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CHAPTER 1

Introduction

The problem of vehicle license plate recognition is an interesting one and over the

years has attracted a plethora of researchers and computer vision experts. The

applications of such a system are vast and can range from parking lot security to traffic

management. There are various approaches to the solution of this problem, such as

texture-based, morphology-based and boundary line-based. This dissertation, presents

a morphology-based approach for the identification of a license plate in the image of a

vehicle. The recognition process deviates from the conventional approach of using

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems and utilizes the concept of color

coherence vectors. Researchers have been proposed a variety of solutions for the

problem of license plate identification and recognition in images.

license plates that is based on applying convolution process on the image. The

application of the Hough transform has also been partially successful in reducing skew

from the segmenting license plates in an image. The utilization of enhanced edge-

detection techniques combined with others such as slope and projection evaluation is

another interesting solution to this problem. To attain faster processing speeds some

systems decide on a threshold for the size of the license plate and the character regions

within them. Then using fuzzy logic and neural network algorithms the character

regions are segmented and the characters within them are identified. A slightly

different approach to the segmentation problem is the mean shift segmentation

method. It identifies several candidate regions within a source image and utilizes

features such as rectangularity, aspect ratio and edge density to determine whether the

identified region is a license plate or not. All of the above research works strive to

maintain a correct balance between the accuracy of the algorithm and its speed. The

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vector approach for recognition is extremely fast.

Massive integration of information technologies into all aspects of modern life caused

demand for processing vehicles as conceptual resources in information systems.

Because a standalone information system without any data has no sense, there was

also a need to transform information about vehicles between the reality and

information systems.

This can be achieved by a human agent, or by special intelligent equipment which is

be able to recognize vehicles by their number plates in a real environment and reflect

it into conceptual resources. Because of this, various recognition techniques have been

developed. Already in 1976, the Police Scientific Development Branch in the UK

started developing a system that was up and running in 1979. In 1981 the first arrest

due to a stolen car being detected by this system was made. However, since most

previous work has been done by private corporations, much of the underlying theory is

kept secret. But from the publically available articles it can be deduced that the

different solutions for automatic license plate recognition generally consist of two

parts:

1. Finding license plates in images

2. Reading text from license plates

The second part of the problem, reading text, is really just a subset of the vast field of

optical character recognition (OCR).

Number plate recognition systems are today used in various traffic and security

applications, such as parking, access and border control, or tracking of stolen cars. In

parking, number plates are used to calculate duration of the parking. When a vehicle

enters an input gate, number plate is automatically recognized and stored in database.

When a vehicle later exits the parking area through an output gate, number plate is

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recognized again and paired with the first-one stored in the database. The difference in

time is used to calculate the parking fee.

Automatic number plate recognition systems can be used in access control. For

example, this technology is used in many companies to grant access only to vehicles

of authorized personnel.

In some countries, ANPR systems installed on country borders automatically detect

and monitor border crossings. Each vehicle can be registered in a central database and

compared to a black list of stolen vehicles. In traffic control, vehicles can be directed

to different lanes for a better congestion control in busy urban communications during

the rush hours.

The problem is to detect a rectangular area of the number plate and to recognize the

vehicle’s identification number from the number plate area in an original image.

Humans define a number plate in a natural language as a “small plastic or metal plate

attached to a vehicle for official identification purposes”, but machines do not

understand this definition as well as they do not understand what “vehicle”,” road”, or

whatever else is. Because of this, there is a need to find an alternative definition of a

number plate based on descriptors that will be comprehensible for machines.

Let us define the number plate as a “rectangular area with increased occurrence of

horizontal and vertical edges”. The high density of horizontal and vertical edges on a

small area is in many cases caused by contrast characters of a number plate, but not in

every case. This process can sometimes detect a wrong area that does not correspond

to a number plate. Because of this, we often detect several candidates for the plate by

this algorithm, and then we choose the best one by a further heuristic analysis and then

the recognition algorithm is applied on the chosen candidate to the number form the

number plate.

