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Yazar ii

indekiler
Genel eviri
Genel eviri
Hakan Gr

n
g
i
l
i
z
c
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T

r
k

e

2
Metin trleri ve eviri yntemleri.

Tmce ve metin analizi almalar.

eviri sorunlarn rnekleyen metinler.

eviri snavlar iin neriler.

eviri snavnda baar altrmalar.

Genel eviri 1 kitabyla, esiz bir kaynak.





RENC
KTABI

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

ii

GENEL EVR KTAPLARININ KULLANIMINA LKN KURALLAR

Genel eviri 1 ve Genel eviri 2 olarak derlenerek internet ortamna
yerletirilen PDF dosyalarnn kullanm aadaki koullara baldr:
1. Genel eviri 1 ve Genel eviri 2 dosyalarnn ierii dosyalarn iinde ve
dildersleri.gen.tr sitesinde Genel eviri 1 ve Genel eviri 2 iin
verilen balantlar altnda mevcuttur. Kullanm koullar bu dosyalarn her
ikisini de kapsamaktadr.
2. Kullanc olarak, sz konusu dosyalar ticari amala olmamak
kouluyla kendi bilgisayarna kaydedebilir, bu dosyalar kopyalayabilir,
bakalarna iletebilir, sayfalarda yer alan Hakan Gr -
dildersleri.gen.tr ibaresini silmemek ve deitirmemek kouluyla
dosyalarn ieriinde dzeltme ve dzenlemeler yapabilirsiniz. Burada sz
edilen "ticari" kavram ile Genel eviri 1 ve Genel eviri 2 kitaplarnn
zgn biimleri ya da deitirilmi biimleriyle iletilmesi, oaltlmas
ve/veya kullanlmasnn ncesinde ya da sonrasnda cret talep edilmesi,
kitaplarn satlmas kastedilmektedir. Kitaplarn kii ya da kurumlar
tarafndan cretsiz olarak rencilere verilmesi ve sonucunda kurumsal
(okul, niversite, dershane ve benzerleri) ya da kiisel temelli (zel ders
gibi) eviri retim ortamlarnda kullanlmas serbesttir.
3. Kurallarn eriilebilir olmas iin eitli nlemler alnmtr; buna gre:
a) bu kurallar dosyalarn zgn biimlerinin kullanma sunulduu internet
sayfalarnda yer almakta,
b) dosyalarn sayfalarnn st blmnde yer alan Hakan Gr -
dildersleri.gen.tr ibaresine eklenen balant yoluyla kullanc bu
kurallara ynlendirilmekte,
c) her bir dosyann giriinde kurallar ayrca verilmektedir.
Bu nedenle kullanc olarak dosyalar ister bu siteden ya da baka
kaynaklardan edinmi olun, bu kurallar okumu ve kabul etmi
olmaktasnz.
4. Bu kurallar dosyalara ayrca eklendii iin, dosyalarn yer ald
dildersleri.gen.tr sitesinin geici ya da kalc olarak devre d kalmas,
siteye eriilememesi, sitenin adnn deitirilmesi gibi durumlarda da
kurallar geerliliini koruyacaktr.
.......:::::.......
Genel eviri 1 kitab elinizde yoksa, dildersleri.gen.tr adresinden temin edebilirsiniz.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

iii
Yazar iv

Giri v

Kullanm notlar vi

Ksaltma ve simgeler vi

Konular

1: eviri ve evirinin aamalar 1

2: Metin trleri ve eviri yntemleri 6

3: Tmce analizi 13

4: Tmce analizi ve evirisi 43

5: Metin analizi ve evirisi 58

6: eviri snavna hazrlk ve son dzeltmeler 219

7: eviri snavlarnda baar 227

Noktalama imleri 233

eviriler 240

Yararlanlan kaynaklar 243

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

iv





Hakan Gr Ankara niversitesi DTCF ngiliz Dili ve Edebiyat krssnden mezun oldum. Trk-
ngiliz Kltr Dernei, Bilkent niversitesi Hazrlk Blm ve Ankara niversitesi
TMER'de ngilizce okutmanl yaptm. ODT Yabanc Diller blmnde yksek
lisans, Ankara niversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstits Trkenin retimi ve Eitimi
Anabilim Dal'nda da doktora almam tamamladm ve lisansst eitim
programnda Trkenin Yabanc Dil Olarak retimi dersleri verdim.

mge, Dost ve Bilgi Yaynevleri iin kitap evirileri gerekletirdim; evirmenlik yapmay
srdryorum.
.


Yazar
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

v





Genel eviri 1 kitabnn Giri blmnde, Genel eviri kitaplarnn hazrlanmasnda izlenen
yaklam ayrntl olarak aklanmakta. Modler bir temele oturan bu yaklamn ilk
modlne ilikin konular Genel eviri 1 kitabnda ele alnmaktadr.

EVR KURSU


MODLN GENEL
HEDEFLER
Kitap



SZLK
KULLANIMI


eviri iin szlk
seimi ve kullanm
1

MODL 1





SZCK
BLGS


Balamdan yararlanarak
anlamn tahmin edilmesi
1

MODL 2





NGLZCE
DLBLGS


ngilizce dilbilgisinin
niteliklerinin anlalmas
1

MODL 3





METN ve EVR
TRLER


Metin trlerinin ve bunlara uygun
eviri yntemlerinin tannmas
2

MODL 4





TMCE
ANALZ


eviri iin tmce
analizinin yaplmas
2

MODL 5





METN
ANALZ


eviri iin metin
analizinin yaplmas
2

MODL 6





EVRNN
KONTROLU


Yaplan evirinin son
kez gzden geirilmesi
2

MODL 7





SINAVLARA
HAZIRLIK


eviri snavlarnda
srenin kullanm
2

MODL 8



Konular

Yine birinci kitapta olduu gibi, Genel eviri 2 kitabndaki her bir konuda Giri, Sunu,
leme, retme ve Snama blmleri bulunmakta. Beinci konuda yeterince eviri altrmas
yapabileceiniz sayda ve eitlilikte metin yer almakta. Bu metinlerin hemen hepsinin sonunda
da Bylesi de var! bal altnda, derlenmi ilgin yazm hatalar, tutarszlk ieren ifadeler ve
eviri hatalarn bulabilirsiniz.

Ele alnan sralamann izlenmesi durumunda, Genel eviri 2 kitabnn ok yararl bir eviri
malzemesi haline geleceinden eminim.


Hakan GR

Almanya, 2010





Giri
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

vi



Genel eviri 2 kitab, Genel eviri 1 kitabn ilemi ve dolaysyla ngilizce'nin temel
dilbilgisini edinmi eviri renenleri iindir. Ayrca, bu kitab kullanacak olanlarn szlk
kullanma becerisini edindikleri kabul edilmekte ve birinci kitapta szlk ile ilgili neriler
mevcut olduu iin, bu kitapta bu konuya deinilmemektedir.

Genel eviri 2 kitabnn amac, Genel eviri 1 kitabn kullanarak dilbilgisi ile ilgili sorunlarn
byk lde zm olan renenin, eviri esnasnda karlaaca dier sorunlar tantmak ve
neriler sunmaktr. Bunu yaparken de cmceden metne doru aamal bir gelime
izlenmektedir. Kitap ilenirken bu srann izlenmesi, konu atlanmamas ngrlmtr.

Noktalama imlerinin ngilizce ve Trke'deki farkl kullanmlar eviri asndan kimi zaman
sorun karabilmekte. Bu nedenle, kitabn sonuna noktalama imleri ile ilgili notlar eklenmitir.




Genel eviri 2 kitabnda kullanlan tm ksaltma ve simgeler birer rnek ile birlikte aada
aklanmaktadr.

Simply stated, computational linguistics is no more than the use of
electronic digital computers in linguistic research. These machines are
employed to scan texts and to produce, more rapidly and more reliably
than is possible without their aid, such reliable tools for linguistic and
stylistic research as word lists, frequency counts, and concordances. But
more interesting and theoretically much more difficult than the
compilation of lists, is the use of computers for automatic grammatical
analysis and translation.

These machines = ?

their = ? ____ such
as ?



Eit ( = ) iareti, szck ya da yapnn metin iinde hangi szck ya da yapnn yerine
kullanldn sormaktadr.

These machines = electronic digital computers
their = electronic digital computers'

Uzun dz izgi ( ______ ), szckten nce ya da sonra hangi yapnn geleceini sormaktadr.

to produce such

Ok ( ) iareti, szck ya da yapya dikkat edilmesi gerektiini, bu szck ya da yapnn
birden fazla anlam tayabileceini belirtir. rnekte verilen as szc zaman, neden,
benzerlik, yorum ya da kyas gsterebilir (bu kullanmlarn her biri Genel eviri 1 kitabnda
ayrntl olarak ilenmekte).

as such as yaps = gibi (such reliable tools ... as)

Dier ksaltmalar:

zne I am a teacher.
Y Yklem I am a teacher.
N Nesne I am a teacher.

Kullanm notlar
Ksaltma ve simgeler
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

1
1
eviri ve evirinin Aamalar


eviri ............................................................................................................... 2
evirinin aamalar ........................................................................................ 3
1. Szck tanmlama ............................................................................. 3
2. Terim tanmlama ................................................................................ 3
3. Yapsal analiz ..................................................................................... 4
4. Anlama ............................................................................................... 4
5. Dil aktarm ......................................................................................... 4
6. Erek dilde dzenleme ........................................................................ 5
7. fade etme .......................................................................................... 5
Sonu .............................................................................................................. 5
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

2
eviri
Szlk anlam ile eviri

bir dildeki (KAYNAK DL) konuma ya da yaznn bir baka dile (EREK DL)
aktarlmas ilemi, ya da bu ilemin sonucunda oluan erek-dil versiyonudur.
(Richards et al., 1989: 299)

Newmark'a (1988: 5) gre ise eviri

bir metnin anlamn bir baka dile, o metnin yazarnn amalad ekilde
aktarmaktr. Saduyu bize bu iin kolay olmas gerektiini sylyor, zira insan bir
dilde syleyebildiini dier dilde de o kadar iyi ekilde syleyebilmeli.

Ancak Newmark yine ayn sayfalarda, evirinin hi de saduyunun bize syledii gibi kolay bir
olay olmamasn, diller arasndaki byk farkllklara balamakta.

Yzyln ilk eyreinde bilgisayar evirisi alannda alm olanlarn dm olduu en byk
yanlg, yabanc dilin sz varlnn ve tmce oluturma zelliklerinin ou edinildiinde eviri
yapmann artk hi de sorun olmayaca dncesiydi (ayrnt iin, Goshawke, 1987). Ancak
bugn ok iyi biliyoruz ki eviride sz varl ve dilbilgisinden te unsurlar devreye girmekte.
Bir tr mntka temizlii (bu terimi Stern (1987) clearing the ground olarak kullanmakta)
amacn tayan bu ilk konumuzda, herhangi bir metnin evirisini yapma grevi ile kar karya
kalndnda ne tr eviri aamalarndan geildii incelenmekte.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

3
evirinin Aamalar
Hereyden nce, Genel eviri kitaplarnda amalanan evirinin ne olduunu saptamamz
gerekebilir. Genel amalar, yaplan evirinin orijinal metnin yanstt anlam yanstmas ve
bunun yansra da orijinal metindeki formu yanstmasdr. Birinci amatan kast eviri metin ile
zgn metnin ayn uzunlukta olmas gibi bir koulun aranmamas (bu nitelik letiimsel eviri
ad altnda Konu 2 iinde ilenmekte), ikinci amatan kast ise, zgn metindeki yaz
zelliklerinin (devrik, alt izili, koyu, tablo iinde gibi) yanstlmasdr. Bu amalar sadece
yazl eviri iin gzetilmekte, szel olarak yaplan evirinin retilmesi hedeflenmemektedir.

