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Pulse-milling:

Wet and dry fractionation


applications of peas, lentils and
chickpeas in gluten-free foods
Mehmet C. Tulbek, Ph.D.
Technical Director
Northern Crops Institute
Fargo, ND
Institute of Food Technologists 2010 Annual Meeting
Gluten-free foods: Opportunities and challenges
DRY PEAS, LENTILS and CHICKPEAS
Base ingredient in gluten free foods
High protein & dietary fiber
Non GMO
Poor allergen
Low glycemic index
COMPOSITION OF PEAS, LENTILS & CHICKPEAS
Dietaryfiber 2535
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WORLD DRY PEA PRODUCTION (MT)
Source: FAOSTAT 2008
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Major Exporters
WORLD LENTIL PRODUCTION (MT)
Source: FAOSTAT 2008
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Major Exporters
WORLD CHICKPEA PRODUCTION (MT)
Source: FAOSTAT 2007
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Major Exporters
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FEASIBLE TO FRACTIONATE ?
Pin Milling, Air Classification and
Fractionation
Lentils and chickpeas
Strong and growing market due to changing
worldwide agricultural practices
Dry peas (yellow)
Price & functional advantages
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GROWER PRICES JULY 16
th
2010
Lentils $ 25-32 / CWT
Chickpeas - $25-30 / CWT
Green peas 8-9.5 / CWT
Yellow peas 6.25-8.00 / CWT
CWT = 100 lbs = 44.5 kg
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LITERATURE OVERVIEW
Pin Milling & Air Classification
Significant research conducted in 1980s
Tyler (1982), Tyler (1984) and Tyler and
Panchuk (1982).
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LITERATURE OVERVIEW
Air classification and protein-starch
fractionation is similar in all pulses except
chickpea (Han and Khan 1990).
High fat content
Based on variety 5-8% fat content
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DRY FRACTIONATION PROCESS
Fractionate protein, starch and fiber components in
dry milling process
Fractionation is conducted based on particle size.
Dehuller
Pin mill / jet mill
Air classification REQUIRED EQUIPMENT
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DRY FRACTIONATION PROCESS
Dehulling
Key process for the removal of 97-98% of the
fiber portion
Dry fractionation
Protein & starch separation
Pin mill OR jet milling
Air classification
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FLOWCHART
Dehulling wholepeas
Pinmilling split(dehulled)
peas
Airclassification split
(dehulled)peaflour
Packaging
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DEHULLING
Removal of outer kernel
Easier to conduct in peas and lentils
Much difficult process in edible beans and
chickpeas due to crop characteristics
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DEHULLING
Impact dehulling
Stone dehulling
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DEHULLING
1000 kg Dry Pea (%9 Hulls)
90 kg pea hulls removed
910 kg dehulled or split peas
Pea hulls are rich in terms of insoluble fiber.
%85 Insoluble fiber
%15 Soluble fiber
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DRY FRACTIONATION
910 kg dehulled or split peas
Pin milled
High speed pulverizer
%100 under 350 mesh (60 micron)
Very fine material
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Pinmill
CourtesyofParticle
ControlLLC
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AIR CLASSIFICATION
Fluidized tower system
Particles in vacuum
Separation based on particle size
2-20 micron - Protein concentrate
20-40 micron Starch concentrate
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Air
Classification
System
CourtesyofParticle
ControlLLC
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Air
Classification
System
Towerand
DustBag
CourtesyofParticle
ControlLLC
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Heavy
Fraction
Starchrich
Flour
CourtesyofParticle
ControlLLC
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Light
Fraction
Proteinrich
Flour
CourtesyofParticle
ControlLLC
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PROCESS OUTCOME
1 MT = 1000 kg
90 kg pea hulls
546 kg starch concentrate
364 kg protein concentrate
Without any moisture loss (theoretical)
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PROCESS OUTCOME
1 MT = 1000 kg
6% moisture loss
940 kg pea flour
84.6 kg pea hulls
513.24 kg starch concentrate
342.16 kg protein concentrate
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Moisture Ash Protein Starch Fiber Lipid APC Mold Yeast
(%) (%) (% dm) (% dm) (%) (%) (CFU/g) (CFU/g) (CFU/g)
Pea hulls 8.2 2.1 2.0 <1.0 >85 0.1 1200 50 20
Split Peas 12.1 2.5 26.5 50.5 1.0 2.2 1000 200 50
Pea Flour 7.2 2.5 26.3 50.1 0.9 2.2 6200 70 30
Starch
Concentrate 9.2 1.7 12.4 73.1 0.8 0.7 820 30 10
Protein
Concentrate 8.7 4.6 53.5 8.0 1.0 2.2 500 200 40
DRY FRACTIONATION
INGREDIENT SPECIFICATIONS
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WET FRACTIONATION PROCESSES
Fractionate protein, starch and fiber components in
dry & wet milling process
Dehuller
Hammer mill
Soaking tanks REQUIRED EQUIPMENT
Decanter
Spray / drum drier
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WET FRACTIONATION PROCESSES
Dehulling
Key process for the removal of 97-98% of the
