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EE303

INDUCTION GENERATOR

Instructed By: Ms. P.M.A.U. Karunapala Name : G.R. Raban

Index Number : 070384P
Field : EE
Group :8
Date of Performance : 17/11/2009
Date of Submission : 08/12/2009
OBSERVATIONS

NAME : G. R. Raban
INDEX NO. : 070384P
GROUP :8
FIELD : EE
PRACTICAL : Induction Generator
DATE OF PERFORMANCE : 17 – 11 – 2009
INSTRUCTED BY : Ms. P. M. A. U. Karunapala

1) Self-excited induction generator

a) No load characteristics for varying capacitances and constant prime mover speed

50.7 174.8 1.30 40

b) No load characteristics for varying prime mover speed and constant capacitance

Capacitance = 60.7 µF

Speed = 2500 rpm

Capacitance = 71.2 µF

Voltage (V) Gen. Current Load Current Frequency (Hz) Torque (Nm)
(A) (A)

238 3.05 1.75 40 4.9

d) Performance of the loaded generator without speed regulation

No load speed = 2500 rpm

Speed (rpm) Voltage (V) Gen. Current Load Current Frequency Torque (Nm)
(A) (A) (Hz)

2) Grid connected induction generator

Current (A) Voltage (V) Power (W) Speed (rpm) Frequency (Hz) Torque (Nm)

Calculations

1. Self Excited Induction Generator

Part (a)

No load characteristics for varying capacitances and constant prime mover speed

Line Voltage Vs Magnetizing Current

300

280

260

240

220
Line Voltage (V)

200

180

160

140

120

100
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

Magnetizing Current (A)

(ii) Plot of Line Voltage Vs Capacitance

Line Voltage Vs Capacitance

300

280

260

240

220
Line Voltage (V)

200

180

160

140

120

100
50.5 52.5 54.5 56.5 58.5 60.5 62.5 64.5 66.5 68.5 70.5

Capacitance (μF)
Using the above graphs, following values can be calculated.

(i) Capacitance required to obtain the rated voltage of 240 V at 2500 rpm is;

68 µF

(ii) Capacitance required to obtain the rated voltage of 240 V at the rated frequency of 50
Hz. Take this capacitance as C0.

Ic = VCω

E
Im =
ωL m

Take, Ic = Im

Im = VC0ω

By the graph, Im = 2.175 A

Im 2.175
∴ C0 = = F
Vω 240×2π×50

C0 = 28.85 µF
Part (b)

No load characteristics for varying prime mover speed and constant capacitance

(i) Plot of Voltage Vs Speed

Voltage Vs Speed
260

240

220

200
Voltage (V)

180

160

140

120

100
2300 2320 2340 2360 2380 2400 2420 2440 2460 2480 2500

Speed (rpm)
(ii) Plot of Frequency Vs Speed

Frequency Vs Speed
41

40

39
Frequency (Hz)

38

37

36

35
2300 2320 2340 2360 2380 2400 2420 2440 2460 2480 2500

Speed (rpm)
(iii) Plot of Magnetizing Current Vs Speed

Magnetizing Current Vs Speed

2.4

2.2

2
Magnetizing Current (A)

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1
2300 2320 2340 2360 2380 2400 2420 2440 2460 2480 2500

Speed (rpm)
Part (c)

(i) Plot of Voltage Vs Load Current

290

280

270

260
Voltage (V)

250

240

230

220

210
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

(ii) Plot of Frequency Vs Load Current

45

40

35

30
Frequency (Hz)

25

20

15

10

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

(iii) Plot of Generator Current Vs Load Current

3.1

3.05

3
Generator Current (A)

2.95

2.9

2.85

2.8
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Part (d)

(i) Plot of Voltage Vs Load Current

300

280

260

240

220
Voltage (V)

200

180

160

140

120

100
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

(ii) Plot of Frequency Vs Load Current

41

(c)
40

39

38
Frequency (Hz)

37

(d)

