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MH370 1AC

Explanation
Glossary of terms
Background info:

As you have very likely heard, a flight called MH370 departed from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on March
8
th
, 2014. It was headed for Beijing. It has never been located.

Many countries were involved in the initial search for MH370 including the United States. The Aff
argues that when the US was involved in the search, it used technology that was inadequate for the
task. It specifically used technology that could not search at the great depths of the Indian Ocean. The
Aff also argues that as the search moved from days to months the US has significantly decreased it
commitment to finding the plane.

The goal of the Aff is to have the US resume its commitment to the search and to use better
technology the 2
nd
time around.
Terms in the plan texts that you need to know:

MH370:

The MH in MH370 stands for Malaysia Airlines. MH is the designator code assigned by the
International Air Transport Association (IATA) to Malaysia Airlines. Such two-letter codes are assigned
to all of the world's airlines. 370 is the flight #.

Orion:

Suppose a search and rescue operation is divided into two parts:
Part One searching/mapping the general area for the plane and;
Part Two once theres a possible hit, diving deep in the Ocean for a closer look. This may
mean taking an up-close look at debris that is potentially related to (or has clues regarding)
Flight MH 370.

Orion is the Part One. It is a US Navy-owned towed side scan sonar system. This means Orion is placed
on the side of a vessel on the ocean and it uses sonar to determine the location and depth of objects.
FWIW, the word sonar is originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging and it is a
technique that uses sound to detect objects

CURV-21:

CURV is the 2
nd
part. It is an acronym standing for Cable-controlled Undersea Recovery Vehicle-21.
CURV is a Remotely Operated Vehicle (an underwater drone) that can go to great depths.

Orion and CURV-21 can be combined into a single integrated search & recovery system.



Background and Thesis for this Advantage

The word topography means a field of science comprising the study of surface shape and features of
the Earth. Seafloor topography means the study of the shapes, twists, turns, and features on the
floor of an ocean.

The basic gist of this advantage is that humanity does not know very much about the bottom of the
Indian Ocean the area where most believe Flight 370 stands to be located.

Even if the aff does not locate MH370, the process of mapping the ocean floor could be of great benefit
to science and humanity. Topographic knowledge could be quite useful for scientific matters totally
unrelated to the missing flight.

Better put this advantage defends the idea that more knowledge = good it can help humanity
better prepare for tsunamis and underwater earthquakes. It can help humanity better understand the
climate, ecosystems, fishing habitats, etc. All of that knowledge can drive more informed actions by the
public, by science, or by government.




CT1 - Inherency
Contention One Inherency
US had deployed sonar searches for Flight 370, but will now bail. Search will
shift to other countries and private contractors.

Siegel 14
Matt Siegel, Senior Political and General News Correspondent for Thomson Reuters based in Australia.
United States the first country to scale back its spending on costly Flight MH370 search, source says
Reuters April 30, 2014 http://news.nationalpost.com/2014/04/30/united-states-the-first-country-to-scale-back-its-
spending-on-costly-flight-mh370-search-source-says/
With the search for missing Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 entering a new, much longer phase, the countries involved
must decide how much they are prepared to spend on the operation and what they stand to lose if they
hold back. The search is already set to be the most costly in aviation history and spending will rise significantly as underwater drones
focus on a larger area of the seabed that Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott said on Monday could take six to eight months to search. But
despite U.S. President Barack Obama publicly promising to commit more assets, the United States appears keen
to begin passing on the costs of providing sophisticated sonar equipment that will form the backbone
of the expanded hunt. That means Australia, China and Malaysia the countries most closely involved in the
operation look set to bear the financial and logistical burden of a potentially lengthy and expensive search. Were already at
tens of millions. Is it worth hundreds of millions? a senior U.S. defence official asked last week. I dont know. Thats for them to
decide. He made it clear that Washington was intent on spending less from now on , making it the first
major donor country to scale back its financial commitment to the search. Were not going to pay to
perpetually use the equipment on an indefinite basis. Basically from here on out starting next week
or so they need to pick up the contract, he said. At least $44 million was spent on the deployment of military ships and
aircraft in the Indian Ocean and South China Sea in the first month of the search, about the same as was spent on the whole underwater search
for Air Frances Flight AF447, which crashed into the Mid-Atlantic in 2009. The Malaysian jetliner carrying 239 people disappeared en route
from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing more than seven weeks ago, and huge surface and underwater searches have failed to solve the mystery of what
happened. That mystery has major implications for airline manufacturers such as Boeing, which builds the 777 model that crashed and is
awaiting a verdict as to what went wrong. Malaysia is leading an investigation into the crash, but Australia has a key role in coordinating the
hunt since the plane is believed to have crashed in its search and rescue zone. Abbott said finding any wreckage on the ocean surface was now
highly unlikely and Australia would forge ahead with the upcoming phase of the search despite it likely costing A$60-million. He added that
while private companies under contract to Australia would soon be taking over from the military assets
dispatched in the wake of the crash, he would be seeking some appropriate contribution from other nations.

The US has specifically ended subsurface surveys phasing-out Bluefin
searches.

Telegraph May 5
th

2014 The Telegraph is a daily morning broadsheet newspaper, published in London and distributed throughout the United
Kingdom and internationally MH370: we won't give up search for Malaysia Airlines jet, governments pledge May 5
th
, 2014
This was originally a Reuters report http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/malaysia/10808532/MH370-we-
wont-give-up-search-for-Malaysia-Airlines-jet-governments-pledge.html
No trace of Flight MH370 has been found since it vanished on a scheduled service from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing on
March 8, despite the most intensive search in commercial aviation history. A majority of the 239 people on board were
Chinese nationals. Experts have narrowed the search area where the plane is presumed to have crashed to a large arc of the Indian Ocean
about 1,000 miles northwest of the west Australian city of Perth. But after weeks of scouring millions of square kilometres without finding any
sign of debris, Australian authorities have called off the air and surface search. A new search phase costing around A$60 million (33m)
will begin after existing visual and sonar search data is analysed and a contractor is found to lease the
sophisticated equipment needed, the officials said after meeting in Canberra. Financial responsibility is a major focus of the talks
and Australian Deputy Prime Minister Warren Truss seemed to open the door to Boeing, which produced the 777-200ER jet, and engine maker
Rolls-Royce, to contribute financially. "They also have a vested interested in what happened on MH370 so they can be confident about the
quality of their product, or take remedial action if there was some part of the aircraft that contributed to this accident," he told reporters. "So, I
think we will be looking for increasing involvement from the manufacturers, and their host countries." Last week, Malaysia released its most
comprehensive account yet of what happened to Flight MH370, detailing the route the plane probably took as it veered off course and the
confusion that followed. The officials have said the new focus will be on 24,000 sq mile of seabed in the Indian Ocean that could take eight
months or more to search. U.S. President Barack Obama had publicly promised to commit more assets, but
government sources say the United States is keen to begin passing on the costs of providing the expensive
sonar equipment the officials say they are trying to source. The United States said over the weekend that it would only
contribute its sophisticated Bluefin -21 underwater drone for one more month, placing pressure on
Australia, China and Malaysia to find funding for the next phase of the search. "At the request of the
Australian Government, the U.S. Navy will continue supporting the MH370 subsurface search effort with
the Bluefin-21 side scan sonar for approximately 4 more weeks," U.S. Navy Commander William Marks of the 7th Fleet said.
For now the search is on hold as the Ocean Shield, an Australian naval vessel carrying the drone, resupplies and conducts
maintenance at a military base in Western Australia. The officials will meet again in Canberra on Wednesday, they said, where they will begin
thrashing out the details of how to proceed and who precisely will shoulder the costs of doing so.

(Note to students: Bluefin or Bluefin-21 is the name of an underwater drone. The US ended Bluefin
searches for Flight 370 in late May. The Aff will argue that Bluefin searches have not only stopped but
that they werent suitable technology in the first place. Bluefin is designed to search at depths of 14,700
feet which is not deep enough for this area of the Southern Indian Ocean. The US pushed Bluefin to
go a little deeper by some reports up to 18,000 feet. Technical problems ensued. Orion/CURV is
designed to go 20,000 feet deep. Ocean Shield internally referenced is the name of the
Australian vessel that carries such equipment. In April, Australia assumed a lead role in the search).



Plan text


Plan The United States federal government should deploy the integrated Orion-CURV-21 system on a
non-military search and recovery mission to locate MH Flight 370.

Advantage One Seafloor Topography

The Advantage is Seafloor Topography
Science has much to learn about Oceans. 370s search zone holds unique
knowledge gaps vital for better forecasting of deep water oceans

Smith & Marks 14
Walter H.F. Smith is a Geophysicist in NOAA's Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry and Chair of the scientific and technical sub-
committee of GEBCOthis link opens in a new window, the international and intergovernmental committee for the General
Bathymetric Charts of the Oceans. Smith earned a B.Sc. at the University of Southern California, M.A., M.Phil. and Ph.D. degrees
at Columbia University, and was a post-doctoral fellow at the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics of the Scripps
Institution of Oceanography before joining NOAA in 1992. Karen Marks has worked as a Geophysicist since 1990 at the NOAA
Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.
She received a B.S. in Geology from the University of Florida, an M.S. in Geophysics from Boston College, and a Ph.D. in
Geophysics from the University of Houston, with a dissertation on the geophysics of the Australian-Antarctic Discordance Zone.
Eos, Vol. 95, No. 21, May 27th 2014 Full Journal Title is: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union. It is a weekly
magazine of geophysics. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014EO210001/pdf
The depths in Figure 1 are from GEBCO [2010], which uses satellite altimetry to interpolate gaps between ship survey data publicly available in
open sources [Smith and Sandwell, 1994, 1997]. The accuracy of the positions and depths in these survey data limits the accuracy of the
satellite estimates. In addition, depth estimates from satellite altimetry are most accurate where the seafloor
topography is moderate and composed of oceanic crust overlain by less than 200 meters of sediment [Smith and Sandwell,
1994]. Whittaker et al. [2013] estimate sediment thicknesses in the area varying from 12 meters to 1.5 kilometers,
and Deep Sea Drilling Project site 256 (gray dot in Figure 1) found 251 meters of sediment [Davies et al., 1974]. The seabed in the
MH370 search area records a complex geologic history of the breakup of Australia, India, and Antarctica
approximately 130 million years ago [Williams et al., 2013a]. The shallowest depth in the area shown in Figure 1 is about 237
meters on Broken Ridge, a structure related to the separation of Australia and Antarctica whose conjugate, the Kerguelen Plateau, lies on the
Antarctic plate. Within the acoustic search zone of Figure 1, the shallowest depth is about 1637 meters at the summit of Batavia Plateau. The
deepest point in the area shown also lies within the acoustic search zone, where the trough of the Wallaby- Zenith Fracture Zone plunges to an
estimated 7883 meters, just south of the Zenith Plateau. These plateaus are fragments of continental crust, leftovers of Indo-Australian
continental breakup [Williams et al., 2013b], and are embedded in old, deep seafloor. The search for airplane debris in the open
ocean is not without precedent: On 1 June 2009, Air France flight AF447 disappeared over the Atlantic
Ocean. However, the present search for missing Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 takes place under very different
circumstances. When AF447 disappeared, there was little doubt about where it would be found. The
flight had not deviated significantly from its intended path from Rio de Janeiro to Paris, and the aircraft was routinely sending messages
monitoring the health of its flight systems along with its position. Warning and failure messages generated by these systems in the last few
minutes of flight helped to locate the crash site, and a surface search there found floating debris and fuel slicks the very next day. In addition,
the AF447 crash site was in an area already 100% covered by a previous state-of-the-art bathymetric
survey (MBES and GPS), and this knowledge of the undersea terrain helped searchers select and program
autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to search for the black boxes. Even so, they were not recovered until nearly 2 years after the crash. In
comparison, the MH370 crash site is very poorly known. There are no measured depths in public
databases at the locations where ping contacts were reported. Satellite altimetry estimates that depths at the
Chinese and Australian contact locations are about 4300 and 5160 meters, respectively, but these estimates are quite uncertain and might
be in error by approximately 250 meters or more. Selecting an appropriate AUV and programming its search path require knowledge of the
terrain. A Bluefin 21 AUV initially deployed over Zenith Plateau to search for debris, for example, was not designed
to operate at depths below 4500 meters. Lack of knowledge of seafloor topography has other
consequences . Bottom topography steers surface currents [Gille et al., 2004] while bottom roughness controls ocean mixing rates [Kunze
and Llewellyn Smith, 2004], and poor knowledge of these characteristics limits the accuracy of forecasts of
everything from the path of floating debris to the path of tsunamis [Mofjeld et al., 2004] and the future of climate [Jayne et al.,
2004]. The state of knowledge of the seafloor in the MH370 search area, although poor, is typical of that in most of Earths oceans, particularly
in the Southern Hemisphere. In many remote ocean basins the majority of available data are celestially navigated analog measurements [Smith,
1993] because systematic exploration of the oceans seems to have ceased in the early 1970s [Smith, 1993, 1998; Wessel and Chandler, 2011],
leaving the ocean floors about as sparsely covered as the interstate highway system covers the United States [see Smith and Sandwell, 2004,
Figure 2]. When these sparse soundings are interpolated by satellite altimetry, as in Figure 1, the resulting knowledge of seafloor topography is
15 times worse in the horizontal and 250 times worse in the vertical than our knowledge of Martian topography [Smith, 2004]. Although a new
bathymetric satellite altimeter mission could improve this situation significantly [Smith and Sandwell, 2004], ships with echo
sounders remain the best technology for ocean mapping . The global ocean deeper than 500 meters (that is, deeper
than the continental shelves) could be fully surveyed with state-of-the art navigation and acoustic multibeam systems with a total effort of
about 200 ship-years of vessel activity at a total cost less than that of a typical planetary exploration mission [Carron et al., 2001]. Until there is
such an effort, knowledge of Earths ocean floors will remain limited to the resolution available from satellite altimetry, which is vastly poorer
than our knowledge of the topographies of Earths Moon, Mars, and Venus. Perhaps the data collected during the search for
MH370 will be contributed to public databanks and will be a start of greater efforts to map Earths ocean
floor.

