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BIOFILM REACTORS

WEF Manual of Practice No. 35


Prepared
by
the
Biofiltn
Reactors Task Force
of
the
Water Environment Federation
WEF Press
Water Environment
Federation Alexandria, Virginia
Mc
Graw
Hill
NewYork
Chicago
San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid
Mexico
City
Milan New Delhi San
Juan
Seoul
Singapore Sydney
Toronto
Contents
List of
Figures
xxv
List of Tables xxxiii
Preface xxxvii
Chapter
1 Introduction
1.0 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 1
2.0 CHARACTERISTICS OF FIXED-GROWTH PROCESSES 2
3.0 HISTORY 3
3.1 Contact Beds 4
3.2
Trickling
Filters 4
3.3
Rotating Biological
Contactors 5
3.4
Coupled Trickling
Filter/Activated
Sludge
Process 6
3.5
Biological
Filters 7
3.6
Hybrid
Processes 7
4.0 ORGANIZATION OF MANUAL 10
5.0 REFERENCES 11
6.0 SUGGESTED READINGS 14
Chapter
2
Biology
of Fixed-Growth Process
1.0 INTRODUCTION 17
2.0 CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS 18
3.0 MICROORGANISMS OTHER THAN BACTERIA 21
3.1
Fungi
22
3.2
Algae
22
3.3 Protozoa 23
3.4 Multicellular Invertebrates 23
vii
viii Contents
3.5 Viruses 24
3.6 Consortia 26
4.0 CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIA 26
4.1 Structure of the Bacterial Cell 26
4.2 Chromosome and Plasmids 28
4.3
Cytoplasm
30
4.4 Cell Membrane 30
4.5 Cell Wall 30
4.6 Pili 31
4.7
Flagella
31
4.8 Extracellular
Polymeric
Substances 31
4.9 Chemical
Composition
of Cells 32
4.10
Example
1Theoretical
Oxygen
Demand of Bacterial Cells 32
4.20.1 Solution 32
4.10.2 Comment 33
5.0 BACTERIAL METABOLISM, NUTRITION,
AND RESPIRATION ...
.33
5.1
Energy
Source 36
5.2
Chemoheterotrophic
Metabolism 36
5.3
Chemoautotrophic
Metabolism 38
5.4
Photosynthetic
Metabolism 39
5.5 Nutrient
Requirements
40
5.6 Bacterial
Energy
Metabolism 41
5.7 Aerobic Growth and
Respiration
42
5.8 Anoxic Conditions and
Respiration
43
5.9 Anaerobic
Respiration
and Fermentative Metabolism 44
5.10
Energetics
of
Respiration
46
5.11
Example
2Calculation of Electrode Reduction Potentials
and AG for Half-Reactions 48
5.12 Solution 48
5.13 Co-Metabolism 50
Contents ix
6.0 BACTERIAL GROWTH 51
6.1 The Bacterial Growth Curve 51
6.2 Growth in Mixed Cultures 53
6.3 Enrichment Cultures 53
6.4
Stability
of Mixed Cultures
54
6.5 Effects of Environmental Variables
54
7.0 BACTERIAL GROWTH KINETICS IN BIOFILMS 55
7.1 Rate of Bacterial Processes
56
7.2 Note
56
7.3
Physical
and Chemical
Changes
in Biofilms
Resulting
from Growth
59
7.4 Structured Models
59
7.5
Temperature
Effects 60
7.6
Example
3Effect of
Temperature
on
Organic
Removal 61
7.7 Solution
61
7.8 Inhibition and
Toxicity
63
7.9 Mass-Transfer-Rate Limitations 64
8.0 KEY TRANSFORMATIONS IN BIOFILMS 65
8.1
Chemoheterotrophic
Processes
66
8.2
Chemoautotrophic
Processes
67
8.3
Biology
of
Nitrogen
Transformations 67
8.4 Denitrification 67
8.5 Aerobic Nitrification 68
8.6 Anoxic Nitrification/Denitrification
69
8.7
Biological Phosphorus
Removal
70
8.8 Sulfide and
Sulfur Oxidation
71
8.9
Hydrogen
Oxidation
71
9.0 FEATURES OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES IN BIOFILMS 72
10.0 REFERENCES
74
X
Contents
Chapter
3
Trickling
Filter and Combined
Trickling
Filter
Suspended-Growth
Process
Design
and
Operation
