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Wal l Boi l i ng Model i ng and


Model Val i dat i on i n
ANSYS CFD
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Th. Frank, C. Lifante, A.D. Burns
Head Funded CFD Development
ANSYS Germany
Thomas.Frank@ansys.com
Out l i ne
Introduction
Wall boiling modeling in
ANSYS CFD
Bartolomej testcase (PWR)
Lee testcase (BWR)
Wall boiling with conjugate
heat transfer
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Wall boiling in fuel
assemblies
Summary & Outlook
Courtesy by E. Krepper (FZD)
2
I nt r oduc t i on Tow ar ds CFD f or Fl ow s
t hr ough Nuc l ear Fuel Assembl i es
Prediction of boiling flow through fuel assemblies
Optimization of fuel assembly and spacer grid design
Replacement/supplementation of very expensive experiments Replacement/supplementation of very expensive experiments
by knowledge obtained from CFD simulations

Direct contact
condenser
Pressurizer
Void Fraction
Measurement
Water steam
seperator
Circulation
pump
10MW
5MW High pressure
coolers
Feed
To
con-
enser
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P
s 9,5MW
el.
Natural Circulation
Loop
Control
valve
Control
valve
Measurement
Device
P s 15 MW el.
Downcomer
PWR
Test Vessel
p s 185 bar
p s 110 bar
BWR
Test Vessel
water
CFD Si mul at i on f or Fuel
Assembl i es i n Nuc l ear Reac t or s
Material Properties
Wall Boiling &
Bulk Condensation
Conjugate Heat
Transfer (CHT)
Turbulence
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Multiphase Flow
Modeling
FSI: Stresses &
Deformations
Validation against
Experiments
3
CFD Si mul at i on f or Fuel
Assembl i es i n Nuc l ear Reac t or s
Material Properties
Wall Boiling &
Bulk Condensation
Conjugate Heat
Transfer (CHT)
Turbulence
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Multiphase Flow
Modeling
FSI: Stresses &
Deformations
Validation against
Experiments
Wal l Boi l i ng i n Fuel Assembl i es
The applications:
PWR: nuclear reactor safety scenarios
BWR: normal regime of operation BWR: normal regime of operation
Model history:
Original mechanistic model developed
by Podowski et al. @ RPI
1
st
prototype for ANSYS CFX in
EC project ECORA
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Courtesy by E. Krepper (FZD)
EC project ECORA
Release of the model in ANSYS CFX 12.0
RPI wall boiling model available as
UDF for ANSYS Fluent 12.0
4
The RPI Wal l Boi l i ng Model
Why special modeling for wall boiling?
For subcooled flows with superheated walls, standard
thermal phase change models for bulk boiling/condensation thermal phase change models for bulk boiling/condensation
will underpredict mass transfer rates
Accounts for steam bubble growth on nucleation sites and
bubble departure
Mechanistic model for wall driven boiling
Model outline:
M h i ti ll h t fl litti
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Mechanistic wall heat flux splitting
convective heat transfer, evaporation, quenching
Empirical submodels required for closure
Available for different BCs: prescribed T
wall
or q
wall
, CHT walls
Activated per boundary patch with individual T
wall
or q
wall
Mul t i phase Fl ow Regi mes f or
Boi l i ng Wat er Fl ow
subcooled
flow
bubbly
flow
slug flow
annular
flow
spray
flow
ONB OSB
T
wall temperature
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
T
sat
x
mean fluid
temperature
subcooled
boiling
nucleate boiling
(saturated boiling)
5
Fl ow s w i t h Subc ool ed Boi l i ng (DNB)
RPI -Wal l Boi l i ng Model
E Q F Wall
q q q q + + =
Mechanistic wall heat partioning model:
Q
convective heat flux
1
( )
F F W L
q A h T T =
evaporation heat flux
E G L
q m (h h ) =
quenching heat flux
2
( )
Q Q W L
q A h T T =
y
1
A
2
A
2
A
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
u
t
*
m
*
m
1 2 2
Quenching heat
flux
*
m
Convective heat
flux
Quenching heat flux
Gr i d dependent c or r el at i ons
( ) A h T T
1-D
2
( )
Q Q L W
q A h T T =
y
T
L
1-D approach
T
L
first grid node
with refining
t