(Note to students: Air France flight, or AF447, was a 2009 flight that departed from Rio de Janeiro in
transit to Paris. It crashed near the coast of Brazil. It took about two years to recover the bulk of the
wreckage. As you read about this Aff, youll notice that references in AF447 come-up frequently. It is
worth noting that science was much more familiar with the seafloor topography of area of the Atlantic
Ocean where AF447 crashed. The phrase AUV appears in this card. It means autonomous
underwater vehicle. Bluefin and CURV are examples of autonomous underwater vehicles. Tsunamis
for those unfamiliar are tidal waves.)

This knowledge boosts information for marine conservation.

Amos 14
Jonathan Amos, BBC Science Correspondent internally quoting Walter H.F. Smith and Karen Marks. Both are expert
Geophysicists at the NOAA MH370 spur to 'better ocean mapping' BBC News May 27
th
, 2014
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-27589433
Drs Walter Smith and Karen Marks have assessed the paucity of bathymetric data in the region in an article for EOS
Transactions, the weekly magazine of the American Geophysical Union. The pair work for the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (Noaa). They say only two publically accessible data-acquisition sorties have been conducted close to where search vessels
made possible black box detections, and "both expeditions occurred prior to the use of modern multibeam echo sounders, so depth
measurements were collected by single, wide-beam echo sounders that recorded on analogue paper scrolls, the digitizing of which is often in
error by hundreds of metres". Modern MBES uses GPS to precisely tie measurements to a particular location. The equipment can not only sense
depth very accurately (to an error typically of 2%), but can also return information on seafloor hardness - something that would be important in
looking for wreckage in soft sediment. Just 5% of a vast region, 2,000km by 1,400km, which includes the search locality, has any sort
of direct depth measurement, Smith and Marks say. The rest - 95% - is covered by maps that are an interpolation of satellite
data. These have a resolution no better than 20km. Maps of the arid surface of Mars are considerably
better. "The state of knowledge of the seafloor in the MH370 search area, although poor, is typical of that in most of Earth's oceans,
particularly in the Southern Hemisphere," the pair write. "In many remote ocean basins the majority of available data are celestially navigated
analogue measurements because systematic exploration of the oceans seems to have ceased in the early 1970s, leaving the ocean floors about
as sparsely covered as the interstate highway system covers the United States. "When these sparse soundings are interpolated by satellite
altimetry, the resulting knowledge of seafloor topography is 15 times worse in the horizontal and 250 times worse in the vertical than our
knowledge of Martian topography." Smith and Marks hope that the detailed survey work now being conducted in the search for MH370 will be
a catalyst to gather better data in other parts of the globe. High-resolution bathymetry has myriad uses. "Better
knowledge of the ocean floor means better knowledge of fish habitats. This is important for marine
conservation, and could help us find biological resources including new medicines ," Dr Smith told BBC
News.

(Note to students Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors. Medicinal
biodiversity is the idea that plants and animals have information in their genetic codes that could be of
use when humanity confronts a disease).

Such knowledge is key to conservation. That checks overfishing in Southern
Indian Ocean which hurts Seamounts and kills fish stocks.

I.U.C.N. 13
The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources or IUCN is the world's oldest and largest global
environmental network. IUCN supports scientific research, and brings governments, non-government organizations, United
Nations agencies, companies and local communities together to develop and implement policy. IUCN features almost 11,000
volunteer scientists in more than 160 countries. IUCN's work is supported by more than 1,000 professional staff in 60 offices
and hundreds of partners in public, NGO and private sectors around the world. This is a joint publication lead by IUCN with
support from The Global Environment Facility and The United Nations Development Programme Seamounts Project: An
Ecosystem Approach to Management of Seamounts in the Southern Indian Ocean available at:
http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/Environment%20and%20Energy/Water%20and%20Ocean%20Governance/Se
amounts_Project.pdf.
The global depletion of inshore and continental shelf fisheries, coupled with improvements in fishing technology and
growing demand for seafood, has led commercial operators to fish further out and deeper into the
oceans. Some of these fisheries are in oceanic waters beyond national exclusive economic zones (EEZs), where
they are subject to weak or sometimes no regulation. Seamounts and other complex, raised seabed features in the open ocean are
often hotspots of biological diversity and production. Some attract concentrations of commercially-
important pelagic fish, such as tuna, and concentrations of animals such as cetaceans, seabirds, sharks and pinnipeds.
Seamounts also host deep-water fish species, such as orange roughy or alfonsino, that are highly attractive to commercial
operators. The limited knowledge of seamount-associated fauna to date indicates that many species grow and reproduce slowly and are
therefore much more vulnerable to overexploitation. Evidence has shown that deep-sea bottom fisheries can cause depletion of
commercially-important fish stocks in just a few years and irreparable damage to slow-growing deep-seabed communities of
cold water corals, sponges and other animals. While seamounts in temperate regions around developed countries have
been visited for research, those in more remote regions remain nearly unexplored. This is particularly
true for the Southern Indian Ocean, for which the few biological data that exist come almost exclusively from the deep-sea
fishing industry or from national fisheries research programs prospecting for exploitable fish stocks. Furthermore, these data are not available
to the public for reasons of commercial confidentiality. The Southern Indian Ocean remains the most significant gap
in current knowledge of global seamount ecology and biodiversity. Thus, conservation and
management of marine biodiversity based on precautionary and ecosystem approaches is hampered by a lack of
fundamental scientific knowledge and understanding of seamount ecology and their relations to benthic and pelagic
fish species of commercial interest. Seamounts, underwater mountains rising from the ocean floor, are found in
all oceans of the world and are abundant features of the seafloor. They are known to be hotspots of biological diversity
and production, and are important for marine biodiversity and the status of marine food webs. Migratory fish and
cetaceans rely on seamounts as well for their food supply. Limited knowledge of seamount-associated fauna to
date indicates that many species grow and reproduce slowly, thus are highly vulnerable to overexploitation.


(Notes to students. Seamounts are underwater mountains that dont rise to the surface. They tend to
be home to great marine biodiversity and spawning grounds for fish. Fauna is the animal life of a
region EEZ is an important term on the oceans topic. It stands for Exclusive Economic Zone. In
theory the oceans belong to everyone In practice, disagreements were emerging over where a
nations water ended. To help resolve this, the UN Law of the Sea created exclusive economic zones
that extend out to 200 nautical miles from the coast of a country. A country has special rights over the
exploration and use of waters within its EEZ. This Aff module argues that, because of overfishing near
their coasts, some nations are leaving EEZs for commonly-held ocean territory. Those territories both
have greater biodiversity and more fish that could be caught.)

Regional governments willing to enforce but better topographic knowledge
is key to expand enforcement from national EEZs to the open Indian Ocean.

Glemarec 8
Yannick Glemarec, Executive Coordinator for the The United Nations Development Programme-Global Environment Facility. He
also holds Doctorate Degree in Environmental Sciences from the University of Paris VII. This evidence is from the Explanation of
Project Components from Applying an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management: focus on seamounts in the
southern Indian Ocean August 28
th
available at:
http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/gef_prj_docs/GEFProjectDocuments/International%20Waters/Global%20-
%20Pilot%20Mgt%20Project%20on%20Seamounts%20&%20Shallow%20Banks%20in%20the%20Western%20Indian%20Ocean/
08-28-08%20ID3138%20PIF%20document.doc.
2. Seamounts and other topographical seabed features in the open ocean are hotspots of biological diversity and
production. They also host concentrations of commercial pelagic fish (e.g. tuna) as well as deep-water fish species (e.g. Orange
Roughy) that attract commercial fishing activities. The limited knowledge of seamount-associated fauna to date indicates that
many species grow and reproduce slowly, thus are much more vulnerable to overexploitation. Evidence has shown that deep-sea bottom
fisheries can cause irrevocable depletion of commercially-important fish populations in just a few years, and irreparable damage to slow-
growing deep-seabed communities of cold water corals, sponges and other animals. 3. While seamounts in temperate regions
around developed countries have been visited for research, those in more remote regions remain nearly
unexplored. This is particularly true for the southern Indian Ocean, for which the little biological data that exist
comes almost exclusively from the deep-sea fishing industry or from national fisheries research programs prospecting for exploitable fish
stocks. The southern Indian Ocean remains the most significant gap in current knowledge of global
seamount ecology and biodiversity. Thus, conservation and management of marine biodiversity based on precautionary and ecosystem
approaches is hampered by lack of fundamental scientific knowledge and understanding of seamount ecology and their relations to benthic and
pelagic fish species of commercial interest. 4. In addition, no governance body yet has the mandate to conserve and manage deep-sea
ecosystems in the southern Indian Ocean. The Southern Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement (SIOFA) is not yet in force, and the only agreement
currently in force in the region, the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC), applies to the conservation and management of tuna and tuna-like
species. Although States fishing in the area have duties linked to international obligations including UN General Assembly (UNGA) resolution
61/105 on sustainable fisheries and its paragraph 80 on protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems seamounts in the southern Indian Ocean
are in effect left unregulated. The only large-scale conservation initiative for seamounts in the southern Indian Ocean came from within the
industry, the Southern Indian Ocean Deepwater Fishers Association (SIODFA), which, in 2006, voluntarily set aside 11 Benthic Protected Areas
(BPAs). While this represents an important step forward, it also highlights the urgent need for accurate and independent baseline data against
which to evaluate the effectiveness of these BPAs for biodiversity and fisheries conservation. 5. The combination of the lack of understanding of
important oceanic features such as seamounts and their interactions with commercial fish species and the existing gap in the high seas marine
biodiversity governance and regulatory system poses major threats to marine species and their habitat. These gaps can allow unregulated and
unreported activities, overexploitation and pollution of marine resources and destruction of benthic habitats. 6. While there are
initiatives under way which address problems of fisheries management in the nearshore waters within
EEZs, as yet there has been negligible analyses of offshore ecosystems and use of these analyses to develop
appropriate management options and an overarching governance framework. While the concept of
precautionary and ecosystem based approaches to fisheries management has gained broad support
in recent years, the lack of information on seamount ecosystems has prevented full application of
this concept to deep-sea systems in the high seas , a gap the proposed project seeks to address.