1.0 INTRODUCTION
83
2.0 GENERAL DESCRIPTION
84
2.1 Distribution
System
84
2.2 Biofilm Carriers 87
2.3 Containment Structure 90
2.4 Underdrain
System
and Ventilation 90
2.5
Trickling
Filter
Pumping
Stations: Influent and Recirculation 91
2.6
Hydraulic
and Contaminant
Loading
92
3.0 PROCESS FLOW SHEETS AND BIOREACTOR CONFIGURATION.. .93
3.1 Standard Process Flow
Diagrams
93
3.2 Bioreactor Classification 96
3.3
Hydraulic Application:
Effect on Media
Wetting,
Flow Distribution, and Control 98
4.0 VENTILATION AND AIR SUPPLY ALTERNATIVES 100
4.1 Natural Draft 101
4.2 Mechanical Ventilation 102
5.0 TRICKLING FILTER PROCESS MODELS
103
5.1 National Research Council
103
5.2 Galler and Gotaas 105
5.3 Kincannon and Stover 106
5.4 Velz 107
5.5 Schulze 107
5.6 Germain 108
5.7 Eckenfelder
109
5.8 Chartered Institution of Water and
Environmental
Management
110
5.9
Logan Trickling
Filter Model Ill
Contents xi
5.10
Selecting
a
Trickling
Filter Model 112
5.11 Method for
Combining Trickling
Filter and
Suspended-Growth
Models 113
6.0 PROCESS DESIGN 115
6.1 Combined Carbon Oxidation and Nitrification 115
6.2
Nitrifying Trickling
Filters 120
6.2.1
Gujer
and Boiler
Nitrifying Trickling
Filter Model 122
6.2.2
Okey
and Albertson
Nitrifying Trickling
Filter Model 124
6.2.2.1
Application of
the
Gujer
and Boiler Model 126
6.2.2.2
Application of
the
Albertson and
Okey
Model 128
6.3
Temperature
and
Hydraulic Application
Effects 131
7.0 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
132
7.1 Distribution
System
133
7,2.2
Hydraulic
Drive
Rotary
Distributors
134
7.2.2 Electronic or Mechanical Drive
Rotary
Distributors 136
7.2.3
Optimizing Rotary
Distributor
Operation
138
7.2 Construction of
Rotary
Distributors
138
7.3
Trickling
Filter Media Selection 139
7.3.2
Depth
141
7.3.2 Structural
Integrity
142
7.4
Trickling
Filter
Pumping
Station or
Dosing Siphon
144
7.5 Control Mechanisms for
Trickling
Filter Macro Fauna 144
7.5.1
Operational Strategies
and
Facility Improvements for
Macro Fauna Control
.. 145
7.5.2
Spulkraft
147
7.5.3
Flooding
148
7.5.4 Chemical Treatment 149
7.5.5
Physical
Control 152
7.6
Trickling
Filter
Startup
153
7.7 Combined
Trickling
Filter and
Suspended-Growth
Processes 155
7.7.2 Activated
Biofilter
156
7.7.2
Trickling Filter/Solids
Contact 158
xii Contents
7.7.3
Roughing
Filter
I
Activated
Sludge
162
7.7.4
Biofilter I
Activated
Sludge
162
7.7.5
Trickling Filter/Activated Sludge
162
8.0 REFERENCES 163
Chapter
4
Rotating Biological
Contactors
1.0 INTRODUCTION 174
2.0 PROCESS DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 178
2.1 Media Surface Area 179
2.2
pH
and Nutrient Balance
180
2.3
Oxygen
Transfer 180
2.4 Flow and
Loading Variability
182
2.5
Operating Temperature
183
2.6 Solids Production 183
2.7 Toxic and
Inhibitory
Substances 184
3.0 ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR DESIGN METHODS 184
3.1 Monod Kinetic Model
184
3.2 Second-Order Model 186
3.3
Empirical
Model
187
3.4 Manufacturers'
Design
Curves
189
3.5
Comparison
of Model Predictions 190
3.6 Predicted Performance versus Full-Scale Data
191
3.7
Temperature
Correction
192
4.0 ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR
NITRIFICATION MODELS 194
5.0 DENITRIFICATION APPLICATION
197