Bu durumda ele alnacak sorun, kaynak dildeki yazl bir metni erek dile yazl olarak, anlam
ve yaznn formunu koruyarak aktarmaktr. Bunu yapmak isteyen bir eviri rencisinin
evirinin hangi aamalarndan getiini saptarken, aslnda kiilerin yapt eviri ile deil de
bilgisayar eviri ile ilgilenen bir bilim adamnn, Walter Goshawke'n tanmlamasnn kapsaml
ve titizlikle saptamalardan olduu hemen gze arpmaktadr. Goshawke'n belirttii gibi,
bilgisayarn eviriyi yapabilmek iin zmesi gereken sorunlar, eviri yapan insann zmesi
gereken sorunlardan farkl deil. Goshawke'a (1987: 11-13 ve 42-56) gre bu sorunlar, sras
ile:

+
1. Duyma
2. Sesleri Tanmlama
3. Heceleri Tanmlama
4. Szck Tanmlama
5. Szck Tanma
6. Terim Tanma
7. Yapsal Analiz
8. Anlama
9. Dil Aktarm
10. Erek Dilde Dzenleme
11. fade Etme

Goshawke'n (1987:13) da belirttii gibi, bu sorunlardan ilk bilgisayar evirisi konusunu
ilgilendirmemekte. Bunun nedeni de, aka grld gibi, Duyma, Sesleri Tanmlama ve
Heceleri Tanmlama aamalarnn annda eviri yaplaca zaman sz konusu olmasdr.
Konumuz yazl evirinin aamalar olduuna gre, Szck Tanmlama aamasnn da bir
kenara braklmas gerekmekte nk bu aama noktalama imlerinden ve szcklerin yanllkla
bitiik yazlmasndan kaynaklanan - her ikisi de yine bilgisayar ilgilendirecek trden - sorunlar
iermektedir.

1. Szck Tanmlama

Her bir szck yalnzca bir tek nesne ya da kavrama karlk gelse eviri olay son derece
kolaylaabilirdi. Oysa szckler birden fazla anlam tayabilmekteler. evirmenin en iyi
yardmcs olan szlk bile kimi durumlarda yetersiz kalabilmekte. Bu nedenle de, dikkatli
okumann ve szl ok iyi kullanabilme nem kazanmakta. Bu arada, pek sk grlmese de,
karlaldnda byk sorunlar oluturabilecek yazm hatalarn da unutmamal.

2. Terim Tanmlama

Goshawke'n (1987: 46-47) deyimler ve zel isimlerin evirisinin zorluu olarak ele ald
Terim Tanmlama aamas, zellikle Baker (1992) ve Newmark (1991) gibi yazarlarn da
deindikleri, yalanc dostlar konusunda karmza kmakta. ngilizce bir metindeki
sympathetic (=anlayl) szcnn annda sempatik olarak, dramatic (=byk, muazzam)
szcnn de dramatik olarak aktarlmas bunun en sk rastlanlan rneklerinden. Karmza
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

4
pek fazla bir sorun olarak kmasa da, zel isimlerin erek dile aktarlmas konusunu da (rnein
John F. Kennedy ismi Ankara'daki sokak levhasnda olduu gibi Can F. Kenedi mi olmal)
Terim Tanmlama aamasna ekleyebiliriz.

3. Yapsal Analiz

Bir balam iinde szck ve terimlerinin analiz ve tanmlamas yaplan tmcenin yapsal
analizinin yaplabilmesi, her eyden nce, kaynak dilin tmce oluturma kurallarnn ok iyi
bilinmesini gerektirmektedir. Karmak bir tmcenin ana tmcesini, varsa yan tmcesini ya da
tmcelerini saptayarak bir anlamda tmcenin iskeletini bulup karmak, bir sonraki Anlama
aamasnn gerekletirilebilmesi iin kanlmaz olabilir.

4. Anlama

lk aamay baaryla geip Anlama aamasnda bocalayan eviri rencilerinin bu
baarszlnn genelde drt temel sorundan kaynakland grlmekte:

+ Mevcut bilgiye gereinden fazla gven. eviri yapan kiinin kaynak metindeki
konuya yaknl, kimi zaman, zellikle de Yapsal Analiz aamasnda hata
yapldysa, "olsa olsa byledir" yaklam ile sonulanabilmektedir. Bu da kaynak
metinde deinilmeyen anlamlarn ya da tamamen ters anlamlarn aktarmn
beraberinde getirmektedir.

+ Acelecilik. Gerek eviri snflarnda, gerek snf dnda eviri genelde acele ile
yaplmakta ve hemen bir sonraki tmceye geilmektedir. Bunun nedeni zaman azl
ya da zellikle ticari amala eviri yaplan durumlarda "bitse de kurtulsam" mant.

+ Gzden geirme alkanlnn bulunmamas. Newmark (1988) eviri snavlarna
girenlere rnein saat srecek bir snavda eviriyi yeniden gzden geirmek iin
bu srenin 35 dakikasn ayrmalarn, ticari amala eviri yapanlara ise - mmknse
- birinci okuma ile ikinci okuma arasnda iki gnlk bir ara brakmalarn nermekte.

+ Bilgi eksiklii. Ya da dikkatsizlik ile bilgi eksikliinin bir araya gelmesi. Buna iyi bir
rnek olarak yasama ve yrtme yetkilerinden sz eden bir metinde rencinin
yrtme szcnn karl olarak alma szcnn yabanc dil karln
kullanmas gsterilebilir.

5. Dil Aktarm

Dil Aktarm konusunda iletilebilecek konular evirinin yapl yolu ve anadilde yetkinlik
balklar altnda derlenebilir.

evirinin yapl yolu sz konu olduunda, ncelikle, artk bir deyim haline gelmi olan "eviri
kadna benzer. Gzel olursa sadk olmaz; sadk olursa gzel olmaz," (Oscar Wilde) szne
deinmeden geilemez. Burada sadk olmaktan kastedilen, eviri olaynn kaynak dildeki
tmcenin yapsnn ve anlamnn erek dile aktarm olarak grlmesi ise, bu terim kabul
edilebilir. Ancak, evirinin amac tmcenin yapsn aktarmak deil tmcenin anlamn
aktarmaktr. eviride, kaynak dildeki tek bir tmcenin tad anlamn erek dile birden fazla
tmce ile ve ok daha farkl tmce yaplar ile aktarlmas gerekebilir. Kaynak tmcenin
yazarnn iletmek istedii anlam ile erek tmcenin verdii anlam ayn ise sadakat gereklemi
ve gzel bir eviri yaplm demektir.

Dil Aktarm aamasnda, eviri yapan kiinin kaynak dildeki tmcenin yanstt mesaj tam
olarak kavramasnn ardndan bu mesaj erek dilde, kaynak dildeki tmcenin yazar erek dilde
yazyor olsayd kendisinin yapaca ekilde, aktarmas gerekir. Bu da, aka anlalabilecei
gibi, her iki dilde de yetkin olmay gerektirir. Bu nitelik eviri iin byk nem tamakta.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

5
eviri her iki dilde de yetkin olmay gerektirir ve ou kimse anadilini doal olarak gayet iyi
bildii varsaymndan yola karak eviri iin yabanc dili renmenin yeterli olduunu
dnmektedir. Oysa ayn eviri rencileri dil renimleri esnasnda yaplan yazma
almalarnda "Ben bu konuyu Trke bile yazamam ki!" diyebilmekte, eitimleri esnasnda ve
sonrasnda yeterince yazma almas yapmadklarn dile getirmektedirler.

6. Erek Dilde Dzenleme

Kaynak dildeki anlam kavranan ve erek dile nasl aktarabilecei konusundaki aama da
tamamlanan tmce, Erek Dilde Dzenleme aamasnda erek dilin tmce oluturma kurallarna
uygun biimde dile getirilecektir.

7. fade Etme

En son aama, evirinin Aamalar ana bal altnda da deinildii gibi, erek dile aktarlacak
metnin kaynak dildeki formu ile aktarlmas konusunu da iermektedir. eviri derslerinde ya da
snavlarda aranmayan bu koul ticari ya da mesleki amala eviri yaplmas durumunda nem
kazanabilir.

Sonu
evirmenin kendisine kar, kaynak dildeki metnin yazarna kar ve kaynak metnin kendisine
ulaabilme ans olmayan, ulaabilse bile anlayabilme ans olmayan erek dildeki okuyucuya
kar sorumluluklar bulunmakta. Tm bu sorumluluklarn yerine getirilebilmesi iin,
gnmzde artk bir bilim haline gelen eviri konusunda doutan baz yetenekler gerekeceine
inanmak yersiz olur. eviri aamalar tam olarak incelendiinde ortaya kan tablo, eviri iin
gerekli olanlarn her iki dilde yetkinlik ve duyarllk, dikkat, titizlik ve isteklilik olduunu
gstermektedir. Genel eviri kitaplar (isteklilik blm size ait olmak zere), tm bu
niteliklerin gelitirmesini amalamaktadr.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

6
2
Metin Trleri ve eviri Yntemleri

Giri ................................................................................................................. 7
Sunu ................................................................................................................. 7
1. Metin trleri ........................................................................................ 7
2. eviri yntemleri ................................................................................. 8
leme .............................................................................................................. 9
retme - Snama .............................................................................................. 11
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

7

Giri
Genel eviri 2 kitabnn ikinci konusunda, eviride karlalan eitli trde
metinler ve eviride rol oynayan farkl unsurlar ele alnmakta. Ayrca, kullanl iki
eviri yntemi tantlmakta.

Konuya balamadan nce, eviride karlaabileceiniz metin trleri hakkndaki mevcut
bilginizi ln.

Altrma Aada, metinlerden alnma baz tmceler yer almakta. Bu tmcelerin ve tr metinlere ait
olduklarn inceleyin. Metin trlerinin bir listesini oluturmaya aln.

Wherever I travelled in Britain, there was the usually bright and busy post office, with
its red letter-box, comforting windows, and its sign waving like a big flag.

"... I hope you haven't lost any money, Herr Christoph?
" As a matter of, Frau Nowak, that's partly why I came down to see you today. ..."

This book presents a warm welcome, finally, for Carcanet's reissue, in a revised
translation, of Natalia Ginzburg's wonderful Family Savings, a fictional anthology of an
exceptional family of radical, intellectual Turin Jews.

It won't be long before we are faced with the disdainful scorn of that particular breed of
human being that feels that Christmas is beneath them. I am not in any way referring to
those who are barred from celebrating Christmas by their religious views but those who
disapprove for the mere sake of it, or so it seems.

Sunu
1. Metin trleri

A Textbook of Translation balkl kitabnda Peter Newmark (1988: 13) drt metin tr
sralamakta. Bu listeye ekleyebileceiniz metin trleri var m?

1. Anlatm (Narration)
2. Betimleme (Description)
3. Tartma (Discussion)
4. Karlkl konuma (Dialogue)

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

8
2. eviri yntemleri

Metin trleri eitli olduu gibi, eviri yntemleri de bir o kadar eitli. Aada verilen zgn
metni ve farkl eviriyi inceleyin. Kullanlan her bir eviri yntemini tanmlayabilir misiniz?

zgn metin

It is a psychological commonplace for a son to feel affection for his mother and to
wish his father out of the way. The results are more interesting and more profound
when a son, who takes after his mother, dislikes her character and standards of value.
1
O bir psikolojik allm eydir bir oul iin yaknlk hissetmek annesi iin ve
istemek babasn yolun dnda. Sonular daha ilgintir ve daha derindir ne zaman ki
bir oul, ki o alr sonra annesini, onun kiiliinden holanmaz ve deer
standartlarndan.
[ eviri yntemi: ]
2
Bir oulun annesine yaknlk duymas ve babasnn yolundan ekilmesini istemesi sk
rastlanan psikolojik bir olgudur. Annesine benzeyen bir oul onun kiiliinden ve
deer yarglarndan holanmad zaman, sonular daha ilgin ve derindir.
[ eviri yntemi: ]
3
Bir erkek evladn bir yandan annesine yaknlk duyarken bir yandan da babasnn
"glge etmemesini" istemesi sk rastlanan psikolojik bir olgudur. Bu evlat bir de
annesine ekmise ve de annesinin kiiliinden ve deer yarglarndan rahatszlk
duyuyorsa, ortaya ilgin ve arpc sonular kacaktr.
[ eviri yntemi: ]

Sizce zgn metin ne tr bir yerde yaynlanm olabilir? 2 ve 3 numaral metinlerin de nerede
yaynlanabileceini ve evirinin ne tr bir okuyucu iin yaplm olabileceini inceleyin.