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As a scope of a project, we have to detach or extract the number plate and recognize

the number from the snapshot acquired by the sensor or the camera or any hardware

specified for the purpose. This will be performed by first applying certain convolution

operation over the buffered image i.e. Rank Filtering and Sobel Operator (edge

detection). Projection of an image is further be taken for clipping the band, again

projection of the band is taken for clipping the plate.

In the case, of the skewed image we have applied Hough Transformation for

deskewing the. By the help of transformation we acquired an angle of tilt of an image

by which it is skewed. This angle is used for the deskewing the image.

The next step after the detection of the number plate area is a segmentation of the

plate. The segmentation is one of the most important processes in the automatic

number plate recognition, because all further steps rely on it. If the segmentation fails,

a character can be improperly divided into two pieces, or two characters can be

improperly merged together. We used a horizontal projection of a number plate for the

segmentation in the first phase. The second phase of the segmentation is an

enhancement of segments. The segment of a plate contains besides the character also

undesirable elements such as dots and stretches as well as redundant space on the sides

of character. We eliminate these elements and extract only the character

feature descriptors of such bitmap. As an extraction method significantly affects the

quality of whole OCR process, it is very important to extract features, which will be

invariant towards the various light conditions, used font type and deformations of

characters caused by a skew of the image.

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The optical character recognition technique has been frequently used for identifying

characters in the extracted image of a license plate. However, the processing time and

accuracy of this technique are questionable. This algorithm presented in this

dissertation presents an extremely fast and accurate method of recognizing license

plates. The algorithm can be termed as an illiterate one, in the sense that it does not

extract the characters within the image but it recognizes the image as a whole. To

build the initial database, images of the required license plates are preprocessed and

their parameters are stored. During the recognition process these parameters are

simply compared with those of the input image in constant time and the best match is

retrieved. Due to its static complexity it is an extremely fast technique for image

recognition.

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CHAPTER 2

Exhaustive Literature Survey

2.1 Introduction

that uses image processing and optical character recognition on images to read the

license plates on vehicles. While the technology has been around for a long time but

the accuracy and reliability of the Anpdr systems are of main concern. Some of the

systems developed earlier have very low efficiency but now new Anpdr systems are

becoming more efficient and robust with the use of new technologies.

1) Number plate Area detection

a) RGB to grayscale conversion

b) Convolution operation

c) Horizontal and vertical rank filtering

d) Image Projection

e) Band and plate clipping

f) Detection and correction of skew

2) Plate segmentation

3) Feature extraction

4) Character recognition

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It is the process in which the number plate area is detected in a given snapshot. The

number plate can not be recognized by the computer system directly from the image

so we need a method to detect the number plate in the form that an be understood by

computer.

image. Grayscale image carries only intensity values of an image. Processing on

grayscale image reduces overhead and increases the efficiency of the system. To

convert any color to a grayscale representation of its luminance, first one must obtain

the values of its red, green, and blue (RGB) primaries in linear intensity encoding, by

gamma expansion. Then, add together 30% of the red value, 59% of the green value,

and 11% of the blue value (these weights depend on the exact choice of the RGB

primaries, but are typical). Regardless of the scale employed (0.0 to 1.0, 0 to 255, 0%

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to 100%, etc.), the resultant number is the desired linear luminance value; it typically

needs to be gamma compressed to get back to a conventional grayscale representation.

Convolution matrix

The basic idea is that a window of some finite size and shape--the support--is scanned

across the image. The output pixel value is the weighted sum of the input pixels within

the window where the weights are the values of the filter assigned to every pixel of the

window itself. The window with its weights is called the convolution kernel.