6.0 PHYSICAL DESIGN FEATURES
198
6.1
Physical Layout
198
6.2 Tank Volume
198
6.3
Hydraulics
and Flow Control 198
6.4 Media
199
Contents
6.5 Drive
Systems
200
6.6 Covers
201
6.7 Biomass Control
201
7.0 ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR DESIGN EXAMPLES... .202
7.1
Secondary
Treatment
Design Example
202
7.2 Advanced
Secondary
Treatment
Design Example
203
8.0
PROBLEMS AND CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
204
8.1
Inadequate
Treatment
Capacity
205
8.2 Excessive
First-Stage Loadings
205
8.3 Excessive Biomass Growth
206
8.4
Loping
of Air-Drive
Systems
206
8.5
High
Clarifier Effluent
Suspended
Solids
207
8.6 Corrosion of Media
Supports
207
9.0 PILOT-PLANT STUDIES
207
10.0 REFERENCES
208
Chapter
5
Moving-Bed
Biofilm Reactors
1.0 INTRODUCTION
212
2.0
MOVING-BED REACTORS
213
3.0 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR MOVING-BED REACTORS 217
3.1 Carrier Biofilms
218
3.2.3 Carbonaceous Matter Removal
220
3.2.2
High-Rate Designs
220
3.2.3 Normal-Rate
Designs
221
3.2.4 Low-Rate
Designs
221
3.2.5
Nitrification
224
3.2.6
Denitrification
229
3.2.6.2
Pre-Denitrification Moving-Bed Biofilm
Reactors
229
3.2.6.2
Post-Denitrification Moving-Bed Biofilm
Reactors
230
3.2.6.3 Combined
Pre-/Post-Denitrification Moving-Bed
Biofilm
Reactors
230
xiv
Contents
3.2 Mixers
231
3.3
Pretreatment
232
4.0 SOLIDS SEPARATION
233
5.0 GENERAL
CONSIDERATIONS FOR MOVING-BED
BIOFILM REACTORS
234
5.1
Approach Velocity 234
5.2
Foaming 234
5.3 Media Transfer and
Inventory Management
234
6.0 CASE STUDIES
235
6.1 Moa Point Wastewater Treatment
Plant, Wellington,
New Zealand
235
6.2
Harrisburg
Wastewater Treatment Plant,
Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania 238
6.3 Moorhead Wastewater Treatment
Facility,
Moor
head,
Minnesota
(Adapted
from Zimmerman et
al., 2004) 240
6.4 Williams Monaco Wastewater Treatment
Plant, Henderson,
Colorado
241
6.5
Klagsham
Wastewater Treatment
Plant, Malmo, Sweden
(Adapted
from
Taljemark
et al, 2004) 246
6.6 GardemoenWastewater Treatment
Plant, Gardemoen, Norway
250
7.0 REFERENCES
253
Chapter
6
Hybrid
Processes
1.0 OVERVIEW OF INTEGRATED FIXED-FILM
ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS
260
1.1
Advantages
261
1.2
Disadvantages 262
2.0 MEDIA TYPES
262
2.1 Fixed-Media
Systems 263
2.2
Free-Floating
Media
Systems 264
2.2.2 Plastic
264
2.2.2
Sponge 264
Contents xv
3.0 HISTORY OF PROCESS 265
4.0 APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED FIXED-FILM
ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS 267
4.1 Fixed Media 267
4.2.2 General
Requirements
267
4.2.2 Growth on Media 268
4.2.3 Kinetics 269
4.2.4 Worm Growth 270
4.2.5 Media
Breakage
270
4.2.6 Dissolved
Oxygen
Level 270
4.2.7
Mixing
271
4.2.8 Access to
Diffusers
271
4.2.9 Odor 271
4.2
Free-Floating MediaSponge
Media 272
4.2.1 General
Requirements
272
4.2.2 Screen
Clogging
272
4.3 Control of Biomass Growth 273
4.3.2 Loss
of Sponges
273
4.3.2
Taking
Tank
Out-of-Service
274
4.3.3 Loss
of
Solids 274
4.3.4 Air Distribution
System
274
4.3.5 Plastic Media
274
4.3.5.2 General
Requirements
274
4.3.5.2 Biomass Growth
275
43.5.3 Media
Mixing
276
4.3.5.4 Screens
276
4.3.5.5
Foaming
276
4.3.5.6 Media
Replacement
276
4.3.5.7
Taking
Tank
Out-of-Service
276