L PL L W
Q
C t
f h 2 =
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
CFD
T
Sat
T
W
T
L
grid
6
Gr i d dependent c or r el at i ons
Evaporation heat flux
d
W
bubble departure diameter
E G L
q m (h h ) =
| | | |
| |
K
min 1.4 , 0.6 mm e p
45
K
x
K
S L
W
T
d m
T
m
| |

=
| `
|
\ . )
3
6
W
G
m
d
f n
t
=
n nucleation site density per m
f bubble departure frequency
E G L
q ( )
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tends to film boiling on fine grids (due to T
L
T
W
)
small quenching & overestimated evaporation on fine grids
wrong heat flux partitioning
Revi si t ed RPI Boi l i ng Model
Grid invariance of the model required
determine T
L
from temperature wall function
from definition:
( ) ( 1/ )
Pr 2.12 ln( ) T y e y e |
+ + I + I
( = + +

(Kader, 1981)
L
y u
y
t

+
A
=
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from definition:
PL
W L
W
c u
T (T T )
q
+

=

evaluating T
+
at 2 different locations
7
Revi si t ed RPI Boi l i ng Model
PL
W L
W y first cell y first cell
c u
q (T T )
T
+ +
+ = =

=
heat flux in boundary layer identical at both locations
W, y first cell y first cell
y first cell
T
+
+ = =
=
const y
) T (T
T
) T (T
+
=
+
heat fluxes are equal
PL
W L
W, y const y const
y const
c u
q (T T )
T
+ +
+
+ = =
=

=
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
additional factor in correlations for
assumption of y
+
const
=250; model parameter
cell first y
L W
cell first y
const y
const y
L W
) T (T
T
) T (T
= +
=
=
+
+
+
=
, , W F Q
d q q
RPI -Wal l Boi l i ng Model
Submodel s f or Model Cl osur e
Submodels for closure of RPI wall boiling model:
Nucleation site density: Lemmert & Chawla , User Defined
Bubble departure diameter:
Tolubinski & Kostanchuk, Unal, Fritz, User Defined
Bubble detachment frequency:
Terminal rise velocity over Departure Diameter, User Defined
Bubble waiting time:
Proportional to Detachment Period, User Defined
Quenching heat transfer: Del Valle & Kenning, User Defined
Turbulent Wall Function for liquid convective heat transfer coefficient
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Turbulent Wall Function for liquid convective heat transfer coefficient
Correlation for bulk flow mean bubble diameter required:
e.g. Kurul & Podowski correlation via CCL
Supported combination of wall boiling & CHT in the solid
GGI & 1:1 solid-fluid interfaces
8
RPI Wal l Boi l i ng Model i n t he
ANSYS CFX-Pr e 12.0 GUI
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The Bar t ol omej et al .
Test c ase (1967,1982)
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9
The Bar t ol omej Test Case
Variable Value
R = 7.7 mm
P 4.5MPa
R 7.7 mm
G
in
900 kg/(s m2)
Z
=

2

m
q
=
0
.
5
7
M
W
/
m
2
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0.57MW/m2
Subcooling 58.2 K
q
G
in
=900 kg/(s m
2
)
Numer i c al Gr i ds
Validation on mesh hierarchy with regular
refinement factor of 4 (2d meshes)
Grid Grid1 Grid2 Grid3
# Nodes
(uniform)
20x150 40x300 80x600
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Max y
+
264 133 69
t [s] 10
-2
10
-3
5x10
-4
10
Mul t i phase Fl ow Model
Steam-Water 2-phase flow:
Water: continuous phase
Water Steam: disperse bubbles (particle model)
Material properties (EOS):
IAPWS-IF97 water - water steam property tables
Modified law for interfacial area
Accounting for higher volume fraction of the steam phase
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Bubble bulk diameter
Bubble diameter dependent on local fluid temperature
(Kurul-Podowski)
I nt er -Phase Mass, Moment um and
Ener gy Tr ansf er
Mass transfer model
CFX Thermal Phase Change Model
Momentum transfer models
Grace drag
FAD turbulent dispersion force
Tomiyama lift force
Wall lubrication force (none, Antal, Tomiyama)
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Heat transfer models
Steam phase set to local saturation temperature
Two resistance model
Ranz Marshall correlation for bubble heat transfer
11
Val i dat i on f or Test Case of
Bar t ol omej et al . (1967, 1982)
R = 7.7 mm
Z
=