Gnlk almalarnzda ya da iinizde, yapmanz gereken evirinin kabul edilir olabilmesi iin
ne tr bir okuyucuyu gz nnde bulundurmanz ve hangi eviri yntemini kullanmanz daha
yararl olacak?

Newmark (1988: 45-57) eitli eviri yntemleri sralamakta ve bunlar arasnda en iyilerinin
letiimsel eviri ve Anlamsal eviri olduunu belirtmekte. Aada verilen eviri rneklerini
inceleyin. zgn Franszca metin De Gaulle'e ait.

letiimsel eviri

Anlamsal eviri

All my life I have created a certain idea of
France for myself. My feeling, as well as my
reason, inspires me with this idea. In my
mind, I imagine France as a fairy-tale
princess or a madonna painted on frescoes,
as though destined for a distinguished and
exceptional future.


All my life, I have devised for myself a cer-
tain idea of France. Feeling inspires with it
as well as reason. What is emotional in me
naturally imagines France, like the princess
in the fairy-tale or the madonna on the
frescoes on the walls, as dedicated to an
eminent and exceptional destiny.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

9
rneklerde de grld gibi, letiimsel eviri trnde, okuyucunun gereksinimleri gz
nnde bulundurularak, eitli tanm ve szcklerin basitletirilmesi ve ayrntl olarak
aklanmas yolu izlenmektedir. Bu nedenle de letiimsel eviri yntemi ile oluturulan eviri
metni, Anlamsal eviri yntemi ile oluturulandan, genelde, biraz daha fazla yer
kaplamaktadr.

Her ne kadar bu iki yntem dnda daha bir ok eviri yntemi bulunsa da bunlardan sadece
Bire-Bir eviri Yntemi iimize yarayabilir. Bu yntem eviri yapmak iin deil, olas sorunlar
saptamak iin kullanlmaktadr. Yaplmas gereken ise, evirisi yaplacak tmcedeki her bir
szcn altna o szcn ilk anlamnn yazlmas

His son cannot walk, let alone run.
Onun oul yapamaz yr- izn ver- yalnz ko

ve ortaya kan tmceden mantkl anlam tayan bir tmce oluturulmaya allmasdr.

Olu yryemiyor, let alone run.
???????????.

Oluan tmcede anlam bozan blmn sorun oluturaca ve ayrca incelenmesi gerektii
ortaya kar. Szlk ve dilbilgisi kaynaklarnn yardm ile sorun zlmeye allr.

leme
Altrma 1 Aada verilen balklarn ne tr metinlere ait olduklarn bulabilir misiniz?

CRETE
SCHOOL'S OUT
IFS OF HISTORY
VISITOR

Yantlarnz kontrol iin metinleri okuyun. Bu arada da balklar yerletirin

1.
_________________
Crete, the largest and most important of the Greek islands, lies to the south of mainland
Greece between the Aegean and the Libyan Seas. The general aspect of the island is
diverse in character and physical features. A chain of high mountains divides the island
into four distinct regions whose alternating scenery combines to form the impressive
beauty of the Cretan landscape. The high mountain ranges of Lekra Ori (The White
Mountains), Psiloritis and Dikti form, with their natural division, the island's four large
provinces: Chania, Rethymon, Heraklion and Lassithi.
2.
_________________
The setting is every child's dream. A huge, rambling, 300-year-old house, warmed by
log fires, overrun by pets, and set in acres of natural playground in the Norfolk Broads.
And no school.

That is what makes the Kirkbride household so rare. James, 18, Tamara, 14, and Hoppy,
10, have spent the last four years doing what other children enjoy only at weekends and
holidays.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

10

They get up when they feel like, breakfast at leisure, and spend the rest of the day doing
what they want. They walk, swim, fish, paint, read, play musical instruments, perform
their own plays, cook or just sit around and chat.

3.
_________________
Speculating "what if ...?" is always enticing. What if Alexander Fleming's dishes of
infected jelly had been tidied up and thrown out as they should have been - would we
now be without penicillin? If James Watt had dropped off to sleep before his kettle
boiled, would there never have been any trains? When it comes to invention or
discovery, the chances are that if scientist A is hit by a falling roof-tile, scientist B will
get there pretty soon all the same; for both would have been building on the same state
of previous knowledge. Stephenson also invented the Davy lamp; a chap called Reis
very nearly invented the telephone just before Bell; there were several other maniacs
attempting powered flight just as doggedly as the Wright brothers. What's far more
problematic is the follow-up. What happens after a discovery may indeed depend on the
crucial presence of one man. If Darwin had died on the voyage [to Galapagos], then
Wallace would have been the father of evolution - but without Darwin's brilliant tenacity
in proving and presenting the thing, would the impact have been as great ?

4.
_________________
The big Town Hall clock was striking midnight when Frank began to cross the bridge.
The night air was cold and damp. A low mist hung over the river and street-lamps
gave little light. Frank was anxious to get home and his footsteps rang loudly on the
pavement. When he reached the middle of the bridge he thought he could hear
someone approaching behind him. He looked back but could see no one. However, the
sound continued and Frank began walking more quickly.

Altrma 2 Aadaki durumlardan her birinde, hangi eviri ynteminin daha yararl olacana karar
verin.

1. Bir bankann eviri snavna katlyorsunuz.
2. yerinizde patronunuz bir faks messajn yazl olarak evirmenizi istiyor.
3. Komunuzun olu ngilizce dil kurslarna katlmak amac ile ngiltere'deki bir dil
okuluna bavuruda bulundu. Sizden, dil okulundan gelen mektupta neler yazl
olduunu iletmenizi istiyor.
4. Yksek lisans/doktora teziniz iin bir kitaptan eviri alnt yapmanz gerekmekte.
5. Bir gazete iin alyorsunuz. Sper iletkenler konusunda Amerikal bir fizikiyle
sylei yaptnz. Hazrlayacanz yaz gazetenin Pazar ekinde yaynlanacak.

Altrma 3 En iyi eviri yntemini seerken hangi unsurlar gz nnde bulundurmak gerekebilir.
Bir liste oluturun. Unsurlardan biri rnek olarak verilmekte.

1. Okuyucu
2.
3.
4.
5.
...
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

11
retme - Snama
Verilen metinlerden her birinin eviri olduunu varsayalm. Bu durumda her birinin

bir ansiklopedide
bir rencinin ders notlarnda
bir retmenin ders sunusunda

yer alm olabileceini inceleyin.

eviri iin gz nnde bulundurulmas gereken unsurlar biz okuyucu, zgn metnin
yaynland yer, eviri metninin yaynlanaca yer ve metnin kendisi olarak saptadk. Bu
unsurlar da dnerek, evirisi en kolay gerekleecek metni Trkeye aktarn. Dier metinleri
yardmc olarak kullanabilirsiniz.

Metinler:

A.
Throughout history, we have tried our best to constitute a synthetic language that
would be derived from elements of natural languages, though with simpler grammar
and spelling rules. In 1880, a German bishop, Johann Martin Schleyer, invented
Volapk, and in 1887, a Polish doctor, Dr. Ludwik L. Zamenhof, invented
Esperanto. Both Volapk and Esperanto were a combination of Latin, the Romance
languages, and the Germanic languages. It was soon discovered that Volapk was
so difficult that it was impossible to learn it. However, Esperanto is still a synthetic
language which is the most popular among all synthetic languages. Esperanto is
the language of conferences; not only are there various newspapers and journals
published in Esperanto, but also a large amount of literature the Bible and the
Koran among them have been translated into the language. Yet, Esperanto is by
no means the official international language. Another synthetic language,
Interlingua, was created in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language
Association, with grammar rules from English and the Romance languages and
vocabulary from the main West European languages. Because it has mainly been
used in international science and technology publications, Interlingua does away
with high costs of multiple translations. W. Ashby and R. Clark, inventors of another
language, Glosa, a language with a 1,000 Greek and Latin-origin words, initiated
the language in 1981. However, there has been very little advancement towards the
objective of a language accepted and used globally.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

12
B.
People have attempted various times to design an artificial language to be derived
from elements of natural languages, yet with a simpler grammar and vocabulary:

A German bishop, Johann Martin Schleyer, invented Volapk in 1880, which
soon proved to be too difficult to learn;
In 1887, Dr. Ludwik L. Zamenhof, himself a Polish doctor, invented Esperanto
which, like Volapk, was a combination of Latin, the Romance languages, and
the Germanic languages and which is today the most widely used artificial
language. It is used in conferences; there are several newspapers and journals
published in Esperanto and and there is a large literature translated into the
languaue, including the Bible and the Koran. However, Esperanto is has failed
to become a lingua franca.
Interlingua, another artificial language, was created by the International
Auxiliary Language Association in 1951. Based on grammar rules from English
and the Romance languages and vocabulary from the main West European
languages, Interlingua has mainly been used in international scientific and
technological publications and thus eliminated high costs of translations from
and into languages.
W. Ashby and R. Clark invented Glosa, another artificial language with a 1,000
Greek and Latin-origin words, and introduced their language in 1981.

Despite all these, there has been very little progress towards the purpose of a
language accepted and used internationally.

C.
Many attempts have been made to construct artificial universal languages, based on
elements of natural languages with simplifications of grammar and spelling. Volapk,
devised in 1880 by the German bishop Johann Martin Schleyer, and Esperanto, invented in
1887 by a Polish doctor, Dr. Ludwik L. Zamenhof, were both based on a combination of
Latin, the Romance languages, and the Germanic languages. Volapk eventually proved too
difficult to learn and to use; Esperanto is still the most widely spoken of the artificial
languages. It is used at international conferences, several newspapers and journals are
published in the language, and there is a large translated literature, including the Bible and
the Koran. Despite this, Esperanto still does not have official status as an international
language. Interlingua, created in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association,
is derived from English and the Romance languages with a standardized vocabulary based
on the main West European languages; it has primarily been used in international scientific
and technological journals, thus eliminating the need for costly multiple translations. In
1981, Glosa, a language with a 1,000-word vocabulary derived from Greek and Latin roots,
was pioneered by its inventors, W. Ashby and R. Clark. Little progress has been made,
however, towards the goal of an internationally recognized and universally used language.




GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

13
3
Tmce analizi


Giri ................................................................................................................. 14
Sunu ................................................................................................................ 14
1. Szck dzeyinde sorunlar ................................................................ 15
2. Dilbilgisi dzeyinde sorunlar ............................................................... 21
3. Anlam dzeyinde sorunlar .................................................................. 30
4. Btnlk dzeyinde sorunlar .............................................................. 30
leme .............................................................................................................. 31
retme ............................................................................................................. 40
Snama ............................................................................................................. 42
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

14

Giri
Bu konuda, basit ve bileik tmcelerin tanmlanmas ve analiz edilmesi ele
alnmaktadr. Genel eviri 2 kitabnn bu en nemli konusunu ok dikkatli
incelemenizi neririm.

Genelde, bir tmcenin evirisini yaparken,

tmce analizi
tmcenin Trkeye aktarlmas

iin nasl bir yol izlemektesiniz? Aada verilen metinde koyu yazl tmceleri Trkeye
aktarrken kendi eviri yaklamnz saptamaya aln.

THE BIBLE V
The Bible, also called the Holy Bible, is the sacred book or Scriptures of Judaism and of
Christianity. The Bible, while mainly a theological document written with the
purpose of explaining the nature and moral imperatives of the Christian and
Jewish God, is secondarily a book of history and geography. Selected historical
materials were included in the text for the purpose of illustrating and underlining the
religious teaching of the Bible. Historians and archaeologists have learned to rely upon
the amazing accuracy of historical memory in the Bible. The smallest references to
persons and places and events contained in the accounts of the Exodus, for
instance, or the bibliographies of such Biblical heroes as Abraham and Moses and
David, can lead, if properly considered and pursued, to extremely important
historical discoveries. The archaeologists' efforts are not directed at "proving" the
correctness of the Bible, which is neither necessary nor possible, any more than belief in
God can be scientifically demonstrated. It is quite the opposite, in fact. The historical
clues in the Bible can lead the archaeologist to a knowledge of the civilizations of
the ancient world in which the Bible developed and with whose religious concepts
and practices the Bible so radically differed. It can be considered an almost
unfailing indicator, revealing to the experts the locations and the characteristics of
lost cities and civilizations.