4.3.5.8 Worm Growth
277
4.3.5.9
Startup
277
xvi Contents
5.0 PROCESS DESIGN 277
5.1 Introduction 277
5.2 Parameters
Influencing Organics
Removal in
the Biofilm of
Integrated
Fixed-Film Activated
Sludge Systems
278
5.2.2
Biofilm
Flux Rates 278
5.2.2 Removals in
Biofilm per
Unit
of
Tank Volume 278
5.3 Parameters
Influencing
Removals in the
Mixed-Liquor
Suspended
Solids 281
5.4 Interaction Between the
Mixed-Liquor Suspended
Solids
and the Biofilm
282
5.5 Interaction Between
Heterotrophs
and Nitrifiers 284
5.6
Design
Tools/Procedures
284
5.6.2
Empirical
Methods 285
5.6.2.1
Equivalent-Sludge-Age Approach
285
5.6.2.2
Quantity (Length
or Web
Surface
Area)
of
Media
Approach
286
5.6.2 Rates Based on Pilot Studies 286
5.6.3
Biofilm
Rate Model 287
5.6.3.2
Define Range of
Flux Rates 287
5.6.3.2
Quantify
Removal at
Different Mixed-Liquor Suspended
Solids Mean Cell Residence Times 287
5.6.3.3 Select Flux Rates Based on
Location
Along
Aerobic Zone 287
5.6.3.4 Calculate the
Quantity of
Media
Required
288
5.6.3.5 Additional
Analysis
to Finalize a
Design
288
5.6.3.6
Application of
Kinetics-Based
Approach
with
Integrated
Fixed-Film Activated
Sludge Design Software
288
6.0 CASE STUDIES
288
6.1
Annapolis
Water Reclamation
Facility,
Anne Arundel
County,
Maryland
288
6.2.2
Original
Wastewater Treatment Plant 289
6.2.2 Pilot
Study
(1993 to 1996) 289
6.1.3 Full-Scale
Upgrade for Biological
Nutrient Removal (1997 to 2000) 291
6,1.3.2 Pilot
Study
291
Contents
xvii
6.1.3.2
During
Construction (1997 to 2000) 293
6.1.3.3 Post-Construction (2000 to 2003) 299
6.2
Westerly
Wastewater Treatment Plant, Westerly,
Rhode Island 299
6.2.2 Introduction 299
6.2.2
Description of Original
Facilities 299
6.2.3
Description of Upgrade
299
6.2.4
Design
Criteria 302
6.2.5
Performance of
the
Integrated
Fixed-Film Activated
Sludge System
302
6.2.6
Operational
Issues
306
6.2.7 Costs
307
6.3 Broomfield Wastewater Treatment Plant, Broomfield, Colorado
...
307
6.3.2 Introduction
307
6.3.2 Full-Scale Plant Results
308
6.4
Colony
Wastewater Treatment Plant, Colony,
Texas 308
6.4.2 Introduction and
Background
308
6.4.2
Changing Design
Conditions
316
6.4.3 Plant Construction and
Operation
318
6.4.4
System Flexibility
320
6.4.5 Redworm Predation
321
7.0 REFERENCES
321
Chapter
7
Biological
Filters
1.0 INTRODUCTION
327
2.0 DESCRIPTIONS OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE FILTER
REACTORS
AND EQUIPMENT
329
2.1 Brief
History
of
Biologically
Active Filters
329
2.2 Downflow
Biologically
Active Filter with Sunken Media 331
2.3
Upflow Biologically
Active Filter with Sunken
Media 334
2.4
Upflow Biologically
Active Filter with
Floating
Media 335
2.5
Moving-Bed,
Continuous Backwash Filters 337
2.6
Non-Backwashing, Open-Structure
Media Filters 339
xviii Contents
3.0 MEDIA FORUSE IN BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE FILTERS 341
3.1 Mineral Media
341
3.2 Random Plastic Media
343
3.3 Modular Plastic Media
345
4.0 BACKWASHING AND AIR-SCOURING 345
5.0 BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE FILTER PROCESS DESIGN 349
5.1 Process
Design
for
Secondary
Treatment 351
5.1.1 Volumetric Biochemical
Oxygen
Demand
Loading
351
5.2.2
Hydraulic Loading
351
5.2.3
Backwashing
351
5.2.4
Design Example: Design of
a
