix. g. meliqiSvili, saqarTvelos..., gv. 206-237, 239, 240.
28
iqve, gv. 241-243.
29
iqve, gv. 244. d. musxeliSvilis azriT, eTnonim qarTuelis arseboba TrialeTuri kulturis
drodan aris savaraudo, romlis matarebeli tomebi, ZiriTadad, ukve qarTis (qarTu) tomebi unda
yofiliyvnen (d. musxeliSvili, qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodebis istoriisaTvis, saqarTvelosa da
qarTvelebis aRmniSvneli ucxouri da qarTuli terminologia (Tbilisi, 1993), gv. 349, 350).
30
Th. V. Gamkrelidze & V. V. Ivanov, The Problem of the Original Homeland of the Speakers of Indo-Eropean Languages, Journal
of Indo-European Studies, vol. 13, 1985, p. 177; I. M. Diakonov, On the Original Home of the Speakers of Indo-European, Journal of
Indo-European Studies, vol. 13, 1985, pp. 118f., 154; I. M. Diakonov (Diakonoff), Language Contacts in the Caucasus and the Near
East, When Worlds Collide: the Indo-Europeans and the Pre-Indo-Europeans. Linguistica Extranea Studia 19. T. L. Markey & J. A.
C. Greppin (Eds) (Ann Arbor, 1990), p. 61.
31
J. P. Mallory, In Search of the Indo-Europeans. Language, Archaeology and Myth (London, 1989), pp. 150f.
siaxlove bevris arafris mTqmelia im konteqstis gareSe, sadac esa Tu is fenomeni
iCens Tavs. am mxriv termin qarTlTan mimarTebiT, Cemi azriT, sakmaod mkafiod
ikveTeba sivrcobrivi, qronologiuri, kulturuli da lingvisturi konteqsti,
romelsac, vfiqrob, gadamwyveti mniSvneloba unda mieniWos termin qarTli/qarTis
arsis warmomavlobis, gavrcelebisa da kuTvnilebis sakiTxTa garkvevisas.
mxedvelobaSi maqvs faqtobrivad Tanadroulad da ZiriTadad erTmaneTis
momijnave teritoriebze gavrcelebuli, Sinaarsobrivad da fonetikurad
erTmaneTTan TvalsaCinod dakavSirebuli toponimebis vrceli CamonaTvali, romlis
raobis dadgenas XIX saukunis meore naxevris germanelma orientalistebma
avtoritetuli germanuli Jurnalis (Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlndischen Gesellschaft)
furclebze xangrZlivi da produqtiuli diskusia miuZRvnes. am diskusiis Sedegebi
dResac inarCuneben samecniero mniSvnelobas da Tanac miesadagebian Cveni
ganxilvis sagans. didi albaTobiT, s. kakabaZisa da g. meliqiSvilis varaudebi
termin qarTli/qarTis warmomavlobis Taobaze am diskusiis monacemebidan unda
iRebdnen saTaves.
vinaidan yvela xalxisa da epoqis geografiul nomenklaturaSi SeiniSneba
mkafiod gamokveTili tendencia _ ucxouri enebidan nasesxebi idiomebiT moxdes
iseTi cnebebis Canacvleba, rogoricaa qalaqi, cixesimagre da sxv., garkveuli
kulturuli Sinaarsis matarebeli sityvebis mimarT gamorCeuli midrekilebis gamo
aseTi cnebebi sakmaod Sors vrceldebian TavianTi pirveladi gavrcelebis keridan
da gadaiqcevian xolme didi sivrceebis momcvel, moxetiale, modur terminebad.
amis nimuSad miiCneva drosa da sivrceSi ukiduresad gawelili berZnuli -i,
romelmac aTasobiT wlebis Semdegac iCina Tavi rogorc braziliaSi (Petropolis), aseve
ruseTSi (, da sxv.). cnobilia sxva SemTxvevebic, mag.,
elinisturi xanis sirielebis mier koSkis aRmniSvneli berZnuli -idan
nawarmoebi arabuli da bizantiuri xanis TurqulSi Sesuli burghaz-i, romlebic
cixe-simagris aRmniSvnel mraval arabul da Turqul toponims daedo safuZvlad
(Sdr. samxreTdasavlurqarTuli toponimebi `borCxa~, `borjomi). romauli xanis
laTinuri castrum-i (samxedro banaki), arabuli formiT asamde toponimis
mawarmoeblad gadaiqca
32
.
Zvel samyaroSi aseTive didi sivrceebis momcveli, moxetiale, moduri
termini unda yofiliyo cixe-simagris aRmniSvneli karta da misgan, rogorc
Semadgeneli nawilisagan, nawarmoebi toponimebi. sakmarisia iTqvas, rom am terminma
egvipteSic ki SeaRwia qart-s saxiT, xolo finikielTa meSveobiT CrdiloeT
afrikasa da iberiis naxevarkunZulze gavrcelda
33
.
cnobili germaneli orientalistisa da diplomatis - oto blaus (1828-1879 ww.)
gancxadebiT, ukve ori aTasi welia cdiloben termin -karta/kerta-s mniSvnelobis
dadgenas. msgavsZiriani terminebis arsebobis Sesaxeb uZvelesi berZnuli werilobiTi
cnoba ganekuTvneba anaqsimeness
34
, romelsac evstaTi Tesalonikeli miawers stefane
bizantielis eTnogeografiuli leqsikonis eTnikis meSveobiT Semonaxul
informacias imis Taobaze, rom persepolisis sparsuli saxelwodeba ,
32
O. Blau, Ueber -karta, -kerta in Ortsnamen, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlndischen Gesellschaft, Bd 31 (Leipsig, 1877), SS.
497-498.