Sunu
Genel eviri 1 kitabnda, eviri ileminin drt aamas olduu belirtilmekte. Bu drt aama,
sras ile,

1. Szck dzeyinde sorunlar
2. Dilbilgisi dzeyinde sorunlar
3. Anlam dzeyinde sorunlar
4. Btnlk dzeyinde sorunlar

eklindedir.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

15

1. Szck dzeyinde sorunlar

ngilizce tmcede yer alan anlamn bilmediiniz szcklerin Trke anlamn, szlk
kullanarak ya da szcn anlamn tahmin almas yaparak saptayn. Bu aamada yapmanz
gerekenler:

Trkede, ngilizcedeki anlamdan farkl olarak kullanlan szcklere dikkat edin. Bu
szckler arasnda sempatik-symphathetic (= anlayl), dramatik-dramatic (= byk),
mamut-mammoth (=byk), pratik olarak-practically (= tam olarak), economik-
economic (=ekonomiye ilikin) saylabilir;

Anlam ok sk kartrlan szcklere dikkat edin.

Altrma 1 Anlam ok sk olarak kartrlan szcklerden bazlar aada sralanmakta. Szlk
yardm ile anlamlarn inceleyin.

accept except expect
accept They didn't accept the offer.
except Everyone except the chairman is here.
expect I'm expecting a parcel.

adhesive adherent
adhesive You should use adhesive tape here.
adherent He is an adherent of the Liberal Party.

advice advise
advice I'll give you a piece od advice.
advise He advised me to leave immediately.

affect effect
affect Smoking affects health.
effect He was able to effect certain changes.

alone lone lonely
alone The house stands alone on the hill.
lone There is a lone tree in the garden.
lonely I'm feeling a bit lonely.

aloud loud
aloud Don't speak aloud.
loud I don't like loud music.

alternative alternate
alternative We are looking for alternative ways.
alternate It's been a week of alternate rain and sunshine.

at last at least
at last At last the post has arrived.
at least There are at least twenty people present.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

16

channel canal
channel The Channel separates England and France.
canal Canals have been built to irrigate the desert.

classic classical
classic This film is classic western movie.
classical This is in the classical style of architecture.

comprehensive comprehensible
comprehensive It has comprehensive coverage of news.
comprehensible This report is comprehensible only to lawyers.

conscious conscientious
conscious He is badly hurt but he is still conscious.
conscientious This is a conscientious piece of work.

continual continuous
continual They lived in continual fear.
continuous The brain needs a continuous supply of oxygen.

credible creditable
credible This is a barely credible excuse.
creditable This is a very creditable achievement.

defective deficient
defective We have bought a defective machinery!
deficient There is a deficient supply of water.

desirable anxious for
desirable It's desirable that you speak.
desirous We are desirous of better relations.

different indifferent
different We are different from them.
indifferent He is indifferent to my problems.

disinterested uninterested
disinterested He is a disinterested observer.
uninterested I'm completely uninterested in football.

easy uneasy
easy This problem is easy to solve.
uneasy I feel quite uneasy.

economical economic
economical My new car is quite economical.
economic The economic situation is terrible.

eligible illegible
eligible He is eligible to vote.
illegible His writing is almost illegible.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

17

formerly formally
formerly Peru was formerly ruled by the Spanish.
formally I was invited formally.

hard hardly
hard It is hard to accept the truth.
hardly The traffic is hardly moving.

helpless helpful
helpless We are quite helpless under these situations.
helpful You have been most helpful. thank you.

historic historical
historic This is a historic moment.
historical This is a historical society.

human humane
human They have found several human skeletons.
humane A humane way to kill animals? Nonsense!

incident accident
incident This has been an interesting incident in my life.
accident There has been an accident on the highway.

industrial industrious
industrial Industrial development causes pollution.
industrious He is very industrious.

ingenious ingenuous
ingenious What an ingenious gadget!
ingenuous She has such an ingenuous smile.

intelligent intelligible
intelligent He is very intelligent.
intelligible This argument was barely intelligible.

intolerant intolerable
intolerant He is intolerant of any opposition.
intolerable I have an intolerable pain.

invaluable valueless valuable
invaluable You help has been invaluable.
valueless This antique coin is valueless.
valuable This picture is very valuable.

irrational unreasonable
irrational They gave a completely irrational decision.
unreasonable It is unreasonable to expect to work all night.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

18

lie lay
lie Don't lie on the grass; it is wet.
lay He is laying the table.

loose loosen lose
loose My jacket button is loose.
loosen You can loosen your tie.
lose What did you lose?

like alike likely unlike
like People like you should not do sports!
alike The two brothers are very much alike.
likely It is likely that it will rain.
unlike Unlike Tom, Peter is very athletic.

means meaning
means You can communicate by means of computers.
meaning What's the meaning of this word?

most mostly
most Most people do not like this taste.
mostly Seals are found mostly in the Arctic.

official officious
official He is a government official.
officious An officious guard came and gave silly orders.

popular populous
popular This serial is very popular among housewives.
populous London is the most populous area of Britain.

practice practical practically
practice You should do some practice.
practical He has found some practical solutions.
practically He is practically useless.

presumption assumption
presumption She presented a presumption of innocence.
assumption This information is purely assumption.

principle principal
principle In principle, this plane shouldn't fly.
principal What is the principal method here?

prize price priceless
prize He has received the grand prize.
price What is the price of a pair of ordinary shoes?
priceless This painting is priceless.

raise rise
raise He raised the lid of the box.
rise The sun is rising.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

19

ready readily
ready Are you ready to dance?
readily He readily volunteered for the service.

regrettable regretful
regrettable His behaviour at the party was most regrettable.
regretful She looked with regretful glances.

sensitive sensible
sensitive His skin is sensitive to temperature changes.
sensible What he suggested was very sensible.

signify significant
signify He signified the importance of the experiment.
significant This point is very significant.

suit suite
suit You should wear a suit to the office.
suite They bought a pink bathroom suite.

terrible terrific
terrible This food is terrible! I can't eat it.
terrific The music was terrific! I loved it.

than then
than There are more than ten people in the queue.
then Then, he showed me his ID.

through thorough
through He looked through the window.
thorough They gave a thorough check to the office.

worth worthless
worth Is it worth a second try?
worthless This stamp collection is worthless.

Anlamn iyi bildiiniz szckler konusunda bile kukucu olun (eviri derslerinde
rencilere sk sk anmsattm gibi, "Szcn anlamn bilmiyorsanz szle bakn;
szcn anlamn biliyorsanz szle mutlaka bakn."). Anlamn iyi bildiiniz bir
szck, o tmcede farkl bir anlamda kullanlyor olabilir:

Dates are quite refreshing when you are in the middle of a desert.

date = hurma

Baka szck ya da szckler yerine kullanlan it, he, she, one, that, the former, the
latter gibi deinme szcklerini (= reference words) inceleyin. Bu szckler metin
iinde nceden deinilmi ya da sonradan deinilen szckler yerine kullanlyor
olabilirler (deinme szckleri, beinci blmdeki Metin Analizi ve evirisi aamasnn
balang metinlerinde, metnin sa tarafnda belirtilmekte).
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

20

The pyramids on the west bank of the Nile were built by the pharaohs as royal
tombs. They date from 3000 BC. The most celebrated are those at Gizza, built
during the fourth dynasty, of which the largest is the one that housed the pharaoh
Khufu, better known as Caeops. This is now called the Great Pyramid.

Byle szcklerin Trkeye eviri esnasnda nasl aktarlmalar gerektiini dnn.
rnein, yukardaki rnein ikinci satrnda geen They szc eviri esnasnda Onlar
olarak m yoksa Bu piramitler olarak m aktarlmal ?

Altrma 2 Aada verilen tmcelerin herbirinde bir deinme szc bulunmakta. Bu altrmada
koyu yazl olarak verilen deinme szcklerini inceleyin.

1. Scott Fitzgerald, who first introduced him to a publisher, was one of the few
contemporary writers that Hemingway did not turn against.
2. Catching sight of him in a supermarket one day, Archer followed the man with the
limp to an apartment in a run-down neighbourhood.
3. The award was presented to the playwright by the Chairman of the Committee, who
said of him that he brought pleasure to literally millions of theatergoers and
television viewers.
4. While Jane was persuading Mary to ask her for the keys to the car, Mrs. Jones
happened to be listening at the door and quickly went downstairs and out of the
house.
5. Looking at her closely for the first time in months, Elizabeth realized sadly that the
woman was indeed beginning to grow old.
6. Violet rushed past the general's daughter, strode to the door of the drawing room,
and turned to throw her a look of withering scorn before slamming the door with
grim satisfaction.
7. Knowing them well, the Hammonds realized that the Shepherds were unlikely to be
on time to meet their guests.
8. Doctors treating patients with diet pills usually warn them of the dangers of
addiction.
9. Though it is not usually difficult to understand them, stutterers often cause parents
a lot of worries.
10. Intrigued by insects of all kinds, the youngsters spent hours trapping and studying
them.
11. Its usefulness was a thing of the past, but his first bicycle continued to stand in the
corner of his bedroom.
12. The defendants insisted on addressing the members of the jury, thus disregarding
the advice of their lawyers.
13. Jean, along with her sisters Doris and May, baked cakes for the annual contest at the
country fair. Jean was sorry hers lost, but happy that Doris won a ribbon for her
entry.
14. The English surprisingly beat the French at the battle of Agincourt in 1415 because
theirs were the most disciplined archers.
15. The opportunity to sample several possible majors as well as greater career
flexibility after graduation are two reasons why students choose a liberal arts
college; these are not the only ones, however.
16. Signs of ageing are unavoidable, but those that can be disguised are of particular
interest to cosmetic companies.
17. The proposals were discussed at length by the members of the committee, with only
one of them emerging intact.
18. Note that the instructions preceding the questions encourage students to concentrate
only on the ones they feel they understand.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

21
19. The NASA scientists and astronauts were equally excited by Al Shepherd's first
sub-orbital flight and by John Glenn's orbital journey, but it was the latter which
caught the attention of the American public.
20. Both the government and the private sector fund basic and applied research, but
grants for the former tend to be relatively restricted in times of economic
difficulties.

Normal kullanmlar dnda kullanlmakta olan szcklere dikkat edin.

Metin yazarnn kendisinin trettii szcklere dikkat edin.

POCKETY WOMEN UNITE?
Pockets are what women need more of. The women's movement in the past decade
has made giant strides in achieving greater social justice for females, but there's a
great deal of work yet to be done. And it can't be done without pockets.

Bu rnekte, balkta kullanlan POCKETY szc szlklerde yer almayan, metnin yazarnn
trettii bir szck.

2. Dilbilgisi dzeyinde sorunlar

Szck dzeyindeki sorunlar hallettikten sonra, tmcenin dilbilgisi ile ilgili sorunlarn
incelemeye balayabilirsiniz.

Birden fazla kullanmlar olan AS, FOR, SINCE, YET szcklerine dikkat edin.

Few people have been so influential in determining the course of the Western as
Harte, since (1) the characters he established in these, and other, stories have since
(2) become stock figures in the genre ... . (Lewis, 1997: 1. Yazar Francis Brett Harte'n
biyografisinden)

(1) -> because ; (2) -> since his writing anlamnda, -dEn beri

Tmcedeki THAT, GERUND (-ing) ve PAST PARTICIPLE (V
3
) yaplara dikkat edin.

That szc aadaki niteliklerden birini tayabilir.

Noun Clause It is known that he is a drunk.
Relative Clause I like books that were written by Kurt Vonnegut.
Bu Actually, I like that kind of music.
Deinme szc The population of Turkey is higher than that of Iraq.

Gerund yapnn kullanlabilecei durumlar:

Relative Clause He is a man living in poverty.
Time Clause Breaking the door, they went into the office.
He came in smiling.
Ad Playing football is his main hobby.
Sfat I've found the film interesting enough.
Reason Clause Being a seaside resort, the city is beautiful.
Yklem ekimi He's been studying.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

22
Past participle yapnn kullanlabilecei durumlar:

Relative Clause This is a building built before the War.
Time Clause Completed on time, the bridge looked marvellous.
Sfat He seems to be interested in the scheme.
Reason Clause Wounded several times, he died instantly.
Yklem ekimi He has studied

Altrma 3 Aadaki tmcelerde gerund yap bulunmaktadr. Tmcelerin zne ve yklemini saptayn
ve gerund yapnn ilevini belirleyin. lk tmce rnek olarak yaplmtr.

