You are on page 1of 110

_____________________________________________

Training Leaders for Community Empowerment


i
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
ii
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Published by the Peoples Development Institute
91 Madasalin Street,
Brgy. Sikatuna Village, 1101
Quezon City, Philippines
Tel. No. (632) 351-7553
Lay-out, photos and artwork by: Ramon T. Ayco, Sr.
of Peoples Development Institute
Set in Times New Roman Txt LT Std, pt. 12
Published in the Philippines
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
iii
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
iv
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
1
_____________________________________________
Workshop:
Promoting the Right
to Adequate Food
Maria Socorro I. Diokno
_____________________________________________
2
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
3
_____________________________________________
Introduction
Description and Training Objectives
The Workshop: Promoting the Right to Adequate Food
is a two and a half-day workshop that aims to strengthen
the capacities of members of the National Food Coalition to
promote the right to adequate food in the country. At the end
of this workshop, participants should be able to:
1) Arrive at a common understanding of human rights in
general, and the right to adequate food, in particular;
2) Apply human rights norms and standards to activities
related to the right to adequate food; and
3) Promote the right to adequate food in the
Philippines.
Ms. Diokno, the facilitator, discussing the objectives of the
workshop.
_____________________________________________
4
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Participants
30 representatives of member organizations of the National
Food Coalition are expected to participate in this Workshop.
Every effort will be taken to ensure that neither sex constitutes
less than 40 percent of the participants.
1
Methodology
The Workshop is built on the principles of applied learning,
which entails learning while doing. Applied learning is
relevant and meaningful in the context of promoting the
right to adequate food because it encourages linking learning
activities to real life active engagement.
1
General Recommendation 23, Political and public life, adopted
by the United Nations Committee on Discrimination against
Women at its sixteenth session, 1997, U N Doc. A/52/38.
Nymia Simbulan, sharing her ideas with colleagues.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
5
_____________________________________________
The Workshop applies human rights principles, by
adopting participant-oriented (not instructor-centered)
methodology. The workshop recognizes that participants
are sources of knowledge, insights and experience (human
dignity), who learn best when they are in control of the
learning process (empowerment), and take responsibility
for their own learning (accountability). The workshop
builds critical analysis and invites creative thinking.
Every opportunity will be given participants to enable
them to apply what they have learned (participation and
transparency) through practical exercises in smaller
groups.
In line with the principles of human rights, at the beginning
of the workshop, participants will be invited to organize
Participatory learning is achieved through group discussions.
_____________________________________________
6
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
themselves into three Host Teams (corresponding to the
two and a half days of the Workshop). Each Host Team
is responsible for managing the conduct of the workshop
for the day. as workshop day manager, the Host Team
is responsible for:
Facilitating all the break activities (group
dynamics, team building activities, ice breakers,
etc.) in between sessions;
Introducing each session and facilitator;
Distributing additional materials, if any;
Providing a synthesis of the days activities;
Opening and closing each day;
Ensuring the presence of the participants at the
workshop; and
Time management.
Excercise ice breakers are a favorite break activity in the workshop.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
7
_____________________________________________
Content and Sessions
The Workshop will discuss
the following topics:
Session 1: Basic Human
Rights defnes human
rights, explains what they
are and what they are not,
describes the sources of
human rights, and examines
the characteristics and
classes of human rights.
Session 2: Recognition of the Right to Adequate
Food in International and Domestic Law discusses
the legal foundations of the right to adequate food in
the Philippines, and describes how the right to adequate
food is explicitly and implicitly recognized in domestic
and international law.
Session 3: Normative Content of the Right to Adequate
Food defnes the right to adequate food, identifes its normative
content, provides the situational context in relation to its
normative elements, and discusses the factors that infuence
the normative elements of the right to adequate food.
Ms. Diokno discussing the contents
and sessions of the workshop.
_____________________________________________
8
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Session 4: Obligations Arising from the Right to
Adequate Food distinguishes obligations of conduct
from obligations of result and presents the nature and
levels of obligations arising from the right to adequate
food.
Session 5: Violations of the Right to Adequate Food
identifes acts and omissions that constitute violations
of the right to adequate food and provides guidelines to
enable participants to determine whether certain acts or
omissions constitute violations.
Session 6: The Right to Adequate Food and the
PANTHER principles applies human rights principles
to activities that promote the right to adequate
food by describing the principles of participation,
accountability, nondiscrimination, transparency,
human dignity, empowerment and rule of law.
The workshoppers listen to Ms. Diokno as she explains the topics to
be disscussed.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
9
_____________________________________________
Session 7: Proposed Right to Food Framework Act.
Session 8: Action Planning.
The sessions will be delivered in a seamless and
sequential manner, with each session building upon
the previous one. Each session incorporates specially
designed exercises, which enable participants to better
learn about the right to adequate food.
Schedule
The Workshop will be held from April 23-25, 2014.
Session hours are between 9:00 am until 6:00 pm.
Participants are urged to be punctual since sessions will
start on time.
Atty. Ricardo Sunga discussing the proposed Right to Food
Framework Act also known as the Zero Hunger Bill
_____________________________________________
10
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
The Workshop is organized on a daily basis as follows:
Tuesday, 22 April 2014
Time Module/Session Responsible Party
8:00 Registration NFC Secretariat
9:00
Invocation and
National Anthem
NFC
Welcome Remarks NFC
Introduction of Lead
Facilitators
NFC
Introduction of
Participants
NFC
Orientation to Workshop Cookie Diokno
9:30 Basic Human Rights Cookie Diokno
10:30 Health Break
10:45
Recognition of the
Right to Adequate
Food in the
Philippines
Cookie Diokno
12:00 Lunch Break
1:00
Normative Content of
the Right to Adequate
Food
Cookie Diokno
3:00 Health Break
3:15
Normative Content of
the Right to Adequate
Food (continuation)
Cookie Diokno
6:00 End of Day 1
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
11
_____________________________________________
Wed, 24 April 2014
Time Module/Session Responsible Party
9:00
Synthesis of Previous
Day/Road Map
Current Day
Host Team, Day 2
9:15
Obligations Arising
from the Right to
Adequate Food
Cookie Diokno
10:30 Health Break
10:45
Obligations Arising
from the Right to
Adequate Food
Cookie Diokno
12:00 Lunch Break
1:00
Violations of the
Right to Adequate
Food
Cookie Diokno
2:00
The Right to
Adequate Food
and the PANTHER
Principles
Ria Teves and Max
de Mesa
3:00 Health Break
3:15
The Right to Adequate
Food and the
PANTHER Principles
(continuation)
Ria Teves and Max
de Mesa
6:00 End of Day 2
_____________________________________________
12
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Friday, 25 April 2014
Time Module/Session Responsible Party
9:00
Synthesis of Previous
Day/Road Map
Current Day
Host Team, Day 3
9:15
Proposed Right to
Food Framework Act
Ria Teves and Max
de Mesa
10:30 Health Break
10:45 Action Planning
Ria Teves and Max
de Mesa
11:30
Closing Activities:
Awarding of
Certifcates
Closing
Remarks
Ria Teves and Max
de Mesa
12:00
Lunch/End of
Workshop
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
13
_____________________________________________
Acknowledgments
Maria Socorro (Cookie)
I. Diokno developed
the Workshop, designed
the structured learning
exercises, researched and
wrote the reference sheets,
and acted as Facilitator of
the Workshop.
Ria Miclat Teves and
Max de Mesa developed
and facilitated the sessions
on The Right to Adequate
Food and the PANTHER
Principles, Proposed
Right to Food Framework
Act, and Action
Planning.
The National Food
Coalition provided
technical support and
financial assistance to
the Workshop.
Ria Miclat Teves
Max de Mesa
Maria Socorro I. Diokno
_____________________________________________
14
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Session 1:
Basic Human Rights
Objectives
At the end of this session, participants should be
able to:
Defne human rights; and
Appreciate the value of human rights.
Time
9:30 am 10:30 am (Wednesday, 23 April 2014)
Description
This session is an interactive discussion using
quick rounds, where participants will be asked in
rapid succession to respond to a series of questions
in order to arrive at the definition, basis, sources
and attributes of human rights. This activity
centers on an open discussion through Exercise 1,
Human Rights in Daily Life. The facilitator shall
engage participants in an interactive discussion,
synthesizing key points through facilitative
questions-and-answers.

_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
15
_____________________________________________
Exercise
Exercise 1: Human Rights in Daily Life
Instructions: This exercise allows you to appreciate
the applicability of human rights in daily life and
to demonstrate the universality, indivisibility and
interdependence of human rights. In rapid succession,
each of you will be asked to:
1 Give one word that defnes or best describes
human rights;
2 Identify where human rights come from; and
3 Name one activity that you do everyday and name
the corresponding human right(s).
Based on the defnitions given by the participants, Ms. Diokno
summed-up the answers to the question: What is human rights?.
_____________________________________________
16
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Facilitative questions will be asked to initiate the
interactive discussion on the basics of human rights.
Session 2: Recognition of the Right to
Adequate Food in the Philippines
Objectives
At the end of this session, participants should be able to:
Discuss the legal foundations of the right to
adequate food; and
Justify the need for a Philippine right to food
framework law.
Time
10:45 am 12:00 noon (Wednesday, 23 April 2014)
Description
This session discusses the legal foundations of the right to
adequate food in the Philippines, and describes how the
right to adequate food is explicitly and implicitly recognized
in domestic and international law. It stresses the lack of a
Philippine framework law on the right to adequate food.
This session is divided into three activities:
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
17
_____________________________________________
The session begins with a lecture discussion
where the facilitator will identify domestic
and international instruments that explicitly
and implicitly recognize the right to adequate
food.
All small groups shall convene in plenary,
where each group shall display their poster.
Comments shall be solicited from other groups
and the co-facilitators.
Exercise
Exercise 2: Recognize the Right to Food in the
Philippines!
Ms. Diokno commended the groups for their artistic talents in
the poster making showing deep understanding of the right to
adequate food..
_____________________________________________
18
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Reference
Reference Sheet 1: Recognition of the Right to Adequate
Food in the Philippines
Exercise 2: Recognize the Right to Adequate Food in
the Philippines!
Instructions: This exercise is a poster-making contest,
which reinforces your appreciation of the need to
adopt a Philippine framework law recognizing the
right to adequate food. Together with the members
of your group:
(1) Identify the core message that encourages the
recognition of the right to adequate food in the
Philippines.
(2) Convert the core message into a slogan.
(3) Draw pictures or graphics that best accompany
your slogan.
Participants will choose the poster they like best; the
group that created the winning poster will be awarded
a prize.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
19
_____________________________________________
Reference Sheet 1: Recognition of the Right to
Adequate Food in the Philippines
The right to adequate food is explicitly recognized as
a human right in various international instruments;
some of these instruments have been ratified by the
Philippines and so are legally binding on it, while
others are international declarations and resolutions
containing general norms of international law
principles and practices that represent the consensus
of the international community and are customarily
binding on the Philippines.
Winning poster in artwork.
_____________________________________________
20
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Table 1. Recognition of the Right to Adequate Food as
a Human Right in International Instruments
International
Instruments Explicitly
Recognizing the Right
to Adequate Food
International
Instruments Implicitly
Recognizing the Right to
Adequate Food
International Covenant
on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights (ICESR),
adopted on 1966 Dec 16,
ratifed by the Philippines
on 1974 May 17; Entry
into force: 1976 Jan 03
(Right to be free from
hunger, Article 11)
International Covenant on
Civil and Political Rights
(ICCPR), adopted on 1966
Dec 16, ratifed by the
Philippines on 1986 Feb
28; Entry into force: 1987
Jan 03 (Right to adequate
standard of living, including
food, Article 11)
Winning poster in slogan making.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
21
_____________________________________________
Explicit Implicit
Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against
Women (CEDAW),
adopted on 1979 Dec 18,
ratifed by the Philippines
on 1981 Jul 19; Entry into
Force: 1981 Sep 04 (Right
of pregnant and lactating
women to adequate
nutrition, Article 12.2)
Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against
Women (CEDAW),
adopted on 1979 Dec 18,
ratifed by the Philippines
on 1981 Jul 19; Entry
into Force: 1981 Sep 04
(Right to health, Article
12.1)
Additional Protocol to the
Geneva Conventions
and Relating to the
Protection of Victims of
International and Non-
International Armed
Conficts, adopted on 8
June 1977, ratifed by
the Philippines on 11
December 1986 (Right
of persons whose liberty
is restricted to food and
drinking water, Article 5)
Convention on the
Rights of Persons with
Disabilities (CPD),
adopted on 2006 Dec 13,
ratifed by the Philippines
on 2008 Apr 15; Entry
into force: 2008 May 3
(Right to health, Article
25; Right to adequate
standard of living,
including food, Article
28)
International Code of
Marketing Breastmilk
Substitutes, adopted
by Member States
of the World Health
Organization on 21 May
1981 (Right of child and
pregnant and lactating
women to be adequately
nourished, frst
preambular paragraph)
Declaration on the
Right to Development
(Declaration on RTD),
adopted on 1986 Dec 4
(Equal access to basic
resources, including food,
Articles 8)
_____________________________________________
22
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Explicit Implicit
Declaration on the Rights of
the Child, adopted by virtue
of United Nations General
Assembly Resolution
1386(XIV) on 20 November
1959 (Right to adequate
nutrition, Principle 4)
Universal Declaration of
Human Rights (UDHR),
adopted on 1948 Dec
10 (Right to adequate
standard of living,
including food, Articles
28)
Universal Declaration on
the Eradication of Hunger
and Malnutrition, adopted
on 16 November 1974 by
World Food Conference,
convened under United
Nations General Assembly
Resolution 3180 (XXVIII)
dated 17 December 1973
and endorsed by United
Nations General Assembly
Resolution 3348 (XXIX)
dated 17 December 1974
(Right to be free from
hunger and malnutrition,
Paragraph 1)
Stockholm Declaration,
UN Conference on the
Human Environment,
1972 (Principles 1 and 2)
Declaration on Protection
of Women and Children
in Emergency and Armed
Conficts, adopted by the
United Nations General
Assembly through
Resolution 3318(XXIX)
on 14 December 1974
(Right to food of women
and children in situations
of emergency and armed
confict, Paragraph 6)
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
23
_____________________________________________
International Instruments
Explicitly Recognizing the Right
to Adequate Food
International
Instruments
Implicitly
Recognizing
the Right to
Adequate
Food
Code of Ethics for International Trade,
adopted by the Codex Alimentarius
Commission through CAC/RCP 20-
1979 (Rev. I-1985) in December 1979
(Right of consumers to safe, sound and
wholesome food and to protection from
unfair trade practices, Article 4.1)
Rome Declaration on World Food
Security, 1996, adopted by Heads
of State and Government or their
representatives during World Food
Summit on 13 November 1996
(Right to adequate food and to be
free from hunger, Paragraph 1)
Voluntary Guidelines to Support
the Progressive Realization of
the Right to Adequate Food in the
Context of National Food Security,
adopted at the 127
th
session of the
Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) Council in November 2004
(Right to adequate food)
The 1987 Philippine Constitution
does not explicitly recognize the
right to adequate food; however, the
right to food may be inferred from
artwork from: google.com
_____________________________________________
24
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
various human rights provisions and from the constitutional
intent to address mass poverty. The right to adequate food
may be inferred from: Section 9, Article II in relation to
Section 1, Article XII, which mandates policies focused on
improving the quality of life for all; Section 10, Article II in
relation to Sections 1 and 3, Article XII, which fosters social
justice; and Section 21, Article II in relation to Sections 4,
5 and 6, Article XIII, which establishes an agrarian reform
program and explicitly recognizes the rights of landless
farmers and regular farmworkers to land and to participate
in the planning, organization and management of land
reform promotes agrarian reform; and Section 7, Article
XIII, which explicitly recognizes the rights of subsistence
fshermen to the preferential use of communal inland and
offshore marine and fshing resources.
Of Philippine laws, only
the Magna Carta of Women
expressly recognizes the right
to adequate food and the right
to resources for food production.
2
Other Philippine laws
implicitly recognize the right to adequate food by promoting
the availability, accessibility, affordability and safety of food.
2.
Section 20, Republic Act 9710, An Act Providing for the Magna
Carta of Women.
Photo from: google.com
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
25
_____________________________________________
Table 2. Recognition of Adequate Food as a Human
Right in Domestic Law
3
Selected Laws
Recognition of the
Right to Adequate food
1987 Philippine Constitution Right to human dignity
to promote social justice
and address poverty
Republic Act 9710.
Magna Carta of Women
Right to adequate food
and right to resources for
food production
Republic Act 3844.
Agrarian Reform Code
Presidential Decree 27.
Agrarian Reform Decree
Republic Act 6657.
Comprehensive
Agrarian Reform Law
Right of farmers and
fshermen to adequate
livelihood by ensuring
access to factors of
production, primarily
land
3.
The matrix presents selected laws only; for a full discussion on
relevant Philippine laws and jurisprudence, see De los Reyes and
Diokno, The Right to Food: An Assessment of the Philippine
Legal Framework Governing the Right to Food, 2008.
a
r
t
w
o
r
k

f
r
o
m
:

g
o
o
g
l
e
.
c
o
m
_____________________________________________
26
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Republic Act 8435.
Agriculture and Fisheries
Modernization Act
Development of
agriculture and fsheries
sectors in accordance with
following principles: (a)
Poverty Alleviation and
Social Equity, (b) Food
Security, (c) Rational Use
of Resources, (d) Global
Competitiveness, (e)
Sustainable Development,
(f) People Empowerment,
(g) Protection from Unfair
Competition
Selected Laws
Recognition of the
Right to Adequate food
Republic Act 6978.
An Act to Promote
Rural Development
by Providing for an
Accelerated Program
Within a Ten-Year Period
for the Construction of
Irrigation Projects
Promotion of quality of
life through provision of
adequate social services
including adequate
irrigation projects and
facilities to increase
agricultural production
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
27
_____________________________________________
RA 7884. National Dairy
Act
Achievement of self-
suffciency in milk
and dairy products
Provision of proper
nutrition
Republic Act 8550.
Philippine Fisheries Code
Food security
Republic Act 7581. Price
Act
Ensure availability of
basic necessities and
prime commodities at
reasonable prices at all
times without denying
legitimate business a fair
return on investment
Provide effective and
suffcient protection
to consumers against
hoarding, profteering
and cartels especially
during calamities,
e m e r g e n c i e s ,
widespread illegal
price manipulations
and other situations
_____________________________________________
28
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Republic Act 7394.
Consumer Act of the
Philippines
Promotion of
consumers interests
and general welfare
Protection against
hazards to health and
safety
Republic Act 6972.
Barangay-Level Total
Development and
Protection of Children Act
Rights of children to
assistance, including
proper care and nutrition
Executive Order 51.
Adopting a National
Code of Marketing of
Breastmilk Substitutes,
Breastmilk Supplements
and Related Products,
Penalizing Violations
thereof and for Other
Purposes
Provision of safe and
adequate nutrition for
infants
Protection and
promotion of breast
feeding
Ensuring proper use of
breastmilk substitutes
and breastmilk
supplements
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
29
_____________________________________________
Republic Act 8172.
Act for Salt Iodization
Nationwide
Protection and
promotion of health
Maintenance of effective
food regulatory system
Provision of proper
nutrition
Promotion of nutritional
fortifcation of food to
combat micronutrient
malnutrition as priority
health program
Republic Act 8976.
Philippine Food
Fortifcation Act of 2000
Promotion of optimal
health
Compensation for
inadequacies in
Filipino diet
Republic Act 3720. An Act
to Ensure the Safety and
Purity of Goods, Drugs
and Cosmetics being made
available to the Public by
Creating the Food and Drug
Administration which shall
Administer and Enforce the
Laws Pertaining Thereto
Right to health
Establishment and
maintenance of
effective food and
drug regulatory
system
_____________________________________________
30
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Session 3: Normative Content of the Right to
Adequate Food
Objectives
At the end of this session, participants should be able to:
Defne the right to adequate food;
Explain the normative content of the right to
adequate food; and
Demonstrate responsible exercise of the right to
adequate food.
Time
1:00 pm 6:00 pm (Wednesday, 23 April 2014)
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
31
_____________________________________________
Description
This session defnes the right to adequate food, identifes
its normative content, provides the situational context in
relation to its normative elements, and discusses the factors
that infuence the normative elements of the right to adequate
food. This session is divided into several activities:
1. Exercise 3: Zoom Into the Right to Adequate
Food. Participants are asked to group
themselves according to central themes
represented by a set of pictures randomly
distributed among them.
2. Taking off from Exercise 3, the facilitator will
defne the right to adequate food and discuss its
normative content.
Each group arrange in the whiteboard the pictures given to them
according to a central theme.
_____________________________________________
32
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
3. A group game, Exercise 4, Lets Deconstruct
the Right to Adequate Food, follows the lecture
discussion. The facilitator will read a series of
statements, and participants, working in small
groups, shall determine whether the statement
is true or false and then identify the normative
element alluded to in the statement.
4. Following Exercise 4, participants, working
in small groups, shall identify their concrete
roles and responsibilities to promote the right
to adequate food, by accomplishing Exercise 5,
How I Promote the Right to Adequate Food.
5. Thereafter, all small groups shall convene in
plenary, where each small group shall present their
concrete roles and responsibilities to promote the
right to adequate food. Comments shall be solicited
from other small groups and the lead facilitator.
Exercises
Exercise 3: Zoom Into the Right to Adequate Food
Exercise 4: Lets Deconstruct the Right to Adequate
Food
Exercise 5: How I Promote the Right to Adequate Food
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
33
_____________________________________________
Reference
Reference Sheet 2: Normative Content of the Right to
Adequate Food
Exercise 3: Zoom into the Right to Adequate Food
Instructions: This exercise introduces you to the right
to adequate food by asking you to group yourselves
around four central themes using a set of pictures. The
pictures are randomly handed out to each participant
who may look at the picture but cannot show it to
others. Participants are asked to study the picture,
since it contains important information about the
right to adequate food. Participants must then discuss
among themselves what the central theme is and how
to group themselves according to the central theme,
without looking at each others pictures. Participants
then group themselves into four groups and decide
the sequence of their pictures. Each group will then
post the pictures on the wall according to the sequence
they have decided. Once all pictures are posted on
the wall, participants are able to see and determine
whether the pictures, taken together in sequence,
correctly reflect the four central themes relating to
the right to adequate food.
_____________________________________________
34
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Exercise 4: Lets Deconstruct the Right to Adequate
Food
Instructions: This exercise allows you to better
understand the right to adequate food, and correct
common misconceptions (or misunderstandings) about
the right.
The facilitator will read a statement and, together with
the members of their group, participants will determine
whether the statement is true or false. If the group
believes the statement is true, a participant should raise
the BLACK pennant. But if the group believes the
statement is false, a participant should raise the RED
pennant. Groups that provide the correct answer must
then identify the normative element of the right to
adequate food that is alluded to in the statement.
Some participants raised the red pennant as they thought the answer
to the question asked by the facilitator was false.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
35
_____________________________________________
Exercise 5: How I Promote the Right to Adequate
Food
Instructions: This exercise allows you to refect on your
role and responsibilities in promoting the right to adequate
food, and locate yourselves within the normative content
of the right to adequate food. Together with the members
of the group, participants will determine how each one,
as a member of the National Food Coalition, supports
and contributes to food availability, food physical
accessibility, food affordability (economic accessibility)
and food safety. Then, as a group, participants shall
identify concrete ways by which they can promote
the responsible exercise of the right to adequate food.
Participants may use the matrix at the next page to record
their answers.
Each of the Groups presented their output to the plenary.
_____________________________________________
36
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
N
a
m
e

o
f

N
F
C

M
e
m
b
e
r
/

O
r
g
a
n
i
z
a
t
i
o
n

S
u
p
p
o
r
t

f
o
r

o
r

C
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
s

t
o

F
o
o
d

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
S
u
p
p
o
r
t

f
o
r

o
r

C
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
s

t
o

F
o
o
d

P
h
y
s
i
c
a
l

A
c
c
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y
S
u
p
p
o
r
t

f
o
r

o
r

C
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
s

t
o

F
o
o
d

A
f
f
o
r
d
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
E
c
o
n
o
m
i
c

A
c
c
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y
S
u
p
p
o
r
t

f
o
r

o
r

C
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
s

t
o

F
o
o
d

S
a
f
e
t
y
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

W
a
y
s

t
o

P
r
o
m
o
t
e

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
i
b
l
e

E
x
e
r
c
i
s
e

o
f

t
h
e

R
i
g
h
t

t
o

A
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

F
o
o
d
:
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
37
_____________________________________________
Reference Sheet 4: Normative Content of the Right
to Adequate Food
The Right to Adequate Food
4
is the right of all, alone
or with others, to have physical and economic access at
all times to adequate food or means to procure it. The
right to adequate food is much broader than simply a
minimum set of calories, proteins and other nutrients.
The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights described the normative elements of the
right to adequate food:
5

1. Food availability, which means that persons may
either feed themselves directly from the land they
till or from other natural resources they gather,
or from an effcient and operational distribution,
processing and market system.
4
Article 25, Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Article 11,
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights;
General Comment No. 12, The right to adequate food (Art.
11), adopted by the United Nations Committee on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights at its twentieth session, 1999, U N
Doc. E/C.12/1999/5; Article 28, Convention on the Rights of
Persons with Disabilities; Article 8, Declaration on the Right to
Development.
5
General Comment No. 12, The right to adequate food (Art. 11),
adopted by the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social
and Cultural Rights at its twentieth session, 1999, U N Doc.
E/C.12/1999/5.
_____________________________________________
38
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
2. Food physical accessibility, which means that
food must be readily accessible to all, especially
those physically challenged and vulnerable like
children, the elderly, persons with disabilities,
etc.

3. Food economic accessibility, which means
that costs of procuring food should not be too
prohibitive that it adversely affects the satisfaction
of other human rights.
4. Food safety, which refers to food in suffcient
quantity and quality that meets dietary needs, is
free from adverse substances and is culturally
acceptable. In this regard, it is important to note
that women and children have special nutritional
requirements.
The standards to be achieved by the State and the
situational context of each normative element of the
right to adequate food are summarized in the series of
matrices below.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
39
_____________________________________________
N
o
r
m
a
t
i
v
e

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

R
i
g
h
t

t
o

A
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

F
o
o
d

a
n
d

S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
o
n
t
e
x
t
N
o
r
m
a
t
i
v
e

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

R
i
g
h
t

t
o

A
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

F
o
o
d
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

t
o

b
e

a
c
h
i
e
v
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

S
t
a
t
e
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
o
n
t
e
x
t
A
v
a
i
l
a
b
i
l
i
t
y


F
o
o
d

i
n

s
u
f
f
c
i
e
n
t

q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y

a
n
d

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

t
h
a
t

m
e
e
t
s

d
i
e
t
a
r
y

n
e
e
d
s

o
f

a
l
l


D
i
e
t
a
r
y

n
e
e
d
s

i
m
p
l
y

t
h
a
t

d
i
e
t

c
o
n
t
a
i
n
s

m
i
x

o
f

n
u
t
r
i
e
n
t
s

f
o
r

p
h
y
s
i
c
a
l

a
n
d

m
e
n
t
a
l

g
r
o
w
t
h
,

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t

a
n
d

m
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e
,

a
n
d

p
h
y
s
i
c
a
l

a
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

i
n

c
o
m
p
l
i
a
n
c
e

w
i
t
h

h
u
m
a
n

p
h
y
s
i
o
l
o
g
i
c
a
l

n
e
e
d
s

a
t

a
l
l

s
t
a
g
e
s

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
o
u
t

l
i
f
e

c
y
c
l
e

a
n
d

a
c
c
o
r
d
i
n
g

t
o

g
e
n
d
e
r

a
n
d

o
c
c
u
p
a
t
i
o
n


D
i
e
t
a
r
y

d
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

a
n
d

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

c
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

f
e
e
d
i
n
g

p
a
t
t
e
r
n
s
,

i
n
c
l
u
d
i
n
g

b
r
e
a
s
t
-
f
e
e
d
i
n
g

m
u
s
t

b
e

m
a
i
n
t
a
i
n
e
d
,

a
d
a
p
t
e
d

o
r

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
e
n
e
d


P
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e
s

s
e
l
f
-
s
u
f
f
c
i
e
n
t

i
n

p
o
u
l
t
r
y
;

P
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e

p
o
u
l
t
r
y

i
n
d
u
s
t
r
y

p
r
o
d
u
c
e
s

a
b
o
u
t

8
0
0

m
i
l
l
i
o
n

b
r
o
i
l
e
r
s

p
e
r

y
e
a
r
,

s
u
f
f
c
i
e
n
t

t
o

m
e
e
t

a
n
d

s
u
s
t
a
i
n

l
o
c
a
l

d
e
m
a
n
d
;

a
n
n
u
a
l

i
m
p
o
r
t
s

o
f

o
v
e
r

1
0
0

m
i
l
l
i
o
n

k
i
l
o
s

o
f

d
e
b
o
n
e
d

m
e
a
t

m
a
i
n
l
y

f
o
r

h
o
t
d
o
g

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

s
o
m
e

l
e
g

q
u
a
r
t
e
r

i
m
p
o
r
t
s

b
y

f
a
s
t

f
o
o
d

c
h
a
i
n
s

(
P
e
,

P
D
I
,

2
0
1
4
)


4
0
.
0
8
%

o
f

a
l
l

P
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e

l
a
n
d
s

a
r
e

a
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
a
l

l
a
n
d
s

(
W
o
r
l
d

B
a
n
k
,

2
0
0
9
)


4
.
2

m
i
l
l
i
o
n

a
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
a
l

f
a
r
m
s

o
c
c
u
p
y

9
.
7

m
i
l
l
i
o
n

h
e
c
t
a
r
e
s

(
2
0
0
2

c
e
n
s
u
s
)
,

a
c
c
o
u
n
t
i
n
g

f
o
r

a
l
m
o
s
t

3
2
%

o
f

t
o
t
a
l

l
a
n
d

a
r
e
a
;

t
o
p

4

c
r
o
p
s

w
i
t
h

h
i
g
h
e
s
t

h
e
c
t
a
r
a
g
e
:

c
o
c
o
n
u
t
,

r
i
c
e
,

c
o
r
n

a
n
d

s
u
g
a
r
c
a
n
e

(
P
D
P
,

2
0
1
1
-
1
6
)


1
.
8
3
M

h
e
c
t
a
r
e
s

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
e
d

f
o
r

a
g
r
i
b
u
s
i
n
e
s
s
,

g
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

2
.
6
7
M

j
o
b
s

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

2
0
0
5
-
1
0

(
P
D
P
,

2
0
1
1
-
1
6
)


C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

a
r
e
a

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
e
d

u
n
d
e
r

a
g
r
a
r
i
a
n

r
e
f
o
r
m

s
i
n
c
e

1
9
8
7

-

4
,
1
1
3
,
3
4
7

h
e
c
t
a
r
e
s

(
P
D
P
,

2
0
1
1
-
1
6
)
_____________________________________________
40
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD


C
h
a
n
g
e
s

i
n

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

a
n
d

a
c
c
e
s
s

t
o

f
o
o
d

s
u
p
p
l
y

d
o

n
o
t

n
e
g
a
t
i
v
e
l
y

a
f
f
e
c
t

d
i
e
t
a
r
y

c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

i
n
t
a
k
e


F
o
o
d

i
n

s
u
f
f
c
i
e
n
t

q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y

a
n
d

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

f
r
o
m

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
e

l
a
n
d

o
r

o
t
h
e
r

n
a
t
u
r
a
l

r
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
s


F
o
o
d

i
n

s
u
f
f
c
i
e
n
t

q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y

a
n
d

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

f
r
o
m

e
f
f
c
i
e
n
t

a
n
d

o
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
,

p
r
o
c
e
s
s
i
n
g

a
n
d

m
a
r
k
e
t

s
y
s
t
e
m

t
h
a
t

c
a
n

m
o
v
e

f
o
o
d

f
r
o
m

s
i
t
e

o
f

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

t
o

w
h
e
r
e

i
t

i
s

n
e
e
d
e
d

i
n

a
c
c
o
r
d
a
n
c
e

w
i
t
h

d
e
m
a
n
d


a

l
o
s
s

o
f

1
0
0

h
a
.

o
f

r
i
c
e
l
a
n
d
s

t
r
a
n
s
l
a
t
e
s

t
o

a

r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

r
i
c
e

y
i
e
l
d

e
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t

t
o

t
h
e

a
n
n
u
a
l

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

1
7
,
0
0
0

p
e
r
s
o
n
s


(
N
F
P
P
,

2
0
0
1
-
3
0
)


L
a
n
d

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

o
f

t
r
a
d
i
t
i
o
n
a
l

c
r
o
p
s

(
r
i
c
e
,

c
o
r
n
,

c
o
c
o
n
u
t
,

s
u
g
a
r
c
a
n
e
)

s
t
a
g
n
a
t
e
d

o
r

d
e
c
l
i
n
e
s
;

a
m
o
n
g

A
S
E
A
N

c
o
u
n
t
r
i
e
s
,

P
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e
s

r
a
n
k
e
d

4
t
h

i
n

r
i
c
e
,

c
o
c
o
n
u
t

a
n
d

s
u
g
a
r
c
a
n
e

a
n
d

5
t
h

i
n

c
o
r
n

(
P
D
P
,

2
0
1
1
-
1
6
)


R
i
c
e

i
n

P
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e
s

m
o
s
t

e
x
p
e
n
s
i
v
e

a
m
o
n
g

A
S
E
A
N

c
o
u
n
t
r
i
e
s

(
U
S
$
3
1
8
.
8
/
M
T
)

(
P
D
P
,

2
0
1
1
-
1
6
)


1
.
6
1
M

e
n
g
a
g
e
d

i
n

f
s
h
i
n
g
;

1
.
4
M

i
n

c
o
c
o
n
u
t

f
a
r
m
i
n
g
;

1
.
3
5
M

i
n

r
i
c
e

f
a
r
m
i
n
g
;

0
.
6
8
M

i
n

c
o
r
n

f
a
r
m
i
n
g
;

0
.
0
7
M

i
n

s
u
g
a
r
c
a
n
e

f
a
r
m
i
n
g
;

1
.
3
2
M

i
n

o
t
h
e
r

c
o
m
m
o
d
i
t
i
e
s

(
P
D
P
,

2
0
1
1
-
1
6
)


T
o
t
a
l

f
a
c
t
o
r

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

g
r
o
w
t
h

i
n

a
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
e

r
e
m
a
i
n
e
d

l
o
w

a
t

0
.
2
%

p
e
r

y
e
a
r

o
v
e
r

p
a
s
t

2

d
e
c
a
d
e
s

c
o
m
p
a
r
e
d

t
o

1
.
0
%

p
e
r

y
e
a
r

i
n

T
h
a
i
l
a
n
d
,

1
.
5
%

p
e
r

y
e
a
r

i
n

I
n
d
o
n
e
s
i
a

a
n
d

4
.
7
%

i
n

C
h
i
n
a

(
P
D
P
,

2
0
1
1
-
1
6
)


F
r
o
m

2
0
0
4
-
1
0
,

d
o
m
e
s
t
i
c

r
i
c
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

m
e
t

o
n
l
y

8
4
.
7
1
%

o
f

c
o
u
n
t
r
y

s

a
n
n
u
a
l

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

r
i
c
e

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

(
P
D
P
,

2
0
1
1
-
1
6
)


I
n
p
u
t
s

s
u
c
h

a
s

f
e
r
t
i
l
i
z
e
r
s

a
n
d

p
e
s
t
i
c
i
d
e
s

t
y
p
i
c
a
l
l
y

a
c
c
o
u
n
t

f
o
r

2
0
-
3
0
%

o
f

t
o
t
a
l

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

c
o
s
t

w
h
i
l
e

l
i
v
e
s
t
o
c
k

a
n
d

p
o
u
l
t
r
y

f
e
e
d
s

a
c
c
o
u
n
t

f
o
r

7
0
%

(
P
D
P
,

2
0
1
1
-
1
6
)
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
41
_____________________________________________
N
o
r
m
a
t
i
v
e

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

R
i
g
h
t

t
o

A
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

F
o
o
d
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

t
o

b
e

a
c
h
i
e
v
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

S
t
a
t
e
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
o
n
t
e
x
t
A
v
a
i
l
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
)
S
a
m
e

a
s

a
b
o
v
e


2
0
1
2

n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

G
V
A


(
g
r
o
s
s

v
a
l
u
e

a
d
d
e
d
)

i
n

a
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
e
,

h
u
n
t
i
n
g
,

f
o
r
e
s
t
r
y

a
n
d

f
s
h
i
n
g

d
o
w
n

t
o

1
.
3

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

c
o
m
p
a
r
e
d

t
o

1
1
.
4

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

r
e
c
o
r
d
e
d

p
r
e
v
i
o
u
s

y
e
a
r

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


A
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
e
,

h
u
n
t
i
n
g
,

f
o
r
e
s
t
r
y

a
n
d

f
s
h
i
n
g

s
e
c
t
o
r

r
e
m
a
i
n
e
d

l
o
w
e
s
t

c
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
o
r

t
o

G
D
P
;

T
h
e

s
e
c
t
o
r

s

s
h
a
r
e
s

w
e
r
e

d
e
c
l
i
n
i
n
g

i
n

2
0
1
2

a
t

1
1
.
8

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

a
t

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

p
r
i
c
e
s

a
n
d

1
1
.
1

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

a
t

c
o
n
s
t
a
n
t

p
r
i
c
e
s
.