(Note to students: this card gives a nice example of how additional scientific info might solve. Better
understanding of this area might help guide which areas could be prioritized for marine protection.
Seamounts, for example, might get more legal protection.)

Overfished Indian Ocean puts one-billion lives at risk due to malnutrition.
Other oceans cant check and the trend-from EEZ fishing is starting now.

Michel 12
et al; David Michel is the Director of the Environmental Security program at The Stimson Center.
From Chapter Seven: Natural Resources in the Indian Ocean: Fisheries and Minerals; from the book: Indian Ocean Rising:
Maritime Security and Policy Challenges, edited by David Michel July, 2012; p. 104-110 available electronically at:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/109707433/Indian-Ocean-Rising-Maritime-Security-and-Policy-Challenges
Commercial and artisanal fisheries sustain the livelihoods of more than 38 million people worldwide.1 In the Indian Ocean, fish production increased
drastically from 861,000 tons in 1950 to 11.3 million tons in 2010. But while other world oceans are nearing their fisheries limit, the
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) judges that, in certain areas, the Indian Ocean's resources have the potential to sustain
increased production." The countries of the east Indian Ocean represent a significant proportion of
world fisheries, although most commercial and artisanal activity takes place in coastal zones rather than in deep water.1 The east Indian Ocean is home to 45 percent of the
world's fishers and brings in catches of 7 million tons of fish per year, or 8 percent of total world fish production. Most of this catch is harvested close to shore,
placing so much strain on coastal stocks that fishers have been forced to venture further out to sea
and even into the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of neighboring nations. Even so, this trend of fishing far from
shore is still in its early stages. Deepwater catches represent less than 6 percent of total catches in
Indonesia and 10 percent in Malaysia, for example.1 Given the overexploitation and overcrowding of coastal fisheries, deepwater fish stocks represent a
potential new frontier for commercial and artisanal fisheries in the region. The west Indian Ocean is also characterized by overfishing and growing
exploitation of deepwater fisheries.'' From 2000 to 2001 alone, total catches increased by 2.2 percent, representing a 10.6 percent increase over the previous decade." Most of this
change has been driven by the increasing exploitation of deepwater fisheries by non-littoral states such
as Spain, Taiwan, Japan, France, and Uruguay. Due to the overfishing of coastal stocks, many west Indian Ocean countries plan to expand their semi-
industrial and industrial national fleets to new fishing grounds in their EEZs. According to the FAO, most southwest Indian Ocean countries' fisheries have the potential to contribute a larger
percentage of littoral states' GDP.8 The northwest Indian Ocean region has witnessed concerted government efforts to promote the fisheries industry, yet suffers from an overall lack of
fisheries management.9 Many countries in the region offer subsidies to fishers in order to boost development. The results have been mixed, however. Despite significantly increased fishing
since 1990, actual catches have grown by only 12.3 percent. Catch limits are rare. Where they do exist, limits generally apply only to industrial fisheries, not the artisanal fishers who made up
80 percent of reported landings in 2002. The absence of sustainable fisheries management policies and declining stocks have reduced both commercial and artisanal fisheries in the northwest
Indian Ocean. In addition, oil fires and weapons debris have polluted the ocean in this conflict-prone region, further degrading its fisheries.10 Australia is unique among the countries in the
Indian Ocean region in that it has developed strict management controls and limits the exploitation of its fish stocks, resulting in a healthy fisheries industry." From 2000 to 2001, the total fish
catch from the Indian Ocean areas of Australia was 36,290 tons, representing 15.8 percent ofthe total catch for Australian fisheries. About 651 commercial vessels and 28,000 artisanal fishers
operated in Australia's Indian Ocean waters during this period. As a result of successful management policies, the number of fish stocks classified as overfished or at risk of overfishing dropped
from 24 in 2005 to 18 in 2008.12 Polymetallic nodules and polymetallic massive sulphides are the two mineral resources of primary interest to developers in the Indian Ocean. Polymetallic
nodules are golf-to-tennis ball-sized nodules containing nickel, cobalt, iron, and manganese that form over millions of years on the sediment of the seafloor. Typically found at four to five km in
water depth, the nodules must be scooped up and brought to the surface. While polymetallic nodules cover vast plains, polymetallic massive sulphides form in highly localized sitesno bigger
than a sports stadiumalong hot springs in underwater volcanic ranges. "Massive" refers not to their size but to their mineral content, which contains copper, iron, zinc, silver, and gold.
Sulphides are formed w7hen cold, heavy seawater descends deep into the earth's crust and is heated by the magma. When the heated water buoyantly rises to the surface, it precipitates
metals from the seawater and concentrates the minerals in deposits beneath and on the sea floor. India received exclusive rights to explore polymetallic nodules in the Central Indian Ocean
basin in 1987. Since then, it has explored four million square miles and established two mine sites. To be commercially attractive, nodule deposits must have a content of nickel and copper of
at least 2.25 percent and a nodule density of 10 kg per square meter." Because of their gold content and greater copper composition, more recent commercial inquiries have focused on
polymetallic massive sulphides. In July 2011, China was awarded the right to explore a 10,000 km2 polymetallic sulphide ore deposit in the Indian Ocean. Nevertheless, major obstacles have
prevented sulphide deposits from being commercially viable in the past. Their local concentration makes finding them particularly difficult." Seafloor deposits also tend to be much smaller
than those onshore (seafloor deposits usually are one to five megatons, whereas onshore deposits can reach 50 to 60 megatons).1' Furthermore, deep-sea deposits, which typically have a 0.2
percent concentration of rare earth minerals, pale in comparison to onshore Chinese concentrations of ore deposits, which can have 5 to 10 percent concentrations.16 Other minerals in the
Indian Ocean include coastal sediments containing titanium and zirconium off South Africa and Mozambique, and tin placer deposits off the coasts of Myanmar, Thailand, and Indonesia. South
Africa is the second largest producer of titanium dioxide and zircon in the world, largely due to its heavy mineral sands.' Tin dredged from this area amounts to 10 percent of world production
and is worth about $100 million.Is Elsewhere, heavy mud in the Atlantis II site in the Red Sea contains 94 million tons of ore, including 1.8 million tons of zinc and 425,000 tons of copper. These
muds are licensed to Canadian firm Diamond Fields International and Saudi Arabian group Manafa.19 According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), over the next 30 years
more than 6.3 billion people will move to already crowded coastal zones.20 Such demographic growth has spurred artisanal fisheries in the Indian Ocean. Expanding middle class populations in
China and other countries boost the demand for luxury fish such as bluefin tuna and shark fins, driving the overexploitation of those species.21 A global shortage of fish
is projected in the future. The FAO reports that 47 percent of global fish stocks are already fully exploited, while
another 18 percent are overexploited.22 Rising rates of pollution increasingly threaten Indian Ocean fisheries. Coastal fisheries are particularly vulnerable to
agricultural run-off, sewage, and construction. Invasive species have spread as a result of the practice of dumping ballast water from ships.25 Further, shipping lanes in the Indian Ocean are a
main artery of the global energy trade, heightening the risk of oil spills as demand for fossil fuels increases in emerging economies throughout the region. In 2010, scientists discovered plastic
debris in all 12 water samples taken over the 3,000 miles of ocean between Perth, Australia, and Port Louis, Mauritius.21 Deepwater fishing practices such as bottom trawling have also
seriously damaged the ecosystems of continental shelves and slopes by leveling the sea bed, kicking up clouds of sediment, destroying coral, and generating huge amounts of bycatch (species
which are swept up in fishing nets but thrown away because they lack commercial value). Meanwhile, fishing gear jettisoned or lost at sea continues to attract and ensnare fish for years after
it is discardeda process known as ghost fishing.2' Mining activity can also endanger marine organisms. Mining polymetallic nodules substantially disturbs the top few centimeters of
sediment, leading to a mortality rate of 95 to 100 percent for macro fauna dwelling in marine tracks. Discharge of waste water from ships mining polymetallic nodules or massive sulphides also
poses concerns. When these ships eject seawater after extracting its mineral content, the waste frequently contains trace metals, which interferes with the penetration of light through the top
layer of seawater and reduces photosynthesis in surface layers. Temperature differences in the discharged and surrounding seawater also threaten life dwelling in the top layers of the
ocean.26 Sulphide mining machinery and processes alter fluid flows that sustain the ecological community, and it is uncertain whether species would be able to recolonize hydrothermal vents
after operations cease.2. Technological advances have considerably increased commercial fisheries catches. Fishing lines can stretch as long as 120 km, and trawlers can cover large distances
at high speeds and carry the equivalent of 12 jumbo jets loaded with fish. GPS and radar allow ships to venture into the open ocean and target lucrative fishing grounds with precision. As a
result, deepwater fisheries have developed as a new frontier; in 2007, 40 percent of global marine trawling grounds were deeper than the continental shelf.2" In recent years, technology has
had an even greater impact on the exploitation of mineral resources. Vehicles and machines can now operate in deeper waters than ever before. As Figure 7.1 shows, the amount of accessible
seabed territory in the Bay of Bengal over the last 15 years has expanded considerably. Indeed, the Massachusetts-based Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution now has a vehicle that can
access depths of 11 km, just one indicator that mining technology will soon follow.29 The Nautilus Minerals Solwara-1 project off the coast of Papua New Guinea illustrates the potential of
such new technologies. Awarded its 20-year lease in January 2011, the Canadian firm will be the first to commercially mine undersea when the project begins operations in 2013. The
technology employed by Nautilus makes use of remote-operated vehicles on the seafloor that crush the ore on the seabed before pipes lift it hydraulically to a surface vessel, which dewaters
the ore and pumps the fluid back to the seafloor. The costs of Nautilus's groundbreaking project are expected to amount to $1 billion, a sum of considerable risk given that it invests in areas
prone to volcanic activity * But though some analysts suggest that few firms will finance these endeavors, another company, Neptune Minerals, is currently planning mines in the waters off
New Zealand.11 The Solwara-1 project is a positive indicator that technology to mine polymetallic massive sulphides is finally becoming a reality. Even so, exploration for seabed minerals faces
major hurdles. Only 2 to 3 percent of the global sea floor has been properly mapped, and just 0.0001 percent has been scientifically investigated.'2 Identifying resource sites whose value
exceeds comparable onshore counterparts will prove a difficult task requiring ventures with uncertain rewards. Techniques for raising fish in captivity have existed for thousands of years. They
range from simply attaching a mesh barrier over the outlet of a small river to state-of-the-art commercial fish cages and hatcheries. Artisanal aquaculture sustains many coastal communities,
where small-scale fish farmers supplement family diets by raising fish or shrimp. Commercial aquaculture has been gaining ground in recent years, although problems with disease and
nutritional value continue to exist when fish are raised in captivity. In spite of these setbacks, technological advances in fields such as biotechnology have spurred the growth of global
aquaculture. The portion of fish produced by aquaculture and consumed by humans increased by 42.6 percent from 2006 to 2008 alone.'1 Recent improvements in technology have opened
the possibility of expanding aquaculture to the high seas. In 2009, a team of scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a self-propelled, submersible fish cage that
can be moored offshore." Submersible ocean cages are still on the cusp of commercial viability, with doubts persisting about their ability to withstand rough open ocean conditions. Fish farms
in North America and Europe have been the first to experiment with ocean cages, but since the Indian Ocean lacks a robust commercial aquaculture industry, it is unlikely that this trend will
take root there in the near future. Deep-sea biodiversity, like deep-sea resources, is still an emerging area of scientific study, and relatively little is known about the ecosystem in the deep sea.
Estimates of deep-sea biodiversity range from 500,000 to 100 million species.3' In the oceans as a whole, 10 million species exist, exclusive of microbes. When microbes are taken into account,
deep-sea biodiversity is comparable to that of the rainforests.36 Marine life arguably offers just as much, if not more, economic value than the mineral resources that surround these species.
Species living around hydrothermal vents, where polymetallic massive sulphides form, sustain life in a hostile environment of extreme temperatures and chemical energy. Microbial and
prokaryote gene richness in the oceans, particularly in the deep-sea, is orders of magnitude higher than in the rest of the biosphere. Consequently, scientists find that studying the genetic
makeup of these species yields unique conclusions about the origins of life on Earth and the potential for life on other planets. Enzymes from these species are also being used for a variety of
DNA-related products and technologies, including fingerprinting technology, and have substantially contributed to pharmaceutical research and products.' In the Indian Ocean, a peptide called
Dolastatin-10 isolated from sea hare has served as an antitumor agent in clinical trials to treat breast and liver cancers, solid tumors, and leukemia. Deep-sea organisms also maintain the
ocean ecosystem in ways that facilitate human use of ocean resources. Nutrients in the oceans that sustain fisheries are regenerated by deep-sea organisms. Some marine organisms absorb
carbon during photosynthesis, which helps to regulate the climate; others also assimilate waste materials that pollute the ocean, acting as a "biological pump."'9 While it is difficult to quantify
the value of potential marine mineral resources, the deep sea clearly has great potential as a source of minerals, and demand for these minerals is increasing. Prices of nickel and tin reached
historic highs in 2007 and 2008 respectively, and copper and manganese have also risen in value relative to the last two decades (see Figure 7.2). The Indian Ocean possesses some of the few
remaining underexploited fish stocks in the world, making it likely that it will come under enormous pressure in the future as the next frontier of the global fisheries market. On the other hand,
the heavy reliance of deep-sea fisheries on cheap fossil fuels could put the industry at risk from rising oil prices. Some deep-sea areas could become de facto marine reserves because of the
prohibitive cost of exploiting their fisheries.10 Marine pollution threatens to reduce the value of Indian Ocean fisheries. Degradation of coastal estuaries, mangroves, lagoons, coral reefs, and
kelp forests has destroyed the habitats of many species that support artisanal and commercial fisheries. In 2006, UNEP estimated the long-term costs of the 1998 massive worldwide coral
bleaching in between S600 million and $8 billion over 20 years. The destruction of coral reefs and coastal ecosystems also impacts the tourism industry, which is estimated to bring in $30
billion annually." Stock market values for bioprospecting-related activities far exceed the value of products that have already been developed as a result of genetic use of deep sea organisms.
This implies that the market takes into account the optional use of bioprospecting. The entire enzyme market is valued at $50 billion a year.12 The depletion of Indian
Ocean fish stocks could have serious implications for regional and global food security . More than a
billion people worldwide rely on fish as their main source of protein.11 The FAO reports that global fish consumption per capita
increased from 16.2 kg in 2004 to 17.1 kg in 2007. Yet one recent study has projected that the world's fisheries will collapse by 2048 if catch rates
continue unabated." A 2010 report by the Pew Environmental Group helps put that prospect in context. Pew conduded that if countries with undernourishment
levels greater than 5 percent had not overfished their waters, the additional fish catch in 2000 could have fed an
additional 20-million people."