2

m
q
=
0
.
5
7
M
W
/
m
2
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Variable Value
P 4.5MPa
Subcooling 58.2 K
G
in
=900 kg/(s m
2
)
Gr i d1
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12
Gr i d 2
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Gr i d 3
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13
Compar i son t o Ex per i ment al Dat a
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Tot al Gas Cont ent
Grid Gas Content Grid Gas Content
Grid1 0.0894
Grid2 0.0892
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Grid3 0.0997
14
Compar i son t o Ex per i ment al Dat a
- Par amet er & Model Var i at i on
Influence of wall heat flux: Influence of wall lubrication force model:
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The Lee et al . Test c ase
(I CONE-16, 2008)
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15
Lee et al . (2008) Test c ase
Axially symmetric circular annulus
Radial dimensions
Inner radius of outer tube: R = 18 75 mm
Outlet
R
C
R
R
0
Measuring
Plane
(for experimental
r
Inner radius of outer tube: R = 18.75 mm
Outer radius of inner tube: R
0
= 9.5 mm
Core radius: R
C
= 3/4 R
0
Annulus width: 9.25 mm
Axial dimensions
Total heating section height: L
T
= 1670 mm
Distance between inlet and measuring plane:
L
M
= 1610 mm
L
M
L
T
Adiabatic Wall
Heated Wall
(for experimental
and numerical
Results)
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 29 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
M
Radial Position: R
P
Dimensionless, radial distance from inner tube
(R
P
= 0) to outer tube (R
P
= 1) across the
annulus:
Inlet
( )
( )
0
0
R R
R r
R
P

=
T
Outer Tube
Annulus
Inner Tube
(Heating Rod)
z
Axis
Geomet r y and Mesh
Geometry & Mesh generation:
Figure 1: 25 segment of the geometry
Figure 4: Generated one layer mesh
Figure 1: 25 segment of the geometry
Core
Shell
Annulus
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Figure 2: 1 simulated segment of the geometry
Figure 3: 1 segment with one-layer mesh example
symmetry
symmetry
symmetry
symmetry
16
Boundar y Condi t i ons
Adiabatic Wall
Liquid: no slip
Gas: free slip O tl t
WATER
+STEAM
Gas: free slip
Heated Wall / GGI
Liquid: no slip
Gas: free slip
Fluid Domain
Inlet
Outlet
HEAT
SUBCOOLED
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Gas: free slip
Thermal BC:
HFO specified heat flux at wall
CHT heat source in core / heat transfer in solid
RPI wall boiling model
WATER
CFD Set up of t he Lee et al .
Test c ase
1. Material properties:
IAPWS IF97 water-water steam property tables
2 Li id Ph 2. Liquid Phase:
SST turbulence model
Thermal Energy equation
3. Gaseous Phase:
Particle model
Kurul & Podowski type bulk bubble diameter
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Kurul & Podowski type bulk bubble diameter
Grace drag, Tomiyama lift, FAD turb. disp. force
0-eq. disperse phase turbulence model
Sato bubble enhanced turbulence model
T
Steam
=T
Sat
17
CFD Set up of t he Lee et al .
Test c ase (c ont .)
4. Interfacial Heat & Mass Transfer
RPI wall boiling model
B lk b ili d l Bulk boiling model
Two resistance interfacial heat transfer model
Water: Ranz Marshall
Steam: zero resistance
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Mesh Hi er ar c hy
Mesh Name Grid 01
(coarse)
Grid 02
(medium)
Grid 03
(fine)
Domains ( 1 = HFO, 2 = CHT ) * 1 2 1 2 1 2
No. of Nodes
1: 6342
2: 12684
1: 24682
2: 49364
1: 97362
2: 194724
No. of Elements
(hexahedra)
1: 20x150
2: 40x150
1: 40x300
2: 80x300
1: 80x600
2: 160x600
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 34 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
y
+
max
(at 1
st
node near wall)
Set16 ~84 ~41 ~24
Set25 ~88 ~45 ~25
Tstep t [s]
Set16 0.001 0.002 0.0002
Set25 0.1 0.0125 0.0002
18
Sel ec t i on of Ex t r eme/Li mi t i ng
Test c ase Condi t i ons
Concentrating on 2 (out of 12) datasets:
Parameter comparison
Set 25
(least of all steam)
Set 16
(most of all steam)
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Set No.*
q [kW m^-2] G [kg m^-2s] T
in
[C] P
in
[kPa]
16 320.4 718.8 83.8 121.1
25 220.0 1057.2 90.1 134.4
Requi r ed Par amet er Modi f i c at i ons
i n Compar i son t o PWR Condi t i ons
Found that submodels need modifications for BWR
conditions (see also Tu&Yeoh, Anglart et al., Koncar):
1. Bulk bubble diameter (BBD)
Kurul & Podowski d
B,max
~1.5mm @ wall
modified d
B
law d
B,max
~4.0mm @ wall
2. Bubble departure diameter (BDD)
Tolubinski & Kostanchuk d
W
~0.5mm max.
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const. bubble dept. diam. d
W
=1mm - 3mm
3. A
2
- Wall area fraction influenced by steam bubbles
default 0.5
increased up to 2.0
19
BBD Modi f i c at i on
Over vi ew
d [mm] d [mm] T [K] T [K] d
B1
[mm] d
B2
[mm] T
sub1
[K] T
sub2
[K]
K&P 0.10 2.0 13.5 -5.0
dbmod01 0.15 4.0 13.5 -5.0
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dbmod02 0.15 4.0 13.5 5.0
dbmod03 0.15 4.0 25.0 5.0
Bulk Bubble Diameter Law: Modification 01 (dbmod01)
BBD Modi f i c at i on
dbmod01
1,00
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
3,50
4,00
4,50
d
B