(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


P
a
l
a
y

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

2
0
1
3


1
8
.
4
4

m
i
l
l
i
o
n

m
e
t
r
i
c

t
o
n
s
;

u
p

b
y

2
.
3
%

f
r
o
m

2
0
1
2
;

h
a
r
v
e
s
t

a
r
e
a

e
x
p
a
n
d
e
d

b
y

1
.
2

%

f
r
o
m

4
.
6
9

m
i
l
l
i
o
n

h
e
c
t
a
r
e
s

i
n

2
0
1
2

t
o

4
.
7
5

m
i
l
l
i
o
n

h
e
c
t
a
r
e
s

i
n

2
0
1
3
;

y
i
e
l
d

p
e
r

h
e
c
t
a
r
e

i
m
p
r
o
v
e
d

b
y

1
.
0
%

f
r
o
m

3
.
8
4

m
e
t
r
i
c

t
o
n
s

t
o

3
.
8
9

m
e
t
r
i
c

t
o
n
s

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
4
)


A
v
e
r
a
g
e

f
a
r
m
g
a
t
e

p
r
i
c
e

o
f

p
a
l
a
y

2
0
1
3


1
7
.
0
8
/
k
g

o
r

3
.
4
%

h
i
g
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

2
0
1
2
;

f
a
r
m
g
a
t
e

p
r
i
c
e

p
e
a
k
e
d

a
t

1
8
.
1
5
/
k
g

i
n

A
u
g
u
s
t

a
n
d

D
e
c
e
m
b
e
r

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
4
)


T
o
t
a
l

a
q
u
a
t
i
c

r
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
s

o
f

P
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e
s
,

2
0
1
2
:

t
o
t
a
l

t
e
r
r
i
t
o
r
i
a
l

w
a
t
e
r

-

2
2
0
,
0
0
0
,
0
0
0

h
a
.
;

S
h
e
l
f

A
r
e
a

-
1
8
,
4
6
0
,
0
0
0

h
a
;

C
o
r
a
l

R
e
e
f

A
r
e
a

-

2
7
,
0
0
0

s
q
.
k
m
;

C
o
a
s
t
l
i
n
e

(
L
e
n
g
t
h
)

-

1
7
,
4
6
0

k
m
.
;

S
w
a
m
p
l
a
n
d
s

-

2
4
6
,
0
6
3

h
a
.

(
F
r
e
s
h
w
a
t
e
r

-

1
0
6
,
3
2
8

h
a
.
;

B
r
a
c
k
i
s
h
w
a
t
e
r

-

1
3
9
,
7
3
5

h
a
.
)
;

E
x
i
s
t
i
n
g

F
i
s
h
p
o
n
d

-

2
5
3
,
8
5
4

h
a
.

(
F
r
e
s
h
w
a
t
e
r

-

1
4
,
5
3
1

h
a
.
;

B
r
a
c
k
i
s
h
w
a
t
e
r

-

2
3
9
,
3
2
3

h
a
.
)
;

O
t
h
e
r

I
n
l
a
n
d

R
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
s

-

2
5
0
,
0
0
0

h
a
.

(
L
a
k
e
s

-

2
0
0
,
0
0
0

h
a
.
;

R
i
v
e
r
s

-

3
1
,
0
0
0

h
a
.
;

R
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r
s

-

1
9
,
0
0
0

h
a
.
)

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)
_____________________________________________
42
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD


L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

a
r
e
a

o
f

m
a
j
o
r

f
s
h
i
n
g

g
r
o
u
n
d
s

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


S
e
a
s
:

W
e
s
t

S
u
l
u

S
e
a

(
2
9
,
9
9
2
.
5
0

s
q

k
m
,

P
a
l
a
w
a
n
)
;

S
o
u
t
h

S
u
l
u

S
e
a

(
1
2
,
6
4
2
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

Z
a
m
b
o
a
n
g
a

d
e
l

S
u
r
/
S
u
l
u
/
T
a
w
i
-
T
a
w
i
)
;

E
a
s
t

S
u
l
u

S
e
a

(
9
,
2
8
8
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

Z
a
m
b
o
a
n
g
a

d
e
l

N
o
r
t
e
/
N
e
g
r
o
s
)
;

S
i
b
u
y
a
n

S
e
a

(
8
,
1
2
7
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

A
k
l
a
n
/
M
a
s
b
a
t
e
/
R
o
m
b
l
o
n
)
;

B
o
h
o
l

S
e
a

(
7
,
9
4
6
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

B
o
h
o
l
)
;

S
a
m
a
r

S
e
a

(
3
,
8
7
0
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

S
a
m
a
r
/
M
a
s
b
a
t
e
/
L
e
y
t
e
)
;

V
i
s
a
y
a
n

S
e
a

(
3
,
0
9
6
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

P
a
n
a
y
/
N
e
g
r
o
s
/
C
e
b
u
/
M
a
s
b
a
t
e
)
;

C
a
m
o
t
e
s

S
e
a

(
2
,
4
7
6
.
8
0

s
q

k
m
,

C
e
b
u
/
L
e
y
t
e
/
B
o
h
o
l
)


L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

a
r
e
a

o
f

m
a
j
o
r

f
s
h
i
n
g

g
r
o
u
n
d
s

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


B
a
y
s
:

L
a
m
o
n

B
a
y

(
2
,
8
3
8
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

Q
u
e
z
o
n
/
C
a
m
a
r
i
n
e
s

N
o
r
t
e
)
;

T
a
y
a
b
a
s

B
a
y

(
2
,
2
1
3
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

Q
u
e
z
o
n
)
;

I
l
l
a
n
a

B
a
y

(
2
,
1
2
8
.
5
0

s
q

k
m
,

L
a
n
a
o

d
e
l

S
u
r
/
M
a
g
u
i
n
d
a
n
a
o
)
;

M
a
n
i
l
a

B
a
y

(
1
,
9
3
5
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

M
a
n
i
l
a
/
B
a
t
a
a
n
/
C
a
v
i
t
e
)
;

S
i
b
u
g
a
y

B
a
y

(
1
,
9
3
5
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

Z
a
m
b
o
a
n
g
a

d
e
l

S
u
r
)
;

I
l
i
g
a
n

B
a
y

(
1
,
8
1
1
.
1
6

s
q

k
m
,

M
i
s
a
m
i
s

O
c
c
i
d
e
n
t
a
l
/
L
a
n
a
o

d
e
l

N
o
r
t
e
)
;

I
m
u
r
u
a
n

B
a
y

(
1
,
0
8
7
.
8
0

s
q

k
m
,

P
a
l
a
w
a
n
)
;

S
a
n

M
i
g
u
e
l

B
a
y

(
7
7
4
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

C
a
m
a
r
i
n
e
s

S
u
r
)
;

T
a
w
i
-
T
a
w
i

B
a
y

(
5
9
2
.
4
0

s
q

k
m
,

T
a
w
i
-
T
a
w
i
)
;

B
u
t
u
a
n

B
a
y

(
5
1
6
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

A
g
u
s
a
n

d
e
l

N
o
r
t
e
)


L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

a
r
e
a

o
f

m
a
j
o
r

f
s
h
i
n
g

g
r
o
u
n
d
s

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


G
u
l
f
s
:

M
o
r
o

G
u
l
f

(
1
2
,
9
0
0
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

Z
a
m
b
o
a
n
g
a

d
e
l

S
u
r
/
M
a
g
u
i
n
d
a
n
a
o
/
S
u
l
t
a
n

K
u
d
a
r
a
t
)
;

D
a
v
a
o

G
u
l
f

(
4
,
0
2
4
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

D
a
v
a
o

d
e
l

S
u
r
/
D
a
v
a
o

d
e
l

N
o
r
t
e
/
D
a
v
a
o

O
r
i
e
n
t
a
l
)
;

R
a
g
a
y

G
u
l
f

(
3
,
2
2
5
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

C
a
m
a
r
i
n
e
s

S
u
r
/
Q
u
e
z
o
n
)
;

L
e
y
t
e

G
u
l
f

(
2
,
7
2
4
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

L
e
y
t
e

I
s
l
a
n
d
/
S
a
m
a
r

I
s
l
a
n
d
)
;

P
a
n
a
y

G
u
l
f

(
2
,
3
1
1
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

I
l
o
i
l
o
/
N
e
g
r
o
s

O
c
c
i
d
e
n
t
a
l
)
;

L
i
n
g
a
y
e
n

G
u
l
f

(
2
,
0
6
4
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

P
a
n
g
a
s
i
n
a
n
)
;

L
a
g
o
n
o
y

G
u
l
f

(
1
,
9
3
5
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

A
l
b
a
y
/
C
a
m
a
r
i
n
e
s

S
u
r
/
C
a
t
a
n
d
u
a
n
e
s
)
;

A
s
i
d

G
u
l
f

(
6
1
9
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

M
a
s
b
a
t
e
)
;

A
l
b
a
y

G
u
l
f

(
4
1
2
.
8
0

s
q

k
m
,

A
l
b
a
y
)

_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
43
_____________________________________________


L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

a
r
e
a

o
f

m
a
j
o
r

f
s
h
i
n
g

g
r
o
u
n
d
s

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


C
h
a
n
n
e
l
s
:

B
a
b
u
y
a
n

C
h
a
n
n
e
l

(
3
,
6
1
2
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

C
a
g
a
y
a
n
/
B
a
b
u
y
a
n

I
s
l
a
n
d
)
;

J
i
n
t
o
t
o
l
o

C
h
a
n
n
e
l

(
2
8
0
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

C
a
p
i
z
/
M
a
s
b
a
t
e
)
;

M
a
q
u
e
d
a

C
h
a
n
n
e
l

(
1
2
9
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

C
a
m
a
r
i
n
e
s

S
u
r
/
C
a
t
a
n
d
u
a
n
e
s
)

N
o
r
m
a
t
i
v
e

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

R
i
g
h
t

t
o

A
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

F
o
o
d
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

t
o

b
e

a
c
h
i
e
v
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

S
t
a
t
e
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
o
n
t
e
x
t
A
v
a
i
l
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
)


S
a
m
e

a
s

a
b
o
v
e


L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

a
r
e
a

o
f

m
a
j
o
r

f
s
h
i
n
g

g
r
o
u
n
d
s

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


S
t
r
a
i
t
s
:

T
a
b
l
a
s

S
t
r
a
i
t

(
3
,
8
7
0
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

T
a
b
l
a
s

I
s
l
a
n
d
/
M
i
n
d
o
r
o

O
r
i
e
n
t
a
l
)
;

M
i
n
d
o
r
o

S
t
r
a
i
t

(
3
,
4
2
6
.
2
4

s
q

k
m
,

P
a
l
a
w
a
n
/
M
i
n
d
o
r
o

O
c
c
i
d
e
n
t
a
l
)
;

T
a

o
n

S
t
r
a
i
t

(
2
,
7
8
6
.
4
0

s
q

k
m
,

C
e
b
u
/
N
e
g
r
o
s
)
;

C
e
b
u

S
t
r
a
i
t

(
1
,
8
1
8
.
9
0

s
q

k
m
,

C
e
b
u
/
B
o
h
o
l
)
;

I
l
o
i
l
o

S
t
r
a
i
t

(
1
,
0
0
6
.
0
0

s
q

k
m
,

I
l
o
i
l
o
/
G
u
i
m
a
r
a
s
)


L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

a
r
e
a

o
f

m
a
j
o
r

f
s
h
i
n
g

g
r
o
u
n
d
s

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


P
a
s
s
a
g
e
s
:

B
u
r
i
a
s

P
a
s
s

(
1
,
3
9
3
.
2
0

s
q

k
m
,

B
u
r
i
a
s

I
s
l
a
n
d
/
C
a
m
a
r
i
n
e
s

S
u
r
)
;

T
i
c
a
o

P
a
s
s

(
8
0
4
.
7
5

s
q

k
m
,

T
i
c
a
o

I
s
l
a
n
d
/
S
o
r
s
o
g
o
n
)


V
o
l
u
m
e

o
f

f
s
h
e
r
i
e
s

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

2
0
1
2
:

a
l
l

s
e
c
t
o
r
s

4
,
8
6
5
,
1
3
2
.
3
0

m
e
t
r
i
c

t
o
n
s
;

c
o
m
m
e
r
c
i
a
l

-

1
,
0
4
2
,
3
1
7
.
8
8

m
e
t
r
i
c

t
o
n
s
;

m
u
n
i
c
i
p
a
l

-

1
,
2
8
0
,
8
4
9
.
0
3

m
e
t
r
i
c

t
o
n
s
;

a
q
u
a
c
u
l
t
u
r
e

-

2
,
5
4
1
,
9
6
5
.
3
9

m
e
t
r
i
c

t
o
n
s
_____________________________________________
44
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD


T
o
t
a
l

f
s
h
e
r
i
e
s

e
x
p
o
r
t
,

2
0
1
2


1
6
5
,
3
2
4

m
e
t
r
i
c

t
o
n
s
;

M
a
j
o
r

s
p
e
c
i
e
s

e
x
p
o
r
t
e
d
:

t
u
n
a
,

S
h
r
i
m
p
s

a
n
d

P
r
a
w
n
s
,

S
e
a
w
e
e
d
s
,

O
c
t
o
p
u
s
,

C
r
a
b
,

C
r
a
b

F
a
t

a
n
d

C
r
a
b

M
e
a
t
,

G
r
o
u
p
e
r

L
i
v
e
,

S
q
u
i
d

a
n
d

C
u
t
t
l
e
f
s
h
,

O
r
n
a
m
e
n
t
a
l

f
s
h


L
i
v
e
,

R
o
u
n
d
s
c
a
d
,

a
n
d

S
e
a

C
u
c
u
m
b
e
r

D
r
i
e
d

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


F
i
s
h
e
r
i
e
s

s
e
c
t
o
r

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

1
.
2
3
%

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

i
n

2
0
1
3

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


C
o
m
m
e
r
c
i
a
l

f
s
h
e
r
i
e
s

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

o
u
t
p
u
t
s

b
y

4
.
3
%

i
n

2
0
1
3
;

R
o
u
n
d
s
c
a
d
,

s
k
i
p
j
a
c
k
,

y
e
l
l
o
w
f
n

t
u
n
a
,

i
n
d
i
a
n

s
a
r
d
i
n
e
s

a
n
d

f
r
i
g
a
t
e

t
u
n
a

w
e
r
e

t
h
e

t
o
p

f
v
e

(
5
)

s
p
e
c
i
e
s

f
o
r

t
h
e

s
e
c
t
o
r
;

c
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
e
d

2
7
.
2
2
%

t
o

t
o
t
a
l

f
s
h
e
r
i
e
s

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


M
u
n
i
c
i
p
a
l

f
s
h
e
r
i
e
s

d
e
c
l
i
n
e
d

b
y

1
.
1
8
%

i
n

2
0
1
3
;

c
o
n
t
r
i
b
u
t
e
d

7
5
.
9
6
%

t
o

t
o
t
a
l

f
s
h
e
r
i
e
s

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
;

I
n
d
i
a
n

s
a
r
d
i
n
e
s
,

r
o
u
n
d
s
c
a
d
,

b
i
g
-
e
y
e
d

s
c
a
d

a
n
d

f
r
i
g
a
t
e

t
u
n
a

w
e
r
e

t
o
p

s
p
e
c
i
e
s
;

a
c
c
o
u
n
t
e
d

f
o
r

3
0
.
3
2

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

t
o
t
a
l

f
s
h
e
r
i
e
s

o
u
t
p
u
t

i
n

2
0
1
3

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


A
q
u
a
c
u
l
t
u
r
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

g
r
e
w

b
y

1
.
8
2
%

i
n

2
0
1
3
;

c
o
m
p
r
i
s
e
d

4
2
.
4
6

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

t
h
e

t
o
t
a
l

f
s
h
e
r
i
e
s

o
u
t
p
u
t
;

m
i
l
k
f
s
h
,

t
i
l
a
p
i
a
,

t
i
g
e
r

p
r
a
w
n
,

c
a
r
p
,

c
a
t
f
s
h

a
n
d

o
y
s
t
e
r

w
e
r
e

t
o
p

s
p
e
c
i
e
s


(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
3
)


A
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
e

a
n
d

f
s
h
e
r
i
e
s

s
e
c
t
o
r

e
m
p
l
o
y
s

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

o
f

1
1
.
8

m
i
l
l
i
o
n

p
e
o
p
l
e
,

a
l
m
o
s
t

3
5
.
1
%

o
f

t
o
t
a
l

w
o
r
k
f
o
r
c
e

(
P
D
P
,

2
0
1
1
-
1
6
)


O
v
e
r
a
l
l

b
a
l
a
n
c
e

o
f

t
r
a
d
e

i
n

a
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
e


w
i
d
e
n
i
n
g

d
e
f
c
i
t

f
r
o
m

U
S

$

8
3
7
M

i
n

2
0
0
4

t
o

U
S

$

3
.
2
B

i
n

2
0
1
0

(
P
D
P
,

2
0
1
1
-
1
6
)
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
45
_____________________________________________
N
o
r
m
a
t
i
v
e

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

R
i
g
h
t

t
o

A
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

F
o
o
d
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

t
o

b
e

a
c
h
i
e
v
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

S
t
a
t
e
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
o
n
t
e
x
t
P
h
y
s
i
c
a
l