(Note to students: Deepwater catches in this context are fish catches that occur outside the EEZ. This
module argues that the fishing industry is increasingly looking to expand into non-EEZ deepwater fish
stocks.)
CT 2 Solvency

Observation Two Solvency
Deep Ocean searches are necessary. Only the US has the tech to find 370.

Lamothe 14
Dan Lamothe is an award-winning military journalist and war correspondent. He has written for Marine Corps Times and the
Military Times newspaper chain since 2008, traveling the world and writing extensively about the Afghanistan war both from
Washington and the war zone. He also has reported from Norway, Spain, Germany, the Republic of Georgia and while
underway with the U.S. Navy. Among his scoops, Lamothe reported exclusively in 2010 that the Marine Corps had
recommended that Marine Cpl. Dakota Meyer receive the Medal of Honor. The Complex, maintained by Foreign Policy
MARCH 10, 2014
http://complex.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2014/03/10/us_navy_stepping_up_involvement_in_search_for_missing_airliner
The Malaysia Airlines flight that mysteriously disappeared 35,000 feet over the Gulf of Thailand on March 8 has prompted a
massive maritime search involving dozens of aircraft and ships from 10 countries, including both the United
States and China. But it has also underscored the lingering technological shortcomings and fragile
communications networks bedeviling many of the nations in a region where territorial and political disputes continue to simmer,
analysts said. The U.S. Navy has dispatched two guided-missile destroyers, the USS Kidd and the USS Pinckney, to assist in a search now
spanning waters from Malaysia to Vietnam. The ships each carry two MH-60R Seahawk helicopters that are designed for search-and-rescue
missions and equipped with infrared cameras. The U.S. ships are working in tandem with vessels from China,
Singapore and Malaysia, Pentagon officials said Monday, but it wasn't immediately clear how much they are in communication.
The Pinckney investigated floating debris Sunday, but didn't find any pieces of the missing airplane. The U.S. effort is bolstered by a single P-3C
Orion, a maritime patrol aircraft equipped with high-tech antennas and other surveillance equipment. The plane was originally designed to find
enemy submarines. This time around, Navy officials hope it will be able to find wreckage from the presumably downed plane. The U.S. also will
keep the USNS John Ericsson, an oiler run by U.S. Military Sealift Command, in the region to help if needed. It will allow the Seahawks to refuel
quickly. Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 was a massive Boeing 777-200 aircraft bound for Beijing from Kuala Lumpur, and disappeared with some
227 passengers and 12 crew members aboard. The other countries involved in the search include Vietnam,
Singapore , Indonesia , Thailand, Australia, the Philippines and New Zealand. Thus far, the countries appear
to be cooperating reasonably well on the search effort despite it occurring in close proximity with the South China Sea, an area rife with
territorial disputes between numerous nations. But the United States is the only nation that has the technological
capability of searching deep below the surface for the missing plane , said Christopher Harmer, a
senior naval analyst with the Institute for the Study of War in Washington.

(Note to students: China has sent a survey vessel to the MH370 area. Survey vessels in this context
do not look for the plane per se, but map the general area to learn more about the ocean terrain. That
information can be of help in terms of where to start a search, where to not go, etc. That information is
also useful for scientists as humanity lacks basic knowledge about the depth and terrain of the Indian
Ocean. This is called a bathymetric search. Bathymetry is the study of the underwater depth of lake or
ocean floors. Zhu Kezhen is the name of the Chinese survey ship that was conducting the
bathymetric survey. To date, Zhu Kezhen has suffered technical shortcomings.)

Depth of this search area means US assets key and commercial options wont
work. Orion unlike Bluefin can solve.

Austin 14
Henry Austin joined NBC News as a contributor in June 2013, and covers domestic and foreign breaking stories for
NBCNews.com. Austin joined NBC News after more than 10 years as a reporter. After starting at British press agency South
West News Service, he moved to British newspapers The Sun and The People, before relocating to Canada to help set up press
agency Hot News. Missing MH370: Only 'Handful' of Subs Capable of Hunting Jet NBC News Reports May 6
th

http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/missing-jet/missing-mh370-only-handful-subs-capable-hunting-jet-n97901
Only "a handful" of submersible vehicles can search the depths of the southern Indian Ocean in the area that is
believed to be the final resting place of missing Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370, experts said Tuesday. Officials announced
Monday that all of the data compiled in the hunt for the Boeing 777 will be re-examined to make sure the right area is being scoured as part of
a new $55 million phase of the operation. Capt. John Noble, the former general manager of the International Salvage Union, told NBC News
that it made sense to narrow down the search area as much as possible. You'd be lucky if there was a handful of vehicles
that can to go to the sort depths of the ocean that we are talking about here because they simply
don't make them, Noble said. A U.S. Navy deep-tow search system called the Orion might be an option,
Noble said. It can search to a maximum depth of 20,000 feet of seawater, according the U.S. Navy Supervisor of Salvage and Diving.
The Orion would operate in tandem with a remotely operated vehicle called Curv 21 which could salvage any wreckage. Most
commercially owned remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) arent designed to go to those depths because
there simply isnt the call for them, according to Dr. Simon Boxall at Britains University of
Southampton. As a result, many of those built are used for government research projects. They have a
distinct advantage over autonomous underwater vehicles like the Bluefin 21 sub which has been leading the
search, because their cameras allow a live view of the seabed he said. The Bluefins data can only be downloaded and analyzed by
researchers after it has resurfaced, he added.

The USs Orion system is the only device that can pull-off the search.

Malaysia Kini 14
This evidence internally quotes John Noble, the former general manager of the International Salvage Union Malaysiakini.com
offers alternative news and views of Malaysian. Updated daily, the site has won several awards for its quality reporting.
Malaysia Kini May 7
th
https://m.malaysiakini.com/news/262060
While expense is one obstacle, it looks like technology could be another stumbling block in the way of finding the
plane or its flight recorder, which is believed to be lying at the bottom of the South Indian Ocean. Experts tell
NBC that a device has not been made that could do what MH370's searchers are asking for. Capt. John
Noble, the former general manager of the International Salvage Union that represents marine salvors, says he
what is needed is a device better than US autonomous underwater vehicle Bluefin- 21, with claws to pick up
the blackbox and a in-built camera to give visuals of the deep ocean bottom. However, such a device are only custom-made
for government research projects. Noble notes that the a US Navy deep-tow search system called the Orion,
which could go down 6kilometres into the sea, might be an option. The Orion would operate in
tandem with a remotely-operated vehicle called Curv 21, which he claims could salvage any wreckage.


MH370 Backlines


Extensions

2AC Blocks General
Inherency

A2: US Now

They say US investment now, but Siegel '14, Telegraph - May 5th say: The US
appears keen to pass on the costs of providing sophisticated sonar equipment,
because there will be private contractors coming in soon and US wants to
focus on the Bluefin


Dillan Kenney
A2: China Now
Then they say that China is involved now
1. Technology; Telegraph May 5th says chinese technological problems. US is
key, and contributing High-tech Bluefin drone, capable of depths of 18,000
feet, is much more advanced than what chinese using currently.

2. Amos 14 states scientists are willing to publicize all search info for 370, the
thing is, we have none due to bad technology being used. The ocean is big and
a even more of a problem, its deep, two hands are better than one.





Advantage

They say Aquaculture checks overfishing
But knowledge leads to fishing in better areas- I.U.C.N. 13 says knowledge of
ocean topography is key to checking overfishing because knowledge keeps
the population from fishing in areas that have small diversity in fear of
exploiation. .
Their card is dated in the year 2012, while my card is dated in 2013. This
shows that my card is more up to date because things may have changed over
the course of a year making theirs irrelevant.

A2 Pollution and Alt Cause
Then they say that pollution is an alt cause, but
Fish are reborn Nebauer 13 says that fish population will recover if
overfishing is reduced moderately.

Analytic: better to control overfishing than destroy fish populations.





A2: Cant Enforce:
Then they say that countries cant enforce, but Glemarec 8 says topographical
knowledge allows to reinforce shortfalls. Plan provides enforcement agencies
topographical data. Therefore the plan will solve this problem.