Rank filter is an image processing term. Horizontally and vertically oriented rank

filters are often used to detect clusters of high density of bright edges in the area of the

number plate. The width of the horizontally oriented rank filter matrix is much larger

than the height of the matrix and vice versa for the vertical rank filter. Typically, in

digital filtering, pixels within a window are ranked by intensity values, and the center

pixel is replaced with a new value. The new value is calculated as a function of the

ranked pixels. Only the original pixel values are used in the ranking when determining

the new pixel value. Typical functions used in ranking are the median, mean and mode

filter.

Image Projection

The vertical projection is simply the sum (or possibly the mean value) of all of the

rows, and the horizontal projection is the same operation applied to the columns. It is

often used to identify spatially restricted objects within an image.

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The band clipping is an operation, which is used to detect and clip the vertical area of

the number plate (so-called band) by analysis of the vertical projection of the

snapshot. The plate clipping is a consequent operation, which is used to detect and clip

the plate from the band (not from the whole snapshot) by a horizontal analysis of such

band.

Plate segmentation

The segmentation is one of the most important processes in the automatic numberplate

recognition.Segmentation refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into

multiple segments (sets of pixels). The goal of segmentation is to simplify and/or

change the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and

easier to analyze. Image segmentation is typically used to locate objects and

boundaries (lines, curves, etc.) in images. More precisely, image segmentation is the

process of assigning a label to every pixel in an image such that pixels with the same

label share certain visual characteristics.

Feature Extraction

When the input data to an algorithm is too large to be processed and it is suspected to

be notoriously redundant (much data, but not much information) then the input data

will be transformed into a reduced representation set of features (also named features

vector). Transforming the input data into the set of features is called features

extraction. Feature extraction involves simplifying the amount of resources required to

describe a large set of data accurately. When performing analysis of complex data one

of the major problems stems from the number of variables involved. Analysis with a

large number of variables generally requires a large amount of memory and

computation power or a classification algorithm which overfits the training sample and

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generalizes poorly to new samples. Feature extraction is a general term for methods of

constructing combinations of the variables to get around these problems while still

describing the data with sufficient accuracy.

Character recognition

recognition is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and

machine vision. Optical character recognition (using optical techniques such as

mirrors and lenses) and digital character recognition (using scanners and computer

algorithms) were originally considered separate fields. Because very few applications

survive that use true optical techniques, the OCR term has now been broadened to

include digital image processing as well.

2.3 Conclusion

The Anpdr system includes two parts number plate area detection and character

recognition. First part deals with the detection of plate area and second part with the

recognition of characters on the identified number plate. Plate area detection includes

series of operations which are applied on the image to detect the number plate.

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Chapter 3

Methods and Approaches

This problematic includes algorithms that are able to detect a rectangular area of the

number plate in an original image

Let us define the number plate as a “rectangular area with increased occurrence of

horizontal and vertical edges”. The high density of horizontal and vertical edges on a

small area is in many cases caused by contrast characters of a number plate, but not in

every case. This process can sometimes detect a wrong area that does not correspond

to a number plate. Because of this, we often detect several candidates for the plate by

this algorithm, and then we choose the best one by a further heuristic analysis.

Let an input snapshot be defined by a function f (x, y), where x and y are spatial

coordinates, and f is an intensity of light at that point. This function is always discrete

on digital computers, such as x∈ℕ, y∈ℕ , where ℕ0 denotes the set of natural

numbers including zero. We define operations such as edge detection or rank filtering

as mathematical transformations of function f .

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Modified snapshot is then projected into axes x and y . These projections are used to

determine an area of a number plate.

Each image operation (or filter) is defined by a convolution matrix. The convolution

matrix defines how the specific pixel is affected by neighboring pixels in the process

of convolution Individual cells in the matrix represent the neighbors related to the

pixel situated in the centre of the matrix. The pixel represented by the cell y in the

destination image is affected by the pixels x0…x8 according to the formula.