A
c
c
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y


F
o
o
d

r
e
a
d
i
l
y

a
c
c
e
s
s
i
b
l
e

t
o

a
l
l
,

e
s
p
e
c
i
a
l
l
y

t
h
o
s
e

m
o
s
t

v
u
l
n
e
r
a
b
l
e

(
e
.
g
.
,

i
n
f
a
n
t
s
,

y
o
u
n
g

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n
,

o
l
d
e
r

p
e
r
s
o
n
s
,

p
e
r
s
o
n
s

w
i
t
h

d
i
s
a
b
i
l
i
t
i
e
s
,

t
e
r
m
i
n
a
l
l
y
-
i
l
l

p
e
r
s
o
n
s
,

a
n
d

p
e
r
s
o
n
s

w
i
t
h

p
e
r
s
i
s
t
e
n
t

m
e
d
i
c
a
l

p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s
)


S
p
e
c
i
a
l

a
t
t
e
n
t
i
o
n
,

i
n
c
l
u
d
i
n
g

p
r
i
o
r
i
t
y

c
o
n
s
i
d
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

f
o
r

v
i
c
t
i
m
s

o
f

n
a
t
u
r
a
l

d
i
s
a
s
t
e
r
s
,

p
e
r
s
o
n
s

l
i
v
i
n
g

i
n

d
i
s
a
s
t
e
r
-
p
r
o
n
e

a
r
e
a
s

a
n
d

o
t
h
e
r

s
p
e
c
i
a
l
l
y

d
i
s
a
d
v
a
n
t
a
g
e
d

g
r
o
u
p
s


S
p
e
c
i
a
l

a
t
t
e
n
t
i
o
n

t
o

i
n
d
i
g
e
n
o
u
s

p
e
o
p
l
e
s

w
h
o
s
e

a
c
c
e
s
s

t
o

t
h
e
i
r

a
n
c
e
s
t
r
a
l

l
a
n
d
s

m
a
y

b
e

t
h
r
e
a
t
e
n
e
d


F
o
o
d

w
i
t
h
i
n

s
a
f
e

p
h
y
s
i
c
a
l

r
e
a
c
h

f
o
r

a
l
l


7
0
%

o
f

r
e
t
a
i
l

s
a
l
e
s

a
t
t
r
i
b
u
t
e
d

t
o

w
e
t

m
a
r
k
e
t
s

(
i
.
e
.

t
r
a
d
i
t
i
o
n
a
l

f
r
e
s
h

f
o
o
d

m
a
r
k
e
t
s
)
,

b
u
t

m
a
r
k
e
t

s
h
a
r
e

o
f

h
y
p
e
r
m
a
r
k
e
t
s

a
n
d

s
u
p
e
r
s
t
o
r
e
s

(
w
h
i
c
h

a
c
c
o
u
n
t
s

f
o
r

3
0
%

o
f

r
e
t
a
i
l

f
o
o
d

s
a
l
e
s
)

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g
;

t
r
a
d
i
t
i
o
n
a
l

w
e
t

m
a
r
k
e
t
s

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e

t
o

s
e
r
v
i
c
e

h
u
g
e

p
o
r
t
i
o
n

o
f

l
o
c
a
l

p
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
G
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t

o
f

C
a
n
a
d
a
,

2
0
1
2
)


S
u
p
e
r
m
a
r
k
e
t
s

a
n
d

h
y
p
e
r
m
a
r
k
e
t
s

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
e
d

p
r
i
m
a
r
y

d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n

c
h
a
n
n
e
l
s

(
G
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t

o
f

C
a
n
a
d
a
,

2
0
1
2
)


2

o
u
t

o
f

1
0

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

a
g
e
d

0
-
5

y
e
a
r
s

o
l
d

(
0
-
6
0

m
o
n
t
h
s
)

a
n
d

3

o
u
t

o
f

1
0

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

a
g
e
d

5
.
0
8
-
1
0

y
e
a
r
s

o
l
d

(
6
1
-
1
2
0

m
o
n
t
h
s
)

u
n
d
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)


3

o
u
t

o
f

1
0

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

a
g
e
d

0
-
5

y
e
a
r
s

(
0
-
6
0

m
o
n
t
h
s
)

s
t
u
n
t
e
d
;

s
t
u
n
t
i
n
g

a
l
s
o

e
v
i
d
e
n
t

a
m
o
n
g

5
.
0
8
-
1
0

y
e
a
r

o
l
d

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n
;

s
t
u
n
t
i
n
g

r
e
f
e
c
t
s

e
f
f
e
c
t
s

o
f

c
h
r
o
n
i
c

m
a
l
n
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n
,

i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n
s

a
n
d

p
o
o
r

e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
a
l

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
s

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)
_____________________________________________
46
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD


7

o
u
t

o
f

1
0
0

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

a
g
e
d

0
-
5

y
e
a
r
s

o
l
d

(
0
-
6
0

m
o
n
t
h
s
)

w
a
s
t
e
d

i
n
d
i
c
a
t
i
n
g

a
c
u
t
e

u
n
d
e
r
n
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n

b
r
o
u
g
h
t

a
b
o
u
t

b
y

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
i
t
y

a
n
d

i
l
l
n
e
s
s

s
u
c
h

a
s

d
i
a
r
r
h
e
a

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)


5

o
u
t

o
f

1
0
0

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

a
g
e
d

0
-
5

y
e
a
r
s

o
l
d

(
0
-
6
0

m
o
n
t
h
s
)

a
n
d

8

o
u
t

o
f

1
0
0

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

a
g
e
d

5
.
0
8
-
1
0

y
e
a
r
s

o
l
d

(
6
1
-
1
2
0

m
o
n
t
h
s
)

o
v
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

f
o
r

t
h
e
i
r

h
e
i
g
h
t

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)


P
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

o
f

u
n
d
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

s
l
i
g
h
t
l
y

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

a
t

a
n

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

o
f

8
.
0
5
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s

p
e
r

y
e
a
r

a
m
o
n
g

0
-
5

m
o
n
t
h
-
o
l
d

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n
;

u
n
d
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

d
e
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

b
y

0
.
9
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

2
0
0
3

a
n
d

2
0
1
1

a
m
o
n
g

t
h
e

6
-
1
1

m
o
n
t
h
s
;

a
t

a
g
e

1
,

u
n
d
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

r
e
c
o
r
d
e
d

a
n

a
n
n
u
a
l

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

o
f

0
.
3
5
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s

f
o
r

t
h
e

p
a
s
t

e
i
g
h
t

y
e
a
r
s
;

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

2
0
0
3

a
n
d

2
0
1
1
,

u
n
d
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

a
m
o
n
g

2

t
o

5

y
e
a
r
s

o
l
d

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

d
e
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)


U
n
d
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

s
l
i
g
h
t
l
y

d
e
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

a
m
o
n
g

6

y
e
a
r
-
o
l
d

a
n
d

9
-
1
0
.
0

y
e
a
r
-
o
l
d

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

w
i
t
h

0
.
5
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s

a
n
d

0
.
3
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s

d
e
c
r
e
a
s
e
,

r
e
s
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
l
y

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

2
0
0
3


a
n
d
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
47
_____________________________________________
2
0
1
1
;

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

a
g
e
d

5
.
0
8
-
5
.
9

a
n
d

7

y
e
a
r
s

o
l
d

b
o
t
h

h
a
d

a

2
.
6
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

u
n
d
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

s
i
n
c
e

2
0
0
3
;

a
n
n
u
a
l

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

d
e
c
r
e
a
s
e

o
f

0
.
5
1
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s

n
o
t
e
d

a
m
o
n
g

8

y
e
a
r
-
o
l
d

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

f
o
r

p
a
s
t

e
i
g
h
t

y
e
a
r
s

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)
N
o
r
m
a
t
i
v
e

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

R
i
g
h
t

t
o

A
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

F
o
o
d
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

t
o

b
e

a
c
h
i
e
v
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

S
t
a
t
e
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
o
n
t
e
x
t
P
h
y
s
i
c
a
l

A
c
c
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
)
S
a
m
e

a
s

a
b
o
v
e


S
i
n
c
e

2
0
0
3
,

s
t
u
n
t
i
n
g

g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

a
m
o
n
g

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

l
e
s
s

t
h
a
n

2

y
e
a
r
s

o
l
d
;

o
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
c
e

o
f

s
t
u
n
t
i
n
g

a
m
o
n
g

i
n
f
a
n
t
s

0

t
o

5

m
o
n
t
h
s

r
e
f
e
c
t
i
v
e

o
f

p
o
o
r

m
a
t
e
r
n
a
l

n
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n
;

f
u
r
t
h
e
r

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

o
f

u
n
d
e
r
h
e
i
g
h
t

f
o
r

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

a
g
e
d

6

t
o

1
1

m
o
n
t
h
s

a
t
t
r
i
b
u
t
e
d

t
o

i
n
a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

f
e
e
d
i
n
g

p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
s
;

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

o
f

s
t
u
n
t
i
n
g

f
u
r
t
h
e
r

d
o
u
b
l
e

w
h
e
n

c
h
i
l
d

r
e
a
c
h
e
s

1

y
e
a
r

o
l
d

a
s
c
r
i
b
e
d

t
o

p
r
o
l
o
n
g
e
d

i
n
a
d
e
q
u
a
c
i
e
s

o
f

f
o
o
d

i
n
t
a
k
e

i
n

t
e
r
m
s

o
f

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

a
n
d

q
u
a
n
t
i
t
y
,

a
n
d

r
e
c
u
r
r
e
n
c
e

o
f

i
l
l
n
e
s
s

o
r

i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n
s

t
h
a
t

e
v
e
n
t
u
a
l
l
y

s
l
o
w
e
d

d
o
w
n
e
d

s
k
e
l
e
t
a
l

g
r
o
w
t
h

r
e
s
u
l
t
i
n
g

i
n

l
i
n
e
a
r

g
r
o
w
t
h

r
e
t
a
r
d
a
t
i
o
n
;

s
t
u
n
t
i
n
g

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d


t
o
_____________________________________________
48
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD


i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

u
n
t
i
l

3

y
e
a
r
s

o
l
d
.

T
h
e

i
m
p
a
c
t

o
f

s
t
u
n
t
i
n
g

i
s

l
a
s
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

i
r
r
e
v
e
r
s
i
b
l
e
,

a
n
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

f
u
r
t
h
e
r

i
n
t
e
r
v
e
n
t
i
o
n

i
n

t
h
e

f
r
s
t

t
w
o

y
e
a
r
s

o
f

l
i
f
e
,

t
h
i
s

m
a
y

p
r
e
d
i
s
p
o
s
e

t
h
e
m

t
o

s
e
v
e
r
e

i
l
l
n
e
s
s
e
s
,

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t
a
l

d
e
l
a
y
s

a
n
d

p
o
s
s
i
b
l
y

e
v
e
n

d
e
a
t
h
.

F
o
r

t
h
o
s
e

w
h
o

c
a
n

s
u
r
v
i
v
e
,

t
h
e
y

a
r
e

a
t

r
i
s
k

t
o

N
C
D
s

l
a
t
e
r

i
n

l
i
f
e
.


(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)


B
y

a
g
e

g
r
o
u
p
,

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

0
-
5

y
e
a
r
s

o
l
d

h
a
d

g
e
n
e
r
a
l
l
y

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

o
f

w
a
s
t
i
n
g

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

2
0
0
3

a
n
d

2
0
1
1
;

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

6
-
1
1

m
o
n
t
h
-
o
l
d

r
e
g
i
s
t
e
r
e
d

h
i
g
h
e
s
t

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

o
f

w
a
s
t
i
n
g

w
i
t
h

a
n
n
u
a
l

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

o
f

0
.
2
6
%
-
p
o
i
n
t

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

f
o
r

p
a
s
t

e
i
g
h
t

y
e
a
r
s
;

w
a
s
t
i
n
g

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

a
l
s
o

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

a
m
o
n
g

5
.
0
8
-
8

y
e
a
r

o
l
d

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n
:

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

a
g
e
d

7

y
e
a
r
s

o
l
d

h
a
d

h
i
g
h
e
s
t

a
n
n
u
a
l

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

a
t

0
.
3
1
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s

s
i
n
c
e

2
0
0
3

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)


O
v
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
i
n
g

a
m
o
n
g

a
g
e

g
r
o
u
p
s

f
o
r

p
a
s
t

e
i
g
h
t

y
e
a
r
s
:

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

o
f

o
v
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

h
i
g
h
e
s
t

a
m
o
n
g

t
h
e

0
-
5

m
o
n
t
h
-
o
l
d

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

w
i
t
h

a
n
n
u
a
l

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

o
f

0
.
5
9
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s

s
i
n
c
e

2
0
0
3

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
49
_____________________________________________


N
o

s
i
g
n
i
f
c
a
n
t

d
e
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

u
n
d
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

s
i
n
c
e

2
0
0
8
;

s
i
g
n
i
f
c
a
n
t

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

s
t
u
n
t
i
n
g

(
1
.
3
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s
)

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

2
0
0
8

a
n
d

2
0
1
1
;

a
l
t
h
o
u
g
h

w
a
s
t
i
n
g

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d
,

n
o

s
i
g
n
i
f
c
a
n
t

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

2
0
0
8

a
n
d

2
0
1
1

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)


D
e
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

o
f

u
n
d
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

a
n
d

s
t
u
n
t
i
n
g

s
i
n
c
e

1
9
8
9

v
e
r
y

s
l
o
w
;

u
n
d
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

d
e
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

b
y

a
n
n
u
a
l

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

r
a
t
e

o
f

o
n
l
y

0
.
3
3
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s
;

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

o
f

s
t
u
n
t
i
n
g

w
a
s

r
e
d
u
c
e
d

b
y

1
1
.
1
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s

o
r

y
e
a
r
l
y

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

o
f

0
.
5
0
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s
;

w
a
s
t
i
n
g

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

b
y

1
.
1
%
-

p
o
i
n
t
s

s
i
n
c
e

1
9
8
9
;

r
i
s
i
n
g

t
r
e
n
d

i
n

p
r
e
v
a
l
e
n
c
e

o
f

o
v
e
r
w
e
i
g
h
t

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

w
i
t
h

a
n

a
n
n
u
a
l

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

o
f

0
.
1
5
%
-
p
o
i
n
t
s

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)
_____________________________________________
50
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
N
o
r
m
a
t
i
v
e

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

R
i
g
h
t

t
o

A
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

F
o
o
d
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

t
o

b
e

a
c
h
i
e
v
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

S
t
a
t
e
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
o
n
t
e
x
t
E
c
o
n
o
m
i
c

A
c
c
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y


C
o
s
t
s

o
f

p
r
o
c
u
r
i
n
g

f
o
o
d

n
o
t

t
o
o

p
r
o
h
i
b
i
t
i
v
e

t
h
a
t

i
t

a
d
v
e
r
s
e
l
y

a
f
f
e
c
t
s

s
a
t
i
s
f
a
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

o
t
h
e
r

h
u
m
a
n

r
i
g
h
t
s


A
p
p
l
i
e
s

t
o

a
n
y

a
c
q
u
i
s
i
t
i
o
n

p
a
t
t
e
r
n

o
r

e
n
t
i
t
l
e
m
e
n
t

t
h
r
o
u
g
h

w
h
i
c
h

p
e
o
p
l
e

p
r
o
c
u
r
e

f
o
o
d


S
p
e
c
i
a
l

p
r
o
g
r
a
m
s

f
o
r

l
a
n
d
l
e
s
s

p
e
r
s
o
n
s

a
n
d

p
e
r
s
o
n
s

l
i
v
i
n
g

i
n

p
o
v
e
r
t
y


H
e
a
d
l
i
n
e

i
n
f
a
t
i
o
n

4
.
2

%

i
n

J
a
n
u
a
r
y

2
0
1
4

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
O
,

2
0
1
4
)


I
n

J
a
n
u
a
r
y

2
0
1
4
,

p
r
i
c
e

h
i
k
e
s

r
e
c
o
r
d
e
d

i
n

f
s
h
,

v
e
g
e
t
a
b
l
e
s
,

e
g
g
s
,

s
e
l
e
c
t
e
d

s
p
i
c
e
s
,

s
a
u
c
e
s

a
n
d

c
o
n
d
i
m
e
n
t
s
,

c
o
o
k
i
n
g

o
i
l
,

m
i
l
k

a
n
d

m
i
l
k

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
O
,

2
0
1
4
)


N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

a
n
n
u
a
l

i
n
f
a
t
i
o
n

f
o
r

f
o
o
d

a
l
o
n
e

i
n
d
e
x

c
l
i
m
b
e
d

t
o

5
.
7
%

i
n

J
a
n
u
a
r
y

2
0
1
4

f
r
o
m

5
.
0

%

i
n

D
e
c
e
m
b
e
r

2
0
1
3

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
O
,

2
0
1
4
)


O
n

a
n
n
u
a
l

b
a
s
i
s
,

f
o
o
d

i
n
f
a
t
i
o
n

i
n
d
e
x

r
o
s
e

t
o

5
.
5
%

f
r
o
m

4
.
8
%

i
n

D
e
c
e
m
b
e
r

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
O
,

2
0
1
4
)


A
l
l

f
o
o
d

g
r
o
u
p
s

h
a
d

h
i
g
h
e
r

a
n
n
u
a
l

r
a
t
e
s

e
x
c
e
p
t

i
n

c
o
r
n

(
3
.
3

%

d
o
w
n

f
r
o
m

3
.
8
%

i
n

D
e
c
e
m
b
e
r
)

a
n
d

f
r
u
i
t
s

(
4
.
2

%

d
o
w
n

f
r
o
m

4
.
3
%

i
n

D
e
c
e
m
b
e
r
)

i
n
d
i
c
e
s

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
O
,

2
0
1
4
)


F
o
o
d

a
n
d

n
o
n
-
a
l
c
o
h
o
l
i
c

b
e
v
e
r
a
g
e
s

i
n
d
e
x

u
p

0
.
9
%

i
n

J
a
n
u
a
r
y

f
r
o
m

0
.
8

i
n

D
e
c
e
m
b
e
r

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
O
,

2
0
1
4
)


F
i
s
h

p
r
i
c
e
s

u
p

2
.
2

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

f
r
o
m

1
.
1

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
O
,

2
0
1
4
)


