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EE303

INDUCTION GENERATOR

Instructed By: Ms. P.M.A.U. Karunapala Name : G.R. Raban


Index Number : 070384P
Field : EE
Group :8
Date of Performance : 17/11/2009
Date of Submission : 08/12/2009
OBSERVATIONS

NAME : G. R. Raban
INDEX NO. : 070384P
GROUP :8
FIELD : EE
PRACTICAL : Induction Generator
DATE OF PERFORMANCE : 17 – 11 – 2009
INSTRUCTED BY : Ms. P. M. A. U. Karunapala

1) Self-excited induction generator

a) No load characteristics for varying capacitances and constant prime mover speed

Speed = 2500 rpm

Residual voltage = 3.064 V

Capacitance (µF) Voltage (V) Mag. Current (A) Frequency (Hz)

71.2 276.4 2.95 40

69.7 273.6 2.90 40

67.7 268.4 2.70 40

65.7 263.6 2.60 40

60.7 246.1 2.30 40

50.7 174.8 1.30 40


b) No load characteristics for varying prime mover speed and constant capacitance

Capacitance = 60.7 µF

Voltage (V) Speed (rpm) Current (A) Frequency (Hz)

243 2496 2.25 40

229 2448 2.05 40

212 2402 1.90 39

188 2348 1.65 38

164 2302 1.70 37

c) Performance of loaded generator with constant speed

Speed = 2500 rpm

Capacitance = 71.2 µF

Voltage (V) Gen. Current Load Current Frequency (Hz) Torque (Nm)
(A) (A)

280 3.00 0 40 2.2

269 2.90 0.50 40 3.0

262 2.90 1.00 40 3.8

251 3.00 1.40 40 4.5

238 3.05 1.75 40 4.9


d) Performance of the loaded generator without speed regulation

No load speed = 2500 rpm

Speed (rpm) Voltage (V) Gen. Current Load Current Frequency Torque (Nm)
(A) (A) (Hz)

2500 278 3.00 0 40 2.3

2472 264 2.80 0.5 40 3.0

2458 249 2.75 0.9 40 3.6

2448 234 2.70 1.3 39 4.1

2438 217 2.70 1.6 38 4.4

2) Grid connected induction generator

Current (A) Voltage (V) Power (W) Speed (rpm) Frequency (Hz) Torque (Nm)

1.60 222.0 0 3037 49 2.4

1.75 222.3 40 3052 49 2.8

1.85 222.1 80 3063 49 2.8

2.10 222.3 160 3078 49 3.3

2.35 222.2 220 3098 49 3.7


Calculations

1. Self Excited Induction Generator

Part (a)

No load characteristics for varying capacitances and constant prime mover speed

(i) Plot of Line Voltage Vs Magnetizing Current

Line Voltage Vs Magnetizing Current


300

280

260

240

220
Line Voltage (V)

200

180

160

140

120

100
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

Magnetizing Current (A)


(ii) Plot of Line Voltage Vs Capacitance

Line Voltage Vs Capacitance


300

280

260

240

220
Line Voltage (V)

200

180

160

140

120

100
50.5 52.5 54.5 56.5 58.5 60.5 62.5 64.5 66.5 68.5 70.5

Capacitance (μF)
Using the above graphs, following values can be calculated.

(i) Capacitance required to obtain the rated voltage of 240 V at 2500 rpm is;

68 µF

(ii) Capacitance required to obtain the rated voltage of 240 V at the rated frequency of 50
Hz. Take this capacitance as C0.

Ic = VCω

E
Im =
ωL m

Take, Ic = Im

Im = VC0ω

By the graph, Im = 2.175 A

Im 2.175
∴ C0 = = F
Vω 240×2π×50

C0 = 28.85 µF
Part (b)

No load characteristics for varying prime mover speed and constant capacitance

(i) Plot of Voltage Vs Speed

Voltage Vs Speed
260

240

220

200
Voltage (V)

180

160

140

120

100
2300 2320 2340 2360 2380 2400 2420 2440 2460 2480 2500

Speed (rpm)
(ii) Plot of Frequency Vs Speed

Frequency Vs Speed
41

40

39
Frequency (Hz)

38

37

36

35
2300 2320 2340 2360 2380 2400 2420 2440 2460 2480 2500

Speed (rpm)
(iii) Plot of Magnetizing Current Vs Speed

Magnetizing Current Vs Speed


2.4

2.2

2
Magnetizing Current (A)

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1
2300 2320 2340 2360 2380 2400 2420 2440 2460 2480 2500

Speed (rpm)
Part (c)

Performance of loaded generator with constant speed

(i) Plot of Voltage Vs Load Current

Voltage Vs Load Current


290

280

270

260
Voltage (V)

250

240

230

220

210
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Load Current (A)


(ii) Plot of Frequency Vs Load Current

Frequency Vs Load Current


45

40

35

30
Frequency (Hz)

25

20

15

10

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Load Current (A)


(iii) Plot of Generator Current Vs Load Current

Generator Current Vs Load Current


3.1

3.05

3
Generator Current (A)

2.95

2.9

2.85

2.8
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Load Current (A)


Part (d)

Performance of the loaded generator without speed regulation

(i) Plot of Voltage Vs Load Current

Voltage Vs Load Current


300

280

260

240

220
Voltage (V)

200

180

160

140

120

100
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Load Current (A)


(ii) Plot of Frequency Vs Load Current

Frequency Vs Load Current


41

(c)
40

39

38
Frequency (Hz)

37

(d)