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Figure 2.1

Horizontally and vertically oriented rank filters are often used to detect clusters of

high density of bright edges in the area of the number plate. The width of the

horizontally oriented rank filter matrix is much larger than the height of the matrix (

w>> h ), and vice versa for the vertical rank filter ( w<< h ).

To preserve the global intensity of an image, it is necessary to each pixel be replaced

with an average pixel intensity in the area covered by the rank filter matrix. In general,

the convolution matrix should meet the following condition:

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The Sobel edge detector uses a pair of 3x3 convolution matrices. The first is

dedicated for evaluation of vertical edges, and the second for evaluation of horizontal

edges.

The magnitude of the affected pixel is then calculated using the formula

G(x y) =sqrt(G2 (x) .G2 (y)) . In praxis, it is faster to calculate only an approximate

magnitude as x y |G| =G(x)| +|G(y)|.

After the series of convolution operations, we can detect an area of the number

plate according to a statistics of the snapshot. There are various methods of statistical

analysis. One of them is a horizontal and vertical projection of an image into the axes

x and y .

magnitude of the image according to the axis y . If we compute the vertical projection

of the image after the application of the vertical edge detection filter, the magnitude of

certain point represents the occurrence of vertical edges at that point. Then, the

vertical projection of so transformed image can be used for a vertical localization of

the number plate. The horizontal projection represents an overall magnitude of the

image mapped to the axis x .

Let an input image be defined by a discrete function f (x, y). Then, a vertical

projection y p of the function f at a point y is a summary of all pixel magnitudes in the

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yth row of the input image. Similarly, a horizontal projection at a point x of that

function is a summary of all magnitudes in the xth column.

analysis of a graph of vertical projection. If h is the height of the analyzed image, the

y∈<0; h -1>.

There is a strong analogy in a principle between the band and plate clipping.

The plate clipping is based on a horizontal projection of band. At first, the band must

be processed by a vertical detection filter. If w is a width of the band (or a width of the

analyzed image), the corresponding horizontal projection

detected in another way. Due to the skew correction between the first and second

phase of analysis, the wider plate area must be duplicated into a new bitmap. Let

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coordinate system, such as [0,0] represents the upper left corner and [w-1,h -1] the

bottom right, where w and h are dimensions of the area

Candidates

In general, the captured snapshot can contain several number plate candidates.

Because of this, the detection algorithm always clips several bands, and several plates

from each band. There is a predefined value of maximum number of candidates, which

are detected by analysis of projections. By default, this value is equals to nine.

There are several heuristics, which are used to determine the cost of selected

candidates according to their properties. These heuristics have been chosen ad hoc

during the practical experimentations. The recognition logic sorts candidates

according to their cost from the most suitable to the least suitable. Then, the most

suitable candidate is examined by a deeper heuristic analysis. The deeper analysis

definitely accepts, or rejects the candidate. As there is a need to analyze individual

characters, this type of analysis consumes big amount of processor time

The basic analysis is used to evaluate the cost of candidates, and to sort them

according to this cost. There are several independent heuristics, which can be used to

evaluate the cost I . The heuristics can be used separately, or they can be combined

together to compute an overall cost of candidate by a weighted sum:

α = 0 .15α 1 + 0.25α 2+ 0.4α 3

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Table 2.1

The captured rectangular plate can be rotated and skewed in many ways due to

the positioning of vehicle towards the camera. Since the skew significantly degrades

the recognition abilities, it is important to implement additional mechanisms, which

are able to detect and correct skewed plates. The fundamental problem of this

mechanism is to determine an angle, under which the plate is skewed. Then,

deskewing of so evaluated plate can be realized by a trivial affine transformation.

It is important to understand the difference between the “sheared” and

“rotated” rectangular plate. The number plate is an object in three-dimensional space,

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which is projected into the two dimensional snapshot during the capture. The

positioning of the object can sometimes cause the skew of angles and proportions.