Y
1. Jogging is good for health. Jogging C sim

2. I have been working too hard lately.

3. Having completed his speech, the Chairman sat down to sip his wine.

4. Animals living in zoos are, no matter how good the conditions are, actually
imprisoned.

5. To tell you the truth, I hate being laughed at.

6. Opening the subject of artificial memory, the professor sat down to a corner to
watch his colleagues express their views.

7. Speaking as a layman, I can only suggest that the Mayor should use all his initiative
to stop this construction.

8. We have been looking forward to seeing his second wife.

9. Nothing is worth having if it can be had without spending an effort.

10. Reading, writing, speaking and listening are the five basic skills in language
learning.

11. While learning a foreign language, the learner is expected to gain proficiency in all
of these five skills.

12. Providing that he is given opportunities and time to practice, anyone can learn a
foreign language.

13. The armoured-car my brother has been working on was used to carry the diamonds
from one bank to another.

14. In most cases, avoiding dark streets will save your money and life.

15. There is definitely no point in insisting.

16. He came in murmuring.

17. The part of the plan concerning the decorating our club has been passed.

18. There is nobody paying any attention to the danger the current state of erosion has
been posing.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

23
19. Living comfortably in a remote village, Arthur C. Clarke has been sharing his life
experiences with the primitives.

20. Hoping to find something to eat, he dived into the garbage bin.

Tmcenin basit tmce mi, bileik tmce mi olduunu belirleyin.

Man definitely overshadows the chimpanzee. The chimpanzee is, nevertheless, a
creature of immense significance to the understanding of man.

{Basit tmce}

Recently it has been proved that the chimpanzee is capable of communicating with
people in quite a sophisticated manner.

{Bileik tmce: Noun clause}

Altrma 4 Aadaki tmceleri inceleyin ve basit tmce mi yoksa bileik tmce mi olduunu saptayn.

1. To pass the test is his big dream.

2. That big office block will definitely create more jobs.

3. It is important to book in this restaurant well in advance.

4. That translation is a hard subject is accepted by everyone.

5. Those books will definitely help you in your studies.

6. Parking is strictly prohibited in this area.

7. Interesting ideas are rarely appreciated in the modern schooling system.

8. To err is human, to forgive is divine.

9. His will will be read before the closest relatives next weekend.

10. Both the old and sick have been seriously suffering from the consequences of air
pollution.

11. The United States is among the few oil-producing countries.

12. To sleep till lunch time can be quite relating, especially on a Sunday.

13. Deep down in my heart lies the love for my lovely village.

14. The late Dean used to check the time every now and then out of habit.

15. Nothing will prevent him from completing his expedition into the Amazon rain
forest.

16. Nowhere can you find a cheaper piece of furniture.

17. To the north of the desert is a surprisingly modern town.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

24
18. Jogging has recently lost its initial popularity.

19. Not everyone is capable of improvising.

20. Failing in a test is definitely not the end of everything.

21. The new executive committee backs our efforts to join a union.

22. To tell the truth in all occasions is not always beneficial.

23. What will happen to those poisoned seals in the North Sea is still unknown.

24. "Why" is not the right question to ask while learning a foreign language. It is better
to ask "How?".

25. Mr. Richardson is expected to arrive in about an hour.

26. Little do we know about the dark side of the Moon.

27. Can you imagine a social outbreak in the USA in the next 25 years ?

28. There are several alternatives to take into consideration.

29. That the rate of inflation will increase is hard to deny.

30. I'd rather stay here and take a nap.

31. How many times do I have to tell you not to park your car here in front of my
window!

32. Will Ms Jo Lewis see the Manager as soon as possible please.

33. Those snakes weekly eat almost a pound of meat.

34. Held hostages by the terrorists in the building were two French journalists.

35. Tourism had always been the main source of capital input in this small Pacific
island.

36. People in remote parts of the country fail to accept the social changes so quickly.

37. Cans need to be disposed properly.

38. It can hardly move.

39. Someone watching secretly through a key-hole or a crack or something like that is
generally called a "peeping Tom".

40. It is a relief to complete all these 40 sentences with hardly a mistake.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

25
Basit tmcenin +Y+N unsurlarn saptayn.

A man who smiles when greeting a friend, or who inclines his head when passing an
acquittance in the street, is not necessarily acknowledging that the other has a
superior social status.

A man who ... -> zne is acknowledging-> Yklem

Bileik tmcenin Ana Tmce ve Yan Tmce unsurlarn saptayn. Daha sonra bu
unsurlar S+V+O asndan inceleyin. Tmcenin unsurlarn birbirinden ayrmak iin //
ve / iaretlerini kullann; geici olarak bir kenara braklabilecek blmleri [ ] ile
belirleyin.

Mary, [the president of the family council,] conferred upon Robert the title vice-
president, // because she thought / he would do a good job.

Altrma 5 Bu altrmada,
a. Basit Tmce - Bileik Tmce ayrmn yapn.
b. Bileik tmce ise Ana Tmce - Yan Tmce blmleri saptayn.
c. Yklemleri belirleyin.
d. that, gerund ve past participle yaplar inceleyin.

lk tmce rnek olarak yaplmtr.

1. The teacher times the test.
a. Basit tmce
c. Yklem, times

2. Those who want to relax for a few days and read book a first class cabin on the
cruise liner.

3. Hardly had he caught the fish when he saw the no fishing sign a few metres away.

4. People who have very few hours for a decent sleep dream of a long, deep sleep in a
quiet place.

5. Placed on the summit of the mountain was a huge monastery.

6. He tried with all his might to save the tree in the garden, but it was in vain.

7. This group of extremists generally plant harmless bombs.

8. Finally the car hit the pavement and came to a stand.

9. This song will doubtlessly become a great hit in weeks to come.

10. So deeply rooted is my hatred that I don't think I'll ever forgive him.

11. In the formula E = mc
2
, what does E stand for?

12. Surprisingly, Peter's cat mothers his pet dog's puppies.

13. What he is after is a mystery to me.

14. Interrupting other people is likely to result in an argument.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

26

15. Following a long travel on one of the roughest country roads on camel back is a
rather long climb down into a deep pit.

16. Down rock two large stones.

17. Tomorrow's hearing in the Central Court will be of a decisive character.

18. Surprisingly, this tiny boat houses more than a dozen people.

19. Only when he tried the new jacket on did he realize how much weight he had gained
recently.

20. Not only can she play the guitar, she is a fine singer as well.

21. The problem so far has been how we will handle the high rate of unemployment.

22. Here lies the grave of the fireman who helped save children in the Orphanage.

23. Yesterday, many crops were damaged due to a severe freeze unknown to living
memory.

24. Nicotine deposits in lungs to form cancer and other forms of lung disorder.

25. That was definitely the wrong decision to take under these circumstances.

26. Then, Tom and his closest friends head into the manager office and slam the door.

27. Under on condition will your money be refunded.

28. Pete aims to celebrate the Valentine's Day with his girlfriend out in the country.

29. Deep down in this mine lie rich deposits of titanium.

30. Students reserving a room in advance need to sign in at least 24 hours before they
move in.

31. Should you feel in need, I'm in my room.

32. There seem to be several advantages of doing exercises early in the morning.

33. Salute the flag before you step aboard a military boat.

34. Modern offices are generally equipped with micro-processors.

35. Decorated with balloons and colourful ribbons was there a beautiful Mercedes.

36. There is hardly any point in insisting on the old plan.

37. Swimming in a lake may well be dangerous.

38. The little girl mouthed the word so that her mother wouldn't hear what she was
telling.

39. We will try and reach the spot that the helicopter pilot pointed.

40. Hardly anyone actually intends to kill themselves when they attempt for suicide.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

27

Bileik tmcede Ana Tmce ile Yan Tmceyi birbirine balayan yapy (= clause
marker) belirleyin. (Genel eviri 1 kitab bu konuda size kaynak tekil edecektir.) Kimi
zaman bu yapnn unsurlar birbirinden eitli szcklerle ayrlm olabilir.

Mary, [the president of the family council,] conferred upon Robert the title vice-
president, // becauseshe thought /{that}he would do a good job.

Altrma 6 Aadaki tmcelerde tmce trn belirleyip yanna Relative Clause (RC), Noun
Clause (NC), Comparison Clause (CC), Adverbial Clause (AC), Verbless Clause (VC)
yazn (bu yaplarn her biri Genel eviri 1 kitabnda ayrntl olarak ilenmekte). lk be
tmce rnek olarak yaplmtr.

1. Do you know the tax collector operating in this town? (RC)

2. He was lying in front of the grate, unconscious. (VC)

3. Soon after the war was over, he was shot accidentally. (AC)

4. He claims that speeding on roads is not so dangerous. (NC)

5. We aren't experienced enough to teach these students. (CC)

6. As long as there is water available, I can live on any island.

7. The place where he left his car was a remote village near Kent.

8. Actually, you can't go wherever you want.

9. Hardly had he entered when he noticed the missing table.

10. Amused, they spent a minute or two outside the pub.

11. They were so terrified that they could hardly speak.

12. That counting all these paper files will take up a lot of our time is obvious.

13. Who is the youngest in this class?

14. Youngest members of the club have appealed that they are given better priority at the
election.

15. He arrived at the scene of the accident, too late.

16. They are planning to do away with the Chairman, which is to say that we are in for a
terrible chaos.

17. The sooner you complete the project, the more time you will have to revise it.

18. It is usually argued that Mexican people do not pay attention to time.

19. Now that we have come to a conclusion, we can get back to our original question.

20. The statue erected a year ago has, unfortunately, been damaged.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

28
Aadaki tmcelerden bazlarnda birden fazla clause yap bulunmaktadr. Bunlar tanmlayn.

21. They usually argue that the closer you get to the Equator, the less likely you are to see
clocks in parks and town halls.

22. I am really sick and tired of her repeatedly asking for help for so trivial matters.

23. Swimming in the pond, the boys splashed water and threw mud at one another.

24. The thing which annoys me most is the fact that though they know nothing bout
engineering, they are the ones to decide whether or not the project is feasible.

25. Would you please return the books you borrowed as soon as possible?

26. Seeing that he was getting uneasy, we decided to leave the room silently to give him a
chance to talk to the psychiatrist in private.

27. Nowhere can you find so nasty people as those who live by the mountain peak.

28. What we intend to do here is to start a new scheme and thus provide the young with
opportunities to participate in the political system.

29. I had been working peacefully when, suddenly one day, the personnel manager invited me
into his office on the top floor to tell me something extremely important.

30. The children got so much bored with the puppet show, they started playing games right
there, in the middle of the auditorium.

31. Is it true that the woman standing over there is deaf and dumb ?

32. Under no circumstances are we authorized to give our price list as this might cause
competition.

33. Because not many people can afford to buy a car, most banks offer credit.

34. The new secretary the job office recommended is not as competent as she seems to be.

35. Provided that there is plenty of time and equipment, it is likely that anyone in your position
can learn what you have been doing so far.

36. Even though she studied as hard as she could, she failed to enter the test simply because
she went into the testing room almost an hour late.

37. The milkman, seeing that the front door had been left ajar, opened the door cautiously to
see the young woman sitting in a wooden chair, her eyes fixed on the side window.

38. How many copies do we need to have to submit to the committee?

39. Where the children have been playing used to be a shopping center almost a decade ago.

40. What I have always wanted to do is to find a person intelligent enough to understand what
I'm talking about.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

29
Altrma 7 Aadaki tmcelerin bazlar bileik tmce, bazlarnda ise bir "tmcecik" ("tmcecik"
kavram, yan tmce niteliini tamayan, yklemden yoksun birim iin kullanlmakta)
yer almakta. Tmceleri inceleyin.

1. Not so sure, he raised his head to read the document.

2. Before the end of the concert, most of the audience had already left.

3. People living in the desert depend on dates and other fruit for water.

4. Through their electing the former Interior Minister the President, the minority group
have challenged the majority's authority.