fiber portion / same as dry fractionation
Wet fractionation
Protein & starch separation high purity
Hammer milling
Soaking and acid-base treatment
Decanter filtration - spray or drum drying
Dehulling wholepeas
Hammermilling split
(dehulled)peas
Soaking split(dehulled)
peaflour(pH=10)
Removalofstarch
&protein
Precipitate
solubilizedprotein
(pH=4.5)
Drying
Starch
&
Protein
Drying
Protein
Packaging
#I #2
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WET FRACTIONATION
1000 kg peas
Dehulling remove 90 kg hulls
910 kg dehulled or split peas
Milling
High speed pulverizer, or hammer mill
%100 under 100 mesh
Fine material
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DEHULLING
Impact dehulling
Stone dehulling
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WET FRACTIONATION
Solubilization of pea proteins, sugars and lipids by
base solution (NaOH solution, pH=10.5-11.0 for 1h.
extraction)
Removal of starch & protein by decanter or
ultrafiltration
Protein can also be held at pH=4.5 for
precipitation
Protein and starch are dried by fluidized bed drier
or spray drier.
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Decanters
Starch &
protein removal
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Decanters
Starch &
protein removal
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Separation
decanters
16 level
99.9% starch and
85%protein purity
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Spray drier
Protein
dehydration -
drying
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Drum drier
Starch
dehydration -
drying
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Moisture Ash Protein Starch Fiber Lipid APC Mold Yeast
(%) (%) (% dm) (% dm) (%) (%) (CFU/g) (CFU/g) (CFU/g)
Pea
hulls 8.2 2.1 2.0 <1.0 >85 0.1 1200 50 20
Split
Peas 12.1 2.5 26.5 50.5 1.0 2.2 1000 200 50
Pea
fiber 10.0 2.2 2.1 <1.0 >85 0.2 6200 70 30
Pea
starch
isolate 11.0 0.1 0.4 >98.0 0.1 0.1 820 30 10
Pea
protein
isolate 11.2 4.2 >85.0 <1.0 1.1 2.1 500 200 40
WET FRACTIONATION
INGREDIENT SPECIFICATIONS
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CHINESE VERMICELLI NOODLE MAKING
Traditional & long process
Mung bean or dry pea
Soaking in tap water
Then acid addition
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CHINESE VERMICELLI NOODLE MAKING
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CHINESE VERMICELLI NOODLE MAKING
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CHINESE VERMICELLI NOODLE MAKING
Liquid starch sent directly to starch
noodle process
Extrusion
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CHINESE VERMICELLI NOODLE MAKING
Starch is gelatinized
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CHINESE VERMICELLI NOODLE MAKING
Drying vermicelli
noodles
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PEA HULLS (PEA FIBER ISOLATE)
GLUTEN FREE END USE
High water binding capacity
Modifies texture
Veggie burges, hamburgers, sausages,
nutritional bars, sauces, fillings, baked
products
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PEA PROTEIN RICH FLOUR
(PEA PROTEIN CONCENTRATE)
High level of functionality,
bioavailability and lysine content.
Bland taste
Good alternative to soy flour/protein
concentrate (Non GMO and non allergen)
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PEA PROTEIN CONCENTRATE
Beverages
Granola bars
Baby foods
Pasta
TVPs
Meat products - sausages
Veggie burgers
Baked goods
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PEA STARCH RICH FLOUR
(PEA STARCH CONCENTRATE)
Rich source of starch (>%72)
Good source of protein (%12)
Acid, retort and shear stable similar to
many modified starches
Improves texture in gluten free baked
products
Increases volume/expansion in extruded
products
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PEA STARCH CONCENTRATE
Pasta
Baked products
Batters and coatings
Extruded snacks
Fillings and dressings
Soups, sauces
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PEA PROTEIN ISOLATE
High level of functionality, bioavailability
and lysine content.
>%85 Protein, %3 Fat, %4 Ash
Good alternative to soy protein isolate
(Non GMO and non allergen)
TVPs, beverages, granola bars, baby
foods, pasta, baked products, dressings,
meat products, veggie burgers
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PEA STARCH ISOLATE
Excellent gel strength and bland taste
>%98 purity
Gelling and film forming properties
Vermicelli noodle
Excellent acid, retort and shear stable similar to
many modified starches
Improves crispness in baked products
Increases volume/expansion in extruded products
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CONCLUSION
Pin milling, air classification and wet fractionation
processes can be used in dry pea, lentil and chickpea
processing.
Raw material availability, sustainability and price
Dry yellow peas can be utilized based on market
needs
Vermicelli noodles, TVPs
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THANK YOU
Mehmet Caglar Tulbek, Ph.D.
Technical Director
Northern Crops Institute
North Dakota State University
1240 Bolley Dr. Fargo, ND 58102
Phone: 701-231-5493
Fax: 701-231-7235
Email: mehmet.tulbek@ndsu.edu
http://www.northern-crops.com

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