Submerged, Upflow Biological
Aerated Filter
System for Secondary
Treatment (No
Nitrification)
353
5.2.5 Solution
353
5.2 Process
Design
for Nitrification 355
5.2.1
Influence of Hydraulic
Filtration Rates
355
5.2.2
Effect of
Process Air
Velocity
357
5.2.3
Dependence
on
Loading
Conditions 359
5.2.4
Temperature Effects
360
5.2.5
Design Example: Design of
a
Submerged, Upflow Biological
Aerated
Filter
System for Nitrification Following Secondary
Treatment 360
5.2.6 Solution
361
5.3 Process
Design
for Combined Nitrification and Denitrification... 362
5.4 Process
Design
for
Tertiary
Denitrification 365
5.4.1 Volumetric Mass
Loading
365
5.4.2
Half-Order
Kinetic Model 367
5.4.3
Hydraulic Loading
368
5.4.4 Solids Removal and
Sludge
Production 368
5.4.5
Supplemental
Carbon
Requirements
369
5.4.6
Tertiary Denitrification Typical Operations
Issues and
Corrective Actions 370
5.4.6.2 Excess
Backwashing
370
5.4.6.2 Gas
(Nitrogen)
Accumulation 371
Contents xix
5.4.6.3 Solids
Breakthrough
371
5.4.6.4 Nitrate/Nitrite Breakthrough
371
5.4.6.5 Carbon
Breakthrough
372
5.4.6.6
Phosphorus Management
372
5.4.6.7
Operation During
Peak Flow Events 372
5.5
Phosphorus
Removal Considerations for
Biologically
Active
Filter Processes
373
6.0 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
374
6.1
Preliminary
and
Primary
Treatment
374
6.2 Backwash
Handling
Facilities
374
6.3
Biologically
Active Filter Process Aeration
375
6.3.1
Oxygen-Transfer Efficiency
375
6.3.2 Process Air Distribution
Systems
377
6.3.3 Process Air Control
377
6.4
Supplemental
Carbon Feed
Requirements
378
7.0 BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE FILTER CASE
STUDIES 379
7.1
Chemically
Enhanced
Primary
Treatment
Followed
by
Two-Stage Biologically
Active Filter for Total
Nitrogen
Removal: VEAS Wastewater Treatment Plant, Oslo, Norway ....
379
7.2
Chemically
Enhanced
Primary
Treatment
Followed
by Three-Stage
Biologically
Active Filter for Total
Nitrogen
Removal: Siene Centre
Wastewater
Treatment Plant, Colombes,
France
381
7.3 Total
Nitrogen
Removal in a
Single-Stage Biologically
Active
Filter: Frederikshavn Wastewater Treatment Plant,
Denmark ....
384
7.4 Nitrification and Denitrification: West Warwick,
Rhode Island
387
7.5 Post-Denitrification
Sand Filters: Havelock,
North Carolina 389
8.0 REFERENCES
391
Chapter
8
New and
Emerging
Fixed-Film
Technologies
1.0 INTRODUCTION
401
2.0 BIOFILM REACTORS WITH SUSPENDED CARRIERS OR
GRANULES
402
XX Contents
2.1 Biofilm Airlift
Suspension
Reactor 402
2.2
Upflow
Anaerobic
Sludge
Blanket 404
2.3
Expanded
Granular
Sludge
Blanket 404
2.4 Internal Circulation Reactor 404
3.0 ANAMMOX BIOFILM REACTORS 405
4.0 MEMBRANE BIOFILM REACTORS 406
5.0 REFERENCES 408
Chapter
9 Clarification
1.0 INTRODUCTION 414
2.0 SOLIDS-SEPARATION CHOICES 416
3.0 DESIGN
APPROACH 417
3.1
Types
of
Settling Regimes
418
3.1.1
Type
I
419
3.1.2
Type
II 419
3.1.3
Type
III 419
3.1.4
Type
IV
419
3.2
Special
Considerations for Nutrient Removal
Sludges
419
3.3 Clarifier Enhancements 420
3.4 Wastewater Flocculation 422
3.5 Flocculation Criteria 424
3.6 Clarifier
Design
Details 429
3.6.2
Influent
Column 431
3.6.2
Energy-Dissipating
Inlet 431
3.6.3 Feed Well
(Flocculating Type)
433
3.6.4 Side Water
Depth,
Clear Water Zone, and