A2: Stocks resilient

They say fishing stocks can handle overfishing
global shortage projected--Michel 13 card says overfishing puts a billion lives
at risk because world oceans are nearing their limit with a global shortage
projected in future
This card answers theirs because it gives recent evidence that fish are
deteriorating due to overfishing. also Their card is dated 2012 while mine is
2013. Shows that my card is more up to date with the latest changes from the
course of the year




Solvency
A2: Search Wastes Time
First they say search waste of time, but their card is wrong because the source
for the search being a cover up is a former prime ministers conspiracy theory
that the CIA might be withholding information, with the only evidence for him
being correct being that the media wont publish anything about boeing or the
CIA. This isnt evidence.
Also finding the plane isnt what solves for our advantage, unless the coverup
means we dont map the ocean floor, we still solve overfishing. Also extend
Austin 14 here, if this thing is in the ocean, orion can find it.

Then they say its buried under ocean sentiment, but there are several
problems with that. First, the ocean doesn't have sentiments, it has sediment.
Then, the card just mentions that a huge avalanche could have happened, not
that it has happened.

A2: Search wrong place
( ) Search is in the right vicinity we know that this thing is in the indian
ocean. it cant be anywhere else like really.



And again, we dont need to find the plane to solve for our advantages. As long
as we map the indian ocean, we solve for overfishing and malnutrition for a
billion people.



Inherency


A-to China will solve
( ) Status quo Chinese search and mapping wont solve technical problems.

NDTV 14
This is originally an Agence France-Presse Report New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV) is an Indian commercial broadcasting
television network Chinese Ship in Latest Glitch in MH370 Search Mission May 31, 2014
http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/chinese-ship-in-latest-glitch-in-mh370-search-mission-533823

A Chinese ship mapping the ocean floor ahead of an intensive underwater search for missing Flight MH370 was
returning to port today due to a technical problem, officials said. The massive Indian Ocean search for the Malaysia Airlines
plane, which disappeared on March 8 carrying 239 people including five Indians, has so far failed to find any sign of the Boeing 777. The
Chinese survey ship, Zhu Kezhen, was conducting a bathymetric survey - or mapping of the ocean floor - to help
experts determine how to carry out the next stage of the search on the previously unmapped ocean seabed. "Zhu Kezhen
suffered a defect to its multibeam echosounder and is coming into port to conduct the necessary repairs," Australia's Joint
Agency Coordination Centre said in a statement.

( ) China wont find it plan is key.

Ho 14
Benjamin Ho is an Associate Research Fellow in the Multilateralism and Regionalism Program in the S. Rajaratnam School of
International Studies, Nanyang Technological University. His research interests include the study of multilateral institutions in
the Asia-Pacific region, US-China political relations, and national security issues. Benjamin a Masters degree in International
Relations from NTU. MH370: Limits of Chinas Soft Power RSIS COMMENTARIES, S. Rajaratnam School of International
Studies This piece was also carried by the New Straits Times March 31
st

http://www.rsis.edu.sg/publications/Perspective/RSIS0592014.pdf

Despite Chinas growing regional influence, it would seem that at the end of the day, Western involvement and
assistance is needed, especially when it comes to the use of technology in complex search missions.
According to the Straits Times China specialist Ching Cheong, what the MH370 incident revealed about Chinas power status in the region is not
encouraging as countries were reluctant to share information with it. Given Malaysias influential position in ASEAN, it is likely that the
Malaysian approach looking to the West, instead of China is representative of an overall ambivalence of the ASEAN community when it
comes to working with China, especially when it concerns sharing of technical information that could possibly impinge on national security and
intelligence-gathering capabilities. The fact that China does not enjoy the trust of its neighbours also raises the question to what extent its
global aspirations are viewed favourably by the rest of the region. In the case of MH370, China has contributed
considerable assets in searching for the aircraft. Yet none of these assets possess the technological
sophistication needed to undertake a mission as difficult as the current search for the missing airliner
- a sign that Chinas much- vaunted military modernisation programme still has some way to go before it matches
that of its Western counterparts. Unless Beijing is concealing its true capabilities something
unimaginable in such circumstances - regional countries would still turn to the West, if not always, for
leadership, at least for its technical competence and know-how, even on territory that China claims.


( ) China is involved but isnt looking for the ship

News Corp Australia 14
MH370 questions answered: What next in hunt for missing plane? May 30, 2014 http://www.news.com.au/travel/travel-
updates/mh370-questions-answered-what-next-in-hunt-for-missing-plane/story-fnizu68q-1226936721106

Q: WHICH COUNTRIES ARE CONTRIBUTING TO THE SEARCH EFFORT, AND HOW? A: Australia is coordinating the search. The Chinese
survey ship Zhu Kezhen is mapping the ocean floor in the new search area, though it is not looking for
the plane. Another Chinese ship, Haixun 01, and a Malaysian vessel, Bunga Mas 6, are transporting the survey data
collected by the Zhu Kezhen each week to Fremantle, Western Australia, so experts can process it. The survey is
expected to take about three months.


A-to Obama = committed to solve now
( ) Search suspended now and wont involve US going forward. Private options
being placed ahead of US Orion search.

Molko 14
David Molko, Senior Producer for CNN International, MH370: Transport safety chief says next phase of underwater search
months away CNN May 26, 2014 http://www.cnn.com/2014/05/26/world/asia/mh370-next-phase-of-search/

The underwater search for the missing Malaysia Airlines plane will effectively be put on hold this week, and may not
resume until August at the very earliest, according to Australia's top transport safety official. The new timeline means that
once Bluefin-21, the American underwater drone operated by a team on board the Australian Defense Vessel Ocean Shield,
wraps up its work in a couple of days, it will be up to two months, if not longer, until new underwater
vehicles are contracted and deployed in the hunt for MH370. "The aim would be to have to negotiate and agree to
contract with a successful tender within two months of the release of the tender documentation," Dolan said. The ATSB Chief would not
comment on what role his Malaysian and Chinese counterparts have played in the process so far. Australian officials had previously suggested
that new underwater assets could be in place in the southern Indian Ocean much earlier. Air Chief Marshall Angus Houston, who heads up the
umbrella organization coordinating the search for MH370, told Sky News Australia in early May that he hoped that new equipment be starting
its work in the search zone off Western Australia sometime in June. The current phase of the underwater search will
officially wrap up on Wednesday, when the Bluefin-21 is expected to finish its last of more than 20
missions, some 1,600 kilometers off Western Australia, in waters than can exceed depths of 4,500 meters. Dolan says the ATSB expects that
the Bluefin will have finished searching the areas around the four pings detected by the Ocean Shield on April 5 and April 8. The acoustic signals
are believed to have been from at least one of MH370's black boxes, but to date, no trace of the missing Boeing 777 has been found.
Officials have publicly said they would prefer the next phase of the underwater search, which could take up to a
year, to be led by a single private contractor who will operate several underwater assets in the search zone. Appearing alongside
Chinese and Malaysian officials at a news conference in Canberra on May 5, Australia's Deputy Prime Minister Warren Truss said search
coordinators were specifically looking at side-scan sonar equipment that would be towed by a ship.
Some towed sonar devices, such as the U.S. Navy's Orion, can transmit data to the surface in real-time.
They also have the capability of scanning a larger area than the Bluefin, which has been limited to some
40 square kilometers during each mission.


Topographic knowledge is low now
Topographic knowledge of 370 search-area is thin. Getting more would help
find the plane.

SMITH & MARKS 14
Walter H.F. Smith is a Geophysicist in NOAA's Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry and Chair of the scientific and technical sub-
committee of GEBCOthis link opens in a new window, the international and intergovernmental committee for the General
Bathymetric Charts of the Oceans. Smith earned a B.Sc. at the University of Southern California, M.A., M.Phil. and Ph.D. degrees
at Columbia University, and was a post-doctoral fellow at the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics of the Scripps
Institution of Oceanography before joining NOAA in 1992. Karen Marks has worked as a Geophysicist since 1990 at the NOAA
Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.
She received a B.S. in Geology from the University of Florida, an M.S. in Geophysics from Boston College, and a Ph.D. in
Geophysics from the University of Houston, with a dissertation on the geophysics of the Australian-Antarctic Discordance Zone.
Eos, Vol. 95, No. 21, May 27th 2014 Full Journal Title is: Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union. It is a weekly
magazine of geophysics. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014EO210001/pdf

Little is known about the seafloor from ship-borne echo sounder measurements in the region where flight MH370 is
believed to have crashed. Available depth measurements cover only 5% of the 2000 by 1400 kilometer area in
Figure 1 (a high-resolution copy of this figure may be found in the additional supporting information in the online version of this article), and
only a very few of them were acquired with modern acoustic and navigational systems. This lack of data
makes the search for MH370 all the more difficult. It also highlights how most seafloor features are very poorly resolved.
However, satellite altimeter measurements provide global bathymetry estimates at a resolution of about 20 kilometers [Smith and Sandwell,
1997], making it at least possible to map the major seafloor features in the search area.




Advantage


Collapse of Fish Stocks Coming
( ) Indian Ocean will see increased global competition for fish stocks. The
impact will be collapse of fish stocks.

Rumley 9
(et al; Dr. Dennis Rumley is an Associate Professor at the University of Western Australia.[1] He gained a PhD in political
geography at the University of British Columbia. He is chairperson of the Indian Ocean Research Group Inc. He is also Chief
Editor of the Routledge international journal - Journal of the Indian Ocean Region. Fisheries Exploitation in the Indian Ocean:
Threats and Opportunities From Chapter One FISHERIES EXPLOITATION IN THE INDIAN OCEAN REGION p. 3-5)

Seven states China, Peru, India, Indonesia, the United States, Japan and Chile referred to here as the
seven "fisher states" take in nearly two-thirds of the world's total fish capture (Halweil 2006). Furthermore,
over the next fifteen to twenty years, two states Japan (60.2 kilograms) and China (35.9 kilograms) and two regions Southeast Asia
(25.8 kilograms) and the European Union (23.7 kilograms) are projected to consume the largest amounts of fish per capita (World Bank 2004,
p. 8). Apart from the two Indian Ocean "fisher states" (India and Indonesia), these other states and regions are increasingly
unable to meet the growing demand within their own national jurisdictions and thus there will likely
be greater pressure on fish stocks in the Indian Ocean. As a result, the Indian Ocean is becoming a
more intense arena for conflict and competition over extraregional demands for increasingly scarce
fish resources. Unfortunately, however, the current status of Indian Ocean fish stocks " signal little room for
further expansion , in addition to the possibility that some, if not most, stocks might already be
overexploited" (De Young 2006, p. 13). The social, environmental, economic, and political outcomes of this dilemma are likely to be
far-reaching and thus will necessitate careful regional and extraregional management.

Overfishing = Brink now
( ) overfishing on the brink of erupting in the Indian Ocean.

Gray-Block 13
Aaron Gray-Block is a Media Relations Specialist at Greenpeace International Ending the overfishing crisis Greenpeace
International April 18, 2013 http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/Blogs/makingwaves/ending-the-
overfishing-crisis/blog/44812/

An estimated 24% of the global tuna catch comes from this ocean alone, but the Indian Ocean and the
tuna stocks within it are coming under increasing pressure as more and more vessels join the hunt in this
multi-billion dollar fishery. Fishing vessels from wealthier distant nations such as France, Spain, Taiwan, Korea, China, Japan
and elsewhere take close to 50% of the tuna catch, using destructive fishing techniques such as purse seines with
Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs). This type of fishing results in a high level of bycatch of sharks, rays, turtles,
whales and dolphins and juvenile tuna. Long-line fishing, also common in the Indian Ocean, has
similar problems and is in need of urgent reform.

A-to Aquaculture checks overfishing
( ) Aquaculture not sufficient must check overfishing and risk massive food
insecurity.

