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INDUCTION GENERATOR

Index Number : 070384P

Field : EE

Group :8

Date of Performance : 17/11/2009

Date of Submission : 08/12/2009

OBSERVATIONS

NAME : G. R. Raban

INDEX NO. : 070384P

GROUP :8

FIELD : EE

PRACTICAL : Induction Generator

DATE OF PERFORMANCE : 17 – 11 – 2009

INSTRUCTED BY : Ms. P. M. A. U. Karunapala

a) No load characteristics for varying capacitances and constant prime mover speed

b) No load characteristics for varying prime mover speed and constant capacitance

Capacitance = 60.7 µF

Capacitance = 71.2 µF

Voltage (V) Gen. Current Load Current Frequency (Hz) Torque (Nm)

(A) (A)

d) Performance of the loaded generator without speed regulation

Speed (rpm) Voltage (V) Gen. Current Load Current Frequency Torque (Nm)

(A) (A) (Hz)

Current (A) Voltage (V) Power (W) Speed (rpm) Frequency (Hz) Torque (Nm)

Calculations

Part (a)

No load characteristics for varying capacitances and constant prime mover speed

300

280

260

240

220

Line Voltage (V)

200

180

160

140

120

100

1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

(ii) Plot of Line Voltage Vs Capacitance

300

280

260

240

220

Line Voltage (V)

200

180

160

140

120

100

50.5 52.5 54.5 56.5 58.5 60.5 62.5 64.5 66.5 68.5 70.5

Capacitance (μF)

Using the above graphs, following values can be calculated.

(i) Capacitance required to obtain the rated voltage of 240 V at 2500 rpm is;

68 µF

(ii) Capacitance required to obtain the rated voltage of 240 V at the rated frequency of 50

Hz. Take this capacitance as C0.

Ic = VCω

E

Im =

ωL m

Take, Ic = Im

Im = VC0ω

Im 2.175

∴ C0 = = F

Vω 240×2π×50

C0 = 28.85 µF

Part (b)

No load characteristics for varying prime mover speed and constant capacitance

Voltage Vs Speed

260

240

220

200

Voltage (V)

180

160

140

120

100

2300 2320 2340 2360 2380 2400 2420 2440 2460 2480 2500

Speed (rpm)

(ii) Plot of Frequency Vs Speed

Frequency Vs Speed

41

40

39

Frequency (Hz)

38

37

36

35

2300 2320 2340 2360 2380 2400 2420 2440 2460 2480 2500

Speed (rpm)

(iii) Plot of Magnetizing Current Vs Speed

2.4

2.2

2

Magnetizing Current (A)

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

2300 2320 2340 2360 2380 2400 2420 2440 2460 2480 2500

Speed (rpm)

Part (c)

290

280

270

260

Voltage (V)

250

240

230

220

210

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

(ii) Plot of Frequency Vs Load Current

45

40

35

30

Frequency (Hz)

25

20

15

10

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

(iii) Plot of Generator Current Vs Load Current

3.1

3.05

3

Generator Current (A)

2.95

2.9

2.85

2.8

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Part (d)

300

280

260

240

220

Voltage (V)

200

180

160

140

120

100

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

(ii) Plot of Frequency Vs Load Current

41

(c)

40

39

38

Frequency (Hz)

37

(d)

36

35

34

33

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2

Plot of Torque Vs Speed of Prime Mover

Torque Vs Speed

6

4

Torque (Nm)

0

2430 2436 2442 2448 2454 2460 2466 2472 2478 2484 2490 2496 2502

Speed (rpm)

2. Grid Connected Induction Generator

250

200

150

Power Output (W)

100

50

0

3035 3045 3055 3065 3075 3085 3095

Speed (rpm)

(ii) Plot of Line Current Vs Speed

2.6

2.4

2.2

2

Line Current (A)

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

3035 3045 3055 3065 3075 3085 3095

Speed (rpm)

Calculation of Efficiency and Power Factor

Output Power

Efficiency =

Input Power

3052 × 2π

Input Power = 2.8 × W = 894.89 W

60

40

∴ Efficiency = × 100% = 4.47%

894.89

Real Power

Power Factor =

Apparent Power

Apparent Power = VI

V = 222.3 V I = 1.75 A W = 40 W

40

∴ Power Factor = = 0.10

222.3 × 1.75

3037 0 0

(iii) Plot of Efficiency Vs Speed

Efficiency Vs Speed

25

20

15

Efficiency %

10

0

3035 3045 3055 3065 3075 3085 3095

Speed (rpm)

(iv) Plot of Power Factor Vs Speed

0.6

0.5

0.4

Power Factor

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

3035 3045 3055 3065 3075 3085 3095

Speed (rpm)

Discussion

Reasons for the no-load test to be designed to result in a lower frequency than the rated

frequency of 50 Hz;

The Induction generator normally runs on negative slip. This is because its rotor runs

faster than the synchronous speed of the equivalent induction motor.

During the no-load test, there will be no active power output. The slip of the generator

will be zero or a positive value under this condition. Therefore, in order to achieve a positive

slip, the no-load test is designed to result in a lower frequency than 50 Hz.

The cause for variations of the voltage and current waveforms of the generator when

loading;

In the case of an induction motor, the motor speed is decreased when the load is

increased. But in an induction generator, the power output increases as the load increases, which

in turn increases the speed. Therefore, as the load on an induction generator changes, the speed

of the generator changes with it. This causes the current and voltage output to change.

Induction generators can be used in wind turbines and micro hydro installations due to

their ability to produce useful power at varying rotor speeds. It is especially useful in wind

power generating stations where the speed is always a variable factor. Induction generators are

not suitable for high power applications.

Induction generators are mechanically and electrically simpler than other generator

types. They are also more rugged, requiring no brushes or commutations. Other advantages of

the induction generator are; it is cheaper, reliable in service, light weight, does not require

routine maintenance. Therefore, induction generators are ideal for use in remotely located mini

hydro plants and wind power generation stations.

Self Excited Induction Generators (SEIG) are very useful in isolated power generation

because it can easily handle dynamic loads.

Discussion about the above plotted graphs;

a) No Load characteristics for varying capacitance and constant prime mover speed.

E

speed according to equation; Im =

ωL m

Line Voltage increases with the Capacitance. But the curve tends to saturate at higher

values of capacitance.

b) No Load characteristic for varying prime mover speed and constant capacitance.

i. Voltage Vs Speed

The Voltage decreases as the Load Current increases. The curve is nearly linear.

Frequency remains constant as load current increases. Therefore, it can be concluded that

the frequency does not depend on load current at constant speed.

Graph does not indicate a clear relationship between these two parameters.

d) Performance of the loaded generator without speed regulation.

Voltage decreases with increasing Load Current. The curve is nearly linear.

Frequency is almost constant for low values of load current, but decreases rapidly for

higher values of load current. These characteristics are shown when there is no speed regulation.

Torque Vs Speed

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