36

35

34

33
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2

Load Current (A)


Plot of Torque Vs Speed of Prime Mover

Torque Vs Speed
6

4
Torque (Nm)

0
2430 2436 2442 2448 2454 2460 2466 2472 2478 2484 2490 2496 2502

Speed (rpm)
2. Grid Connected Induction Generator

(i) Plot of Power Output Vs Speed

Power Output Vs Speed


250

200

150
Power Output (W)

100

50

0
3035 3045 3055 3065 3075 3085 3095

Speed (rpm)
(ii) Plot of Line Current Vs Speed

Line Current Vs Speed


2.6

2.4

2.2

2
Line Current (A)

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1
3035 3045 3055 3065 3075 3085 3095

Speed (rpm)
Calculation of Efficiency and Power Factor

Output Power
Efficiency =
Input Power

Input Power = τ×ω

Output Power = Wattmeter Reading

E.g. By the data obtained from the observations;

τ = 2.8 Nm ω = 3052 rpm W = 40 W

3052 × 2π
Input Power = 2.8 × W = 894.89 W
60

40
∴ Efficiency = × 100% = 4.47%
894.89

Real Power
Power Factor =
Apparent Power

Real Power = Wattmeter Reading

Apparent Power = VI

E.g. By the data obtained from the observations;

V = 222.3 V I = 1.75 A W = 40 W

40
∴ Power Factor = = 0.10
222.3 × 1.75

Speed (rpm) Efficiency (%) Power Factor

3037 0 0

3052 4.47 0.10

3063 8.91 0.19

3078 15.04 0.34

3098 18.33 0.42


(iii) Plot of Efficiency Vs Speed

Efficiency Vs Speed
25

20

15
Efficiency %

10

0
3035 3045 3055 3065 3075 3085 3095

Speed (rpm)
(iv) Plot of Power Factor Vs Speed

Power Factor Vs Speed


0.6

0.5

0.4
Power Factor

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
3035 3045 3055 3065 3075 3085 3095

Speed (rpm)
Discussion

 Reasons for the no-load test to be designed to result in a lower frequency than the rated
frequency of 50 Hz;

The Induction generator normally runs on negative slip. This is because its rotor runs
faster than the synchronous speed of the equivalent induction motor.

During the no-load test, there will be no active power output. The slip of the generator
will be zero or a positive value under this condition. Therefore, in order to achieve a positive
slip, the no-load test is designed to result in a lower frequency than 50 Hz.

 The cause for variations of the voltage and current waveforms of the generator when
loading;

In the case of an induction motor, the motor speed is decreased when the load is
increased. But in an induction generator, the power output increases as the load increases, which
in turn increases the speed. Therefore, as the load on an induction generator changes, the speed
of the generator changes with it. This causes the current and voltage output to change.

 The importance of induction generators in power generation in Sri Lanka

Induction generators can be used in wind turbines and micro hydro installations due to
their ability to produce useful power at varying rotor speeds. It is especially useful in wind
power generating stations where the speed is always a variable factor. Induction generators are
not suitable for high power applications.

Induction generators are mechanically and electrically simpler than other generator
types. They are also more rugged, requiring no brushes or commutations. Other advantages of
the induction generator are; it is cheaper, reliable in service, light weight, does not require
routine maintenance. Therefore, induction generators are ideal for use in remotely located mini
hydro plants and wind power generation stations.

Self Excited Induction Generators (SEIG) are very useful in isolated power generation
because it can easily handle dynamic loads.
 Discussion about the above plotted graphs;

1. Self Excited Induction Generator

a) No Load characteristics for varying capacitance and constant prime mover speed.

i. Line Voltage Vs Magnetizing Current

Increase in Line Voltage decreases with increasing Magnetizing Current at constant


E
speed according to equation; Im =
ωL m

ii. Line Voltage Vs Capacitance

Line Voltage increases with the Capacitance. But the curve tends to saturate at higher
values of capacitance.

b) No Load characteristic for varying prime mover speed and constant capacitance.

i. Voltage Vs Speed

Voltage increases with the Speed in a nearly linear manner.

ii. Frequency Vs Speed

Frequency increases with the Speed in a nearly linear manner.

iii. Magnetizing Current Vs Speed

Magnetizing Current also increases with the Speed.

c) Performance of loaded generator with constant speed.

i. Voltage Vs Load Current

The Voltage decreases as the Load Current increases. The curve is nearly linear.

ii. Frequency Vs Load Current

Frequency remains constant as load current increases. Therefore, it can be concluded that
the frequency does not depend on load current at constant speed.

iii. Generator Current Vs Load Current

Graph does not indicate a clear relationship between these two parameters.
d) Performance of the loaded generator without speed regulation.

i. Voltage Vs Load Current

Voltage decreases with increasing Load Current. The curve is nearly linear.

ii. Frequency Vs Load Current

Frequency is almost constant for low values of load current, but decreases rapidly for
higher values of load current. These characteristics are shown when there is no speed regulation.

Torque Vs Speed

Torque decreases with increasing speed in a nearly linear manner.

2. Grid connected Induction Generator

i. Power Output Vs Speed

Power Output increases with increasing Speed in a linear manner.

ii. Line Current Vs Speed

Line Current increases with Speed in a nearly linear manner.

iii. Efficiency Vs Speed

Efficiency increases with Speed.

iv. Power Factor Vs Speed

Power factor increases with increasing Speed in a nearly linear manner.