Cantaloube 12
This piece was jointly released and is technically ascribed to the entire staff of BirdLife Europe. BirdLife Europe is a Partnership
of 49 national conservation organisations and a leader in bird conservation. It is present in 48 countries including all EU
Member States. With more than 4.100 staff in Europe, 2 million members and tens of thousands of skilled volunteers, BirdLife
Europe, together with its national Partners owns or manages more than 6,000 nature sites totalling 320 000 hectares. Elodie
Cantaloube, Media and Communication Assistant at BirdLife Europe Stand up against overfishing call for sustainable
fisheries June 14
th
http://www.birdlife.org/europe-and-central-asia/news/stand-against-overfishing-%E2%80%93-call-
sustainable-fisheries

Every year, around 90 000 tons of fish are captured in the oceans. More than 90% of the 10 most captured fish species
are dangerously at risk of extermination and around 50% of commercial species are threatened. Even if aquaculture
has permitted to compensate for the stagnation in the catch of wild fish and meet the fast increasing demand for
fish , it is far from being a sustainable system: as most commercially farmed fish are carnivores they are
fed on wild caught fish. For example, it takes 5kg of wild fish to produce 1kg of farmed salmon. Numerous
scientific and marine experts have already rung the alarm bell about overfishing: if we continue to exploit
fisheries at the current rate, in 2048 there wont be any more fish left to catch in most of the worlds
oceans. The EU is currently negotiating a major reform of the Common Fisheries Policy. EU governments must show the courage to break
with their failed policies and ensure an end to over fishing. Fisheries must be regulated so that we dont catch fish
faster than they can reproduce and so that fishing techniques do not cause significant harm to marine ecosystems (for example by
killing non target species or destroying sea bottom habitats). Our long-term food security, our oceans and the marine wildlife
depend of it. Urgent action is needed!

( ) Aquaculture not sustainable. It can only fill gaps through practices that kill
fish stocks.

Sustainable Business 12
Internally quoting Danielle Nierenberg, co-author of the report and director of Worldwatchs Nourishing the Planet project
Aquaculture Rises Another 6% in 2011 SustainableBusiness.com 8/28/2012
http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.display/id/24019

While aquaculture does help address the problem of overfishing, it creates different sustainable
business challenges. "Growth in fish farming can be a double-edged sword," says Danielle Nierenberg, co-author
of the report and director of Worldwatchs Nourishing the Planet project. "Despite its potential to affordably feed an ever-growing
global population, it can also contribute to problems of habitat destruction, waste disposal, invasions of exotic species and
pathogens, and depletion of wild fish stock."

( ) Aquaculture doesnt check cant keep up and excess overfishing hampers
breeders.

Einhorn 13
Bruce Einhorn Farm-Raised Tuna May Not Be the Answer to Overfishing Bloomberg Businessweek January 08, 2013
http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-01-08/farm-raised-tuna-may-not-be-the-answer-to-overfishing

The price is about symbolism: The 222-kilogram (489 pound) tuna is bigbig enough for 10,000 pieces of sushibut thats not unusual for
bluefin. An averageAtlantic bluefin can weigh over 500 lbs. and the Pacific and Southern Ocean bluefin are hefty, too. As such an outsized fish,
bluefin easily capture media attention at the Tsukiji auction. However, they also are more vulnerable than smaller fish to environmental
disasters such as the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. And because of the fishs popularity among sushi lovers, overfishing
of bluefin has almost led to its extinction, according to the World Wildlife Foundation. You might
think that aquaculture is the answer . Farm-raised salmon is common in the U.S. A decade ago, few Americans ate
tilapia, but now the white fish is a favorite of the food industry, thanks to farms in China and other countries. Bluefin are much bigger than
those other fish; as a result, they are much harder to breed on farms. Most bluefin are either caught in the wild (in the Atlantic, Pacific, and
Southern oceans) or captured as small fish and raised on fish ranches. However, catching bluefin tuna when theyre young
and then raising them on giant fish farms just makes the problem worse, according to Seafood Watch, the
Monterey Bay Aquariums program focusing on ocean sustainability. All populations of bluefin tuna are being caught faster
than they can reproduce, the California aquarium says on its website. Bluefin is being further depleted by
ranching operations that collect small bluefin and raise them to full size to sell primarily to the sushi market. Seafood Watch has
Avoid recommendations for both wild-caught and ranch-raised bluefin, and the Monterey organization isnt the only group critical of the
bluefin industry. The Environmental Defense Fund has an Eco-Worst Choice grade for all types of bluefin tuna. The EDF also warns about the
health dangers of elevated levels of mercury and PCBs in the fish. Adults and kids should not eat at all, the organization warns. For years,
people in the fish industry have been pursuing the elusive goal of breeding bluefin completely on farms,
from eggs all the way to mature fish. Clean Seas Tuna, an Australian aquaculture company, has been one of the leaders in efforts
to breed tuna; Time included the companys breeding tank in the magazines 50 Best Inventions of 2009. However, Clean Seas announced
right before Christmas that it was suspending its breeding program for southern bluefin tuna (SBT). The volume and quantity of
fertilised eggs produced to date has been disappointing compared to other seasons, the company said in a
statement to the Australian stock exchange. Whilst the Company continues to believe in the commercialisation potential of the successful
closure of the SBT lifecycle, investment beyond the Companys current financial resources will be required for this goal to be achieved. Clean
Seas stock traded at 2 Australian dollars in 2008 and now trades at 2 Australian cents.




A-to Info not enough countries wont coop
( ) Countries arent unwilling to cooperate on overfishing.

Potgieter 12
Prof. TD (Thean) Potgieter is currently Chief Director Research and Innovation at PALAMA (Public Administration Leadership
and Management Academy). His previous appointment was as Director of the Centre for Military Studies, Faculty of Military
Science, Stellenbosch University. He is also the Secretary-General of the South African of Military History Commission and is the
recipient of a number of academic and military awards. Maritime security in the Indian Ocean: strategic setting and features
Institute for Security Studies PAPER 236 AUGUST 2012 http://www.issafrica.org/uploads/Paper236.pdf
Because of the growth in global prosperity and technological advances, competition for resources in and under the oceans,
specifically energy and protein, is intensifying. World energy consumption is growing significantly, particularly in Asia and the Middle East. The
fast-growing Indian and Chinese economies are forecast to be the key energy consumers in the future. As national efforts to control energy sources and to secure
energy shipments are increasing, some observers contend that energy competition may result in conflict. However, a counter view is that it is
in the common interest of the powers concerned to maintain a stable trading environment.40 Fishing is
important to Africa. Annual catches account for over seven million tonnes and have an export value of about $2 700 million. The industry provides income to
roughly 10 million people and fish is an important and often cheap source of protein, providing 22 per cent on average in Africa and rising to as high as 70 per cent
in some instances.41 The example provided by the Southern African Development Community (SADC) is noteworthy, even though Namibia and Angola are not part
of the Indian Ocean region. Income generated by fisheries is highest in South Africa and Namibia, which are advantaged by the cold Benguela current. In the case of
Namibia, fishing contributes between 5 per cent and 10 per cent of GDP, compared to around 3 per cent in Tanzania and Madagascar (Figure 1). Tuna fishing is of
particular importance in the western Indian Ocean, where catches are more than three times that achieved in the east. The processed value of catches in the west is
estimated at 2 000 and 3 000 million a year. The Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of SADC countries that are part of the IOR overlap with the tuna fishing area, and
many French and Spanish vessels are fishing here under negotiated access rights in accordance with agreements between the EU and individual states. Illegal,
unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is a major international problem as it is estimated that 75 per cent of global fishi ng stocks are already fully exploited or
overexploited. The culprits are often seasoned and sophisticated foreign-flagged operators that decimate ocean resources and also venture into coastal waters
where they compete with local subsistence fishermen for depleted resources. But foreigners are not the only problem, since local fishermen often under- or
misreport catches and use illegal fishing gear, or employ dynamite or poison fishing since these methods are more lucrative than traditional methods. African
countries, which often lack the ability to patrol their own waters, are the worst hit and they therefore suffer serious economic losses and protein shortages. Somali
pirates have claimed, and a number of analysts have repeated this, that illegal fishing was an underlying cause and the justification for piracy. Though some of the
early incidents may have been a form of coast-guard action against large-scale poaching, pirate behaviour has not been consistent with this contention and profit is
without doubt the motive. Nevertheless, the notion of acting against illegal fishing contributes to the pirates local legitimacy and probably adds to the difficulties of
fighting it. Though the scale and impact of IUU fishing differs across the region, it is a pressing concern all
round. Even countries as far apart as South Africa and Australia have cooperated in this sphere. In April
2001 the Australian government requested South African assistance to intercept a Spanish trawler, the Sao Tom, that had been fishing illegally in the Australian
EEZ. Two vessels of the South African Navy (SAS Protea and SAS Galeshewe), with an Australian team on board, intercepted the poacher about 400 km south of
Cape Agulhas with the unarmed Australian civil patrol vessel Southern Supporter still in hot pursuit. Two years later, during a similar operation, the SAS Drakensberg
and the Antarctic exploration vessel SA Agulhas assisted with the interception of another trawler, the Viara I. General Peter Cosgrove, Chief of the Australian
General Staff, emphasised the wonderful spirit of cooperation between the defence forces, which had ensured an effective outcome.43 In the south-west
Indian Ocean and Southern Ocean sophisticated IUU fishing operators have decimated Patagonian toothfish
stocks. After it became evident early in 1996 that lucrative catches of Patagonian toothfish were possible, many trawlers hurried to participate in the rush.
Catch rates were between 15 and 20 tonnes a day and sold for between $10 and $20/kg, in some cases even $26. Britain quickly clamped down on illegal fishing
around her southern dependencies, after which much of the focus moved to the fishing grounds around the South African Prince Edward Islands and later to the
French-controlled Crozet archipelago, Kerguelen Island and the Australian Heard and McDonald Islands. By the end of 1996, 40 to 60 vessels were fishing around the
Prince Edward Islands. Of these, only five were licenced to catch toothfish (Figure 2). The South African authorities soon enforced strict controls against landing
illegal toothfish in South Africa, but the effect was merely that the shore-based operations moved to Port Louis in Mauritius, Maputo and Beira in Mozambique, and
Walvis Bay in Namibia. The loss to South Africa was estimated at over R3 000 million at the time.44 Because of the high levels of IUU fishing, the stock never
recovered. Some illegal fishing is still reported in the area. Coming at a time when the SA Navy had not yet acquired its new frigates, South Africa had no high-seas
fishery patrol capacity and there were thus no patrol vessels operating in the rough sub-Antarctic waters for any extent of time. Aerial patrols were conducted and
some suspect vessels were photographed in the Prince Edward Islands EEZ, but their excuse was usually that they exercised the right of innocent passage. Vessels
need to be boarded if proof of illegal activities is to be obtained, requiring ocean-going vessels with sufficient endurance and sea-keeping capability. Though
countries bordering the eastern Indian Ocean and South China Sea experience pressing maritime security concerns such as smuggling, trafficking and pollution, IUU
fishing is perhaps the more important concern for these states. For centuries the sea has provided sufficient fish stocks and abundant employment opportunities,
but this has changed as a result of growing populations and improved fishing technology. With intense competition for fish stocks, IUU fishing is massive, with
unregistered and foreign vessels plundering the seas. Foreign fishing vessels often intrude into rich regional fishing grounds, making them attractive targets for
pirates. According to a May 2004 statement by the Director of the North Sumatra Fishery Office, an estimated 8 000 fishing boats or two-thirds of the provinces
fishing fleet were not operating because of the threat of piracy. The Indonesian government estimates that losses resulting from IUU fishing are around $4 000
million a year, which is substantial when compared to the estimated cost of piracy worldwide.46 Ironically, the states that are most adversely
affected by IUU fishing in the Indian Ocean can hardly afford to suppress it.

(note: I.U.U. = an acronym for Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing)

A-to Fish stocks = resilient
( ) Resilience only works if accompanying with a time-out for recovery. The
squo wont do that.