[
m
m
]
d
B2
d
B1
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0,00
0,50
,
-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
T
sub
[K]
K&P K&P, smoothed Lee_dbmod01 Lee_dbmod01, smoothed
T
sub2
T
sub1
20
BBD Modi f i c at i on
dbmod02
Bulk Bubble Diameter Law: Modification 02 (dbmod02)
1,00
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
3,50
4,00
4,50
d
B

[
m
m
]
d
B2
d
B1
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 39 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
0,00
0,50
,
-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
T
sub
[K]
K&P K&P, smoothed Lee_dbmod02 Lee_dbmod02, smoothed
T
sub2
T
sub1
BBD Modi f i c at i on
dbmod03
Bulk Bubble Diameter Law: Modification 03 (dbmod03)
4 50
d
B2
d
B1
1,00
1,50
2,00
2,50
3,00
3,50
4,00
4,50
d
B

[
m
m
]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 40 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
T
sub2
T
sub1
0,00
0,50
-20 -10 0 10 20 30 40
T
sub
[K]
K&P K&P, smoothed Lee_dbmod03 Lee_dbmod03, smoothed
21
BBD & BDD Modi f i c at i ons
Test Mat r i x Over vi ew
Trying to systematically increase Bubble Departure
Diameter to investigate its influence on Heat Flux to
Vapor (Q
V
) profile
Test series with increasing BDD starting from d
W.max
0.5 mm
1 mm; 2 mm; 3 mm
T&K * 4.0
BDD
Tolubinsky & Kostanchuk
BDD User defined
d
W
[mm]
K&P
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K&P yes -
bbdmod01 - 1 = const.
bbdmod02 - 2 = const.
bbdmod03 - 3 = const.
BBD Modi f i c at i on / Set 25:
Gas Vol ume Fr ac t i on @z = 1610 [ mm]
0 30
Set25 : Bulk Diam. Mod. Comparison: Gas Volume Fraction (r
G
)
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
r
G
[

]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 42 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
0.00
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Radial Position (R
p
) [ ]
G3_K&P G3_dbmod01 G3_dbmod02
G3_dbmod03 Experimental Data
22
BDD Modi f i c at i on / Set 25:
Gas Vol ume Fr ac t i on @z = 1610 [ mm]
Set25 Bubble Dept. Diam. Mod. Comparison: Gas Volume Fraction (r
G
)
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
r
G
[