Overflow
Rate 435
3.6.5 Floor
Slope
438
3.6.6
Effluent
Weir and Launder 440
3.6.7
Sludge
Collectors 443
3.6.8
Sludge Hopper
445
3.7
Rectangular
versus Circular Clarifiers 445
Contents xxi
3.8
Design Example
446
3.9 Clarifier
Following Moving-Bed
Biofilm Reactor, Trickling
Filter, Rotating Biological
Contactor, and Biotower
448
3.9,2
Secondary (Integrated
Fixed-Film Activated
Sludge) Clarifiers
451
3.9.2
Sludge Hopper
454
3.9.3 Process
Performance
455
3.10 Other Considerations
458
3.20.2
Modeling
458
3.20.2 Interaction with Other Facilities 458
3.20.3 International Practices
458
4.0 REFERENCES
459
Chapter
10 Effluent Filtration
1.0 INTRODUCTION
463
2.0 PROCESS PERFORMANCE
465
3.0 REFERENCES
469
Chapter
11
Development
and
Application
of
Models for
Integrated
Fixed-Film Activated
Sludge,
Moving-Bed
Biofilm
Reactors, Biological
Aerated
Filters,
and
Trickling
Filters
1.0 INTRODUCTION
473
2.0 MODELING
478
2.1 Numerical
Approach Using Semi-Empirical Equations
for
Biofilm
(Steady-State
and
Dynamic
Simulation) 478
2.2.2
Ammonium-Nitrogen Uptake
Rate 480
2.2.2.2
Ammonium-Nitrogen Uptake
Rate
by Nitrifiers
in
Biofilm
480
2.2.2.2
Biofilm Nitrification
Rates
from
Pilot Studies 482
2.2.2.3
Ammonium-Nitrogen Uptake
Rate
by Nitrifiers
in
Mixed-Liquor
Volatile
Suspended
Solids 485
2.2.2.4 Mass Balance
for Ammonium-Nitrogen
in Each Reactor 490
2.2.2 Chemical
Oxygen
Demand
Removal 494
xxii Contents
2.2.3 Biomass Production 499
2.1.3.1
Mixed-Liquor
Volatile
Suspended
Solids 500
2.2.3.2
Biofilm
501
2.2.4 Fraction
ofNitrifiers
502
2.2.5
Denitrification
503
2.2.6
Oxygen
504
2.2 Numerical
Approach
to Solve One- and Two-Dimensional Biofilm-
Diffusion Models
(Steady-State
and
Dynamic
Simulation)
504
2.2.2
Ammonium-Nitrogen
506
2.2.2
Linkage
to
Equations
11.1
to 11.42 Presented Earlier 508
2.2.3 Chemical
Oxygen
Demand, Biomass (Volatile and Total
Suspended
Solids),
Dissolved
Oxygen,
and NOx-N 510
2.2.4
Biofilm Thickness, Growth, and Fraction
Nitrifiers
510
3.0 MODEL APPLICATIONS TO FULL-SCALE FACILITIES 512
3.1
Integrated
Fixed-Film Activated
Sludge
Plant
Description
and
Modeling
513
3.2.2
Integrated
Fixed-Film Activated
Sludge
Plant
Description
514
3.2.2
Integrated
Fixed-Film Activated
Sludge
Plant
Operation
515
3.2.2.2 Data
from
December 2006 515
3.2.2.2 Flow and
Recycle
515
3.1.2.2.1
Primary
Effluent 515
3.1.2.2.2 Aerobic Cells 518
3.1.2.2.3
Secondary/Plant
Effluent 518
3.1.2.2.4 Discussion of the Data 518
3.2.3
Modeling Integrated
Fixed-Film Activated
Sludge
in
Aquifas
518
3.1.3.1 Results
from Aquifas
519
3.2.3.2
Key Inputs
to
Aquifas Biofilm
One-Dimensional Model 526
3.1.3.3 Discussion
ofAquifas
Model and
Accuracy of
Results 526
3.2.4
Modeling
in BioWin 527
3.2.4.2 Framework
527
3.2.4.2 Results
from
BioWin 531
3.1.4.3 Discussion
of
Results
from
BioWin 531
Contents xxiii
3.2
Moving-Bed
Biofilm Reactor Plant
Description
and
Modeling.
...
534
3.2.3
Moving-Bed Biofilm
Reactor
Modeling
with GPS-X 537
3.2.2.1 Introduction 537
3.2.1.2
Example
542
3.2.2
Moving-Bed Biofilm
Reactor
Modeling
with
Aquifas
542
3.2.3
Moving-Bed Biofilm
Reactor
ModelingGeneral
Comments 543
3.2.4
Integrated
Fixed-Film Activated
Sludge
and
Moving-Bed Biofilm
Reactor
ModelingGeneral
Observations 552
4.0 REFERENCES 553
INDEX 559