V
e
g
e
t
a
b
l
e
s

i
n
d
e
x

u
p

1
.
8

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

f
r
o
m

1
.
3

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
O
,

2
0
1
4
)
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
51
_____________________________________________


M
i
l
k
,

c
h
e
e
s
e

a
n
d

e
g
g

i
n
d
e
x

i
n

t
h
e

P
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e
s

g
a
i
n
e
d

0
.
4

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
O
,

2
0
1
4
)


O
i
l
s

a
n
d

f
a
t
s

i
n
d
e
x

u
p

b
y

1
.
6

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
O
,

2
0
1
4
)


N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

m
e
a
t

i
n
d
e
x

u
p

0
.
5

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

f
r
o
m

0
.
3

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
O
,

2
0
1
4
)


A
v
e
r
a
g
e

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

r
i
c
e

(
7
.
8
%
)

a
n
d

c
o
r
n

(
7
.
5
%
)

h
i
g
h
e
s
t

a
m
o
n
g

a
l
l

c
o
m
m
o
d
i
t
i
e
s

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

2
0
0
4
-
1
0
;

6
.
4
%

i
n
f
a
t
i
o
n

i
n

s
e
l
e
c
t
e
d

f
o
o
d

c
o
m
m
o
d
i
t
i
e
s

p
r
i
c
e
s

h
i
g
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

h
e
a
d
l
i
n
e

i
n
f
a
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

o
f

5
.
6
%

(
P
D
P
,

2
0
1
1
-
1
6
)


A
v
e
r
a
g
e

w
h
o
l
e
s
a
l
e

p
r
i
c
e

o
f

r
i
c
e

2
0
1
3


3
4
.
4
9
/
k
g

o
r

5
.
1
%

h
i
g
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

2
0
1
2
;

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

r
e
t
a
i
l

p
r
i
c
e

o
f

r
i
c
e

2
0
1
3


3
6
/
8
7
/
k
g
,

u
p

b
y

4
.
5
%

(
P
S
A
-
B
A
S
,

2
0
1
4
)


6
9
.
3
%

o
f

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
e
;

m
o
s
t

c
o
m
m
o
n

e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

o
f

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s

i
s

W
o
r
r
i
e
d

t
h
a
t

f
o
o
d

w
o
u
l
d

r
u
n

o
u
t

b
e
f
o
r
e

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d

g
o
t

m
o
n
e
y

t
o

b
u
y

m
o
r
e


(
6
7
.
9
%
)
,

f
o
l
l
o
w
e
d

b
y

T
h
a
t

f
o
o
d

j
u
s
t

b
o
u
g
h
t

d
i
d

n
o
t

l
a
s
t

a
n
d

d
o

n
o
t

h
a
v
e

e
n
o
u
g
h

m
o
n
e
y

t
o

g
e
t

m
o
r
e


(
5
4
.
7
%
)
;

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
i
t
y

c
o
n
s
i
d
e
r
e
d

m
o
d
e
r
a
t
e

p
r
o
b
l
e
m

s
i
n
c
e

a
l
m
o
s
t

e
q
u
a
l

p
r
o
p
o
r
t
i
o
n
s

o
f

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s

w
h
o

a
f
f
r
m
e
d

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
i
t
y

i
t
e
m
s

e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
d

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n
s

s
o
m
e
t
i
m
e
s


a
n
d

o
f
t
e
n


d
u
r
i
n
g

p
a
s
t

t
h
r
e
e

m
o
n
t
h
s

b
e
f
o
r
e

i
n
t
e
r
v
i
e
w

[
N
O
T
E
S
:

(
a
)

F
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
i
t
y

d
e
f
n
e
d

a
s

l
i
m
i
t
e
d

o
r

u
n
c
e
r
t
a
i
n

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

n
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n
a
l
l
y

a
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

a
n
d

s
a
f
e

f
o
o
d
s

o
r

t
h
e

l
i
m
i
t
e
d

o
r

u
n
c
e
r
t
a
i
n

a
b
i
l
i
t
y

t
o

a
c
q
u
i
r
e

a
c
c
e
p
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
o
d
s

i
n


s
o
c
i
a
l
l
y


a
c
c
e
p
t
a
b
l
e

_____________________________________________
52
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
w
a
y
s

(
A
n
d
e
r
s
o
n
,

1
9
9
0
)
.

I
n
v
o
l
u
n
t
a
r
y

h
u
n
g
e
r

i
s

t
h
e

i
m
m
e
d
i
a
t
e

c
o
n
s
e
q
u
e
n
c
e

o
f

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
i
t
y

a
n
d

w
h
e
n

r
e
c
u
r
r
e
n
t

o
v
e
r

t
i
m
e

r
e
s
u
l
t
s

t
o

u
n
d
e
r
n
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n
.


(
b
)

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
i
t
y

a
s
s
e
s
s
e
d

u
s
i
n
g

t
h
e

R
a
d
i
m
e
r
-
C
o
r
n
e
l
l

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
i
t
y

q
u
e
s
t
i
o
n
n
a
i
r
e
]

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)


P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
e

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s

b
y

r
e
g
i
o
n

i
n

2
0
1
1
:


I
l
o
c
o
s


5
4
.
6
%
;

C
a
g
a
y
a
n

V
a
l
l
e
y


6
6
.
5
%
;

C
A
R


5
7
.
6
%
;

C
e
n
t
r
a
l

L
u
z
o
n



6
3
.
7
%
;

N
C
R



6
3
.
8
%
;

C
a
l
a
b
a
r
z
o
n



1
6
.
2
%
;



M
I
M
A
R
O
P
A


7
3
.
4
%
;

B
i
c
o
l


7
8
.
2
%
;

W
e
s
t
e
r
n

V
i
s
a
y
a
s


7
4
.
7
%

C
e
n
t
r
a
l

V
i
s
a
y
a
s


7
7
.
7
%
;

E
a
s
t
e
r
n

V
i
s
a
y
a
s


7
4
.
3
%
;


Z
a
m
b
o
a
n
g
a

P
e
n
i
n
s
u
l
a


7
2
.
5
%
;


N
o
r
t
h
e
r
n

M
i
n
d
a
n
a
o


7
7
.
6
%
;

D
a
v
a
o

r
e
g
i
o
n


7
2
.
0
%
;

S
O
C
C
S
K
S
A
R
G
E
N


8
0
.
0
%
;

C
A
R
A
G
A


7
0
.
1
%
;

A
R
M
M


9
1
.
5
%

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)

N
o
r
m
a
t
i
v
e

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

R
i
g
h
t

t
o

A
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

F
o
o
d
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

t
o

b
e

a
c
h
i
e
v
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

S
t
a
t
e
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
o
n
t
e
x
t
E
c
o
n
o
m
i
c

A
c
c
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
)
S
a
m
e

a
s

a
b
o
v
e


3
6
.
0
%

o
f

m
o
t
h
e
r
s
/
c
a
r
e
g
i
v
e
r
s

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
e
;

2
2
.
9
%

o
f

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
e
;

m
o
s
t

c
o
m
m
o
n

e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e

o
f

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
i
t
y

i
s

s
k
i
p
p
i
n
g

m
e
a
l
s
;

o
t
h
e
r

e
x
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
e
s
:

f
e
l
t

h
u
n
g
r
y

b
u
t

d
i
d

n
o
t

e
a
t

b
e
c
a
u
s
e

t
h
e
r
e

w
a
s

n
o

f
o
o
d

o
r

m
o
n
e
y

t
o

b
u
y

f
o
o
d

a
n
d

d
i
d

n
o
t

e
a
t

w
h
o
l
e

d
a
y

b
e
c
a
u
s
e

t
h
e
r
e

w
a
s

n
o

f
o
o
d

o
r

m
o
n
e
y

t
o

b
u
y

f
o
o
d

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)


P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
f

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
e

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s

s
t
a
t
i
s
t
i
c
a
l
l
y

d
e
c
l
i
n
e
d

i
n

2
0
1
1

f
r
o
m

2
0
0
8

b
u
t

p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
s

o
f

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
e

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

s
l
i
g
h
t
l
y

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

f
r
o
m

2
0
.
2
%

i
n

2
0
0
8

t
o

2
2
.
9
%

i
n

2
0
1
1

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
53
_____________________________________________


F
o
o
d

c
o
p
i
n
g

m
e
c
h
a
n
i
s
m
s

o
f

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
e

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s
:

p
u
r
c
h
a
s
e
d

f
o
o
d

o
n

c
r
e
d
i
t

(
7
5
.
6
%
)
,

b
o
r
r
o
w
e
d

f
o
o
d

f
r
o
m

r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
s

(
6
6
.
3
%
)
,

r
e
d
u
c
e
d

p
o
r
t
i
o
n

s
i
z
e
s

o
f

m
e
a
l
s

e
a
t
e
n

(
5
6
.
9
%
)
,

r
e
s
t
r
i
c
t
e
d

c
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n

o
f

a
d
u
l
t
s

t
o

p
r
o
t
e
c
t

c
h
i
l
d

f
r
o
m

h
u
n
g
e
r

(
5
4
.
7
%
)
.

4
5
.
6
%

r
e
d
u
c
e
d

t
h
e
i
r

i
n
t
a
k
e
/
n
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

m
e
a
l
s

i
n

a

d
a
y
,

s
o
m
e

r
e
l
i
e
d

o
n

l
e
s
s

e
x
p
e
n
s
i
v
e

f
o
o
d
s
,

2
2
.
2
%

a
t
e

e
x
o
t
i
c
/
w
i
l
d

f
o
o
d
s

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)


N
o
n
-
f
o
o
d

c
o
p
i
n
g

m
e
c
h
a
n
i
s
m
s

o
f

f
o
o
d

i
n
s
e
c
u
r
e

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s
:

l
o
a
n

m
o
n
e
y

f
r
o
m

r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
s

(
7
4
.
6
%
)

a
n
d

f
r
i
e
n
d
s

(
5
6
.
8
%
)
,

2
2
.
8
%

o
f

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s

l
e
t

t
h
e
i
r

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n

t
o

b
e

a
b
s
e
n
t

f
r
o
m

s
c
h
o
o
l

(
F
N
R
I
,

2
0
1
2
)


F
i
l
i
p
i
n
o

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s

s
p
e
n
d

a
n

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

o
f

3
8
.
5
%

o
f

t
h
e
i
r

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d

b
u
d
g
e
t

o
n

f
o
o
d

a
n
d

b
e
v
e
r
a
g
e
s

(
B
S
P

C
o
n
s
u
m
e
r

F
i
n
a
n
c
i
a
l

S
u
r
v
e
y

(
C
F
S
)
,

2
0
0
9
)

A
t

t
h
e

n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

l
e
v
e
l
,

a

F
i
l
i
p
i
n
o

c
o
n
s
u
m
e
d

a
n

a
v
e
r
a
g
e

o
f

1
1
1

k
i
l
o
g
r
a
m
s
/
y
e
a
r

o
f

r
i
c
e
,

w
h
i
c
h

w
a
s

e
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t

t
o

P
3
,
3
3
6

p
e
r

y
e
a
r
,

g
i
v
e
n

i
t
s

p
r
i
c
e

o
f

P
3
0
/
k
g

i
n

2
0
0
8

a
n
d

2
0
0
9
.

O
n

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d

b
a
s
i
s
,

r
i
c
e

c
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

e
x
p
e
n
d
i
t
u
r
e

r
e
a
c
h
e
d

5
6
8

k
g
/
y
e
a
r

a
n
d

P
1
7
,
1
2
3
3
/
y
e
a
r
,

r
e
s
p
e
c
t
i
v
e
l
y
,

d
u
r
i
n
g

t
h
e

s
a
m
e

p
e
r
i
o
d


(
L
a
n
t
i
c
a
n

e
t
.

a
l
,

2
0
1
1
)

F
i
l
i
p
i
n
o

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s
,

o
n

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
,

s
p
e
n
t

a
b
o
u
t

8
8
%

o
f

t
h
e
i
r

t
o
t
a
l

f
o
o
d

e
x
p
e
n
d
i
t
u
r
e

o
n

f
o
o
d

c
o
n
s
u
m
e
d

a
t

h
o
m
e

a
n
d

1
2
%

w
e
r
e

s
p
e
n
t

o
n

e
a
t
i
n
g

o
u
t
.

T
h
e

t
o
p

f
v
e

f
o
o
d

g
r
o
u
p
s

t
h
a
t

w
e
r
e

e
a
t
e
n

a
t

h
o
m
e

i
n
c
l
u
d
e
d

c
e
r
e
a
l
s

a
n
d

c
e
r
e
a
l
s

p
r
e
p
a
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
2
7
%
)
,

_____________________________________________
54
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
m
e
a
t

a
n
d

m
e
a
t

p
r
e
p
a
r
a
t
i
o
n
s

(
1
5
%
)
,

f
s
h

a
n
d

m
a
r
i
n
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s

(
1
3
%
)
,

f
r
u
i
t
s

a
n
d

v
e
g
e
t
a
b
l
e
s

(
1
0
%
)
,

a
n
d

f
o
o
d

n
o
t

e
l
s
e
w
h
e
r
e

c
l
a
s
s
i
f
e
d

s
u
c
h

a
s

s
u
g
a
r
,

c
o
o
k
i
n
g

o
i
l
,

m
a
r
g
a
r
i
n
e
,

s
a
u
c
e
s

a
n
d

o
t
h
e
r

s
p
i
c
e
s

a
n
d

s
e
a
s
o
n
i
n
g

(
9
%
)
.

M
e
a
n
w
h
i
l
e
,

t
h
e

h
i
g
h
e
s
t

t
o
t
a
l

f
a
m
i
l
y

e
x
p
e
n
d
i
t
u
r
e

o
n

f
o
o
d

w
e
n
t

t
o

r
i
c
e
,

f
r
e
s
h

f
s
h
,

s
h
e
l
l
s

a
n
d

o
t
h
e
r
s
,

f
r
e
s
h

p
o
r
k

a
n
d

f
r
e
s
h

c
h
i
c
k
e
n
.


(
D
a
c
u
l
,

2
0
1
0
)


A
n
n
u
a
l

p
e
r

c
a
p
i
t
a

f
o
o
d

t
h
r
e
s
h
o
l
d

2
0
1
2

-

P
h
P

1
3
,
2
3
2

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
C
B
)


S
u
b
s
i
s
t
e
n
c
e

i
n
c
i
d
e
n
c
e

o
f

f
a
m
i
l
i
e
s
,

2
0
1
2


7
.
5
%

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
C
B
)


S
u
b
s
i
s
t
e
n
c
e

i
n
c
i
d
e
n
c
e

o
f

p
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
,

2
0
1
2


1
0
.
4
%

(
P
S
A
-
N
S
C
B
)
N
o
r
m
a
t
i
v
e

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

R
i
g
h
t

t
o

A
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

F
o
o
d
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

t
o

b
e

a
c
h
i
e
v
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

S
t
a
t
e
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
o
n
t
e
x
t
S
a
f
e
t
y


F
o
o
d

f
r
e
e

f
r
o
m

a
d
v
e
r
s
e

s
u
b
s
t
a
n
c
e
s


F
o
o
d

c
u
l
t
u
r
a
l
l
y

a
c
c
e
p
t
a
b
l
e
;

n
e
e
d

t
o

t
a
k
e

i
n
t
o

a
c
c
o
u
n
t

p
e
r
c
e
i
v
e
d

n
o
n

n
u
t
r
i
e
n
t
-
b
a
s
e
d

v
a
l
u
e
s

a
t
t
a
c
h
e
d

t
o

f
o
o
d

a
n
d

f
o
o
d

c
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

i
n
f
o
r
m
e
d

c
o
n
s
u
m
e
r

c
o
n
c
e
r
n
s

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

n
a
t
u
r
e

o
f

a
c
c
e
s
s
i
b
l
e

f
o
o
d

s
u
p
p
l
i
e
s

F
o
o
d
-
b
o
r
n
e

i
l
l
n
e
s
s
e
s

a
r
e

d
i
s
e
a
s
e
s

e
i
t
h
e
r

i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
u
s

o
r

t
o
x
i
c

i
n

n
a
t
u
r
e

c
a
u
s
e
d

b
y

i
n
g
e
s
t
i
n
g

p
a
t
h
o
g
e
n
s


(
e
.
g
.

b
a
c
t
e
r
i
a
,

f
u
n
g
i
,

p
a
r
a
s
i
t
e
s
,

v
i
r
u
s
e
s
)

t
h
r
o
u
g
h

c
o
n
t
a
m
i
n
a
t
e
d

f
o
o
d

o
r

w
a
t
e
r
.


T
h
e

c
o
n
d
i
t
i
o
n

i
s

o
t
h
e
r
w
i
s
e

k
n
o
w
n

a
s

f
o
o
d

p
o
i
s
o
n
i
n
g
.