If the vertical line of plate v p is not identical to the vertical line of camera

objective v c, the plate may be sheared. If the vertical lines v p and v c are identical,

but the axis a p of plate is not parallel to the axis of camera a c, the plate may be

rotated

Figure 2.2

specific shape within a picture. The classical Hough transform is used for the detection

of lines. The Hough transform is widely used for miscellaneous purposes in the

problematic of machine vision, but I have used it to detect the skew of captured plate,

and also to compute an angle of skew.

an equation y =a x+b , where a is a slope and b is a y-axis section of so defined line.

Then, the line is a set of all points [x, y] , for which this equation is valid. We know

that the line contains an infinite number of points as well as there are an infinite

number of different lines, which can cross a certain point. The relation between these

two assertions is a basic idea of the Hough transform.The equation y =ax+b can be

also written as b =x+a y , where x and y are parameters. Then, the equation defines a

set of all lines (a,b) , which can cross the point [x, y] . For each point in the “XY”

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coordinate system, there is a line in an “AB” coordinate system (so called “Hough

space”)

image f (x, y) . As the skew detection based on Hough transform does not distinguish

between the shear and rotation, it is important to choose the proper deskewing

operation. In praxis, plates are sheared in more cases than rotated. To correct the plate

sheared by the angle q , we use the affine transformation to shear it by the negative

angle

where Sx and Sy are shear factors. The Sx is always zero, because we shear the plate

only in a direction of the Y-axis

Let P be a vector representing the certain point, such as P [x, y,1]where x and y

are coordinates of that point. The new coordinates [ x s , y s ,1]of that point after the

shearing can be computed as:

P s =P .A

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defined by a function s f . The function s f can be computed in the following way:

.

2.2 Segmentation of plate using a horizontal projection

in its horizontal projection. We often apply the adaptive thresholding filter to enhance

an area of the plate before segmentation. The adaptive thresholding is used to separate

dark foreground from light background with non-uniform illumination

f(x, y). We use this projection to determine horizontal boundaries between segmented

characters. These boundaries correspond to peaks in the graph of the horizontal

projection

the spaces between characters. At first, there is a need to define several important

values in a graph of the

horizontal projection (p )x :

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The segment of plate contains besides the character also redundant space and

other undesirable elements. We understand under the term “segment” the part of a

number plate determined by a horizontal segmentation algorithm. Since the segment

has been processed by an adaptive thresholding filter, it contains only black and white

pixels. The neighboring pixels are grouped together into larger pieces, and one of them

is a character. Our goal is to divide the segment into the several pieces, and keep only

one piece representing the regular character

coordinate system, such as [0,0] is an upper left corner of the segment, and [w-1,h -1]

is a bottom right corner, where w and h are dimensions of the segment. The value of f

(x, y) is “1” for the black pixels, and “0” for the white space.

The piece R is a set of all neighboring pixels [x, y], which represents a continuous

element. The pixel [x, y] belongs to the piece R if there is at least one pixel [x’, y’]

from the R , such as [x, y] and [x’, y’] are neighbors

pixel neighborhood”:

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The brightness and contrast characteristics of segmented characters are varying

due to different light conditions during the capture. Because of this, it is necessary to

normalize them. There are many different ways, but this section describes the two

most used: global and adaptive thresholding.

redistributed on the histogram to obtain the normalized statistics.

Techniques of the global and adaptive thresholding are used to obtain monochrome

representations of processed character segments. The monochrome (or black & white)

representation of image is more appropriate for analysis, because it defines clear

boundaries of contained characters.

image is reduced into monochrome black & white colors according to the global

threshold value. Let 0,1 be a gray scale of such image. If a value of a certain pixel is

above the threshold t , the new value of the pixel will be zero. Otherwise, the new

value will be one for pixels with values above the

threshold t .