33
O. Blau, dasax. naSromi, gv. 498.
34
Anaximenes, Frag. 191. ix. O. Blau, dasax. naSromi, gv. 495. anaqsimeness o. blau Zv. w. III saukunis moRvawed
Tvlis (iqve). Tumca aq adgili unda hqondes uneblie uzustobas, cxadia, rom aRniSnul pirovnebaSi
sinamdvileSi igulisxmeba aleqsandre makedonelis maswavlebeli da misi Tanmxlebi aziur
eqspediciaSi Zv. w. IV saukuneSi moRvawe anaqsimenesi () lampsakosidan (Zv. w. 380-320 ww.).
anu berZnulad:
35
, sparsul enaze niSnavda sparsul banaks
36
. Tumca
, aqemenianTa pir[. 55:]veli dedaqalaqi, kiros II didis mier Tavisi laSqris
dasabanakeblad daaxl. Zv. w. 559-530 ww. daarsebuli, masTan SedarebiT ufro
gviandeli persepolisisagan 87 km-iT aris Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT daSorebuli. am
saxelwodebis farsis baRebad (, sparsulad: Psrgd) gaazreba
ufro gviandel xanas unda ekuTvnodes. benzeleris berZnul-germanuli leqsikonis
monacemebiT, sityva -T sparselTa uZvelesi tomi aRiniSneboda, saidanac
SeirCeoda xolme molaSqreTa winamZRolebi, sardlebi
37
. anaqsimenesidan momdinare
cnobis marTebulobasa Tu mcdarobas Cveni kvlevis sagnisaTvis arsebiTi
mniSvneloba ar unda hqondes; mniSvneloba aqvs da gasaTvaliswinebelia Zv. w. IV
saukunidan momdinare informacia sityva Tu -s berZnul -Tan
gaigivebis Taobaze.
toponim fasargadis sawyiss formad o. blau --s (Prsakarta)
varaudobda
38
. amasTan dakavSirebiT igi iTvaliswinebda agreTve apianes miTridates
omebsa da stefane bizantielTan SemorCenil asinius kvadratusis parTikis
fragmentebSi dacul im cnobebs, saidanac irkveva, rom tigran II-is dedaqalaqis
saxelwodeba sparsulad niSnavda tigranis qalaqs
39
.
ToTiusis laTinuri leqsikonis ganmartebiTac, sityva certa aRmosavlur enaze
qalaqs niSnavs
40
. aseve, menandre protiqtoris SuamdinareTSi mdebare -s,
romelsac stefane bizantielTan Seesabameba , xolo ravenis
kosmografiaSi Manacarta, uraniusi (savaraudod, ax. w. I saukunis avtori siriuli
apameidan, romlis nawerTa fragmentebi stefane bizantielis eTnikis meSveobiT
Semoinaxa) -s saxiT Targmnis, rac maneelTa alags, miwas, mxares
niSnavs
41
.
-karta da -kerta toponimebis Sinaarsobrivi Tanxvedra eWvs ar iwvevs da maTi
nawilobrivi fonetikuri sxvaoba dialeqturi garemos zemoqmedebas ar unda
cildebodes. termin -karta-dan anda misi ganStoebebidan nawarmoeb toponimebad
miCneulia
42
:
I. babiloneTsa da dasavleT suzianaSi: 1. Vologesicerta; 2. ; 3. Destagerd; 4.
Hormuzird; 5. Aristaird; 6. Wasagerd; 7. Susanird.
II. asureTsa da SuamdinareTSi: 1. ; 2. ; 3. Minicerta; 4. ;
5. .
III. armeniaSi: 1. Zikarta; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; 5. ; 6.
; 7. ; 8. ; 9. /; 10. /;
11. ; 12. Manavazgerd; 13. Melazgerd; 14. Hatamagerd; 15. Hagerd; 16. Henaragerd;
35
G. Bernhardy, Dionysius Perigtes Graece et Latine cum vetustis commentariis et interpretationibus ex recensione et cum
annotatione Godofredi Bernhardy (Lipsiae/Leipzig, 1828), pp. 301, 302: 1069 (24-35, 1-17), 968: 1069, 14: k. Compara in his
Steph. v. , unde fragmenti huius auctor Anaximenes cognoscitur; Sdr. Steph. Byz. s. v. ; A. Meineke,
Stephani Byzantii Ethnicorum quae supersunt, ex recensione Augusti Meinekii (Berolini/Berlin, 1849), 509-510 (17, 1-8).
36
Blau 1877, 495. ZvelberZnuli , garda banakisa niSnavs, agreTve, TavdacviT galavans,
simagres, ix. Benselers Griechisch-Deutsches Wrterbuch. Bearbeitet von A. Kaegi (Leipzig, 1981), S. 732.
37
iqve, gv. 608.
38
O. Blau, dasax. naSromi, gv. 495; Sdr. J. Conder. Persia and China (London, 1830), pp. 67-68.
39
Appian, Bell. Mithr., 57; Asinius Quadratus, Parthika, fr. 14; ix. O. Blau, dasax. naSromi, gv. 495.
40
Totius Latinitatis Lexicon. Egidio Forcellini, Jacobus Bailey. Consilio et cura Jabobi Facciolati. (Londini/London, 1828), p. 1146.
41
O. Blau, dasax. naSromi, gv. 495, 496; H. von Wissmann, Uranios, Paulys Realencyclopdie der Classischen
Altertumswissenschaft, Supplementband XI (Stuttgart, 1968), gv. 1278-1292.
42
O. Blau, dasax. naSromi, gv. 500-502.
17. Tzolagerd; 18. Tzungerd; 19. Vagarshagerd; 20. Shemiramagerd; 21. Nephrkert; 22. Vanakert;
23. Gilgerd; 24. Meshingerd; 25. Tawasgerd; 26. Alaschgerd.
IV. midiaSi: 1. ; 2. ; 3. Maragerd; 4. Paguragerd; 5. Phaurird; 6. Ashnadird; 7.
Dastaird; 8. Buzanaird; 9. Burgird; 10. Walashgird.