(
P
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e

C
o
u
n
c
i
l

f
o
r

H
e
a
l
t
h

R
e
s
e
a
r
c
h

a
n
d

D
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t
,

2
0
0
5
)
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
55
_____________________________________________


P
r
e
v
e
n
t
i
o
n

o
r

c
o
n
t
a
m
i
n
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

f
o
o
d
s
t
u
f
f
s

t
h
r
o
u
g
h

a
d
u
l
t
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d
/
o
r

t
h
r
o
u
g
h

b
a
d

e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
a
l

h
y
g
i
e
n
e

o
r

i
n
a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

h
a
n
d
l
i
n
g

a
t

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

s
t
a
g
e
s

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
o
u
t

f
o
o
d

c
h
a
i
n


I
d
e
n
t
i
f
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

a
v
o
i
d
a
n
c
e

o
r

d
e
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

n
a
t
u
r
a
l
l
y

o
c
c
u
r
r
i
n
g

t
o
x
i
n
s


A
t

l
e
a
s
t

6
0

r
e
p
o
r
t
e
d

f
o
o
d
-
b
o
r
n
e

d
i
s
e
a
s
e

o
u
t
b
r
e
a
k
s

i
n

P
h
i
l
i
p
p
i
n
e
s

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

1
9
9
5
-
2
0
0
4

(
A
z
a
n
z
a
,

2
0
0
6
)


B
e
t
w
e
e
n

M
a
r
c
h
-
A
p
r
i
l

2
0
0
5
,

7

m
a
j
o
r

o
u
t
b
r
e
a
k
s

r
e
p
o
r
t
e
d

i
n
v
o
l
v
i
n
g

m
o
r
e

t
h
a
n

2
0
0

m
o
r
b
i
d
i
t
i
e
s

a
n
d

2
7

m
o
r
t
a
l
i
t
i
e
s

(
A
z
a
n
z
a
,

2
0
0
6
)


D
i
s
h
e
s

c
o
n
t
a
i
n
i
n
g

m
e
a
t

a
n
d

p
r
o
c
e
s
s
e
d

m
e
a
t

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s

m
o
r
e

c
o
m
m
o
n

c
a
u
s
e
s

o
f

o
u
t
b
r
e
a
k
s
;

s
p
a
g
h
e
t
t
i

w
i
t
h

m
e
a
t

s
a
u
c
e

l
e
a
d
i
n
g

f
o
o
d

v
e
h
i
c
l
e

c
a
u
s
i
n
g

o
u
t
b
r
e
a
k
s

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

1
9
9
5
-
2
0
0
4
;

f
s
h

a
n
d

o
t
h
e
r

s
e
a
f
o
o
d

d
i
s
h
e
s

r
a
n
k
e
d

s
e
c
o
n
d
;

b
a
k
e
r
y

a
n
d

c
o
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n
a
r
y

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s

r
a
n
k
e
d

t
h
i
r
d
;

t
o
x
i
n
-
c
o
n
t
a
i
n
i
n
g

o
r

i
n
e
d
i
b
l
e

m
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
s

(
e
.
g
.

w
i
l
d

m
u
s
h
r
o
o
m
s
,

n
u
t
s
,

p
u
f
f
e
r

f
s
h
,

y
a
m
)

r
a
n
k
e
d

f
o
u
r
t
h

(
A
z
a
n
z
a
,

2
0
0
6
)


M
o
s
t

o
u
t
b
r
e
a
k
s

o
c
c
u
r
r
e
d

o
u
t
s
i
d
e

h
o
m
e
,

i
n

w
o
r
k
p
l
a
c
e
s

a
n
d

s
c
h
o
o
l
s

(
A
z
a
n
z
a
,

2
0
0
6
)


S
a
l
m
o
n
e
l
l
a

a
n
d

v
i
b
r
i
o

s
p
p

e
s
t
a
b
l
i
s
h
e
d

a
s

p
r
i
m
a
r
y

c
a
u
s
e
s

o
f

i
n
f
e
c
t
i
o
n
s

(
A
z
a
n
z
a
,

2
0
0
6
)
_____________________________________________
56
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD


A
c
u
t
e

w
a
t
e
r
y

d
i
a
r
r
h
e
a

c
o
n
s
i
s
t
e
n
t
l
y

w
i
t
h
i
n

t
o
p

t
e
n

l
e
a
d
i
n
g

c
a
u
s
e
s

o
f

m
o
r
b
i
d
i
t
y

i
n

t
h
e

c
o
u
n
t
r
y

(
D
O
H
)


M
o
r
b
i
d
i
t
y

r
e
l
a
t
e
d

d
i
s
e
a
s
e
s

f
r
o
m

f
o
o
d

a
n
d

w
a
t
e
r

i
n
c
l
u
d
e

t
y
p
h
o
i
d

f
e
v
e
r
,

h
e
p
a
t
i
t
i
s
-
A

a
n
d

c
h
o
l
e
r
a

(
F
N
R
I
,

F
o
o
d

s
a
f
e
t
y

i
s

i
n

o
u
r

h
a
n
d
s


i
n

t
h
e

g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t
,

u
n
d
a
t
e
d
)


F
o
o
d

s
a
f
e
t
y

p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s

a
t

f
a
r
m

l
e
v
e
l

i
n
c
l
u
d
e

v
e
g
e
t
a
b
l
e
s

f
o
u
n
d

p
o
s
i
t
i
v
e

f
o
r

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
e
d

p
e
s
t
i
c
i
d
e
s
;

m
i
c
r
o
b
i
a
l

p
a
t
h
o
g
e
n
s

r
e
c
o
r
d
e
d

i
n

s
l
a
u
g
h
t
e
r
h
o
u
s
e
s

a
n
d

p
o
u
l
t
r
y

d
r
e
s
s
i
n
g

p
l
a
n
t
s
;

a
n
t
i
b
i
o
t
i
c

r
e
s
i
d
u
e
s

d
e
t
e
c
t
e
d

i
n

a
n
i
m
a
l

c
a
r
c
a
s
s
e
s
;

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
o
u
s

b
u
t

i
n
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
t

e
x
p
o
s
u
r
e

r
i
s
k
s

t
o

r
e
d

t
i
d
e
;

p
e
r
s
i
s
t
e
n
t

o
v
e
r
-
t
h
e

l
i
m
i
t

i
n
c
i
d
e
n
c
e

o
f

a
f
l
a
t
o
x
i
n

i
n

l
o
c
a
l

c
o
r
n
,

p
e
a
n
u
t
s
,

c
o
p
r
a

m
e
a
l

a
n
d

m
i
x
e
d

f
e
e
d
s

(
F
N
R
I
,

F
o
o
d

s
a
f
e
t
y

i
s

i
n

o
u
r

h
a
n
d
s


i
n

t
h
e

g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t
,

u
n
d
a
t
e
d
)
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
57
_____________________________________________
N
o
r
m
a
t
i
v
e

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

R
i
g
h
t

t
o

A
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

F
o
o
d
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

t
o

b
e

a
c
h
i
e
v
e
d

b
y

t
h
e

S
t
a
t
e
S
i
t
u
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

C
o
n
t
e
x
t
S
a
f
e
t
y

(
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
)
S
a
m
e

a
s

a
b
o
v
e


F
o
o
d

s
a
f
e
t
y

v
i
o
l
a
t
i
o
n
s

i
n

p
r
o
c
e
s
s
o
r

l
e
v
e
l

i
n
c
l
u
d
e

m
i
s
u
s
e

o
f

f
o
o
d

a
d
d
i
t
i
v
e
s

(
e
.
g
.

s
o
d
i
u
m

n
i
t
r
a
t
e

a
n
d

n
i
t
r
a
t
e
)

i
n

m
e
a
t

a
n
d

m
e
a
t

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
,

c
a
f
f
e
i
n
e

i
n

c
o
l
a

d
r
i
n
k
s
,

s
u
l
f
u
r

d
i
o
x
i
d
e

i
n

d
r
i
e
d

f
r
u
i
t
s
;

u
s
e

o
f

n
o
n
-
p
e
r
m
i
s
s
i
b
l
e

f
o
o
d

a
d
d
i
t
i
v
e
s

l
i
k
e

b
o
r
a
x

i
n

n
o
o
d
l
e
s
,

s
n
a
c
k
s

a
n
d

s
a
g
o
,

p
o
t
a
s
s
i
u
m

b
r
o
m
a
t
e

i
n

f
o
u
r
,

s
o
d
i
u
m

c
y
c
l
a
m
a
t
e

i
n

j
u
i
c
e

d
r
i
n
k
s

a
n
d

r
e
a
d
y
-
t
o
-
m
i
x

p
o
w
d
e
r

d
r
i
n
k
s
;

u
s
e

o
f

n
o
n
-
p
e
r
m
i
s
s
s
i
b
l
e

f
o
o
d

c
o
l
o
r
s

s
u
c
h

a
s

R
h
o
d
a
m
i
n
e

B

i
n

c
a
n
d
i
e
s

a
n
d

b
i
s
c
u
i
t
s
;

p
r
e
s
e
n
c
e

o
f

f
o
o
d

c
o
n
t
a
m
i
n
a
n
t
s

s
u
c
h

a
s

a
f
a
t
o
x
i
n
s

i
n

p
e
a
n
u
t

b
u
t
t
e
r
,

c
o
r
n
-
b
a
s
e
d

s
n
a
c
k
s
,

3
-
M
C
P
D

i
n

s
o
y

s
a
u
c
e
,

a
n
d

h
i
s
t
a
m
i
n
e

i
n

m
a
r
i
n
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
;

e
x
i
s
t
e
n
c
e

o
f

h
e
a
v
y

m
e
a
t
a
l
s

i
n

h
e
r
b
a
l

f
o
o
d

s
u
p
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
;

p
r
e
s
e
n
c
e

o
f

a
l
l
e
r
g
e
n
s

i
n

h
o
t
c
a
k
e

m
i
x
,

c
y
a
n
i
d
e

i
n

m
i
l
k

p
o
w
d
e
r
,

f
l
t
h

i
n

a
l
c
o
h
o
l
i
c

a
n
d

n
o
n
-
a
l
c
o
h
o
l
i
c

b
e
v
e
r
a
g
e
s
;

d
e
f
e
c
t
i
v
e

c
a
n
n
e
d

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
;

e
x
p
i
r
e
d

f
o
o
d

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
;

p
r
e
s
e
n
c
e

o
f

m
i
c
r
o
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s

l
i
k
e

s
a
l
m
o
n
e
l
l
a

i
n

n
o
o
d
l
e
s
,

s
t
a
p
h
y
l
o
c
o
c
c
u
s

a
u
r
e
a
s

i
n

h
o
t
d
o
g

a
n
d

n
o
o
d
l
e
s
,

E
s
c
h
e
r
i
c
h
i
a

c
o
l
i

(
E
-
c
o
l
i
)

i
n

a
s
s
o
r
t
e
d

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
,

c
o
l
i
f
o
r
m
s

i
n

t
a
h
o
,

m
o
l
d
s

a
n
d

y
e
a
s
t
s

i
n

c
a
k
e
s

(
F
N
R
I
,

F
o
o
d

s
a
f
e
t
y

i
s

i
n

o
u
r

h
a
n
d
s


i
n

t
h
e

g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t
,

u
n
d
a
t
e
d
)
_____________________________________________
58
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD


E
m
e
r
g
i
n
g

f
o
o
d

s
a
f
e
t
y

i
s
s
u
e
s

i
n
c
l
u
d
e

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
a
l

f
o
o
d
s
,

g
e
n
e
t
i
c
a
l
l
y

m
o
d
i
f
e
d

f
o
o
d
s
,

f
o
r
t
i
f
e
d

a
n
d

b
i
o
-
f
o
r
t
i
f
e
d

f
o
o
d
s
,

n
e
w

f
o
o
d

p
r
e
p
a
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

p
r
e
s
e
r
v
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

p
a
c
k
a
g
i
n
g

t
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
i
e
s

a
n
d

e
v
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

o
f

o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s

i
n
t
e
n
t
i
o
n
a
l
l
y

o
r

u
n
i
n
t
e
n
t
i
o
n
a
l
l
y

a
d
d
e
d

t
o

f
o
o
d
s

(
F
N
R
I
,

F
o
o
d

s
a
f
e
t
y

i
s

i
n

o
u
r

h
a
n
d
s


i
n

t
h
e

g
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t
,

u
n
d
a
t
e
d
)
T
h
e

n
o
r
m
a
t
i
v
e

e
l
e
m
e
n
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

r
i
g
h
t

t
o

a
d
e
q
u
a
t
e

f
o
o
d

(
i
.
e
.
,

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

p
h
y
s
i
c
a
l

a
c
c
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

e
c
o
n
o
m
i
c

a
c
c
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y
,

a
n
d

s
a
f
e
t
y
)

a
r
e

i
n
f
u
e
n
c
e
d

b
y

a

v
a
r
i
e
t
y

o
f

f
a
c
t
o
r
s
,

m
a
n
y

o
f

w
h
i
c
h

a
r
e

w
i
t
h
i
n

s
t
a
t
e

c
o
n
t
r
o
l
.

T
h
e
s
e

f
a
c
t
o
r
s

i
n
c
l
u
d
e
,

a
m
o
n
g

o
t
h
e
r
s
,

i
n
f
r
a
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
,

p
o
w
e
r

a
n
d

e
n
e
r
g
y
,

p
u
b
l
i
c

t
r
a
n
s
p
o
r
t
a
t
i
o
n
,

t
r
a
f
f
c

m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t

a
n
d

c
o
n
t
r
o
l
,

p
e
a
c
e

a
n
d

o
r
d
e
r

s
e
r
v
i
c
e
s
,

e
m
e
r
g
e
n
c
y

s
e
r
v
i
c
e
s
,

a
g
r
a
r
i
a
n

r
e
f
o
r
m
,

u
r
b
a
n

l
a
n
d

r
e
f
o
r
m
,

t
r
a
d
e
,

n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

a
n
d

l
o
c
a
l

b
u
d
g
e
t
s
,

l
a
n
d

u
s
e

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
s
,

i
n
v
e
s
t
m
e
n
t
,

t
a
x
a
t
i
o
n
,

e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
a
l

p
o
l
i
c
i
e
s
,

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
,

s
c
i
e
n
c
e

a
n
d

t
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y
,

e
t
c
.


T
h
e
s
e

f
a
c
t
o
r
s

m
a
y
,

i
n

t
u
r
n
,

b
e

i
n
f
u
e
n
c
e
d

b
y

o
t
h
e
r

f
a
c
t
o
r
s

t
h
a
t

m
a
y

o
r

m
a
y

n
o
t

b
e

u
n
d
e
r

s
t
a
t
e

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

(
p
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

g
r
o
w
t
h
,

m
i
g
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

e
x
t
e
r
n
a
l

e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
,

w
e
a
t
h
e
r

p
a
t
t
e
r
n
s
,

c
u
l
t
u
r
e
,

e
t
c
.
)
.


T
h
e

r
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
s
h
i
p

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

f
a
c
t
o
r
s

w
i
t
h
i
n

s
t
a
t
e

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

a
n
d

h
u
m
a
n

r
i
g
h
t
s

w
o
r
k
s

o
n

t
w
o

l
e
v
e
l
s
:

f
r
s
t
,

i
t

h
e
l
p
s

i
d
e
n
t
i
f
y

w
h
e
r
e

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t

a
t
t
e
n
t
i
o
n

i
s

p
l
a
c
e
d

v
i
s
-

-
v
i
s

w
h
e
r
e

i
t

s
h
o
u
l
d

b
e

p
l
a
c
e
d

w
i
t
h
i
n

a

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

s
e
c
t
o
r
:


f
o
r

e
x
a
m
p
l
e
,

a
r
e

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t

i
n
t
e
r
v
e
n
t
i
o
n
s

f
o
c
u
s
e
d

o
n

e
x
p
a
n
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

a
v
a
i
l
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

f
o
o
d

b
u
t

p
l
a
c
e

l
i
t
t
l
e

o
r

n
o

a
t
t
e
n
t
i
o
n

o
n

m
e
c
h
a
n
i
s
m
s

t
h
a
t

s
u
p
p
o
r
t

f
o
o
d

a
f
f
o
r
d
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
?

_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
59
_____________________________________________
Second, it highlights the complementary roles of the different
sectors of a countrys economy that together contribute
to the realization of human rights, and points to the need
for holistic, complementary and integrated development
interventions. For example, the right to adequate food (see
Diagram next page) requires complementary and integrated
policies and strategies in agriculture, agrarian reform,
population, environment and natural resources, and trade,
etc. to ensure food availability; in labor, fnance, public
works (infrastructure development), social welfare, trade
and industry, health, education, etc. to ensure food physical
and economic accessibility; and in justice, science and
technology, health, environment and natural resources, etc.
to ensure food safety.
Session 4: Obligations Arising from the Right to
Adequate Food
Objectives
At the end of this session, participants should be able to:
Distinguish obligations of conduct and of result;
Explain the nature and levels of human rights
obligations; and
Illustrate obligations of conduct and of result.
_____________________________________________
60
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
61
_____________________________________________
Time
9:30 am 12:00 noon (Wednesday, April 24, 2014)
Description
This session introduces human rights obligations of
conduct and of result related to, and arising from, the
right to adequate food. This session is divided into three
activities:
The session begins with a group game, Exercise
6, If You Could Change the Way Government
Addresses Hunger and Malnutrition, where
participants will be asked to identify aspects
of government and governance that need to
be changed and how these can be changed so
that government better addresses hunger and
malnutrition.
Taking off from the group game is a lecture
discussion on obligations of conduct and of
result, obligations to respect, protect and fulfll
(facilitate, promote and provide) the right to
adequate food, core obligations, obligations
of progressive realization, the obligation of
equality, the obligation of nondiscrimination,
_____________________________________________
62
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
and obligations of international cooperation
and assistance. The facilitator shall respond
to questions, comments and concerns raised by
participants.
Another group game, Exercise 7, Match my
Obligation, follows the lecture discussion;
participants will be given meta cards that
contain either an obligation or a concrete
example of an obligation. Participants must
find their match.
Exercises
Exercise 6: If You Could Change the Way Government
Addresses Hunger and Malnutrition
Exercise 7: Match My Obligation
Each participant was given meta cards containing an obligation.
Each one was instructed to fnd his/her match.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
63
_____________________________________________
Reference
Reference Sheet 3: Obligations Arising from the Right
to Adequate Food
Exercise 6: If You Could Change the Way
Government Addresses Hunger and Malnutrition
Instructions: This exercise introduces human rights
obligations arising from the right to adequate food. Two
different colored meta cards will be distributed to each
participant. On one colored meta card, participants will
identify the aspects of government and governance (e.g.
policies, programs, projects, strategies, implementation
issues or ways of working) that should be changed
so that government can better address hunger and
malnutrition in the country. On the other colored meta
card, participants will suggest concrete ways to effect the
change that needs to be undertaken.
Exercise 7: Match My Obligation
Instructions: This exercise allows you to better understand
the nature and levels of obligations related to, and arising
from, the right to adequate food. Participants shall be given
meta cards, some cards list human rights obligations, while
_____________________________________________
64
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
other cards list concrete examples. Participants must fnd
their match.
Reference Sheet 3: Obligations Arising from the
Right to Adequate Food
The 1987 Constitution highlights the important role of
government which is constitutionally directed to promote a
just and dynamic social order to free people from poverty,
provide an improved quality of life for all, promote equity
and social justice in all phases of national development,
enhance social, economic and political conditions, guarantee
full respect for human rights
and address mass poverty.
These constitutional
directives and parameters
are central to the enjoyment
and realization of the right
to adequate food.
From the Constitution,
relevant Philippine laws,
and legally and customarily
binding instruments,
arise a set of obligations,
which government cannot
This is the 1st volume of the 3
volumes on the Right To Food
laws in the Philippines published
by the National Food Coalition.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
65
_____________________________________________
abrogate. Governments obligations are generally
two-fold: obligations to behave in a way that does
not injure anyone or impair or limit anyones right
to adequate food (obligations of conduct) and
obligations to achieve specific targets to satisfy a
detailed substantive standard
6
related to the right to
adequate food (obligations of result).
Obligations of conduct and of result are better understood
through the obligations to respect, protect and fulfll
(facilitate and provide) the right to adequate food:
The obligation to respect the right to
adequate food is the obligation to abstain
from doing anything that violates the
integrity of the individual or infringes on
the individuals right to adequate food. This
means: Government should not arbitrarily
take away peoples right to food or make it
diffcult for them to gain access to food.
7