Let v be an original value of the pixel, such as vÎ 0,1 . The new value v¢ is

computed as:

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Since the threshold t is global for a whole image, the global thresholding can

sometimes fail. So for over coming the drawback we use Adaptive Thresholding

illuminated. This is most frequent reason why the global thresholding fail. The

adaptive thresholding solves several disadvantages of the global thresholding, because

it computes threshold value for each pixel separately using its local neighborhood.

The second way of finding the local threshold of pixel is a statistical

examination of neighboring pixels. Let x, y b e a pixel, for which we compute the

local threshold t . For simplicity we consider a square neighborhood with width 2 .r

+1. where [x -r, y +r ],[x-r, y-r], [x +r, y + r]and[x+r, y-r]are corners of such square.

There are severals approaches of computing the value of threshold:

character, it is necessary to normalize it into unified dimensions. We understand under

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original dimensions of unnormalized characters are usually higher than the normalized

ones, the characters are in most cases downsampled.

When we downsample, we reduce information contained

in the processed image.There are several methods of resampling, such as the pixel-

resize, bilinear interpolation or the weighted-average resampling. We cannot

determine which method is the best in general, because the successfulness of particular

method depends on many factors. For example, usage of the weighed-average

downsampling in combination with a detection of character edges is not

a good solution, because this type of downsampling does not preserve sharp edges

Because of this, the problematic of character resampling is closely associated with the

problematic of feature extraction.

We will assume that mxn are dimensions of the original image, and m’xn’are

dimensions of the image after resampling. The horizontal and vertical aspect ratio is

defined as r x =m’/m and r y=n’/n , respectively.

pixel in the original image that corresponds to a processed pixel in the image after

resampling. Let f (x, y)be a discrete function defining the original image, such as 0

<=x <=m and 0 <=y <=n . Then, the function f(x, y)of the image after resampling is

defined as:

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If the aspect ratio is lower than one, then each pixel in the resampled

(destination) image corresponds to a group of pixels in the original image, but only

one value from the group of source pixels affects the value of the pixel in the

resampled image. Although the nearest neighbor downsamping significantly reduces

information contained in the original image by ignoring a big amount of pixels, it

preserves sharp edges and the strong bipolarity of black and white pixels. Because of

this, the nearest neighbor downsamping is suitable in combination with the “edge

detection” feature extraction method

2.3.7 Feature extraction

Information contained in a bitmap representation of an image is not suitable for

processing by computers. Because of this, there is need to describe a character in

another way. The description of the character should be invariant towards the used

font type, or deformations caused by a skew. In addition, all instances of the same

character should have a similar description. A description of the character is a vector

of numeral values, so-called “descriptors”, or “patterns”:

x =x0 ,…, xn1

Generally, the description of an image region is based on its internal and

external representation. The internal representation of an image is based on its

regional properties, such as color or texture. The external representation is chosen

when the primary focus is on shape characteristics. The description of normalized

characters is based on its external characteristics because we deal only with properties

such as character shape. Then, the vector of descriptors includes characteristics such

as number of lines, bays, lakes, the amount of horizontal, vertical and diagonal or

diagonal edges, and etc. The feature extraction is a process of transformation of data

from a bitmap representation into a form of descriptors, which are more suitable for

computers.

If we associate similar instances of the same character into the classes, then the

descriptors of characters from the same class should be geometrically closed to each

other in the vector space. This is a basic assumption for successfulness of the pattern

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recognition process. This section deals with various methods of feature extraction, and

explains which method is the most suitable for a specific type of character bitmap. For

example, the “edge detection” method should not be used in combination with a

blurred bitmap.

The feature extraction techniques discussed in the previous two chapters are

based on the statistical image processing. These methods do not consider structural

aspects of analyzed images. The small difference in bitmaps sometimes means a big

difference in the structure of contained characters. For example, digits ‘6’ and ‘8’ have

very similar bitmaps, but there is a substantial difference in their structures.