36

35

34

33
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2

Plot of Torque Vs Speed of Prime Mover

Torque Vs Speed
6

4
Torque (Nm)

0
2430 2436 2442 2448 2454 2460 2466 2472 2478 2484 2490 2496 2502

Speed (rpm)
2. Grid Connected Induction Generator

Power Output Vs Speed

250

200

150
Power Output (W)

100

50

0
3035 3045 3055 3065 3075 3085 3095

Speed (rpm)
(ii) Plot of Line Current Vs Speed

Line Current Vs Speed

2.6

2.4

2.2

2
Line Current (A)

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1
3035 3045 3055 3065 3075 3085 3095

Speed (rpm)
Calculation of Efficiency and Power Factor

Output Power
Efficiency =
Input Power

τ = 2.8 Nm ω = 3052 rpm W = 40 W

3052 × 2π
Input Power = 2.8 × W = 894.89 W
60

40
∴ Efficiency = × 100% = 4.47%
894.89

Real Power
Power Factor =
Apparent Power

Apparent Power = VI

E.g. By the data obtained from the observations;

V = 222.3 V I = 1.75 A W = 40 W

40
∴ Power Factor = = 0.10
222.3 × 1.75

3037 0 0

3098 18.33 0.42

(iii) Plot of Efficiency Vs Speed

Efficiency Vs Speed
25

20

15
Efficiency %

10

0
3035 3045 3055 3065 3075 3085 3095

Speed (rpm)
(iv) Plot of Power Factor Vs Speed

Power Factor Vs Speed

0.6

0.5

0.4
Power Factor

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
3035 3045 3055 3065 3075 3085 3095

Speed (rpm)
Discussion

 Reasons for the no-load test to be designed to result in a lower frequency than the rated
frequency of 50 Hz;

The Induction generator normally runs on negative slip. This is because its rotor runs
faster than the synchronous speed of the equivalent induction motor.

During the no-load test, there will be no active power output. The slip of the generator
will be zero or a positive value under this condition. Therefore, in order to achieve a positive
slip, the no-load test is designed to result in a lower frequency than 50 Hz.

 The cause for variations of the voltage and current waveforms of the generator when

In the case of an induction motor, the motor speed is decreased when the load is
increased. But in an induction generator, the power output increases as the load increases, which
in turn increases the speed. Therefore, as the load on an induction generator changes, the speed
of the generator changes with it. This causes the current and voltage output to change.

 The importance of induction generators in power generation in Sri Lanka

Induction generators can be used in wind turbines and micro hydro installations due to
their ability to produce useful power at varying rotor speeds. It is especially useful in wind
power generating stations where the speed is always a variable factor. Induction generators are
not suitable for high power applications.

Induction generators are mechanically and electrically simpler than other generator
types. They are also more rugged, requiring no brushes or commutations. Other advantages of
the induction generator are; it is cheaper, reliable in service, light weight, does not require
routine maintenance. Therefore, induction generators are ideal for use in remotely located mini
hydro plants and wind power generation stations.

Self Excited Induction Generators (SEIG) are very useful in isolated power generation
because it can easily handle dynamic loads.
 Discussion about the above plotted graphs;

1. Self Excited Induction Generator

a) No Load characteristics for varying capacitance and constant prime mover speed.

Increase in Line Voltage decreases with increasing Magnetizing Current at constant

E
speed according to equation; Im =
ωL m

ii. Line Voltage Vs Capacitance

Line Voltage increases with the Capacitance. But the curve tends to saturate at higher
values of capacitance.

b) No Load characteristic for varying prime mover speed and constant capacitance.

i. Voltage Vs Speed

c) Performance of loaded generator with constant speed.

The Voltage decreases as the Load Current increases. The curve is nearly linear.

Frequency remains constant as load current increases. Therefore, it can be concluded that
the frequency does not depend on load current at constant speed.

iii. Generator Current Vs Load Current

Graph does not indicate a clear relationship between these two parameters.
d) Performance of the loaded generator without speed regulation.

Voltage decreases with increasing Load Current. The curve is nearly linear.

Frequency is almost constant for low values of load current, but decreases rapidly for
higher values of load current. These characteristics are shown when there is no speed regulation.

Torque Vs Speed