Examples of the obligation to respect the
right to adequate food include:
6.
Paragraph 7, The Maastricht Guidelines on Violations of
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
7
J. Ziegler, cited in Food and Agriculture Organization, The Right
to Food and Access to Justice, 2009.
_____________________________________________
66
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Refrain from interfering directly or
indirectly in the enjoyment of right to
adequate food;
Refrain from adopting targets, strategies,
programs or projects that restrict or limit
or prevent access to food;
Refrain from knowingly introducing
toxic substances into the food chain;
8
Refrain from undertaking any actions that
result in starvation of civilians as a method
of combat, during armed confict;
9
8
J. Ziegler, cited in Food and Agriculture Organization, The Right
to Food and Access to Justice, 2009.
9
Article 14, Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions and
Relating to the Protection of Victims of International and Non-
International Armed Conficts (Protocol II).
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
67
_____________________________________________
Refrain from attacking, destroying or
removing objects indispensable to
the survival of the civilian population
such as food-stuffs, agricultural areas
for the production of food-stuffs, crops,
livestock, drinking water installations
and supplies and irrigation works;
10

Prevent discrimination and unequal
treatment in the exercise of the right
to adequate food, whether in law,
policy or practice.
The obligation to protect the right to
adequate food is the obligation to prohibit
others from violating the right to adequate
food. Examples of the obligation to protect
the right to adequate food include:
Prevent third parties from interfering in
any way with the enjoyment of the right
to adequate food;
Adopt necessary and effective legislative
and other measures to restrain third parties
from denying equal access to adequate food;
10
Article 14, Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions and
Relating to the Protection of Victims of International and Non-
International Armed Conficts (Protocol II).
_____________________________________________
68
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Ensure that activities of the private
business sector and civil society conform
to the right to food;
Incorporate strategies that ensure the
continuous and sustainable supply of food;
Avoid adopting policies, strategies and
targets that beneft already advantaged
groups at the expense of vulnerable groups;
Incorporate strategies that regulate the food
industry, including setting standards for the
manufacture, production, processing, sale,
distribution and price of food;
Set and enforce standards in grading,
sampling, tests, analysis, code of practice,
advertising and packaging of food;
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
69
_____________________________________________
Adopt strategies that require regular
sanitary and hygienic inspections of
food producers and sellers;
Adopt policies and mechanisms
that strengthen the investigation and
prosecution of food hoarders, food
cartels etc.; and
Adopt environmental programs, projects
and strategies that target reforestation,
combat soil erosion, sedimentation
and siltation, control pollution, address
climate change, and undertake geo-
hazard mapping.
The obligation to fulfll (facilitate) the
right to adequate food is the obligation to
actively create conditions to achieve the
full realization of the right to adequate
In partnership with Peoples Development Institute and LGU in
Limay, Bataan, the Department of Trade and Industry provided
livelihood equipments and technology to the Aeta community of
Kinaragan, Brgy. Duale, Limay, Bataan.
_____________________________________________
70
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
food. Examples of the obligation to fulfll
(facilitate) the right to adequate food
include:
Take positive measures to assist
individuals and communities to enjoy
the right to adequate food;
Adopt necessary measures to fully
realize the right to adequate food;
Accord suffcient recognition of the
right to adequate food within national
political and legal systems, preferably
by legislative implementation;
Facilitate improved and sustainable
access to adequate food, particularly in
rural and deprived urban areas; and
Adopt comprehensive and integrated
strategies and programmes to ensure
suffcient and safe food for present and
future generations.
The obligation to fulfll (provide) the right
to adequate food is the obligation to provide
food whenever individuals or groups are
unable to realize their right to adequate food
by the means at their disposal for reasons
beyond their control.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
71
_____________________________________________
Obligations of conduct and of result are also found in:
Core Obligations require states to ensure the
satisfaction of the minimum essential level
of the right to adequate food. Examples of
core obligations include:
Ensure access to minimum essential food
which is nutritionally adequate and safe;
Ensure freedom from hunger for everyone;
Adopt and implement national food
strategy and plan of action;
Ensure adequate food is affordable for
everyone;
Monitor extent of realization, or non-
realization, of the right to adequate food; and
Take measures to prevent food borne
illnesses.
_____________________________________________
72
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Principal Obligation of Progressive
Realization requires states to take steps,
individually and through international
cooperation and assistance, to the maximum
of its available resources, to progressively
achieve the full realization of the right to
adequate food by all appropriate means.
This requires States to move as expeditiously
and effectively as possible to fully realize
the right to adequate food. Retrogressive
measures in relation to the right to adequate
food are prohibited; if any deliberately
retrogressive measures are taken, the State
has the burden of proving that they have been
introduced after most careful consideration
of all alternatives and duly justifed in the
context of full use of maximum available
resources.
Obligation of equality requires states to
ensure both de jure and de facto equality in
the exercise, enjoyment and realization of
the right to adequate food. Examples of the
obligation of equality include:
Pay special attention to women food
producers to enable them to earn a fair
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
73
_____________________________________________
return for their labor in agriculture, fsheries,
forestry, land use, and land reform;
Ensure equality in practice between
women and men in the enjoyment and
exercise of their right to adequate food;
Ensure active participation of women in
the development and implementation of
policies, programs, projects and strategies
related to the right to adequate food;
Take into account the special nutritional
needs of girls and women in the
development and implementation of
policies, programs, projects and strategies
related to the right to adequate food;
Accord access by women heads of
households to poverty reduction and
nutrition programs and projects;
Pay particular attention to the specifc
access to food resources and asset
problems of women;
Promote womens full and equal
participation in the economy;
Provide women with secure and equal
access to, control over, and benefts from
productive resources, including credit,
land, water and appropriate technologies;
_____________________________________________
74
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Promote and protect the security of land
tenure of women;
Channel food assistance via women
to enhance their decision-making role
and ensure that food is used to meet the
households food requirements; and
Monitor the realization of the right to
adequate food of women.
Obligation of nondiscrimination requires
states to guarantee nondiscrimination in
the exercise and enjoyment of the right to
adequate food, without distinction of any
kind, exclusion, restriction or preference
based on race, color, gender, language,
disability, age, religion, political or other
opinion, national or social origin, property,
birth and other status. Examples of the
obligation of nondiscrimination include:
Even in times of severe resource
constraints, protect those most vulnerable
by adopting relatively low-cost targeted
programmes;
Remove de facto discrimination on
prohibited grounds, where individuals
and groups are deprived of the necessary
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
75
_____________________________________________
means or entitlements to enjoy their
right to adequate food;
Give special attention to those individuals
and groups who have traditionally faced
diffculties in exercising their right
to adequate food, including women,
children, minority groups, indigenous
peoples, refugees, asylum seekers,
internally displaced persons, prisoners
and detainees, persons living in poverty,
and persons with disabilities;
Protect indigenous peoples access to
their ancestral lands from encroachment
and unlawful pollution;
Ensure access to adequate food in
camps or in urban and rural areas for
refugees, asylum-seekers, internally
Photo from: google.com
_____________________________________________
76
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
displaced persons and returnees on
the same conditions as the rest of the
population; and
Provide prisoners and detainees with
adequate food for daily nutritional
requirements.
States are also required to conduct their activities with
due regard for the right to adequate food of peoples of
other States. These are referred to as obligations of
international cooperation and assistance, examples of
which include:
Respect the enjoyment of the right to adequate
food in other countries; refrain from actions that
interfere, directly or indirectly, with the enjoyment
of the right to adequate food in other countries;
do not deprive another country of the ability to
realize the right to adequate food for persons in
its jurisdiction;
Refrain at all times from imposing embargoes or
similar measures that prevent the supply of food,
and goods and services essential for securing
the right to adequate food; food should never be
used as an instrument of political and economic
pressure;
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
77
_____________________________________________
Take steps to prevent its own citizens and companies
from violating the right to adequate food of
individuals and communities in other countries;
Depending on availability of resources, facilitate
realization of the right to adequate food in other
countries, (e.g., provide food, fnancial and technical
assistance, and necessary aid when required); assist
poorer developing States;
Provide adequate food in disaster relief and
emergency assistance, including assistance to
refugees and displaced persons in sustainable and
culturally appropriate manner consistent with human
rights standards;
Ensure that the right to adequate food is given due
attention in international agreements; take steps to
ensure that international and regional agreements
do not adversely impact upon the right to adequate
food; trade liberalization agreements should not
curtail or inhibit a countrys capacity to ensure the
full realization of the right to adequate food; and
Members of international fnancial institutions (e.g.,
International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and
regional development banks) should take steps to
ensure that the right to adequate food is taken into
account in lending policies, credit agreements and
other international measures.
_____________________________________________
78
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Session 5: Violations of the Right to Adequate Food
Objectives
At the end of this session, participants should be
able to:
Identify violations of the right to adequate food;
and
Prevent violations of the right to adequate food.
Time
1:00 pm 2:00 pm (Thursday, April 24, 2016)
Description
This session defnes violations of the right to adequate
food, including acts of commission and acts of omission,
and non-compliance with obligations of conduct and of
result related to, and arising from, the right to adequate
food. This session is divided into two activities:
A lecture discussion on the defnition and scope of
violations, acts of commission and omission and
violations of the obligations to respect, protect and
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
79
_____________________________________________
fulfll the right to adequate food. The facilitator shall
respond to questions, comments and concerns raised
by participants.
Following the lecture discussion, participants shall
play a group game, Exercise 8, Violations, Not?,
which asks them to identify a violation of the right to
adequate food, and to consider how best to prevent
the violation or address the situation.
Exercise
Exercise 8: Violations, Not?
Reference
Reference Sheet 4: Violations of the Right to Adequate
Food
Exercise 8: Violations, Not?
Instructions: This exercise asks you to identify a
violation of the right to adequate food and to consider
how best to prevent the violation or address the situation.
The facilitator shall read a series of statements;
participants shall determine whether the situation
_____________________________________________
80
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
described constitutes a violation of the right to adequate
food by lining up behind either of two chairs (one chair
is labeled Violation, the other is labeled Not?).
Participants who identify the wrong answer are penalized.
The punishment requires participants to form a human statue
(position themselves in such a way as to create a human
sculpture) that best refects how they would deal with the
situation. The human statue holds their position until the
other participants correctly guess the action the human statue
is portraying. After creating the human statue, participants
are excluded from playing the rest of the game.
Reference Sheet 4: Violations of the Right to Adequate
Food
The Limburg Principles on the Implementation of the
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights defne a violation of an economic, social and cultural
right (such as the right to adequate food) as the failure of states
to comply with obligations in the International Covenant on
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Examples include:
failure to take a step it is required to take; failure to promptly
remove obstacles it is under a duty to remove; failure to
implement a right without delay which it is required to
implement immediately; willful failure to meet a generally
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
81
_____________________________________________
accepted international minimum standard of achievement,
which is within its powers to meet; application of a limitation
to a right not in accord with the covenant; deliberate retardation
or halting of the progressive realization of a right, unless it is
acting within a permissible limitation or it does so because
of lack of available resources or force majeure; and failure to
submit reports required by the covenant.
11

The Maastricht Guidelines on Violations of Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights defne a violation of an
economic, social and cultural right (such as the right
to adequate food) as an action or omission, policy or
practice that deliberately contravenes or ignores human
rights obligations, or fails to achieve the required standard
of conduct or result, or amounts to discrimination on
any ground with the purpose or effect of nullifying or
impairing the equal enjoyment of human rights.
12

Violations of the right to adequate food occur through the
failure to ensure the satisfaction of, at the very least, the
minimum essential level required to be free from hunger.
However, In determining which actions or omissions
11
Principles 70, 71 and 72, Limburg Principles on the
Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights.
12
Paragraph 11, Part II, Maastricht Guidelines on Violations of
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1997.
_____________________________________________
82
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
amount to a violation of the right to food, it is important to
distinguish the inability from the unwillingness of a State
party to comply. Should a State party argue that resource
constraints make it impossible to provide access to food for
those who are unable by themselves to secure such access,
the State has to demonstrate that every effort has been made
to use all the resources at its disposal in an effort to satisfy, as
a matter of priority, those minimum obligations. A State
claiming that it is unable to carry out its obligation for reasons
beyond its control therefore has the burden of proving that
this is the case and that it has unsuccessfully sought to
obtain international support to ensure the availability and
accessibility of the necessary food.
13
To determine whether a states failure to comply with
an obligation of result constitutes a human rights
violation, one must distinguish the states inability from
its unwillingness. A state that is able, but not willing to
carry out its obligations of result would be in violation
of human rights; but a state that is willing, but not able to
carry out its obligations for reasons beyond its control,
may not be in violation of human rights.
13
General Comment No. 12, The right to adequate food (art
11), adopted by the United Nations Committee on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights at its twentieth session, 1999, U N
Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.9 (Vol. I), 27 May 2008.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
83
_____________________________________________
Violations of the right to adequate food may occur through
acts of commission (direct actions of states or other entities
not suffciently regulated by states) or acts of omission
(failure or omission of a state to take all necessary measures
it is required to take). Violations of the right to adequate
food also arise from failing to comply with the obligations
related to the right to adequate food. Violations of the right
to adequate food include:
Failure to act in good faith to take necessary
and feasible steps to realize the right
to adequate food (non-compliance with
obligation of progressive realization);
Discrimination in access to food, and to means
and entitlements for its procurement, based
on prohibited grounds (non-compliance with
obligation of nondiscrimination);
Formal repeal or suspension of legislation necessary
for continued enjoyment of the right to food (non
compliance with obligation to fulfll-facilitate);
Denial of access to food to particular individuals
or groups, whether discrimination is based on
legislation or is pro-active (non-compliance
with obligation of nondiscrimination);
Prevention of access to humanitarian food aid in
internal conficts or other emergency situations
_____________________________________________
84
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
(non-compliance with obligation to fulfll-
provide);
Adoption of legislation or policies which are
manifestly incompatible with pre-existing
legal obligations relating to the right to food
(non-compliance with obligation to fulfill-
facilitate);
Failure to regulate activities of individuals
or groups to prevent them from violating the
right to food of others (non-compliance with
obligation to protect); and
Failure to take into account international legal
obligations regarding the right to food when
entering into agreements with other States
or with international organizations (non-
compliance with obligations of international
cooperation and assistance).
A word of caution: Violations language should only be
utilized when there exists a legal basis to do so and where
an identifable corresponding legal obligation exists.
14

14
Scott Leckie, Violation of Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights, in Theo C. van Boven, Cees Flinterman and Ingrid
Westendorp (eds.), The Maastricht Guidelines on Violations
of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, SIM Special No. 20,
SIM, Utrecht 1998, at 7.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
85
_____________________________________________
Session 6: The Right to Adequate Food and the
PANTHER Principles
Objectives
At the end of this session, participants should be able to:
Explain the human rights (PANTHER)
principles; and
Apply the human rights (PANTHER) principles
to actions promoting the right to adequate food.
Time
2:00 pm 6:00 pm (Thursday, April 24, 2014)
Description
This session introduces the human rights
PANTHER principles (participation, accountability,
nondiscrimination, transparency, human dignity,
empowerment and rule of law), which should guide
activities promoting the right to adequate food. This
session is divided into fve activities:
The session begins with a group game,
Exercise 9, Whos In, Whos Out?, which
_____________________________________________
86
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
introduces the PANTHER principles, by
focusing on the concepts of inclusion and
exclusion.
After the group game, the facilitators shall
hold an interactive discussion that describes
each of the PANTHER principles and explains
the importance of each principle to the right to
adequate food.
A group game, Exercise 10, Which Principle
Am I?, follows the interactive discussion;
participants shall be asked to identify the
PANTHER principle that is, or should be
applied, to a situation.
After the group game, participants, working
in small groups, shall design activities
that concretely integrate the human rights
(PANTHER) principles in activities to promote
the right to adequate food, by accomplishing
Exercise 11, Integrating PANTHER Principles
in Actions Promoting the Right to Adequate
Food.
All small groups shall then convene in plenary,
where each small group shall present their
PANTHER-related activities. Comments shall
be solicited from other small groups and the co-
facilitators.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
87
_____________________________________________
Exercises
Exercise 9: Whos In, Whos Out?
Exercise 10: Which Principle Am I?
Exercise 11: Integrating PANTHER Principles in
Actions Promoting the Right to Adequate Food
Reference
Reference Sheet 5: The PANTHER Principles
Exercise 9: Whos In, Whos Out?
Instructions: This exercise allows you to
understand the concepts of inclusion and exclusion,
and better appreciate the human rights principles
of participation, accountability, nondiscrimination,
transparency, human dignity, empowerment and rule
of law. The exercise recognizes that there are those
among us who are hungry or are vulnerable to hunger:
in 2011 according to the Food and Nutrition Research
Institute, 69.3 percent of Filipino households are
food insecure: they experience limited or uncertain
availability of safe and adequate food or they have
limited capabilities (financial resources and abilities)
to acquire food.
_____________________________________________
88
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Participants represent those who are hungry or are
vulnerable to hunger. Participants will be asked to group
themselves into smaller groups; those who are not part of
any small group are excluded from the exercise. At the
end of the exercise, excluded participants will be asked
to explain how they felt and why they think they were
excluded.
Exercise 10: Which Principle Am I?
Instructions: This exercise allows you to better
internalize the human rights (PANTHER) principles.
The PANTHER principles are randomly strewn
on floor beside each small working group. The
facilitator will describe a situation and ask
participants to identify the correct PANTHER
principle that isor should beapplied to the
situation. Participants then grab the correct
PANTHER principle and wave it at the facilitator.
The group that correctly answers the most number
of principles wins a prize.
Exercise 11: Integrating PANTHER Principles
in Actions Promoting the Right to Adequate
Food
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
89
_____________________________________________
Reference Sheet 5: The PANTHER Principles
PANTHER is a word that helps one to remember
the human rights principles of participation,
accountability, nondiscrimination, transparency,
human dignity, empowerment and rule of law.
Participation
Participation is a human right as well as a guiding principle
that underpins all human rights. Participation refers to the
right to take part in the conduct of public affairs
15
as well as
to the right to take part in cultural life.
16
As a human rights principle, participation is the full,
effective, active and meaningful involvement in the
15
Article 21, UDHR; Article 25, ICCPR; Articles 7(b), 7(c), 14(2)
(a), Article 14(2)(f), CEDAW; Article 5(c), CERD; Articles 3(c),
26 and 29, CPD; Articles 41(1) and 42(2) CMW; Articles 1, 2(3)
and 8(2), Declaration on the Right to Development; Articles 5,
15 and 18, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples;
Paragraphs 7 and 8, Draft Guiding Principles Extreme poverty
and human rights: the rights of the poor.
16
Article 27, para. 1, UDHR; Article 8, Declaration on the Right to
Development; Articles 17, 18, 19. 21 and 22. ICCPR; Article 15,
ICESCR; General Comment No. 21, Right of Everyone to Take
Part in Cultural Life (art. 15, para. 1(a) of the International Covenant
on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), adopted by the United
Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights at its
forty-third session, 2009, U N Doc. E/C.12/GC/21); Article 5 (e) (vi),
CERD; Article 13 (c), CEDAW; Article 31, para. 2, CRC; Article 30,
para. 1, CPD; Articles 43, para. 1(g), CMW.
_____________________________________________
90
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
conduct of public affairs and in cultural life, which
may be exercised alone or in association with others,
or as a community. Involvement may be direct
17