Neubauer 13
(et al; Philipp Neubauer Holds a Ph.D. in Quantitative Marine Ecology from Victoria University of Wellington which he
earned in 2011. At the time of this writing he was with the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Science,
Vol. 340 no. 6130 April 19
th
2013 pp. 347-349 DOI: 10.1126/science.1230441)

Recovery of overexploited marine populations has been slow, and most remain below target biomass levels. A key
question is whether this is due to insufficient reductions in harvest rates or the erosion of population resilience. Using a global meta-analysis of
overfished stocks, we find that resilience of those stocks subjected to moderate levels of overfishing is
enhanced, not compromised, offering the possibility of swift recovery. However, prolonged intense
overexploitation, especially for collapsed stocks, not only delays rebuilding but also substantially increases the
uncertainty in recovery times, despite predictable influences of fishing and life history. Timely and decisive reductions in
harvest rates could mitigate this uncertainty. Instead, current harvest and low biomass levels render
recovery improbable for the majority of the worlds depleted stocks.

( ) Resilience doesnt mean limitless.

MOHAMED 12
AMINA MOHAMED, deputy executive director of the U.N. Environment Programme Q&A: Protecting Oceans Equals
Protecting Our Planet Inter-Press News Service May 9
th
http://www.ipsnews.net/2012/05/qa-protecting-oceans-equals-
protecting-our-planet/
Q: What specific messages do you plan to convey regarding the worlds oceans at Expo 2012? A: Coasts and oceans are resilient
but have their limits, and so if millions of tourists enjoy them every year and if limited fish stocks are over-fished, we
need to give them time to recover. Care and sustainable use can make a difference.

( ) Resilience only works when paired with better policy only the Aff does
that.

Neubauer 13
(et al; Philipp Neubauer Holds a Ph.D. in Quantitative Marine Ecology from Victoria University of Wellington which he
earned in 2011. At the time of this writing he was with the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Science,
Vol. 340 no. 6130 April 19
th
2013 pp. 347-349 DOI: 10.1126/science.1230441)

Our analysis suggests that the majority of stocks are resilient to moderate overfishing and have a good chance
of recovering within 10 years if fishing pressure is reduced rapidly and substantially once a stock has been
determined to be depleted (B 0.5 BMSY). For many currently depleted stocks, however, rebuilding
efforts have been slow to be enacted, and continued overfishing has led to their collapse. At present, a third
remain collapsed. Even if fishing mortality rates were reduced to FMSY, recovery would likely take several decades for many of these stocks
(Fig. 3B). Regardless of their depletion level, at current fishing mortality rates, recovery to BMSY remains a distant
target for the majority of stocks that are now depleted (n = 62 stocks in our analysis). Only 23% of these stocks are fished
below FMSY, and only 10% are fished below 0.5FMSY. Recent evidence that production from wild-capture fisheries around
the world could be increased were these stocks to be rebuilt (5, 6) should provide an economic incentive to
implement policy and management decisions that accelerate and expand rebuilding efforts.




A-to Alt Cause Pollution kills Fish
( ) Other sectors have changed course, but overfishing is the hold-out thatll
push us too far.

Tulloch 9
Internally quoting Ben Halpern, a scientists from the Zoological Society of London James Tulloch Editor at Allianz Allianz
November 18
th
2009 http://www.conocimiento.allianz.com.ar/?513/climate-change-and-overfishing-top-threats-to-oceans
The future looks bleak, but there is hope. Oceans are resilient, says Halpern, if we act soon they can
recover. Dead zones can be eliminated. Whales and seals hunted to near extinction did recover once protected. Some
sectors are acting. Merchant shipping is cutting the risk of oil spills by banning single-hulled ships from 2010, and
trying to reduce the spread of invasive species via ballast water. More stubborn is the fishing industry . The
obvious answer is to fish less. As The Economist magazine points out, nothing did so much good for fish stocks in northern Europe
in the past 150 years as the Second World War. Trawlers stuck in port allowed fisheries to revive. Abolishing government
subsidies for fishing, and for trawler fuel, is one strategy. Individual transferable quotas, or catch shares, is another, giving partial ownership of
a fish stock. This has worked in Iceland, New Zealand, and the western United States. Fishers become very interested in making sure the stock
is healthy and sustainable when their income depends on it, says Halpern. It could also protect stocks in developing countries from marauding
foreign factory ships. Marine reserves are a proven solution, argues Norris. We have to move from hunter-gatherer mode to having the oceans
more tightly managed. Coral reef reserves in Indonesia and Kenya, and kelp forest reserves in New Zealand and South Africa, have
successfully revived biodiversity. They would also maintain the seas as effective carbon sinks, says the United Nations, which
wants a global Blue Carbon regime (like REDD for forests) to protect ecosystems like mangroves and salt marshes. The oceans can no
longer be a free-for-all. A combination of preservation, regulation, and ownership marine planning or ecosystem
management is the best bet to save our seas. Otherwise the places where life started will become
lifeless.

Solvency

Data will become publicly available
( ) 370 underwater search data will be made publicly available.

Amos 14
Jonathan Amos, BBC Science Correspondent internally quoting Walter H.F. Smith and Karen Marks. Both are expert
Geophysicists at the NOAA MH370 spur to 'better ocean mapping' BBC News May 27
th
, 2014
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-27589433

The Australian Joint Agency Coordination Centre, which disseminates all information on the hunt for MH370,
confirmed that the MBES survey data would be publicly available. "The bathymetry data gathered in the
course of the search for MH370 will become the property of the Australian Government. Recognising
the importance of that data, it will be made available to the public via both Australian and international
databases," the JACC told the BBC.


Note: MBES stands for modern multibeam echo sounders

370 search will spur global data gathering

( ) Flight 370 search will spur better worldwide topographic searches.

Amos 14
Jonathan Amos, BBC Science Correspondent -- MH370 spur to 'better ocean mapping' BBC News May 27
th
, 2014
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-27589433

The depth and shape of Earth's ocean floor is very poorly known. Leading researchers say the MH370
example should be a spur to gather much better data elsewhere in the world. The search has been
hampered by the lack of a high-resolution view of the bed topography west of Australia.


A-to Search is a waste of time its a cover-up
( ) Most conspiracies are wild best approach is to stick with independently-
verified data.

A.P. 14
Associated Press Report internally quoting Inmarsat chief engineer Mark Dickinson This report appeared on the Fox News
website May 27
th

http://www.foxnews.com/world/2014/05/27/australian-investigators-say-mh370-likely-crashed-after-running-out-fuel/

Almost three months since it went missing en route to Beijing from Kuala Lumpur, no trace of the jet has been found, an
agonizing situation for family members stuck between grief and the faintest hope, no matter how unlikely, their loved ones might still be alive.
The mystery also has nurtured speculation and wild conspiracy theories. Several family members have been highly critical
of the Malaysian government's response, accusing them of failing to release timely information or even concealing it. The government, which in
the early days struggled to release reliable information about the plane's movements, insists it is being transparent in what has been an
unprecedented situation. An international investigation team led by Malaysia has concluded that the jet flew south after it was last spotted on
Malaysian military radar and ended up in the southern Indian Ocean off western Australia. This conclusion is based on complex calculations
derived largely from brief hourly transmissions between the plane and a communications satellite. The families had been asking for the raw
data from the satellite, operated by British company Inmarsat, for many weeks. In a posting on its Facebook page, a group representing some of
the families said: "Finally, after almost three months, the Inmarsat raw data is released to the public. Hope this is the original raw data and can
be used to potentially `think out of the box' to get an alternative positive outcome." In China, home of about two-thirds of the passengers,
several relatives said they were not informed by Malaysia Airlines ahead of the release. Steve Wang, whose mother was on the plane, said he
was disappointed that the release did not contain an account of exactly what investigators did to conclude the plane had taken the southern
route. "We are not experts and we cannot analyze the raw data, but we need to see the deduction process and judge by ourselves if every step
was solid," he said. "We still need to know where the plane is and what is the truth. We know the likelihood that our beloved ones have
survived is slim, but it is not zero." As a result of the analysis of the data, a massive air, surface and underwater search has
been conducted in the southern Indian Ocean. Having found nothing, it will stop Wednesday for several months while new
powerful sonar equipment is deployed, officials say. The next search phase will be conducted over a much bigger area -- approximately 23,000
square miles -- and will involve mapping of the seabed. The area's depths and topography are largely unknown. The technical data released
Tuesday consists of data communication logs from the satellite system. The plane's transmissions to the satellite were never meant to track its
path, but investigators had nothing else to go on because the plane's other communication systems had been disabled. Investigators
determined the plane's direction by measuring the frequency of the signals sent to the satellite. By
considering aircraft performance, the satellite's fixed location and other known factors such as the amount of fuel on board, they determined
the plane's final location was to the south of the satellite. In an interview with CNN earlier this week, Inmarsat chief engineer Mark
Dickinson said he was confident of the data. "This data has been checked, not just by Inmarsat but by
many parties, who have done the same work, with the same numbers, to make sure we all got it right,
checked it with other flights in the air at the same, checked it against previous flights in this aircraft," he said. "At the moment there is no
reason to doubt what the data says."


A-to Search is in the wrong area
( ) Search is in the right vicinity Inmarsat data independently verified.

Quest 14
Richard Quest is an English journalist and a CNN International anchor and reporter based in New York. He anchors Quest Means
Business. In addition to anchoring the five-times-weekly business program, Quest hosts the monthly program CNN Business
Traveller[2] and "CNN Marketplace Europe MH370: Is Inmarsat right? CNN May 27
th

http://www.cnn.com/2014/05/27/world/asia/mh370-is-inmarsat-right-quest-analysis/index.html?hpt=hp_t1

In the aviation mystery which has baffled the world there is one fundamental question which continues to swirl: Has Inmarsat got its
numbers right? It was these very calculations which led the search for MH370 far from the plane's original route across
South East Asia and deep into the southern Indian Ocean, off the west coast of Australia. No piece of work is more important in the
search for the plane. I was given exclusive access to the satellite experts who did the ground-breaking work. Time and again, I would ask them
the toughest question: "Are you right?" But before we get there ... How did the data come to light in the first place? Once the plane went
missing, the ground station in Perth checked the logs and discovered that while the aircraft's communications systems were switched off, the
plane and the satellite still kept saying "hello" to each other, every hour. "Having messages for six hours after the plane is lost is probably the
biggest disbelief," admits Inmarsat's vice president of satellite operations Mark Dickinson. These messages are the raw data upon which
everything rests. After the alert had been raised at the company's London headquarters, engineers began urgently interpreting the raw data.
Dickinson explains: "We have some timing information ... that allows you to essentially work out the distance from the satellite ... and in
addition to that there were some frequency measurements." Using the discrepancy of satellite frequency known as the Doppler Effect, the
team spent ten days refining their work before they briefed the Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak, who stunned the world by revealing the
plane's flight had ended in the South Indian Ocean. Dickinson says that when he realized what had probably happened, his reaction was: "Let's
check this and let's check it again, because you want to make sure when you come to a conclusion like that you have done the right work... As
good engineers we are trained to check and check again." So why is Dickinson so sure he is right? Because the model they created
showing arcs and Doppler readings was rigorously tested, initially on other aircraft on the satellite at the same
time, and then against previous flights by the same aircraft. With minor disagreements both the position and the
Doppler reading of those aircraft was predicted accurately. Other organizations created their own models, ran the
comparisons and came to the same conclusions. It is essential to understand: This is not just
Inmarsat's frolic. "No-one has come up yet with a reason why it shouldn't work with this particular flight when it has worked with others,"
Dickinson told me. "It's very important that this isn't just an Inmarsat activity." So why haven't they found
the plane where Inmarsat says it should be? Simply put, it's a big ocean, the ocean floor is very deep, with valleys and hills. In
the bigger picture, the search has really only just begun.