5. Although he lived most of his life in misery, Toulouse Lautrec produced extremely
vivid and colourful works.

6. Bats are known to carry rabies from one victim to another without having to suck
blood or bite.

7. Located on the high slopes of a mountain, Katmandu attracted hundreds of
thousands of young people in the 60's and 70's.

8. King Henry VIII, notorious for his tragic marriages, is an important character in
English history.

9. Our planet, though it is not the largest in our solar system, seems to be the only
planet to have an atmosphere to provide enough oxygen for life.

10. Calling themselves members of the Red Army of Italy, these terrorists terrorized
Italy for almost a decade, killing and kidnapping various important figures.

11. As well as being a tourist site, Antalya is famous for its international harbour.

12. Australia, which is now the smallest continent, was once one part of a larger
continent.

13. Unless we have a better plan by tomorrow morning, we can have no chance of
earning our clients' trust.

14. That it rained so much, after all these dark clouds, is not surprising at all.

15. At the far end of the long corridor stood an antique coat-hanger.

16. Which class will first use the language lab is the crucial question here.

17. Whatever they claim it to be, this plan is a complete fake.

18. Count Dracula, the famous hero in horror books, originally lived centuries ago.

19. Do many people apply for the summer courses at the institute?

20. Can you repeat "Two witches are watching two watches; which witch would watch
which watch ?" without reading the sentence?
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

30

3. Anlam dzeyinde sorunlar

Bu aamada tmcenin yanstt anlamn Trkeye aktarlmas hedeflenmektedir. Dikkat
etmeniz gereken noktalar unlar:

Anlam kavramak iin mevcut tm ipularn (balam, izim, dipnot, kyaslama gibi)
kullann. Bu amala, tm metni dikkatle okuyun.

nemli olan, ngilizce tmcenin yapsal niteliklerinin aktarlmas deil, anlamnn
yanstlmasdr. Bu nedenle de, ngilizce tmcenin uzunluunda bir Trke tmce
retmek gibi bir ama gdlmemelidir.

ngilizce tmcedeki her bir szcn Trkeye aktarlmas gerekmedii gibi, olduu
gibi aktarlmas da anlamsz olacaktr. rnein,

... make concessions ...

yapsn

.. tavizler yapmak ..

olarak Trkeye aktarmak hi de doru olmayacaktr.

... tavizlerde bulunmak ../ .. taviz vermek ...

olarak aktarlmas gerekir.

4. Btnlk dzeyinde sorunlar


Btnlk aamasnda, Trkeye aktarlm olan tmcenin kendisinden nceki ve sonraki
tmcelerin, iinde bulunduu paragrafn ve en son olarak da metnin anlam ile uyum iin
de olup olmadnn incelenmesi gerekir.

Genel eviri 2 kitabnn bu konusunda, deinilen bu aamalarn ilk ikisi ele alnmakta. Dier
ikisi ise bir sonraki konuda ilenmekte.

Altrma 8 Tmce analizi iin kimi zaman dilbilgisi ve szck bilgisi ile ilgili sorunlar
zmlemek yeterli olmamakta. rnein, aada verilen tmceyi Trkeye aktarmay
deneyin.

The people who live next door but one have a revolting cat.
(revolting [adj.]= iren)

Tmcenin anlamn aktarmay baaramazsanz, bir de sorunu oluturan yapnn kullanld
aadaki tmceyi inceleyin.

Our house is the last but one on the left-hand side.

eviriyi yine de baaramadysanz, bu yap aadaki ksa paragrafta da ele alnmakta.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

31
I live in a quiet part of the town. My neighbours are all retired people who spend the
entire day either watching television or sitting in the veranda and knitting. Some
have interesting habits like model-ship building, and some have pet animals, mainly
cats. For example, the Bucks', living next door, own a beautiful Siamese cat. Those
who live next door but one have a revolting cat. Walk two houses further left, and
you will see the smallest dog you are ever likely to meet.

Altrma 9 Bir nceki altrmada olduu gibi, bu altrmada tm szcklerinin anlamn bildiiniz
bir tmcenin analizini yapmanz gerekmekte.

I didn't notice that the bus had stopped to pick up some passengers, and I went
straight into the back of it.

Sizce bu tmceyi syleyen kii nerede?
Tmce iinde grlerinizi destekleyen ipular neler?

leme
Altrma 1 Aadaki tmcelerde

1. tmcenin szcklerinin Trke karln saptayn;
2. yklem olabilecek szckleri belirleyin;
3. bunlardan hangisinin esas yklem olduunu saptayn;
4. tmce basit tmce ise unsurlarn / iareti ile birbirinden ayrn;
5. tmce bileik tmce ise ana tmce ile yan tmceyi // iareti ile ayrn; clause yaplar
tanmlayn;
6. tmcede imdilik bir kenara braklabilecek unsurlar [ ] ile belirleyin;
7. tmceyi Trkeye aktarn;
8. evirinizde kullandnz Trkenin gncel, anlam bakmndan zgn tmcenin
anlamna uygun olup olmadn kontrol edin.

1. Some drugs intended to counteract insomnia are not without dangerous side effects.

2. A wild animal is more apt to be irascible when hungry than when satiated.

3. To prove a Rembrandt painting authentic is to make certain it was painted by
Rembrandt himself.

4. Papers which document the inception of a country's new government provide historical
records of its beginnings.

5. The law requires that gifts of eloquence be reported accurately on the owner's income
tax return.

6. A year by year increase in the number of a company's pensioners may not necessarily
reflect company growth.

7. A driver who covers a distance of 1200 kilometres in three days averages 400
kilometres per day.

8. Any statesman who opposes liberalizing immigration quotas objects to the entrance of
immigrants into his country.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

32

9. To state that ocean temperatures are fairly stable over vast areas does not rule out the
possibility of temperature differences.

10. Not everyone properly described as eccentric possesses the essential qualities of genius.

11. An agreement to increase spending for research hardly guarantees the success of the
project dependent upon that research.

12. Discrepancies in the testimony of a court witness tend to discredit his reliability.

13. The superstition that red infuriates a bull results form mistaking coincidence for cause
and effect.

14. Culture includes all the ways of behaving which an individual learns from others as a
member of society.

15. Because athlete's foot and other fungus infections depend upon individual
susceptibility, the widespread use of preventive techniques has not been adopted.

16. Notwithstanding its general acceptance, the idea that all nature exists for the direct
benefit of the human race rests on no reliable foundation.

17. The four-minute mile wouldn't amount to much were it not for the fact that the human
body is poorly adapted for running or anything else but thinking.

18. It is probable that out of any large group of top-rank scientists a fair proportion will be
neither saints nor sinners.

19. Feudal landowners, instead of pursuing the system of farming their lands by the labour
of their dependants, became landlords by receiving rent for the use of their lands.

20. Animals with backbones constitute but a relatively small proportion of living things and
are a comparatively recent group without the length of history behind them possessed
by many other types of plants and animals.

21. This comprehensive plan for a system of common schools was, in the face of the most
discouraging opposition, constantly adhered to Thomas Jefferson, although he did not
live to see universal education an accomplished fact.

22. The director agreed to whittle the entries down to about 1000 volunteered paintings
which would go into the show along with offerings from a specially invited group of
already recognized name artists.

23. The central idea of English mercantilism was that as the whole is greater than any of its
parts, the national economy should aim at the prosperity of the nation as a whole, even
when that meant the disadvantage of one segment or another.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

33
Altrma 2 Tmce ile en yakn anlam tayan tmceyi iaretleyin. Daha sonra tmceyi analiz edin.

1. Not even a genius is capable of high anger and high thinking at one and
the same time.

a. The ability to think and the habit of anger develop at different times in a person's
life.
b. Good thinking does not take place during periods of violent anger.

2. A large part of the British and American press has in effect abandoned
the pretence of dealing exclusively with facts.

a. Some British and American newspapers no longer pretend to deal only with the
facts.
b. Many British and American newspapers print only the facts.

3. A widely held myth is that the common people always applaud the
spending of public money in their behalf, but oppose the levying of
taxes.

a. It is widely believed that the common people will favour the spending of public
money on their behalf, but oppose the levying of taxes.
b. It is true that the common people will favour the spending of public money on their
behalf, but oppose the levying of taxes.

4. A genius glories in his willingness to be wrong; for probing in the dark
for the truth is bound to bring ninety-nine fruitless gropings for one
successful grasp.

a. Typically, the search for truth is marked by more mistakes than successes.
b. A true genius may experience many failures before he finds success.

5. Tourists in Canada impressed by the Frenchness or the Englishness of
the people are astonished to learn that one of every five Canadians is
other than French or British in origin.

a. Tourists in Canada are astonished to learn that the majority of the people who live
there are neither French nor English in origin.
b. Although visitors to Canada are impressed by the French or English characteristics
of the people, substantial numbers of Canadians are neither French nor British in
origin.

6. The only difference between electricity generated in an atomic plant and
electricity produced in ordinary steam generating plants is in the fuel
that heats the water for steam to spin the generator.

a. Electricity produced in an atomic plant is no more dangerous than any other
electricity.
b. Electricity produced in an atomic plant is exactly the same as electricity produced in
a steam generating plant.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

34
7. In the case of a living author, an appraisal of his personal character on
the basis of what he publishes may unduly sanctify him or, on the other
hand, justify a suit for libel.

a. Any appraisal of an author's character on the basis of the writings will justify a suit
for libel.
b. The evaluation of a man's character on the basis of his writings is not necessarily
valid.

8. Any substance taken into body that can be utilized for the release of
energy, for the regulation of body processes, or for the building or
repair of tissues falls into the category of food.

a. To be classified as a food, a substance must have all these properties: it must help
release energy, help regulate body processes, and build or repair body tissue.
b. A substance is food if, when taken into the body, it can be used to release energy.

9. The effects of an increasing majority of women upon our society are
certain to be formidable.

a. The effects of an increasing majority of women upon our society may prove to be
trifling.
b. The effects of an increasing majority of women upon society will be menacing.

10. Although the monastic schools were hostile to classical literature as
representing the temptations of the world, and religious beliefs
prevented the use of any work of science, they preserved for us a
considerable amount of Greek and Roman culture.

a. Today we are indebted to the monastic schools for some of our understanding of
Greek and Roman culture.
b. Since the monastic schools opposed the teaching of classical literature, it is doubtful
that they performed any valuable service.

11. Patriotic sensitiveness to differences between English and American
usage of the language did not appear until after the revolution, and
sprang not from a sense of lack or fault in American English, but rather
from an unwillingness to use English textbooks.

a. After the Revolution American patriots were sensitive about their faulty use of
English.
b. Sensitiveness to differences in English and American use of the language grew out
of an unwillingness to use English textbooks.

12. Radiant energy from the sun is the source of practically all the forces
that man directs upon the earth.

a. There is no power or force under the control of man that did not have its source in
the radiant energy from the sun.
b. Most of the forces that man directs on the earth had their sources in the radiant
energy of the sun.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

35
13. Any disease or injury which occurs during the course of employment
and raises out of that employment is defined by law as an industrial
injury.

a. A disease arising out of employment but developing after the termination of
employment is not legally an industrial injury.
b. To be defined by law as an industrial injury a disease or injury must have two
characteristics: it must occur during employment and arise out of that employment.

14. As long as America remained overwhelmingly English, it was English
music that dominated and the music of the literate classes included
more hymns than love songs.

a. During the British period in America the music of the educated people consisted
largely of British hymns.
b. Learned people in America during the British period had little music of any kind.

15. Had the author expressed his own considered opinions as to the
importance of each thread in his story, he would have enhanced the
book so as to make it the ultimate word on the subject.

a. The book does not constitute the final word on the subject.
b. No book is valuable which does not include the author's opinions.

16. The value of collective action in providing the means of public
education - an unknown value in Europe in the seventeenth century -
was not promptly found in the New World.

a. A strong desire for public education was one of the reasons for the establishment of
the colonies of the New World.
b. The value of group action in providing the means of public education was not
known in seventeenth century Europe.

17. Animals are said to be warm-blooded or cold-blooded: the former
means that they have a constant body temperature while the latter
means that the body temperature varies with the external temperature.

a. The temperature of cold-blooded reptiles is lower in cold weather than in warm
weather.
b. The body temperature of cold-blooded animals is always lower than the body
temperature of warm-blooded animals.