V. hirkaniaSi: 1. ; 2. ; 3. Phuzgird.
VI. parTiasa da xorezmSi: 1. ; 2. Bashgird; 3. Bulanird; 4. Bugagerd.
VII. transsoqsianasa da xorasanSi: 1. ; 2. Chatracharta.
zemoCamoTvlilTa Soris SeimCneva SedarebiT gviandeli xanis saxelwodebebic.
kerZod, somxur-sparsuli enebSi dadasturebel qalaqis aRmniSvnel terminebSi
SedarebiT ufro gviandel formebad miiCneven gird-ze da jird-ze daboloebulebs.
specialistTa azriT, es formebi Tavdapirvelad arsebuli karta-sagan arian
warmomdgari
43
. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom adgilis dasaxelebis Valgird/Balgird-is
uZvelesi formaa Vologeso[. 56:]certa (rogorc amas pliniusi iuwyeba), sityva gird-s h.
hiubSmanic sazogadod kert/karta-dan warmoqmnilad miiCnevs
44
.
ganxiluli toponimebis sivrcobriv ganfenasTan dakavSirebiT, o. blaus azriT,
adgili aqvs erT, aSkarad TvalSisacem, garemoebas, kerZod, imas, rom aseTi
saxelebis qseli mxolod semiturTan mosazRvre iranuli enobrivi arealis
dasavleT da CrdiloeT kideebze, Turanuli arealis SigniT iCens Tavs, maSin
rodesac aRmosavleTis mimarTulebiT maTi kvali ar SeiniSneba, xolo samxreTisaken
sporadulia. misive azriT, is areali, sadac toponimebi -kerta, -kerd gansakuTrebiT
xSiria, verc teritoriuli TvalsazrisiT da verc eTnografiul-lingvisturi
TaviseburebebiT, erTiani saxelwodebis qveS ver erTiandeba, Tumca iqve dasZens, rom
es areali (transsoqsianidan kaspiis zRvamde da Semdeg armeniis gavliT evfratamde)
Turaneli tomebis momTabareobis zonas warmoadgenda, romelTac parTelTa
ZlevamosilebaSi umTavaresi wvlili hqondaT Setanili; Sesabamisad, am arealis
toponimebis interpretaciisas Turanuli warmomavlobis sityvebis ar
gaTvaliswineba, misi azriT, ar iqneboda gamarTlebuli
45
.
o. blaus sapirispirod, T. nioldeke SeniSnavda, rom, rogorc es ukve Tavad o.
blaum cxadyo, msgavsi saxelwodebebi yvelaze ufro xSiri armeniasa da xorasanSia,
Tumca, amave dros armeniis samxreTidan momijnave mxareebSi, eraySi, faqtobrivad
iranis mTel gayolebaze da transsoqsianaSic vrceldeba; aseve, gavrcelebulia
iranis im mxareebSi, romlebic sakmaod daSorebuli iyvnen TuranelTa
zegavlenisagan, mag., farsSi, qermanSi, midielTa calkeul olqebSi. amitom, misi
azriT, aseTi saxelwodebebis formireba iranuli enis gavrcelebis arealSi unda
momxdariyo
46
. qronologiuri Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare, T. nioldeke SeniSnavs,
rom transsoqsianaSi gerd-elementis Semcveli saxelebi verc parTelebisa da verc
sasanianTa batonobis xanisad ver CaiTvleba da aqemenianTa xanis kuTvnilebas unda
warmoadgendes
47
. h. hiubSmanis azriTac, iranuli saxelwodebebi dariosis dros
iranis mTel teritoriaze farTod iyo gavrcelebuli
48
.
43
O. Blau, dasax. naSromi, gv. 500.
44
H. Hbschmann, Iranisch-armenische Namen auf karta, kert, gird, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlndischen Gesellschaft, Bd 30,
1876, S. 140.
45
O. Blau, dasax. naSromi, gv. 502-505.miuxedavad zemoT gamoTqmuli mosazrebisa, o. blaus, imave
werilSi moyvanili aqvs angariSgasawevi argumentacia, metyveli termin -s SesaZlo arameuli
warmomavlobis sasargeblod (ix., qvemoT).
46
Th. Nldeke, Ueber iranische Ortsnamen auf kert und andere Endungen, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlndischen Gesellschaft,
Bd 33, 1879, SS. 148, 151, 152.
47
Th. Nldeke, dasax. naSromi, gv. 153.
48
H. Hbschmann, dasax. naSromi, gv. 141.
o. blaus mosazrebis mimarT -karta da -kerta toponimebis parTuli anda
Turanuli warmomavlobis Taobaze kidev ufro mkacria a. d. mordtmani, romelic
SeniSnavs, rom vinaidan, Tavad o. blau acxadebs, rom igi ar aris garkveuli
parTelebis eTnografiul adgilmdebareobaSi, SegviZlia masTan diskusias am
sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT Tavi avaridoT
49
.
amave dros ar SeiZleba ar iTqvas, rom bevrad ufro damajereblad
gamoiyureba is masala, romelic o. blaus gansaxilveli toponimebis arameuli
warmomavlobis saCveneblad aqvs moxmobili. o. blau aRiarebs, rom rodesac axlo
aRmosavleTSi - Semadgeneli nawilis Semcvel saxelebis wyaros viZiebT, unda
gaviTvaliswinoT is garemoeba, rom sityva karta, rogorc qalaqis aRmniSvneli
apelativi, imdenad xSiri iyo, rom nebismieri adgilobrivi berZeni, somexi Tu
ebraeli mis am mniSvnelobas spontanurad xvdeboda; Sesabamisad, am terminis
warmoqmneli erTaderTi savaraudo enobrivi garemo mxolod Crdilosemituri da
gansakuTrebiT arameuli SeiZleba yofiliyo. misi azriT, metad macduria is
mosazreba, romlis Tanaxmadac termini - Tavidanve qalaqis aRmniSvneli iyo da
arameul-Zvelebrauli sityvidan (krta) aris nasesxebi, vinaidan aqemenianTa,
arSakidebisa da sasanianTa epoqaSi arameuli enis zegavlena mkafiod sagrZnobia im
mxareebSi, sadac aseTi saxelwodebebi iCens Tavs. es zegavlena aseve aisaxeba
sazogadod adgilobriv xalxur metyvelebaSi, Tumca, yvelaze ufro metad
geografiul nomenklaturaSia SesamCnevi. o. blaus azriT, gansakuTrebiT is
swavlulebi, romelTac ar gaaCniaT viwro filologiuri cnobiereba da sagans
farTo kulturul-istoriuli TvalTaxedvidan ganixilaven, advilad gaiziareben
Sexedulebas am terminis kav[. 57:]Siris Sesaxeb qalaqis aRmniSvnel arameuli
warmomavlobis sityvasTan, ufro ukeTesi alternatiuli Tvalsazrisis uqonlobis
gamo
50
.