]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 43 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
0.00
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Radial Position (R
p
) [ ]
G3_K&P G3_dbmod02_bddmod01 G3_dbmod02_bddmod02
G3_dbmod02_bddmod03 Experimental Data
BDD Modi f i c at i on / Set 25:
Heat Fl ux t o Vapor @Heat ed Wal l
Q
V.max
30 kW/m
2
!
Decreasing HFtV over pipe length indicates some limiter effect
Set25 Bubble Dept. Diam. Mod. Comparison: Heat Flux to Vapor (Q
V
)
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
Q
V
[
W

m
^
-
2
]
V.max
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 44 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
-5000
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
z [m]
G3_K&P G3_dbmod02_bddmod01
G3_dbmod02_bddmod02 G3_dbmod02_bddmod03
23
BDD Modi f i c at i on: Bubbl e I nf l uenc ed
Ar ea Fr ac t i on @Heat ed Wal l
A
2F
limiter becomes dominating factor with increased d
W
raising this limitation
Set25 Bubble Dept. Diam. Mod.: Bubble Influenced Area Fraction (A
2F
)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
A
2
F
[

]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 45 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
0.0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
z [m]
G3_K&P G3_dbmod02_bddmod01
G3_dbmod02_bddmod02 G3_dbmod02_bddmod03
The Lee et al . Test c ase
(I CONE-16, 2008)
- Fi nal Compar i son -
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24
A
2F
Li mi t er Modi f i c at i on: Resul t s Set 25,
Gas Vol ume Fr ac t i on @z=1610[ mm]
Set25 A
2F
Mod Comparison:
Gas Volume Fraction (r
G
) (
G
)
0 00
0,05
0,10
0,15
0,20
0,25
0,30
0,35
0,40
0,45
r
G

[

]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 47 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
0,00
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1
Radial Position (R
p
) [ ]
G3_K&P G3_dbmod02_bddmod01_A2F02
G3_dbmod02_bddmod02_A2F02 G3_dbmod02_bddmod03_A2F02
Experimental Data
A
2F
Li mi t er Modi f i c at i on: Resul t s Set 25,
Li qui d Vel oc i t y @z = 1610 [ mm]
Set25 A
2F
Mod Comparison:
Liquid Velocity (v
L
) q y (
L
)
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4
v
L

[
m

s
^
-
1
]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 48 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
0
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1
Radial Position (R
p
) [ ]
G3_K&P G3_dbmod02_bddmod01_A2F02
G3_dbmod02_bddmod02_A2F02 G3_dbmod02_bddmod03_A2F02
Experimental Data
25
A
2F
Li mi t er Modi f i c at i on: Resul t s Set 25,
Gas Vel oc i t y @z = 1610 [ mm]
Set25 A
2F
Mod Comparison:
Gas Velocity (v
G
) y (
G
)
0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4
1,6
v
G

[
m

s
^
-
1
]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 49 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
0
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1
Radial Position (Rp) [ ]
G3_K&P G3_dbmod02_bddmod01_A2F02
G3_dbmod02_bddmod02_A2F02 G3_dbmod02_bddmod03_A2F02
Experimental Data
Gr i d I ndependenc y: Resul t s Set 25,
Gas Vol ume Fr ac t i on @z = 1610 [ mm]
Set25 New Grid Comparison:
Gas Volume Fraction (r
G
)
0 40
0,05
0,10
0,15
0,20
0,25
0,30
0,35
0,40
r
G

[

]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 50 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
0,00
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1
Radial Position (R
p
) [ ]
G1_dbmod02_bddmod02_A2F02 G2_dbmod02_bddmod02_A2F02
G3_dbmod02_bddmod02_A2F02 G4_dbmod02_bddmod02_A2F02
Experimental Data
26
A
2F
Li mi t er Modi f i c at i on: Resul t s Set 25,
I nt er f ac i al Ar ea Densi t y @z=1610[ mm]
Set25 A2F Mod Comparison:
Interfacial Area Density (a
i
)
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 1
a
i

[
m
^
-
1
]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 51 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1
Radial Position (R
p
) [ ]
G3_K&P G3_dbmod02_bddmod01_A2F02
G3_dbmod02_bddmod02_A2F02 G3_dbmod02_bddmod03_A2F02
Experimental Data
A
2F
Li mi t er Modi f i c at i on: Resul t s Set 25,
Bul k Bubbl e Di amet er @z=1610[ mm]
Set25 A
2F
Mod Comparison:
Bubble Bulk Diameter (d
B
)
0
0,0005
0,001
0,0015
0,002
0,0025
0,003
0,0035
0,004
d
B