18. There are savage peoples today with whom the year is a somewhat
indefinite unit, while the moon and its phases are so evident and
impressive that the calendar is for these tribes an enumeration of
moons.

a. Since the savage peoples can see the moon and its changes, they are more impressed
by it than by the year which they cannot see.
b. Savage peoples who cannot think in terms of the year as a unit of time can not keep
an accurate calendar.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

36
19. Geometry has its origin in the valley of the Nile where it developed to
meet a practical need; it was used in the measurement of the earth's
surface in the restoration of boundaries obliterated by the annual
inundations of the river.

a. Originally geometry was developed to weigh and measure the dirt displaced by the
overflowing waters of the Nile.
b. The original geometry text was buried for centuries in the flooded lands beside the
Nile.

20. A school which places a premium on intellectual achievement is less
concerned with athletics than with superior academic students.

a. Superior students are rarely good athletes.
b. If a school strives chiefly for superior academic standing, it is more interested in
good students than in good athletes.

21. All told, the South produces almost half of out lumber and the
proportion may well increase, for the climate encourages second-
growth timber.

a. Because of the climate, the South may in time produce fifty per cent or more of our
lumber.
b. The climate of the South encourages the growth of the finest timber in the country.

22. Prices are determined in part by the forces of demand on the buyer's
side and by supply and cost of production on the seller's side.

a. A company with the sole right to a patent can ask and get any price it wishes for the
patented product.
b. The cost of production, the size of supply, and the demand for the product are all
factors which help to determine the price.

23. We are accustomed to thinking of bacteria as omnipresent and
versatile, playing a many role in the drama of life, now helping and now
hindering.

a. We are used to the idea that some bacteria are helpful and others harmful.
b. Bacteria are all alike in that they are present everywhere and always a danger to
man.

24. An industry that is protected by the government is in dangerous
position, for the ability to improve manufacturing techniques cannot be
developed under the soft blanket of protection.

a. An industry is most apt to improve its manufacturing techniques if it enjoys freedom
from fear of competition.
b. In a sense, governmental protection serves as a hindrance rather than a help to an
industry.

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37
25. The Spartans dwelt in the midst of hostile people they had subjugated,
and strength, courage, and obedience to the laws had to be developed
in their youth if they were to survive.

a. The training of Spartan youth was determined in part at least by the nearness of
unfriendly people.
b. Since they lived in the midst of the conquerors, Spartan youths were forced to learn
obedience.

26. Let it not be supposed that scientific descriptions rob nature of her
beauty or that our delighted sense of colour is in any danger of being
blunted by tracing the sources of our sensations.

a. If we attempt to describe a sunset scientifically we are no longer able to appreciate
its beauty.
b. Nature itself is not changed by our efforts to describe it scientifically.

27. A diplomat who goes to a country where modes of salutation are
different from those he has already learned must be carefully instructed
lest he shock the expectations of the nation which he seeks to
influence.

a. If a diplomat is to influence the country to which he goes, he must not behave in any
way which is contrary to expectation.
b. A foreign country has been offended by a diplomat who failed to know and observe
its modes of salutation.

28. When primitive man evolved to the level where he practised barter,
which is one step above anything of which an animal is capable, the
range of attention was infinitely broader than it was at the stage of
robbery.

a. In the history of man the stage of stealing precedes the stage of trading.
b. Early trading was accompanied by music and group celebrations.

Altrma 3 Verilen tmceleri sorulara gre inceleyin. Birinci sorunun yant rnek olarak
verilmekte.

1. Which of the following sentences was written by a football fan?

a. Despite the fact that the game of basketball is of great appeal, it is definitely unable
to match the extraordinary individual skills of the professional players or season-
long build up of excitement that football provides.
b. Football used to be a perfect game, the favourite game of whole Europe, Asia,
Africa and South America; however, times have changed and football has fallen
behind the times, its place in the media having been taken by professional
basketball.

2. Which of the following statements was written by a supporter of drug-
control laws?

a. In fact, it is not our wish to limit individual freedoms, but we cannot allow the use
of even mild drugs as the situation currently is.
b. Much as we understand the fear that widespread use of drugs leads to increased
social problems, we still insist on the fundamental right of our citizens to freely use
anything they choose to do so.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

38

3. Which of the following statements was written by a person who likes
Venice?

a. For all its lovers' claims that Venice has once again become a beautiful city to be
proud of, there is a great deal to be said for the jokes you hear about the city on
radio and television.
b. Thanks to recent nation-wide efforts, it has once again become a city to be proud of,
despite the jokes you hear on radio and television about Venice and its slow sinking
into the waters of the Aegean,

4. Which of the following statements was written by a language learner
who prefers native speaker teachers to non-native
speaker teachers?

a. Their outstanding tolerance and even their almost perfect knowledge of foreign
language notwithstanding, non-native language teachers simply cannot fill the gap
that native speakers obviously is unaware of.
b. They may obviously lack some of the cultural and even the linguistic advantages
that non-native speaker teachers seem to have, but native speaker teachers more
than make up for this with their excellent knowledge of the language that they teach.

5. Which of the following statements was written by an opponent of
hunting?

a. Hunting may have its opponents but they are usually people who either have never
had the experience of hunting or are unable to feel the great excitement of this
lovely activity.
b. Hunters and some other people may well say anything they want about the
excitement of the hunting, or the idea that the hunter is in a way an
environmentalist, but that does nothing to hide the fact that it is the wild animals
that suffer.

6. Which of the following statements was written by a proponent of the
idea that circus is dying?

a. In our modern age, with its freely available entertainment, accessible at the turn of a
television or radio switch, the circus is simply an artificial activity, although it used
to be quite popular in the past.
b. Of course the circus has suffered a lot from the sort of competition that takes
advantage of modern technology; yet, there is a vast qualitative difference in being
present at a live performance which, however luxurious it may be, can never be
replaced by video-recorded performances.

7. Which of the following statements by written by a vegetarian?

a. The argument is sometimes put forward that man is not naturally a vegetarian
because he was originally omnivorous; although such a claim may contain a grain of
truth, it ignores the obvious fact that there are many aspects of the original human
condition that we have seen fit to improve.
b. Despite of the insistence of those who exclude meat and fish from their diet that
such a course is both spiritually and physically beneficial, there is no evidence that
fighting is less prevalent or exceptional longevity more likely in areas where
vegetarianism is the rule.

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39
8. Which of the following statements was written by a detractor of the
Prime Minister?

a. The Prime Minister has certainly achieved a number of minor improvements and
there is no denying that thus far, the country has not quite gone to rack and ruin
under his leadership; nevertheless, one searches in vain for the great attitudinal and
economic breakthroughs we were so lavishly promised during the course of his
campaign.
b. Though the great breakthroughs the Prime Minister has promised obviously take
some time to engineer, he can nonetheless already point to significant improvements
in the nation's standard of living, which are portents of the exciting changes soon to
be implemented.

9. Which of the following statements was written by a person in favour of
small-town life?

a. Possibly there are those who get pleasure from turning back the clock and seeking
out the virtues we fondly imagine to have been associated with life in small towns in
bygone days. Yet the most superficial perusal of contemporary accounts dealing
with such an existence makes it quite clear that sterile deprivation of life's true
pleasures would be a much more accurate assessment.
b. It is true that city-dwellers and suburbanites have access to certain facilities that
may be denied to the inhabitants of small towns. However, what they miss far
outweighs such advantages, which, in any case, the vast majority rarely has the time
or energy to take advantage of.

10. Which of the following statements was written by someone who opposes a
particular job applicant?

a. Peter certainly has a number of qualities that would appeal to my colleagues on the
selection panel; however, it should be noted that he has a history of flirting from
one job to another that is hardly consistent with this company's management
approach.
b. Although Peter has shown perhaps a regrettable tendency in the past to move rather
quickly from one job to another, he is clearly the best-qualified candidate and
would undoubtedly respond to our town brand of company loyalty.

11. Which of following statements by written by a tour operator?

a. The cost of the tour is admittedly high. Against this, though, consideration must be
given to the fact that it offers a unique opportunity to visit one of the world's most
extraordinary tourist attractions in the company of congenial fellow-explorers and
expert guides.
b. However unusual the opportunity or expert the accompanying personnel, these can
hardly be a justification for charging an amount that appears to fall not far short of
the Gross National Product in some of the world's less developed nations, including
that which is the destination of this "extraordinary" tour.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

40
retme
Altrma 1 Metinlerin iinde koyu yazl tmceleri inceleyin.

1.
Like any theory of importance, that of social or cultural anthropology was the
work of many minds and took on many forms. Some, the best known of its
opponents, worked on broad areas and attempted to describe and account for the
development of human civilization in its totality. Others restricted their efforts to
specific aspects of the culture, taking up the evolution of art, or the state, or religion.

2.
In recent years there have been many reports of a growing impatience with
psychiatry, with its seeming foreverness, its high cost, its debatable results, and its
vague, esoteric terms. To many people it is like a blind man in a dark room
looking for a black cat that is not there. The magazines and mental health
associations say psychiatric treatment is a good thing, but what it is or what it
accomplishes has not been made clear.

Altrma 2 Tmceleri analiz edin ve Trkeye aktarn.

1.
As a result of the Ice Age, which evolved about 1 million years into the Palaeolithic
Age, people were forced to seek shelter in caves, wear clothing, and develop new
tools.

2.
It is true that that that that I used in the sentence is not that that that we saw in the
relative clause structures.

3.
The Greeks attached so much importance to the Olympic Games that they calculated
time in four-year cycles called "Olympiads" dating from 776 B.C.

4.
On the other hand, the heterotrophic fungus, which depends on other elements to
provide its food, not only absorbs and stores water for the plant, but also helps
protect it.

5.
The lichen's strong resistance to its hostile environment and its ability to live in
harmony with such environment is one example that humanity should consider in
trying to solve its own problems.

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41
6.
Years after discovery of the Rosetta stone, Jean Franois Champollion, a French
philologist, fluent in several languages, was able to decipher the first word - Ptolemy
- name of an Egyptian ruler.

7.
The combination of carbon and hydrogen forms many thousands of compounds
which are possible because of the various positions and joinings of these two atoms
in the hydrocarbon molecule.

8.
As brutal as the human sacrifice ceremonies were, the victims (usually taken from
among captives from battles) accepted their fate passively, having been previously
indoctrinated and heavily sedated.

9.
The residue remaining after the light oils are distilled is known as heavy or residual
fuel oil and is used mostly for burning under boilers.

10.
What "Pete" the groundhog does next, many believe, will indicate whether spring is
just around the corner or a long way off.

11.
Children reared in poverty tend, on the average, to do poorly on tests of intelligence.

12.
Probably the most lasting of the Roman heritage to the world can be found in laws
based on Roman legal principles as found in England, Latin America, and the United
States, as well as the Roman alphabet which forms the basis of many languages
among which are English, Spanish, and German.

13.
Article II of the United States Constitution states that only natural-born citizens of
the United States who have attained the age of 35 years and who have resided in the
United States for 14 years may become president.

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42
Snama

Altrma Verilen sre iinde, metinle ilgili soruyu yantlayn ve tmceleri analiz edin.

1.
45 dakika
The Inca were originally a small warlike tribe inhabiting the south highland region of
the Cordillera Central in Peru.

The Incas had never acquired the art of writing, but
they had developed a complicated system of knotted cords called quipus. These were
made of the wool of the alpaca or llama, dyed in various colors, the significance of
which was known to the officials. The cords were knotted in such a way as to
represent the decimal system. Thus an important message relating to the progress of
crops, the amount of taxes collected, or the advance of an enemy could be speedily
sent by trained runners along the post roads.

a) Yazlar olmad iin, nkalar basit, az gelimi bir toplum olarak grlrler.
b) nkalar dml ip sistemini dmanlarndan aldlar.
c) Hem iplerin rengi hem de dmlenme biimleri quipus'n yanstt anlamn bir
blmdr.
d) pler koucular yolu ile gnderildii iin, nkalarn vergileri de bu koucular yolu ile
topladklarn da rahatlkla ileri srebiliriz.