b. dornis varaudiTac, romelic aseve XIX saukunis samocdaaTian wlebSia
gamoTqmuli, hirkaniuli adgilis dasaxelebis Zadrakarta-s Semadgeneli nawili -
SesaZloa qalaqis aRmniSvnel arameul-fehlevur -s (krth) warmoadgendes
51
.
mosazreba, rom termini / qalaqis aRmniSvneli ebraul-arameuli
sityvidan , aris nasesxebi, ar aRmoCnda yvelasTvis misaRebi: T.
nioldekes azriT, Tu davuSvebdiT semituri enebidan msgavsi sityvebis sesxebis
SesaZleblobas, maSin isini somxur-semitur anda semitur-iranul sasazRvro zonebSi
sakmaod gavrcelebuli unda yofiliyvnen, magram misive gancxadebiT, am teritoriaze
sityva -dan nawarmoebi arc sakuTriv semituri toponimebi iCenen Tavs
52
.
termin /-s warmomavlobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT msjelobisas,
albaT, saTanadod aris gasaTvaliswinebeli is kargad cnobili faqti, rom jer kidev
Zv. w. IX saukuneSi (Qart-Hadat) (igive karTageni), anu axalqalaqi, arameulis
axlomonaTesave punikur/finikiur enaze daerqva CrdiloeT afrikaSi axaldaarsebul
savaWro kolonias.
rogorc ukve viciT, qalaqis aRmniSvnel arameul sityvas warmoadgenda,
xolo arameuli ena erT-erTi ZiriTadi saxelmwifo ena iyo aqemenianTa zegavlenis
qveS myof armazcixis adreul binadarTaTvis da Semdegac, ax. w. VII saukunemde,
axlo aRmosavleTSi igi lingua franca-s warmoadgenda
53
; amdenad, savsebiT dasaSvebia,
49
A. D. Mordtmann, Ueber die Endung kart, kert, gird in Stdtenamen, Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlndischen Gesellschaft, Bd
32, 1878, S. 725.
50
O. Blau, dasax. naSromi, gv. 497, 498.
51
B. Dorn, Caspia (St. Petersburg, 1875), Anm. 7.
52
Th. Nldeke, dasax. naSromi, gv. 151.
53
J. C. Greenfield. Aramaic in the Achaemenian Empire, The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 2. The Median and Achaemenian
periods. I. Gershevitch (Ed.) (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 698-713.
swored sityva dasdeboda safuZvlad termin qarT-l-s
54
. arameul termins kidev
imis gamo unda mieniWos gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba, rom savaraudoa mcxeTis erT-
erTi umniSvnelovanesi simagris, aragvispirTan mdebare beltis cixis saxelic
(amJamad cnobili bebris/beris cixed), romelic mcxeTa-armazcixis saerTo
safortifikacio sistemis nawils warmoadgenda da ketavda CrdiloeTis Sesasvlels,
warmomdgari iyos aseve cixesimagris aRmniSvneli arameuli sityvidan birta
55
.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, iqneb gasaTvaliswinebeli iyos, qarTlis cxovrebis cnobis,
mtkvargamoRma (armazcixis, igive mTa qarTlis) da mtkvargaRma (mcxeTis) mxareTa
mefeebis, qarTamisa da bartomis saxelTa SesaZlo kavSiric cixesimagreebis
aRmniSvnel arameul sityvebTan karta da birta da, Sesabamisad, am sityvebiT
moxseniebul maT rezidenciebTan Tu umTavres safortifikacio nagebobebTan
armazcixesTan (mTa qarTli) da mcxeTa-bebris (beltis Tu berdis) cixesTan
56
.
[. 58:]
arameuli termini , Tavis mxriv, dakavSirebuli unda iyos cixeqalaqis
aRmniSvnel xuritul terminTan ard-i/arte-ni. am xurituli terminidan Cans
nawarmoebi qalaq musasiris urartuli saxelwodeba ardini; analogiuri
saxelwodebebis qalaqebi cnobilia agreTve etiunis qveynidan da rusaxinilis
maxloblad.