(e.g., holding public offce, deciding on public issues
through a referendum or elections, taking part in public
hearings, popular assemblies or other government-
created bodies, etc.) or indirect (e.g., freely choosing
representatives, so long as (a) elected representatives
actually exercise governmental power, are accountable
through the electoral process for the exercise of that
power, and exercise only those powers allocated to her/
him in accordance with constitutional provisions,
18
and
(b) representatives of indigenous peoples are chosen
by them according to their own procedures, without
prejudice to their right to maintain and develop their
own indigenous decision-making institutions
19
). But
at all times, involvement must be free (without threat
or sanction, and without unreasonable restrictions
or conditions), voluntary (based on free choice and
17
General Comment 25, Article 25 (Participation in public affairs
and the right to vote), adopted by the United Nations Human
Rights Committee at its ffty-seventh session, 1996, U N Doc.
HRI/GEN/1/Rev.9 (Vol. I), 27 May 2008.
18
General Comment 25, Article 25 (Participation in public affairs
and the right to vote), adopted by the United Nations Human
Rights Committee at its ffty-seventh session, 1996, U N Doc.
HRI/GEN/1/Rev.9 (Vol. I), 27 May 2008.
19
Article 18, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
91
_____________________________________________
without being forced), equal (on same basis as others),
and without discrimination of any kind.
For involvement to be meaningful, there must be equal
opportunity for all to participate at any and all levels of public
and cultural life. Freedom to communicate information and
ideas about public and political issues as well as culture and
the arts, to debate on public affairs and cultural issues, to
hold peaceful demonstrations and assemblies, to criticize
and oppose, to publish political and cultural material and
information, to campaign for and advertise political and
cultural ideas, to organize and choose representatives, and
to seek, develop and share political and cultural knowledge,
information and expressions, must also be guaranteed.
There must also be timely and full access to all relevant
information, in language and media easily understood,
including information technology.
Accountability
Accountability is more than answering to rules, higher
offcials or external means of control, or exercising
self-control, complying with professional ethics, and
acting responsibly. The human rights principle of
accountability is also responsiveness to those most
affected by public decisions, actions and performance,
_____________________________________________
92
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
especially those most vulnerable or most at risk of
exclusion and discrimination. It is fairness in conduct,
treatment and actions. It is the achievement of human
rights objectives and outcomes. It is responsibility not
only for policies, decisions, actions, services, goods and
associated performance but also for the consequences
of these policies, decisions, actions, services, goods and
associated performance. It is inclusiveness, collaborative
with defned processes of genuine, voluntary, active, free
and full participation and involvement. The human rights
principle of accountability is competency, effectiveness,
effciency and professionalism in actions and performance
and timely delivery of resources, institutions, goods and
services implicit in human rights.
20

Nondiscrimination
Nondiscrimination is a human right, an immediate and
crosscutting human rights obligation of the State, and
a guiding principle that underpins all human rights.
Discrimination is any distinction, exclusion, restriction or
preference or other differential treatment that is directly
or indirectly based on prohibited grounds and which
has the intention or effect of nullifying or impairing the
20
National Economic and Development Authority, Human Rights
Based Approach to Development Planning Toolkit, 2011.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
93
_____________________________________________
recognition, enjoyment or exercise on equal footing of
human rights.
21
Discrimination also includes inciting
to discriminate and harassment.
22

Prohibited grounds of discrimination include race, color,
ethnic origin, sex, gender stereotypes, prejudices and
expected roles, language, religion, political or other
opinion, national or social origin, property, birth and
inherited social status,
23
disability, age, nationality,
marital and family status, sexual orientation and gender
identity, health status, place of residency, economic and
social situation, and membership-in-group.
24
21
General Comment No. 20, Nondiscrimination in Economic, Social
and Cultural Rights (art. 2, para. 2), adopted by the United Nations
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights at its forty-
second session, 2009, U N Doc. E/C.12/GC/20.
22
Paragraph 7, General Comment No. 20, Nondiscrimination in
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (art. 2, para. 2), adopted
by the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights at its forty-second session, 2009, U N Doc.
E/C.12/GC/20.
23
Section III, Paragraphs 15 to 35, General Comment No. 20,
Nondiscrimination in Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
(art. 2, para. 2), adopted by the United Nations Committee on
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights at its forty-second session,
2009, U N Doc. E/C.12/GC/20.
24
Section III, Paragraphs 15 to 35, General Comment No. 20,
Nondiscrimination in Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
(art. 2, para. 2), adopted by the United Nations Committee on
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights at its forty-second session,
2009, U N Doc. E/C.12/GC/20.
_____________________________________________
94
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Persons who are discriminated against suffer dishonor;
they are often described in negative and perjorative
terms, derided or made fun of.
To address discrimination in any form, human rights
allow for the adoption of special measures,
25
so long
as these are reasonable, objective and proportional
and are discontinued when substantive equality
has been sustainably achieved.
26
This is because
nondiscrimination does not mean the same (or uniform)
treatment when there are significant differences in the
25
Article 1(4) of the International Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Racial Discrimination, for instance, specifcally authorizes the
adoption and implementation of special measures: Special measures
taken for the sole purpose of securing adequate advancement of certain
racial or ethnic groups or individuals requiring such protection as
may be necessary in order to ensure such groups or individuals equal
enjoyment or exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms
shall not be deemed racial discrimination, provided, however, that such
measures do not, as a consequence, lead to the maintenance of separate
rights for different racial groups and that they shall not be continued
after the objectives for which they were taken have been achieved.
In General Comment 11, the United Nations Committee on the
Rights of the Child recommended the adoption and implementation
of special measures for indigenous children who face multiple forms
of discrimination. See General Comment 11, Indigenous children
and their rights under the Convention, adopted by the United Nations
Committee on the Rights of the Child at its fftieth session, 2009, U N
Doc. CRC/C/GC/11.
26
Paragraph 8(b), General Comment No. 20, Nondiscrimination
in Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (art. 2, para. 2),
adopted by the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social
and Cultural Rights at its forty-second session, 2009, U N Doc.
E/C.12/GC/20.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
95
_____________________________________________
situation between one person or group and another;
there must be an objective and reasonable justifcation
(or reason) for differential treatment.
27
Special
measures may include affrmative or positive action,
special and concrete measures by legislative, executive,
administrative, budgetary and regulatory instruments at
every level of government and preferential regimes.
28
Special measures may be adopted and implemented so
long as these are:
29

Appropriate to the situation to be remedied
(grounded in realistic assessment of the current
situation and based on disaggregated accurate
data and incorporates a gender perspective);
27
General Recommendation XXXII, The meaning and scope
of special measures in the International Convention on the
Elimination of Racial Discrimination, adopted by the United
Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
at its seventy-ffth session, August 2009.
28
General Recommendation XXXII, The meaning and scope
of special measures in the International Convention on the
Elimination of Racial Discrimination, adopted by the United
Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
at its seventy-ffth session, August 2009.
29
General Recommendation XXXII, The meaning and scope
of special measures in the International Convention on the
Elimination of Racial Discrimination, adopted by the United
Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
at its seventy-ffth session, August 2009.
_____________________________________________
96
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Legitimate (solely for the purpose of ensuring
the equal right of everyone to the enjoyment of
human rights);
Necessary in a democratic society;
Undertaken with prior consultation and active
participation of those affected;
Fair and proportional; and
Temporary (terminated once the objectives are
sustainably achieved; the human rights effects of
terminating or stopping a special measure must
be carefully considered, especially if the special
measure was implemented for a long period of
time).
Transparency
Transparency means that all public actions, processes and
decisions are visible, clear and distinct. Transparency
requires that public documents, decisions, rules,
regulations and processes are readily and freely accessible
for everyone, contain complete information, are released
on a timely basis, are written in easily understandable
language and presented in people-friendly forms and
media. Transparency allows all persons to see openly
into the activities of government. Transparency is closely
allied to the human rights principles of participation and
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
97
_____________________________________________
accountability. Transparency requires clear rules and
procedures, available and directly accessible high quality
and complete information, and timely disclosure.
30
Human Dignity
Dignity is what it means to be human; it is an affrmation
of the fundamental value of every human being that
entitles all human persons to respect simply because
of their inalienable humanity.
31
Every human person
possesses no more or no less dignity than another. One
cannot lose dignity; neither can one acquire it: dignity
resides in everyone.
32
The principle of human dignity is the foundation of human
rights. It recognizes the value, worth and uniqueness
30
National Economic and Development Authority, Human Rights
Based Approach to Development Planning Toolkit, 2011.
31
National Economic and Development Authority, Human Rights
Based Approach to Development Planning Toolkit, 2011.
32
Andorno distinguishes the principle of human dignity from what
he calls moral dignity, which relates to conduct or behavior:
It can be said that we give to ourselves this second kind of
dignity by making good moral choices. This is why, unlike
inherent dignity, which is the same for all, moral dignity is not
possessed by all individuals to the same degree. Indeed, we can
say, for instance, that an honest man has more dignity than a
thief. Roberto Andorno, Human dignity and Human Rights as
a Common Ground for a Global Bioethics, Journal of Medicine
and Philosophy, 2009.
_____________________________________________
98
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
of every human person whatever her/his station in life
and so mandates that people never be treated in a way
that denies the distinct importance of their own lives.
33

Humane treatment is a key component of the principle of
human dignity; it requires respectful treatment of every
human person.
34

Empowerment
Empowerment acknowledges and respects the peoples
capacity to think and act freely for and on their own
behalf to create solutions to address their own problems,
control their own destinies and fulfll their potential.
Empowerment emphasizes peoples efforts to realize
their human rights and bring about the necessary changes
to address their situation. Empowerment encourages
people to exercise choice in the face of power relations
and structures in society. Empowerment builds the
capacity of people to engage in the decision making
process.
35
33
Ronald Dworkin, cited in Roberto Andorno, Human dignity and
Human Rights as a Common Ground for a Global Bioethics,
Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 2009.
34
Asian Consortium for Human rights based Access to Justice,
Manual, Pilot Training Workshop, 2011.
35
National Economic and Development Authority, Human Rights
Based Approach to Development Planning Toolkit, 2011.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
99
_____________________________________________
To understand the human rights principle of empowerment, one
must understand power. Power by itself is neither good nor bad;
but how power is exercised or used may lead to either positive
or negative effects. Power is dynamic and fuid and can co-exist
and operate in many forms across times and places. Power may
be covert or hidden (individuals or groups may exert their
power even when they are not physically present and so may
infuence the behavior of others
36
), overt or visible (formal
laws, rules, structures, institutions and procedures of decision-
making and the people who ensure that the rules are kept
37
), or
even invisible (individuals unconsciously controlling their own
behavior to meet social expectations and might involve not being
able to act or not feeling that it is legitimate for them to act
38
);
power is often shaped by laws or policies, and by socialization
and social practices.
39

36
Cecilia Luttrell and Sitna Quiroz with Claire Scrutton and Kate Bird,
Understanding and Operationalising Empowerment, October 2007.
37
Cecilia Luttrell and Sitna Quiroz with Claire Scrutton and Kate Bird,
Understanding and Operationalising Empowerment, October 2007.
38
Cecilia Luttrell and Sitna Quiroz with Claire Scrutton and Kate Bird,
Understanding and Operationalising Empowerment, October 2007.
39
See Cecilia Luttrell and Sitna Quiroz with Claire Scrutton and
Kate Bird, Understanding and Operationalising Empowerment,
October 2007; Kwok-Fu Wong, Empowerment as a panacea
for poverty old wine in new bottles? Refections on the World
Banks conception of power, Progress in Development Studies
3,4 (2003) pp. 307322; Sarah Mosedale, Towards A Framework
For Assessing Empowerment, 2003; John Gaventa, Finding the
Spaces for Change: A Power Analysis, 2005; and John Gaventa,
Participation and Citizenship: Exploring Power for Change, 2007.
_____________________________________________
100
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Power manifests in the relationships among and between
persons, and between persons and institutions. There are
two general models of power:
The zero-sum model of power, where one
persons gain is anothers loss; this model
generally refers to the concept of power over,
or the ability to infuence and coerce, to force
someone or some group to take actions against
their will, or, positively stated, to resist force; it
may include the ability to prevent certain people
or issues from being heard and the ability to
legitimize some voices and discredit or render
others voiceless;
40
and
The non zero-sum models of power where
one persons gain is not necessarily anothers
loss;
41
this model generally refers to the concepts
40
National Economic and Development Authority, Human Rights
Based Approach to Development Planning Toolkit, 2011, citing
Cecilia Luttrell and Sitna Quiroz with Claire Scrutton and Kate
Bird, Understanding and Operationalising Empowerment,
October 2007; Kwok-Fu Wong, Empowerment as a panacea
for poverty old wine in new bottles? Refections on the World
Banks conception of power, Progress in Development Studies
3,4 (2003) pp. 307322; and Sarah Mosedale, Towards A
Framework For Assessing Empowerment, 2003.
41
Sarah Mosedale, Towards a Framework for Assessing
Empowerment, 2003.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
101
_____________________________________________
of power to (or generative and productive
capacity to take action, to organize and change
existing hierarchies
42
), power with (or collective
action to solve problems and attain goals
43
),
and power within (or personal power, emanates
from increased individual consciousness, self-
confdence, self-esteem and self-respect and
involves the development of abilities to overcome
internalized control or oppression
44
).
There are two general approaches to bring about
empowerment: the agency approach, which seeks to
build the capacity of individuals to act independently
and to make their own free choices, and the structural
approach, which seeks to change law, rules and social
forces (e.g., social class, religion, gender, ethnicity,
customs, etc.) that limit or infuence the opportunities
that determine the actions of individuals.
45

42
Ibid.
43
Ibid.
44
Ibid.
45
National Economic and Development Authority, Human Rights
Based Approach to Development Planning Toolkit, 2011, citing
Cecilia Luttrell and Sitna Quiroz with Claire Scrutton and Kate Bird,
Understanding and Operationalising Empowerment, October 2007.
_____________________________________________
102
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Rule of Law
The rule of law is more than a mechanical or narrow
or rigid application of laws and rules; it is equity,
fairness, justice and impartiality in determining
conflicting claims. It is a fair and just legal framework
coupled with impartial and effective implementation.
The principle of the rule of law requires: (a) that
conflicts be resolved impartially, on the basis of fact, in
accordance with law, and without improper influence
or pressure; (b) availability and accessibility of
independent and impartial judicial or administrative
forums to act on conflicts; (c) provision of appropriate
remedies and effective redress mechanisms, including
appeals mechanisms; and (d) inclusion of efficient
monitoring mechanisms to ensure impartial and just
implementation of laws, rules and regulations.
46

The rule of law has nine essential characteristics:
47
46
National Economic and Development Authority, Human Rights
Based Approach to Development Planning Toolkit, 2011.
47
Asian Consortium for Human rights based Access to Justice,
Manual, Pilot Training Workshop, 2011.
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
103
_____________________________________________
Rule of Law
Characteristics
Explanation
Supremacy of the law No one is above the law; those
who make and enforce the law are
themselves bound to adhere to it.
Equality before the law All are equal in the eyes of the law;
all enjoy equality in the law as well
as before the law; all have the same
rights without distinction; law is
equally enforced.
Accountability to the
law
Government and its offcials and
agents are accountable under the law;
offcial action should be consistent
with declared rules.
Fairness in the
application of the law
Disputes are resolved impartially, on
the basis of fact, in accordance with
law and without improper infuence
or pressure; fair and public hearings;
fair and just legal framework.
Separation of power Pre-established and knowable laws
regulate the relationship between the
state and individuals.
Participation in
decision-making
See discussion on participation in
this reference sheet.
Legal certainty The law should be such that people
will be guided by it.
Avoidance of
arbitrariness
Law sets limits or restrictions on the
exercise of discretionary powers.
Procedural and legal
transparency
All are innocent until proven
otherwise; corruption is eliminated;
judges, lawyers and prosecutors
must be competent and with
integrity; governmental authority
is legitimately exercised only in
accordance with written, publicly
disclosed laws adopted and enforced
in accordance with due process.
_____________________________________________
104
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD
Session 7: Proposed Right to Food Framework Act
Time: 9:30 am 10:30 am (Friday, 25 April 2014)
Exercise
Exercise 12:
Reference
Reference Sheet 6
Session 8: Action Planning
Time: 10:45 am 12:00 noon (Friday, 25 April 2014)
Exercise
Exercise 13:
Reference
Reference Sheet 7
_____________________________________________
Training Leaders for Community Empowerment
105
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
106
_____________________________________________
WORKSHOP:
PROMOTING THE RIGHT TO ADEQUATE FOOD