The structural analysis is based on higher concepts than the edge detection

method. It does not deal with terms such as “pixels” or “edges”, but it considers more

complex structures (like junctions, line ends or loops). To analyze these structures, we

must involve the thinning algorithm to get a skeleton of the character. This chapter

deals with the principle of skeletonization as well as with the principle of structural

analysis of skeletonized image

reduction is accomplished by obtaining a skeleton of the region via the skeletonization

algorithm. The skeleton of a shape is mathematically defined as a medial axis

transformation. To define the medial axis transformation and skeletonization

algorithm, we must introduce some elementary prerequisite terms.

Let N be a binary relation between two pixels [x, y] and [x’, y’], such as aNb means “

a is a neighbor of b ”. This relation is defined as:

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boundary pixel, if it is black and if it has at least one white neighbor in the eight-pixel

neighborhood:

The inner region I of character is a set of black pixels, which are not boundary

pixels:

For the recognition of the characters from the segmented number plate area OCR

techniques are applied on the plate area. OCR process are applied with the use of ORC

API in java which includes various classes that performs the OCR process on a given

input image.

The different classes used are:

1. OCR()

2. a()

3. b()

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Sub Processes

Sub Processes

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Sub Processes

Sub Processes

Sub Processes

Sub Processes

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Sub Processes

Sub Processes

3.3 Methods

AWT package present in java (java.awt.*). Is majorly utilized as it process

the image pixel by pixel For the purpose of applying the convolution matrices we have

method defined in it. And many more method is predefined in the package which is

use ful for the purpose of programming.

Another package which is used is java.util.* and java.io.* . which is used for

taking image as an input and storing the pixel values into the desired data structure.

java.awt.Color;

java.awt.image.BufferedImage;

java.io.File;

java.io.IOException;

javax.imageio.ImageIO;

java.awt.image.ConvolveOp;

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java.awt.image.Kernel;

java.awt.image.Raster;

java.awt.image.WritableRaster;

java.lang.String.*;

java.awt.event.*;

javax.swing.*;

java.awt.*;

Method Descriptions:

CLASS: Photo (user defined class)

from the place where the image is to be loaded.

saveImage(String filepath,BufferedImage l): This method saves the image at a

destination provided.

imageMatrix(BufferedImage im): method is used to create a matrix of a

buffered image obtained as an input.

getBrightness(BufferedImage im,float[][] matrix): method helps in achieving a

brightness factor from the true color image.

getSaturation (BufferedImage im,float[][] matrix): method helps in achieving

a Saturation factor from the true color image.

factor from the true color image.

pepper noise from the image. Rank of the filter can be changed according to the

requirement of the snaps.

33

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vertical and horizontal edges from the image.

for global thresholding in image value of the threshold can be changed according to

requirement.

consider values only above specified range.

vTh(float vparray[],BufferedImage bf):A threshold applied on a vparray consider

values only above specified range.

segTh(BufferedImage bf): This method use to segment the number plate extracted for

the snapshot.

hpProjection(BufferedImage ims):method uses the buffered image and add ups the

brightness value accross the horizontal vertex

vpProjection(BufferedImage ims): method uses the buffered image and add ups the

brightness value accross the verticle vertex

main():

start(): use to initialise the swing windows (interface)

actionedPerformed(): use to add action to the buttons.

OCR()

34

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argument and convert it into text.

Chapter 4

Prototyping

35

ANPDRS

Figure 4.1

A java swing interface having Button “load image” which will be used for the

purpose of loading image. As soon as the button is pressed the console will ask for the

snapshot present in the local disk.

36

ANPDRS

Figure 4.2

37

ANPDRS

As soon as the vehicle snapshot is loaded into the console. The “grayscale”

button will convert the original image into gray scale image.

After the image is converted into grayscale the “rank filter” buttom will apply

various rank filters on the image obtained from previous task

The image is then processed further and its horizontal projection is obtained by

the “horizontal projection” button.