57
erTi SexedviT, TiTqos qarTulenovan samyaroSi adreuli xanebidanve
fexi hqonda mokidebuli cixeqalaqis aRmniSvnel am xuritul termins, romelmac
regionSi aqemenianTa dominirebis xanaSi analogiuri mniSvnelobisa da JReradobis
mqone da, SesaZloa, misganve nawarmoebi arameuli sityvis -s zegavleniT SeiZina
anlautSi velaruli fonema. aseTi varaudis SesaZleblobaze albaT unda
migvaniSnebdes qarTul sinamdvileSi dadasturebuli araerTi cixesimagris
aRmniSvneli da arT/art/ard-Ziriani toponimi.
sainteresoa, rom klavdios ptolemaiosis geografiuli saxelmZRvanelos
mixedviT, erT-erTi mniSvnelovani iberiuli dasaxleba yofila
58
,
romelsac zogierTi mkvlevari pliniusis Harmastis-Tan (igive -Harmozica-sTan
54
t. futkaraZis azriT, termin qarTlSi -l- determinant sufiqss warmoadgens. igi iTvaliswinebs im
garemoebas, rom warmomavlobis, Tvisebisa da mqoneblobis aRmniSvnel -an-, -ur-, -el- sufiqsebis ufro
Zvel funqciur variants -l/r- sufiqsi warmoadgenda, mag.: Tov-s Tov-l-i, mama mam-r-i, qarTi
qarT-l-i da a. S. (piradi informacia). damafiqrebelia q. arTvinis Crdilo-dasavleTiT, md. Woroxis
marcxena napirTan mdebare soflisa da mTis saxeli qarTla, romelic dadasturebulia, agreTve,
kastlas formiT (i. sixaruliZe, nigali (livana). saistorio geografiis sakiTxebi (baTumi, 1985), gv.
44), Sdr., laT. castellum cixesimagre, forti, gamagrebuli adgili, TavSesafari, mTis samosaxlo,
rac, SesaZloa, kidev erTxel migvaniSnebdes qarT/ard/arT-Ziriani saxelebis semantikur kavSirs
cixesimagrisa Tu qalaqis aRmniSvnel sityvebTan da, vin icis, iqneb laTinuri Porta (karibWe,
Sesasvleli) imalebodes xanZTis meore, araqarTul saxelwodebaSi forTa. Tumca toponimi
xanZTa ufro arqauli Cans da SesaZloa ganekuTvnebodes im an-Ziriani saxelebis wyebas, romlebic
uxvadaa warmodgenili samxreT saqarTvelosa da mis momijnave mxareebSi.
55
C. Brockelmann, Syrische Grammatik mit Paradigmen: Literatur, Chrestomathie und Glossar, Neunte Auflage (Leipzig, 1962), S.
154*; Sdr. g. qavTaraZe, anatoliaSi..., gv. 85, 173, Sen. 361. sayuradReboa, rom karTagenSic gvxvdeba
msgavsi JReradobis saxelwodeba birtha adgilobrivi akropolisas aRmniSvnelad.
56
g. qavTaraZe, mcxeTis uZvelesi adgilmdebareobisa da saxelwodebis sakiTxisaTvis, istoriisa da
eTnologiis institutis Sromebi, t. X-XI (Tbilisi, 2010/2011), gv. 55. mefeTa cxovrebis teqstis
mixedviT: xolo amas aderkis esxnes orni Zeni, romelTa erqua saxelad erTsa bartom da meoresa
qarTam. da amaT ganuyo yoveli queyana Tsi: misca qalaqi mcxeTa da queyana mtkuarsa Sida qarTli,
muxnariT kerZi qalaqi da yoveli qarTli mtkuarsa CrdiloeTi, hereTiTgan vidre Tavadmde qarTlisa
da egrisisa - ese yoveli misca bartoms Zesa Tssa, xolo armaziT kerZi qalaqi, mtkuarsa samxriT
qarTli, xunaniTgan vidre Tavadmde mtkurisa, da klarjeTi yoveli misca qarTams Zesa Tssa. da
mokuda aderki (leonti mroveli, 43: 18-24).
57
. . , (, 2001), c. 496, 497.
58
K. F. A. Nobbe (Ed.), Ptolemy, Claudii Ptolemaei Geographia, Volume 2 (Lipsiae, 1845); Cl. Ptol., 5, 11, 3.
anu armaz-mcxeTasTan) aigivebda (r. q. porTeri)
59
, zogi q. artaanTan (p. ioseliani,
s. kakabaZe), zogic artanujTan (v. tomaSeki, n. lomouri)
60
. Tumca, rogorc viciT,
pliniusis Harmastis/Harmastus-i
61
(igive kasius dios -s), klaudios ptolemaios
ara -s, aramed -s formiT aqvs moxseniebuli
62
, rac strabonis
-s
63
(anu armazcixes) Seesabameba.
marTalia, n. lomouri SeniSnavs, rom ptolemaiosis koordinatTa sistema
misTvis iseTi Soreuli qveynis aRwerisas, rogoric kavkasiaa, sruliad
gamouyenebelia
64
, magram, safiqrebelia, rom maT, zog SemTxvevaSi, garkveuli
SedarebiTi mniSvneloba mainc unda hqonodaT; kerZod, erTi mxriv, kolxeTisaTvis da
meore mxriv _ kavkasiis albaniisaTvis gamoyenebuli koordinatebi mkveTrad
gansxvavdeboda erTmaneTisagan, xolo maTgan ki _ gansxvavebulia iberiisaTvis
gamoyenebuli koordinatebi.
Tu Cven klavdios ptolemaiosis koordinatebis SedarebiT mniSvnelobas
gaviTvaliswinebT, unda vivaraudoT -s mdebareoba mcxeTisgan
(ptolemaiosiseuli ) Crdilo-aRmosavleTis mimarTulebiT
65
. sainteresoa,
rom am regionSi dadasturebulia ard-Ziriani saxelebi: centraluri amierkavkasiis
CrdiloeT nawilSi, kavkasionis mTavari qedis mimdebare mxareebSi, mag. ardoti
(cixesofeli piriqiT xevsureTSi, md. andaqis marcxena napirze), iqneb arxotic
(ardxoti), arTxmo (kavkasionis mTavari wyalgamyofi qedis CrdiloeT kalTaze,
stefanwmindidan 15 km), ardvisi (sof. eredvTan), ardisi (md. mejudis saTavesTan),
arTani/arTana (Telavidan 26 km-is daSorebiT, kavkasionis mTis kalTebis samxreTiT),
artani (TianeTidan 13 km manZilze, ivris marjvena napirze).
md. Tergis ukiduresi zemo welis mxares, Zveli somxuri wyaroebis, kerZod,
anania Sirakacis e. w. VII saukunis somxuri geografiis anu aSxarhacuicis Tanaxmad,
ardozi ewodeboda da miCneulia, rom es toponimi nawarmoebi unda iyos osuri
oerduz-idan, mniSvnelobiT: tyiani mdelo, axo
66
. magram, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT
xuritul-urartuli [. 59:] warmomavlobis ard-Ziriani saxelebis simravles
amierkavkasiaSi, albaT, ar unda moipovebodes safuZveli maTgan toponim ardozis
daSorebisaTvis. rogorc Cans, swored am saxelwodebas _ ardozi aigivebda movses
59
R. K. Porter, Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, Ancient Babylonia (1817-1820), vol. I (London, 1821), pp. 104, 110.