[
m
]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 52 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1
Radial Position (R
p
) [ ]
G3_K&P G3_dbmod02_bddmod01_A2F02
G3_dbmod02_bddmod02_A2F02 G3_dbmod02_bddmod03_A2F02
Experimental Data
27
The Lee et al . Test c ase
(I CONE-16, 2008)
- Conj ugat e Heat
Tr ansf er -
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Heat Sour c e i n Sol i d Mat er i al &
Conj ugat e Heat Tr ansf er Pr edi c t i on
HFO (Heat Flux Only): Fluid Domain (Annulus) area specific heat flux boundary condition #
Outlet
CHT (Conjugated Heat Transfer): Fluid Domain (Annulus) + Solid Domain (Non-Heated Rod Shell) +
+ Solid Domain (Heated Rod Core) volume specific heat source #
Fluid Domain
Inlet
Outlet
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 54 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Fluid Domain
Inlet
Outlet
Solid
Domain
Solid Domain #
28
The RPI Wal l Boi l i ng Model :
Lee et al . Test c ase w i t h CHT
Specific energy
source in solid
material, Set25 ate a , Set 5
(equiv. to q
Wall
):
E
Core
=8.2310
7
[W/m
3
]
Temperature
and Steam VF
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 55 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
and Steam VF
distribution in
vertical plane
The RPI Wal l Boi l i ng Model :
Lee et al . Test c ase w i t h CHT
Temperature
and Steam VF
distribution d st but o
@ Inlet
Isothermal BC for
solid core bottom
wall:
T
W ll
=T
W t I l t
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 56 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
T
Wall
T
Water, Inlet
29
The RPI Wal l Boi l i ng Model :
Lee et al . Test c ase w i t h CHT
Set25 & CHT: Water temperature monitors Ax
W
=1.5mm, Az=83.5mm,
T | T
L
|
Outlet
T
L
|
z=835mm
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Iterations Iterations
T
L
|
Intlet
The RPI Wal l Boi l i ng Model :
Lee et al . Test c ase w i t h CHT
Set25 & CHT: Averaged water temperature & steam volume fraction
Avg T
L
|
H W ll
Avg. VF|
Outlet
Avg. VF|
Volume
Avg. T
L
|
Hot Wall
Avg. T
L
|
Outlet
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 58 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Avg. VF|
Volume
Avg. T
L
|
Volume
Avg. T
L
|
adiab. Wall
Iterations Iterations
30
The RPI Wal l Boi l i ng Model :
Lee et al . Test c ase w i t h CHT
Set25 & CHT: Grid independence for temperature
distribution @ z=1610[mm]
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Heated Core Fluid Domain
Unheated
Cladding
The RPI Wal l Boi l i ng Model :
Lee et al . Test c ase w i t h CHT
Set25 & CHT: Vapour VF distribution @ z=1610[mm]
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31
The RPI Wal l Boi l i ng Model :
Lee et al . Test c ase w i t h CHT
Set25 & CHT: Water velocity distribution @ z=1610[mm]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 61 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
The RPI Wal l Boi l i ng Model :
Lee et al . Test c ase w i t h CHT
Set25 & CHT: Vapour velocity distribution @ z=1610[mm]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 62 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
32
The RPI Wal l Boi l i ng Model :
Lee et al . Test c ase w i t h CHT
Set25 & CHT: Bulk bubble diameter distribution
@ z=1610[mm]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 63 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
The RPI Wal l Boi l i ng Model :
Lee et al . Test c ase w i t h CHT
Set25 & CHT: IAD distribution @ z=1610[mm]
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 64 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
33
Wal l Boi l i ng i n a 3x 3
Fuel Rod Bundl e
w i t h Per i odi c BCs
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Wal l Boi l i ng i n a 3x 3 Per i odi c
Fuel Rod Bundl e
33 rod periodic section
from a nuclear reactor fuel
assembly with guide vanes assembly with guide vanes
Periodic BCs at all sides
Wall heat flux of
q
wall
= 510
5
W/m
2
Reference Pressure