38

ANPDRS

“vertical projection” button

Now the required number plate area is displayed on the console and OCR

operation is performed on the image obtained by the “display number” button and the

number will be displayed on the small console on the right side of the entire console.

CHAPTER 5

Implementation Results

ko mail ki thi

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Extensive testing has been conducted with more than 25 indian vehicles.

Images have been captured from various distances and viewing angles.

Image size has varied from 64K to 1M pixels. JPEG and PNG image

compression was tried along with a raw uncompressed gray level imagery.

Different daylight conditions were examined, from bright sunlight illumination

to half-darkness. Very frequently the plate zone has been in a shadow and the

contrast of characters has been poor with regard to the plate’s background.

Situations of mixed illumination, where certain portions of the plate were

shadowed, while the others were brightly illuminated, caused problems and

sometimes led to rejection of the whole plate.

The true license plate zone was correctly located and approved on

more than 85% of the images. The rest of the cases were rejected by one of

the consistency tests. It is important to stress that there have been zero false

39

ANPDRS

positive errors, which explain the relatively high share of rejected plates due to

the conservative tests while approving plate “candidates”.

CHAPTER 6

Comparison with existing State of Art Technologies

Vertical seg

40

ANPDRS

Rotated plate

Noisy image

Vertical segmentation of the number plate is better than the existing technology.

As applied theshold before projection which help in eliminating the unwanted pixels

which adds a pusedo brightness.

Same result observed in our project plate with inclination more than 20 degree where

having less precision in getting plate.

Noise removal is optimal as the increased rank of filter drastically make changes and

reduce the heavy noise fom the snapshot .

41

ANPDRS

CHAPTER

Conclusions

42

ANPDRS

recognition have been reviewed and the need for a system that balances accuracy and

speed has been found.

The project utilizes the algorithmic and mathematical aspects of the automatic

number plate recognition systems, such as problematic of machine vision, pattern

recognition, OCR and neural networks. The problematic has been divided into several

steps, according to a logical sequence of the individual recognition steps. Even though

there is a strong succession of algorithms applied during the recognition process.

has been divided into several sets according to difficultness. Sets of blurry and skewed

snapshots give worse recognition rates than a set of snapshots, which has been

captured clearly. The objective of the tests was not to find a one hundred percent

recognizable set of snapshots, but to test the invariance of the algorithms on random

snapshots systematically classified to the sets according to their properties. The

experimental analysis of the illiterate yet potent license plate recognition algorithm has

resulted in an accuracy of eighty eight percent and takes an average processing time of

two seconds per image. Hence, this algorithm has attempted to strike a balance

between the accuracy, robustness and speed that a license plate identification and

recognition system must posses.

References

43

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http://www.virtualventures.ca/~neil/neural/neuron.html

San Diego, USA, 1990

[3] Gonzalez R., Woods R.: Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle

River, New Jersey, 2002

[6] Kvasnicka V., Benuskova L., Pospichal J., Farkas I., Tino P., Kral A.:

Introduction to Neural Networks, Technical University, Kosice, Slovak Republic

Geometry, MIT Press:. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1969

[8] Shapiro V., Dimov D., Bonchev S., Velichkov V., Gluhchev G.: Adaptive License

Plate Image Extraction, International Conference Computer Systems and

Technologies, Rousse, Bulgaria, 2004

[9] Smagt P.: Comparative study of neural network algorithms applied to optical

character recognition, International conference on Industrial and engineering

applications of artificial intelligence and expert systems, Charleston, South Carolina,

USA, 1990

numerals using neural networks, ACM Annual Computer Science Conference, San

Antonio, Texas, USA, 1991

[11] Wang J., Jean J.: Segmentation of merged characters by neural networks and

shortest-path, Symposium on Applied Computing, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, 1993

44

ANPDRS

[12] Zhang Y., Zhang C.: New Algorithm for Character Segmentation of License

Plate, Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IEEE, 2003

45

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