60
n. lomouri, klavdios ptolemaiosi, geografiuli saxelmZRvanelo, cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb,
masalebi saqarTvelosa da kavkasiis istoriisaTvis, nakv. 34, 1955, gv. 59, 60.
61
K. F. T. Mayhoff (Ed.), Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia. English translation by Bostock J., Riley H.T. (Lipsiae, 1906); Plin., n.h.,
6, 29.
62
K. F. A. Nobbe, dasax. naSromi; Cl. Ptol., 5, 11, 3.
63
Strabo 11, 3, 5; ix. H. L. Jones, The Geography of Strabo, with an English translation by Horace Leonard Jones, vol. V. The Loeb
Classical Library (Cambridge, Massachusetts & London, 1961), . 221.
64
n. lomouri, dasax. naSromi, gv. 40.
65
aRsaniSnavia, rom -sa da -s koordinatebis nawili n. lomouris statiaSi erTmaneTs
emTxveva 7540, maSin rodesac mcxeTis monacemebia 7440 (Sdr. n. lomouri, dasax. naSromi, gv. 46
da E. L. Stevenson, The Geography by Claudius Ptolemy. Translated and Edited by Edward Luther Stevenson (New York, 1932), p.
122). es cdomileba kargad Cans TviT n. lomouris statiis rukaze: amierkavkasia ptolemaiosis
koordinatebis mixedviT, sadac -sTan SedarebiT mniSvnelovnad ufro CrdiloeTiT
aris lokalizebuli (n. lomouri, dasax. naSromi, gv. 62), rac gamoricxuli iqneboda, rukis
Sedgenisas imave statiaSi gamoyenebuli koordinatebis monacemTa gaTvaliswinebis SemTxvevaSi.
66
R. H. Hewsen, The Geography of Ananias of irak (Axarhacoyc, The Long and the Short Recensions, Introduction, Translation
and Commentary by Robert H. Hewsen, Beihefte zum Tbinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients. Reihe B, Geisteswissenschaften; Nr. 77
(Wiesbaden, 1992), pp. 55, 115, 116, nn. 61-64. aRniSnuli etimologiis aradamajereblobis Sesaxeb ix.:
. .

,
(, 1992),
. 1
, . III
, 1
.
xorenaci vaspurakanSi mdebare adgilis saxelwodebasTan _ artazi
67
, rodesac
SeniSnavda, rom artazs es saxeli TiTqosda imis gamo ewoda, rom am adgilas
somexTa mefes artaSess dausaxlebia amave saxelwodebis mqone mxaridan wamosxmuli
tyve alanebi
68
.
rogorc zemoTac aRvniSnavdiT, qarTul enobriv samyaroSi gvxvdeba
cixesimagris aRmniSvneli mravali art/ard-fuZiani toponimi. zemoCamoTvlilebTan
erTad, savaraudod aseTi toponimebi unda iyos: aradeTi, ardasa, ardaSeni
ardisubani/ardasubani, ardola, arTvini/arTvani/arTavanisi, artaan/ardahani,
artanuji/artanuWi, kardanexi
69
, RarTiskari
70
da sxv. (maT Soris anlautSi
gansxvavebuli fonemebiTac)
71
. savaraudoa, rom mxedvelobaSi unda iyos misaRebi
agreTve urartuli A bgeris igiveobaaUUa-sTan
72
da, Sesabamisad, imave ard-fuZis
Zieba toponimebSi: varcixe<vardcixe
73
, varZia (<*vard-Zia), vardis sofeli da
sxv. gasaTvaliswinebelia, somxur enaSi arsebuli ard/arT da vard/vardan-fuZiani
toponimebic.
iqneb aqve unda gavixsenoT ardam erisTavis saxelic: aman [fridon]
warmogzavna erisTavi Tsi spiTa didiTa, romelsa saxeli erqua ardam, Svili
nebroTis naTesavTa... aman ardam mohkida kiri-zRude cixesa armazisasa da aqaT
mtkuramdis, da wamozRuda cxiri armazisi vidre mtkuramde
74
.
kasius dios informaciiT, akropolisi agebuli iyo im mizniT, rom daecva
uviwroesi adgili, sadac erT mxares mtkvari (Cyrus) moedineba, xolo meore mxares
kavkasionia aRmarTuli
75
. mcxeTa-armazis unikaluri TavdacviTi SesaZleblobebis
aRniSvnas verc bevrad ufro gviandeli xanis TviTmxilvelebi uvlidnen gverds
76
.
vinaidan mtkvrisa da aragvis xerTvisSi mdebare armazcixe/qarTli aramarto
mniSvnelovan savaWro gzebs, aramed kavkasionis ZiriTadi uReltexilis
darialisaken mimaval gzasac akontrolebda (saidanac xdeboda CrdiloeTis
momTabare tomebis mravalricxovani talRebis Semosevebi da saidanac unda SeeRwiaT
axlo aRmosavleTSi kimerielebsa da skviTebs)
77
. swored amis gamo, savaraudoa, rom
jer kidev aqemenianTa xanamde yofiliyo mxedvelobaSi miRebuli qarTlis
(Semdegdroindeli armazcixis) uaRresad xelsayreli strategiuli mdebareoba; rig
67
J. Marquart, rnahr nach der Geographie des Ps. Moses Xorenaci (Berlin, 1901), SS. 4, 5.
68
movses xorenaci, II, 34, 52, 74; ix. movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria, Zveli somxuridan Targmna,
Sesavali da SeniSvnebi daurTo aleqsandre abdalaZem (Tbilisi, 1984), gv. 130, 143, 144, 160. xom ar
xedavda movses xorenaci termin ardoz/artazSi az/oz/osebis, igive alanebis ard/art-s, egeb,
sulac, sparsulenovani terminis darialis (anu ovsTakaris) zegavlenis Sedegad?