p = 15.7 MPa
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Water inlet velocity
v
Inlet
=5.0m/s
Water inlet temperature
T
Inlet
= 607K
(= 12K water subcooling)
34
Wal l Boi l i ng i n a 3x 3 Per i odi c
Geomet r y & Meshi ng
Dimensions of flow domain:
Length = 530 mm
Outlet
g
Tube diam. = 9.4 mm
Subchannel width
= 2.6 mm
Heated rod walls
4 x Periodic
Bundle
2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. 67 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary
Heated rod walls
Spacer grid treated as
adiabatic walls
Inlet
Wal l Boi l i ng i n a 3x 3 Per i odi c
Geomet r y & Meshi ng
Geometry preparation in ANSYS Design Modeler
Extraction of periodic fluid
domain
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35
Wal l Boi l i ng i n a 3x 3 Per i odi c
Geomet r y & Meshi ng
Meshing in ANSYS Workbench
Tet/Prism in lower part p
Extruded prism mesh in
upper part
Mesh statistic
Tetra: 1,752,320
Hexa: 838,800
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,
Prism: 2,088,820
Quality
Quality > 0.25
Min Angle > 10 deg
Wal l Boi l i ng i n a 3x 3 Per i odi c
Geomet r y & Meshi ng
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36
Wal l Boi l i ng i n a 3x 3 Per i odi c
Fuel Rod Bundl e
1. Material:
IAPWS IF97 water-water steam property tables
2 Li id Ph 2. Liquid Phase:
BSL RSM turbulence model
Thermal Energy equation
3. Gaseous Phase:
Particle model (Kurul-Podowski model)
Grace drag & non-drag forces
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Grace drag & non drag forces
0-eq. disperse phase turbulence model & Sato
T
Steam
=T
sat
4. Interfacial Heat & Mass Transfer
RPI wall boiling model & bulk boiling model
Wal l Boi l i ng i n a 3x 3 Per i odi c
Fuel Rod Bundl e
Streamlines
& water
velocity in velocity in
horizontal
planes
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37
Wal l Boi l i ng i n a 3x 3 Per i odi c
Fuel Rod Bundl e
Near wall
water
temperature temperature
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Wal l Boi l i ng i n a 3x 3 Per i odi c
Fuel Rod Bundl e
Wall
superheat
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38
Comi ng nex t
ANSYS
Germany
TUD Dept
Karlsruhe
R&D Initiative:
Modeling, Simulation &
Experiments for Boiling
FZ
Dresden/
Rossen-
dorf
TUD, Dept.
Fluid
Mechanics
TUD, Dept.
Nucl. Eng.
TUM, Dept.
Thermo-
dynamics
Inst. of
Technology
(KIT)
Experiments for Boiling
Processes in Fuel
Assemblies of PWR
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TUD
Medical
Faculty
Univ. Appl.
Sciences
Zittau/
Grlitz
Univ.
Bochum,
Dept.
Energy
Systems
Modeling, Simulation & Experiments for
Boiling Processes in Fuel Assemblies of PWR
Ultrafast electron beam X-ray CT of fuel rod bundle in
titanium pipe on TOPFLOW @ FZD:
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Images by courtesy of U. Hampel, FZD
39
Conc l usi ons & Fi nal Remar k s
ANSYS CFD 12.0 provides set of CFD models for boiling
simulation in fuel assemblies
W ll b ili d l lid ti h h d t Wall boiling model validation has shown good agreement
for Bartolomej & Lee testcases
for PWR & BWR flow conditions
Modified RPI wall boiling model delivers almost grid
independent results
Model compatibility with CHT (Conjugate Heat Transfer) in
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solid material
CFD simulation with prescribed volumetric energy
source in the Uranium core of fuel rods
Identification of submodel parameters for PWR & BWR
flow conditions
Fut ur e Wor k
ANSYS follows customer driven CFD software
& model development
Coupling of wall boiling model to
inhomogeneous MUSIG / population balance
account for bubble size distribution changes
Extension of the wall boiling model towards
superheated steam, film boiling, CHF
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Multiphase flow regime transition
Coupling of CFD with Neutron kinetics
Continued & extended model validation
40
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Thank You!