( ) Pinger mishap irrelevant Sat data still means the plans in the Indian
Ocean.

Topham 14
Gwyn Topham, transport correspondent for The Guardian MH370: what next for the search? The Guardian May 29
th
,
2014 http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/29/malaysia-airlines-mh370-search
Two sets of signals have been described as pings during the search: the electronic "handshake" from the Boeing 777's (switched off) tracking
systems, recorded by satellite firm Inmarsat; and the sounds apparently picked up in early April in an underwater search, initially believed to
have been emitted by an aircraft's black box flight recorders. The second pings have now been more or less discounted as
a false lead, with Australia announcing it has comprehensively searched the zone they indicated without success. The satellite data,
in contrast, is regarded by search authorities as sound, and will form the basis for the continuing
search the new area follows the arc of the projected southern flight path. Inmarsat made the data fully available for
public scrutiny earlier this week, as families and others had expressed scepticism.

( ) Pinger mishap means only a mild change to the search area.

News Corp Australia 14
MH370 questions answered: What next in hunt for missing plane? May 30, 2014 http://www.news.com.au/travel/travel-
updates/mh370-questions-answered-what-next-in-hunt-for-missing-plane/story-fnizu68q-1226936721106

Q: IF THE PINGS WERE NOT FROM THE PLANE, HOW DOES THAT AFFECT THE SEARCH? A: Given that the head
of the search operation, Angus Houston, once dubbed the pings the most promising lead in the hunt for Flight 370, a determination
that they were unrelated would be a huge disappointment. But it wouldn't change the direction of the search.
Officials have already been planning to move beyond the search area centred on the pings to a far larger
search zone, which was calculated based on an analysis of satellite data. That plan remains in place.


( ) Mishaps dont mean the planes not in Indian Ocean only means larger
search area.

Topham 14
Gwyn Topham, transport correspondent for The Guardian MH370: what next for the search? The Guardian May 29
th
,
2014 http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/29/malaysia-airlines-mh370-search

Despite drawing a blank in the focused search area, investigators still believe Malaysia Airlines MH370 went
down in the southern Indian Ocean, as indicated by satellite data. Yet the search conducted by the robot submarine
or autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), Bluefin-21, has taken over a month to cover around 850 sq km of the ocean west of Perth. The
wider area, which the search will now move to, is around 70 times that size.

Search Area has been expanded in the squo

Search is not re-treading in the same space search area will expand in the
squo

A.P. 14
Associated Press Report internally quoting Inmarsat chief engineer Mark Dickinson This report appeared on the Fox News
website May 27
th

http://www.foxnews.com/world/2014/05/27/australian-investigators-say-mh370-likely-crashed-after-running-out-fuel/

As a result of the analysis of the data, a massive air, surface and underwater search has been conducted in the
southern Indian Ocean. Having found nothing, it will stop Wednesday for several months while new powerful sonar
equipment is deployed, officials say. The next search phase will be conducted over a much bigger area --
approximately 23,000 square miles -- and will involve mapping of the seabed. The area's depths and
topography are largely unknown.



US key
( ) The US is key needs to step-up its role.

Apps & Hepher 14
Peter Apps Global defence correspondent, Reuters and Tim Hepher Reuters Global Aerospace Correspondent Analysis -
Geopolitical games handicap Malaysia jet hunt Reuters Mar 28, 2014 http://uk.reuters.com/article/2014/03/28/uk-
malaysia-airlines-geopolitics-analysi-idUKBREA2R1OQ20140328

With the United States playing a relatively muted role in the sort of exercise that until recently it
would have dominated, experts and officials say there was no real central coordination until the search for the plane
was confined to the southern Indian Ocean, when Australia largely took charge. Part of the problem is that Asia has no
NATO-style regional defence structure, though several countries have formal alliances with the United States.
Commonwealth members Malaysia, Singapore, New Zealand and Australia also have an arrangement with Britain to discuss defence matters in
times of crisis. "There is ... a pressing need for regional security structures to take a few leaps forward," said Air Vice Marshal Michael Harwood,
a retired Royal Air Force pilot and former British defence attach in Washington. The risk, he said, was that the search instead became seen as a
national "test of manhood" and driver of rivalry. Already, several governments have been openly competing in announcing findings and satellite
images. RADAR POKER Malaysia's acting transport minister Hishammuddin Hussein, who is also the country's defence minister, has defended
the international effort to find the jet. "All countries involved are displaying unprecedented levels of cooperation, and that has not changed,"
he said. But while Kuala Lumpur has been forced to reveal some of the limits and ranges of its air defences, the reluctance of Malaysia's
neighbours to release sensitive radar data may have obstructed the investigation for days. At an ambassadorial meeting in the ad hoc crisis
centre at an airport hotel on March 16, Malaysia formally appealed to countries on the jet's possible path for help, but in part met with polite
stonewalling, two people close to the talks said. Some countries asked Malaysia to put its request in writing, triggering a flurry of diplomatic
notes and high-level contacts. "It became a game of poker in which Malaysia handed out the cards at the table but couldn't force others to
show their hand," a person from another country involved in the talks said. It was not until a week later that Malaysia announced a list of
nations that had checked their archives. Beijing, meanwhile, was dramatically upping its game. Its ability to deploy forces deep into the
southern hemisphere is particularly striking. Beijing has sent several deployments into southern waters in recent months, including warship
visits to New Zealand and South America, while its icebreaker "Snow Dragon" helped rescue personnel from a trapped Russian icebreaker in the
Antarctic late last year. "China are deploying because that's what great powers do, and there must be a political expectation for them to (do
so)," said one former Western military officer. "How well they do it, only the USA will currently know (through surveillance and signals
intelligence), and time will tell." CHINESE CLOUT With five Chinese ships heading to a new search area in the Indian Ocean
on Friday, experts say China is revealing military capabilities it lacked just a handful of years ago. Chinese officials have also spoken of the
growing number of satellites it has put to the task, a sensitive topic nations rarely disclose. "A decade ago, China wouldn't even have been in
this game at all," says Christopher Harmer, a former U.S. naval aviator and search-and-rescue pilot, now senior fellow at the Institute for the
Study of War in Washington DC. "It really shows how far they have come, much, much faster than most people expected."
Ultimately, the only country with the technical resources to recover the plane - or at least its black box
recorder, which could lie in water several miles deep - may be the United States . Its deep-sea vehicles ultimately
hauled up the wreckage of Air France 447 after its 2009 crash in the South Atlantic.

A-to Cant get black box
( ) Can retrieve Black Box factors in favor of the search.

Sutherland 14
Scott Sutherland - Science writer for Yahoo! Canada.Even if MH370 is found, investigators face a daunting task in retrieving the
black box Yahoo Canada: Geekquinox Blog April 11th, 2014 https://ca.news.yahoo.com/blogs/geekquinox/even-mh370-
found-investigators-face-daunting-task-retrieving-223103889.html

There are, apparently, a few things working in their favour, though. When Air France Flight 447 went
down in 2009, it ended up at a depth of 3,900 metres below the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, in a region of the ocean floor
that was part of the mid-Atlantic ridge. "That was a very young sea floor it was very difficult to image that wreckage using sonar
systems because of the rough topography and lack of sediment cover," said Prof. Ian Wright of the U.K.'s National Oceanographic Centre,
according to The Guardian. It took over three years for authorities to find Air France Flight 447 on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, retrieve its
black box and conclude the investigation into the crash. Since this region of the Indian Ocean is very old ocean floor,
with plenty of sediment cover, that means it should be far easier for sonar signals to differentiate
between the soft sediment and the harder materials of the airliner.



A-to too late to locate
( ) Not too late wont be buried under ocean mud.

Fickling 14
David Fickling reporter for Bloomberg. Internally quoting Robin Beaman, a marine geologist at James Cook University in Cairns
Flight 370 Search Halted for Sixth Day on Lack of Parts Bloomberg May 19, 2014
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-05-19/flight-370-search-halted-for-sixth-day-by-hunt-for-parts.html

Time is on their side given the aircrafts likely location on the undersea Zenith Plateau , Robin Beaman,
a marine geologist at James Cook University in Cairns, said by phone. The seafloor in the area is
covered in mud firm enough to walk on and receives just a millimeter (0.04 inches) or so of extra sediment every thousand
years, he said. Its unlikely that it will be buried in anything thats drifting down from above, Beaman said. The
disappearance has baffled authorities because contact was lost less than an hour into a routine trip to Beijing from Kuala Lumpur. The jetliner
vanished from civilian radars while headed north over the Gulf of Thailand, then doubled back and flew over Peninsular Malaysia and on into
the remote waters of the Indian Ocean, according to analysis of satellite signals. Investigators have scanned 4.6 million square kilometers of
ocean, with 29 aircraft carrying out 334 flights and 14 ships afloat as part of the operation, Australias deputy Prime Minister Warren Truss said
at a May 5 press conference. In its budget last week, the countrys government set aside A$89.9 million ($84 million) in costs for the hunt over
the two years ending June 2015.



A2: Non-US Cplans


A2: China Cplan
( ) Chinese search and mapping wont solve technical problems.

NDTV 14
This is originally an Agence France-Presse Report New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV) is an Indian commercial broadcasting
television network Chinese Ship in Latest Glitch in MH370 Search Mission May 31, 2014
http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/chinese-ship-in-latest-glitch-in-mh370-search-mission-533823

A Chinese ship mapping the ocean floor ahead of an intensive underwater search for missing Flight MH370 was
returning to port today due to a technical problem, officials said. The massive Indian Ocean search for the Malaysia Airlines
plane, which disappeared on March 8 carrying 239 people including five Indians, has so far failed to find any sign of the Boeing 777. The
Chinese survey ship, Zhu Kezhen, was conducting a bathymetric survey - or mapping of the ocean floor - to help
experts determine how to carry out the next stage of the search on the previously unmapped ocean seabed. "Zhu Kezhen
suffered a defect to its multibeam echosounder and is coming into port to conduct the necessary repairs," Australia's Joint
Agency Coordination Centre said in a statement.


( ) China wont find it plan is key.

Ho 14
Benjamin Ho is an Associate Research Fellow in the Multilateralism and Regionalism Program in the S. Rajaratnam School of
International Studies, Nanyang Technological University. His research interests include the study of multilateral institutions in
the Asia-Pacific region, US-China political relations, and national security issues. Benjamin a Masters degree in International
Relations from NTU. MH370: Limits of Chinas Soft Power RSIS COMMENTARIES, S. Rajaratnam School of International
Studies This piece was also carried by the New Straits Times March 31
st

http://www.rsis.edu.sg/publications/Perspective/RSIS0592014.pdf

Despite Chinas growing regional influence, it would seem that at the end of the day, Western involvement and
assistance is needed, especially when it comes to the use of technology in complex search missions.
According to the Straits Times China specialist Ching Cheong, what the MH370 incident revealed about Chinas power status in the region is not
encouraging as countries were reluctant to share information with it. Given Malaysias influential position in ASEAN, it is likely that the
Malaysian approach looking to the West, instead of China is representative of an overall ambivalence of the ASEAN community when it
comes to working with China, especially when it concerns sharing of technical information that could possibly impinge on national security and
intelligence-gathering capabilities. The fact that China does not enjoy the trust of its neighbours also raises the question to what extent its
global aspirations are viewed favourably by the rest of the region. In the case of MH370, China has contributed
considerable assets in searching for the aircraft. Yet none of these assets possess the technological
sophistication needed to undertake a mission as difficult as the current search for the missing airliner
- a sign that Chinas much- vaunted military modernisation programme still has some way to go before it matches
that of its Western counterparts. Unless Beijing is concealing its true capabilities something
unimaginable in such circumstances - regional countries would still turn to the West, if not always, for
leadership, at least for its technical competence and know-how, even on territory that China claims.