69
rogorc irkveva, forma kardanexi ufro Zvelia, vidre kardenaxi; amas mowmobs kardanexis
moxsenieba giorgi aleqsandre mefis Zis mier 1455 w. vaCnaZeebis saxelze gacemul sasisxlo sigelSi.
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ipyrobs, imave sigelSi kardanexis gverdiT, vejinisa da vejinis piris
sofelTa Soris, kardanucis moxsenieba (s. kakabaZe, sasisxlo sigelebis Sesaxeb (axlad mopovebul
sasisxlo sigelebTan dakavSirebiT), saistorio moambe, wig. II (tfilisi, 1924), gv. 40, 43.
70
mcxeTis CrdiloeTiT, mSral xevTan aRmoCenili antiuri xanis safortifikacio nagebobaTa
kompleqsi warmoadgenda mcxeTis (=RarTis/arTis/qarTis?) CrdiloeTis kars.
71
maT gverdiT xom ar aris sagulvebeli cixesimagreebis aRmniSvneli da savaraudod monaTesave
Ziris Semcveli toponimebi: T-orT-omi, olT-isi da sxv.
72
ix. . . , dasax. naSromi, gv. 439, 479, 499.
73
gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa vardcixis saxelwodeba, romelSic xuritul-urartul
ard/uard/vard-s axlavs qarTuli ganmarteba cixis saxiT (Sdr., g. qavTaraZe, mcxeTis.., gv. 55).
74
leonti mroveli, 13: 5-6, 12-13.
75
E. Cary, dasax. naSromi; Dio, 37, 1, 4.
76
R. K. Porter, dasax. naSromi, gv. 109.
77
D. M. Lang, Armazi (or ARMAZ-TSIKHE), an important royal city of Georgia, Encyclopaedia Iranica, 1st edition. E. Yarshater
(Ed.), Volume II: Anamaka-Atar al-Wozara(New York, 1999), p. 416.
sxva niSnebTan erTad amazeve unda migvaniSnebdes urartul samSeneblo
tradiciebTan zemoT SeniSnuli siaxlove.
am, Tanamedrove qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis ZiriTad da uZveles kerasTan
mimarTebiT, yuradRebas ipyrobs pliniusis SeniSvna imis Taobaze, rom iberiuli
qalaqi harmastusi kavkasiis im karis pirdapir mdebareobda, romelic samyaros or
nawilad ganyofda
78
. es garemoeba miuTiTebs, imdroindeli iberiis umniSvnelovanesi
qalaqis funqciaze, gadaeketa gza CrdiloeTidan, kavkasiis karidan (anu
darialidan) Semo[. 60:]suli da Tergisa da aragvis xeobebis gavliT wamosuli
moTareSeebisaTvis; amis msurvelTa ricxvi ki qeds gadaRma uricxvi iyo da aris.
berZnul-romauli, somxuri da qarTuli werilobiTi wyaroebis monacemTa Sejereba
79
saSualebas gvaZlevs ganvacxadoT, rom ara mxolod harmastus/armazcixe/qarTlis,
aramed saerTod iberiis samefos (centraluri amierkavkasiis yvelaze adreuli
saxelmwifos) aRmoceneba-Camoyalibebis gamomwvevi erT-erTi ZiriTadi mizezi swored
didi strategiuli mniSvnelobis mqone darialis karibWis kontrolis saWiroeba
unda yofiliyo; momTabareTaTvis gzis gadamketi kavkasiis karibWis efeqturi
kontrolis aucileblobis gamo civilizebuli samyaros yvela drois mesveurTaTvis
sasurveli iyo Suagul amierkavkasiaSi, iberiaSi, msgavsi funqciis Sesasruleblad
saTanado Zlevamosilebis mqone saxelmwifo xelisuflebis arseboba
80
.
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34, 1955;
13. g. meliqiSvili, saqarTvelos, kavkasiisa da maxlobeli aRmosavleTis uZvelesi
mosaxleobis sakiTxisaTvis (Tbilisi, 1965);
14. g. meliqiSvili, qarTli (iberia) Zv. w. VI-IV saukuneebSi. qarTlis samefos
warmoqmna, saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi, tomi I (Tbilisi, 1970);
15. d. musxeliSvili, qarTvelTa TviTsaxelwodebis istoriisaTvis, saqarTvelosa
da qarTvelebis aRmniSvneli ucxouri da qarTuli terminologia, (Tbilisi,
1993);
16. i. sixaruliZe, nigali (livana). saistorio geografiis sakiTxebi (baTumi, 1985);
17. al. Rlonti, qiziyis toponimia (toponimikuri Ziebani, IV) (Tbilisi, 1982);
18. g. qavTaraZe, anatoliaSi qarTvelur tomTa gansaxlebis sakiTxisaTvis
(Tbilisi, 1985);
19. g. qavTaraZe, kavkasia da karTagenelebi, iberia-kolxeTi, saqarTvelos
klasikuri da adremedievuri periodis arqeologiur-istoriuli mkvlevari, # 4
(Tbilisi, 2008);
20. g. qavTaraZe, arian-qarTlis sakiTxisaTvis, istoriisa da eTnologiis
institutis Sromebi, t. IX (Tbilisi, 2009); [. 61:]
21. g. qavTaraZe, mcxeTis uZvelesi adgilmdebareobisa da saxelwodebis
sakiTxisaTvis, istoriisa da eTnologiis institutis Sromebi, t. X-XI
(Tbilisi, 2010/2011);
22. g. qavTaraZe, saqarTvelo, kavkasioni da geopolitika: warsuli da
Tanamedroveoba, mari brose - 210 (Tbilisi, 2012);
23. s. yauxCiSvili, leonti mroveli, cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTa, qarTlis
cxovreba, tomi I, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s.
yauxCiSvilis mier (Tbilisi, 1955);
24. s. yauxCiSvili, juanSeri, cxovreba vaxtang gorgaslisa, qarTlis cxovreba,
tomi I, teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis
mier (Tbilisi, 1955);
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Bd 31 (Leipsig, 1877);
32. C. Brockelmann, Syrische Grammatik mit Paradigmen: Literatur, Chrestomathie und Glossar, Neunte
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Introduction, Translation and Commentary by Robert H. Hewsen, Beihefte zum Tbinger Atlas des
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GIORGI L. KAVTARADZE
Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology,
Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
THE TERM KARTLI ITS ESSENCE AND ORIGIN
The nature and the origin of the term Kartli, is the subject of research during a long time. There are
several well-founded assumption that differ from each other mainly by the character of the starting material
used. Some scholars used predominantly Georgian material, others Caucasian, Eurasian or Middle Eastern.
Sometimes, at first glance, rather shrewd explanations of the complete or partial similarity detected among
some terms in the field of toponymical studies can take us into a quite different spatial and chronological
context, far away from the object of our study.
In general, the linguistic or cultural identity or the proximity of individual cases are not of very large
value without taking into account the context in which this or that phenomenon occur. In this regard, the term
Kartli/Karti the oldest designation of Armaztsikhe/Armazi of the most ancient capital of Georgians at the
confluence of the Kura with the Aragvi on the opposite side of Mtskheta quite clearly shows the spatial,
chronological, cultural and linguistic context, in which it finds its true place. I mean conceptually and
phonetically clearly related to each other toponyms, which existed more or less simultaneously on the vast, but
neighbourly situated areas. In the time of clearing up a question of the origin, nature and distribution of the term
karta, this fact is of crucial importance. It seems that this toponym or mainly toponyms having the element -
karta as a constituent part of them were covering wide area of the old world from Central Asia up to the Iberian
Peninsula as a fashionable term with the meaning town/fortress/military camp.
In the opinion of some specialists the element karta, as an appellative denoting city, was so
widespread that the only possible linguistic environment of its origin may have been the North Semitic and
especially the Aramaic. Its assumed that the term karta from the beginning meant a town and is borrowed
from the Aramaic-Hebrew word with same meaning . It is sufficient to recall the name of Carthago
(Qart-Hadat or new city) founded already in the 9
th
century B.C. by the Phoenicians, closely related to
the Arameans. Even in the Hyrcanian toponym Zadrakarta some scholars view the Aramaic-Pehlevi as its
second component part. We should consider the fact that the influence of the Aramaic language is especially
frequent in pre-Achaemenian, Achaemenian, Hellenistic and Sasanian times and was used as a lingua franca in
the areas where such toponyms were widely distributed.
Its a well-known fact that the Aramaic language beside the Greek was an official language of the early
inhabitants of Armaztsikhe/Armazi which were under the influence of the Achaemenians and whose supreme
deity Armazi was designated by the name derived from Old Persian Ormazd (i. e. Ahura Mazda). Therefore, it
is quite possible that the Aramaic word is the basis for the term Kartli.
In which period did this term penetrate to central Transcaucasia? Aramaic term , in turn, may be
linked by its origin to the Hurrian word for a city or a castle ard. It seems that in the Georgian linguistic area
from early times were distributed Hurrian toponyms with the word ard which allegedly were acquired in the
period of the Achaemenian dominance, under the influence of Aramaic word with the same meaning and
similar sound, a [. 63:] velar consonant as an initial sound of the word. The possibility of such an assumption
is confirmed by the existence of many Georgian toponyms with ard/art element by which are designated
mainly fortresses, castles and cities.
Perhaps, we should remember also the name from The History of the Kings of Kartli Ardam, of the
person who undertook to build the wall of the castle of Armazi (Armaztsikhe, i. e. Kartli) and enclosed with a
wall the projection of Armazi as far as the Kura river (13: 12-13).
That the term Kartli/Karti undoubtedly meant a fortress, a place enclosed by wall, can be concluded
on the basis of Cassius Dios information who calls Armazi/Kartli Acropolis () or the fortified upper
part of an ancient city, what was undoubtedly Armazi as if justifying the origin of the name Kartli from the
name of a fortress. By the information of Cassius Dio Acropolis was built in order to protect narrowest place
where on the one side the Kura flows, on the other the Caucasus is erected (Roman History, 37, 1, 4).
In antiquity Armazi/Kartli-Mtskheta, the fortified place of extremely outstanding significance in central
Transcaucasia, was controling the crossroads coming from all four sides. Most important of them was the
northern direction connected with the Dariali Pass which was dividing Transcaucasia from Ciscaucasia. The
historical appointment of Armazi/Mtskheta and, generally, of Caucasian Iberia which, being located
immediately south from the Caucasian Gates, was to protect the Mediterranean-Near Eastern oikoumene
(), the civilized world of common interests, from invasions of the numerous waves of northern
nomadic tribes. As the invasions of Cimmerians and Scythians fall in the days before the Achamenians, for this
reason, it is likely that a highly favorable strategic location of Armazi/Mtskheta should already have been taken
into account in the Pre-Achamenian times. It must be mentioned that excavations of Armaztsikhe beside the
existence there of obvious architectural traits typical of the Achaemenian period revealed as well signs of the
Urartian building tradition.
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