2.
45 dakika
There was a time when scholars held that early man lived in a kind of beneficent
anarchy, in which each person was granted his rights by his fellows and there was
no governing or being governed. Various early writers looked back to this
Golden Age but the point of view that man was originally a child of nature is
best known to us in the writings of Rousseau, Locke, and Hobbes. These men
described the concept of social contract, which they said had put an end to the
state of nature in which earliest man is supposed to have lived.

a) Rousseau, Locke ve Hobbes'a gre, sosyal iliki kavram ilk insanlarn yaad
menfaate dayal anari dnemine bir son verdi.
b) Bu metnin yazarnn, ynetim kavramnn insan tarihinde her zaman iin var olduu
dncesinde olduu sonucunu karabiliriz.
c) Bu metinde deinilen yazarlar, insann Altn Dnem'inde yaadlar.
d) Yazara gre, bilimadamlar bugn de ilk insann bir tr anari dnemi geirdii
dncesini tamaktadrlar.


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43
4
Tmce analizi ve evirisi

Giri ................................................................................................................. 44
Sunu ................................................................................................................ 44
leme .............................................................................................................. 45
retme ............................................................................................................. 48
Snama ............................................................................................................. 49

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44
Giri
Bir nceki konu ile balantl olan bu konuda, tmce analizinin ardndan tmce
evirisi ilenmekte.

Drdnc konuya balamadan nce, tmce analizinin incelendii nc konuyu ayrntl bir
biimde incelediinizden emin olun. nc konuda, tmcenin analizi iin nerilen temel
noktalar unutmayn:

1. Szck dzeyinde sorunlar.
2. Dilbilgisi dzeyinde sorunlar.

Tmcenin tr (basit ya da bileik)
Tmcenin unsurlar (+Y+N)
as, for, since, yet szckleri
Deinme szckleri
that, -ing, V
3
yaplar

3. Anlam dzeyinde sorunlar
4. Btnlk dzeyinde sorunlar
Sunu
Genel eviri 2 kitabnn nc konusunda tmcenin analizine ilikin notlar ele alnd. Bu
konuda ise tmcelerin Trkeye aktarm konusunda neriler sunulmakta.

Anlam zihninizde yaplandrmaya aln. Bunu mevcut bilgilerinizle kyaslayn. Bu
yaklam baz dilbilgisi ve szck bilgisi sorunlar zmlemenizde yardmc olacaktr.
Anlam tam olarak kavrayamadysanz, tmceyi evirmeye kalkmayn.

Szl ya da yazl olarak tmceyi evirin. Tmce ok uzunsa
ZNE+NESNE+YKLEM yapsn kullanarak tmceyi inceleyin ve tmceyi
unsurlarna ayrarak yazl eviri yapn. rnein,

The great advance in rocket theory 40 years ago showed that liquid-fuel
rockets were far superior in every respect to the skyrocket with its weak solid
fuel, the only kind of rockets then known.

tmcesi incelendiinde

The great advance in rocket theory 40 years ago showed / that liquid-fuel
rockets were far superior in every respect to the skyrocket with its
(=skyrocket's) weak solid fuel, / the only kind of rocket (which was) then
known.

yaps ortaya kmakta. Bu da Trkeye ilk aamada

Roket teorisindeki byk gelime 40 yl nce gsterdi ki sv yaktl roketler her
adan zayf kat yaktl uzay roketlerine ok daha stn; o zamanlar bilinen tek
roket tr.

olarak aktarlabilir.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

45

evirinizin Trkesini inceleyin.

Roket teorisindeki byk ilerleme, 40 yl nce, sv yaktl roketlerin o
zamanlar bilinen tek roket tr olan ve zayf bir yakt tr olan kat yaktlar
kullanan uzay roketlerinden her adan ok daha stn olduklarn gsterdi.

Yaptnz evirinin zgn tmcenin anlamn yanstp yanstmadn kontrol edin. Kimi
zaman, aslnda tmcenin anlatt eyi deil, sizin tmcenin anlattna inandnz eyi
evirmekte olduunuzu farkedeceksiniz. Bu da sizi ok hatal evirilere gtrebilir.

leme
Altrma Aada verilen tmcelerin tm nc konuda ele alnd. Bu tmceleri Trkeye aktarn.

1.
Not even a genius is capable of high anger and high thinking at one and the same
time.

2.
A large part of the British and American press has in effect abandoned the pretence
of dealing exclusively with facts.

3.
A widely held myth is that the common people always applaud the spending of
public money in their behalf, but oppose the levying of taxes.

4.
A genius glories in his willingness to be wrong; for probing in the dark for the truth
is bound to bring ninety-nine fruitless gropings for one successful grasp.

5.
Tourists in Montreal impressed by the Frenchness or the Englishness of the people
are astonished to learn that one of every five Canadians is other than French or
British in origin.

6.
The only difference between electricity generated in an atomic plant and electricity
produced in ordinary steam generating plants is in the fuel that heats the water for
steam to spin the generator.

7.
In the case of a living author, an appraisal of his personal character on the basis of
what he publishes may unduly sanctify him or, on the other hand, justify a suit for
libel.

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46
8.
Any substance taken into body that can be utilized for the release of energy, for the
regulation of body processes, or for the building or repair of tissues falls into the
category of food.

9.
Although the monastic schools were hostile to classical literature as representing the
temptations of the world, and religious beliefs prevented the use of any work of
science, they preserved for us a considerable amount of Greek and Roman culture.

10.
Patriotic sensitiveness to differences between English and American usage of the
language did not appear until after the revolution, and sprang not from a sense of
lack or fault in American English, but rather from an unwillingness to use English
textbooks.

11.
The effects of an increasing majority of women upon our society are certain to be
formidable.

12.
Radiant energy from the sun is the source of practically all the forces that man
directs upon the earth.

13.
Any disease or injury which occurs during the course of employment and raises out
of that employment is defined by law as an industrial injury.

14.
As long as America remained overwhelmingly English, it was English music that
dominated and the music of the literate classes included more hymns than love
songs.

15.
The value of collective action in providing the means of public education - an
unknown value in Europe in the seventeenth century - was not promptly found in the
New World.

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47
16.
Animals are said to be warm-blooded or cold-blooded: the former means that they
have a constant body temperature while the latter means that the body temperature
varies with the external temperature.
17.
Had the author expressed his own considered opinions as to the importance of each
thread in his story, he would have enhanced the book so as to make it the ultimate
word on the subject.

18.
There are savage peoples today with whom the year is a somewhat indefinite unit,
while the moon and its phases are so evident and impressive that the calendar is for
these tribes an enumeration of moons.

19.
Geometry has its origin in the valley of the Nile where it developed to meet a
practical need; it was used in the measurement of the earth's surface in the restoration
of boundaries obliterated by the annual inundations of the river.

20.
A school which places a premium on intellectual achievement is less concerned with
athletics than with superior academic students.

21.
All told, the South produces almost half of out lumber and the proportion may well
increase, for the climate encourages second-growth timber.

22.
Prices are determined in part by the forces of demand on the buyer's side and by
supply and cost of production on the seller's side.

23.
We are accustomed to thinking of bacteria as omnipresent and versatile, playing a
many role in the drama of life, now helping and now hindering.

24.
An industry that is protected by the government is in dangerous position, for the
ability to improve manufacturing techniques cannot be developed under the soft
blanket of protection.

25.
The Spartans dwelt in the midst of hostile people they had subjugated, and strength,
courage, and obedience to the laws had to be developed in their youth if they were to
survive.

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48
26.
Let it not be supposed that scientific descriptions rob nature of her beauty or that our
delighted sense of colour is in any danger of being blunted by tracing the sources of
our sensations.

27.
A diplomat who goes to a country where modes of salutation are different from those
he has already learned must be carefully instructed lest he shock the expectations of
the nation which he seeks to influence.

28.
When primitive man evolved to the level where he practiced barter, which is one
step above anything of which an animal is capable, the range of attention was
infinitely broader than it was at the stage of robbery.

retme
Altrma Metni dikkatle okuyun, 3. konuda verilen bilgilere gre koyu yazl tmceleri inceleyin ve
Trkeye aktarn.


TEACHING

Teaching is supposed to be a professional activity requiring long and complicated
training as well as official certification. The act of teaching is looked upon as a flow
of knowledge from a higher source to an empty one. The student's role is one of
receiving information; the teacher's is one of sending it. There is a clear distinction
assumed between one who is supposed to know (and therefore not capable of being
wrong) and another, usually a younger person, who is supposed not to know.
However, teaching need not be the province of a special group of people nor need
it be looked upon as a technical skill. Teaching can be more like guiding and assisting
than forcing information into a supposedly empty head. If you have a certain skill you
should be able to share it with someone. You do not have to get certified to convey
what you know to someone else or to help them in their attempt to teach
themselves. All of us, from the very youngest children to the oldest members of our
cultures, should come to realize our own potential as teachers. We can share what we
know, however little it might be, with someone who has need of that knowledge or
skill.

"Teaching" balkl bu metin, eviri derslerime malzeme olarak almamdan ok sonralar,
Eyll 1995 tarihinde, metin Trkiye Bankas Uzman Yardmcl Dil Snav'nda
ngilizceden Trkeye eviri metni olarak kullanld.
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49
Snama
Altrma 1 Bu altrmada, verilen boluu en uygun seenek ile tamamlayn. Daha sonra tmceleri
analiz ederek Trkeye aktarn (bu altrmadaki metinlerin tm deerli meslektam,
ngilizce retmeni Sahir Kksoy tarafndan salanmtr).

1.
In youth, most people maintain that black is black, white is white, and gray does not
exist. It is only gradually that experience teaches us that there is no absolute evil, so
there is no absolute good. Until this lesson is learned, children react either
completely for or against everything they face, and tolerance is something which
they _______________.

a) respect in their parents b) wish they possessed
c) cannot comprehend d) have wholly lost

2.
Copper is a fairly soft metal and it is easily moulded even when it is cold. It was the
first metal that primitive man learned to use in making tools. Copper relics have been
found that are older then recorded history. Copper is a lot more extensively used
than any other metal except iron. This positive aspect is further supported by the fact
that copper is not _______________.

a) expensive b) available
c) soft d) plentiful

3.
Ancient astronomers recognized that the planets were different from the stars. The
name planet was given to those heavenly bodies which constantly change their
positions with reference to the stars, because planet comes from the Greek word that
means _______________.

a) bright b) astronomical
c) wandering d) reflecting

4.
The power of propaganda lies largely in the swiftness of its action. Like an odourless
but deadly cloud, it seeps into the atmosphere until it has _______________.

a) overpowered all who are exposed to it
b) blended harmlessly with the air
c) been recognised and counteracted
c) created the opposite of its intended effect

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50
5.
Scarcely any create that lives and breathes is as universally hated as the rat. Rats are
carriers of many diseases. They give some service as scavengers, but this is
overbalanced by their _______________.

a) harmful activities b) popularity as pets
c) odd appearance d) sanitary value

6.
One factor which affects the rate of chemical change is temperature. With few
exceptions, an increase in temperature increases the rate of a chemical reaction. Most
reactions at the temperature of boiling water are hundreds of times as fast as at room
temperature. To slow down changes in foods, our kitchens are equipped with
______________.

a) thermometers b) refrigerators
c) ventilators d) fire alarms

7.
Most solids expand when their temperature rises. Because of this, concrete highways
are made in sections that do not touch. The spaces between the sections are filled
with tar, which oozes from the cracks in hot weather. If the road were not made in
sections, the expansion of the solid concrete in hot weather would cause it to
______________.

a) expand b) meet
c) buckle d) contract

8.
Ideas are essential in the diet of business. A business gets hungry just as a man does.
A man cannot live without food, and a business cannot advance without
_______________.

a) ideas b) influence
c) tradition d) budgeting

9.
Coal formation began millions of years ago when giant plants died and formed a
decayed vegetable matter called peat. Mud and sand covered the peat when large
areas of earth sank below the ocean. Pressure and heat from water, sand, and mud
caused the peat to form coal. The greater the depth of the earth above the peat, the
greater the pressure of the peat and harder the coal. Anthracite, the hardest grade of
coal, usually lies in the coal beds that are ______________.

a) easiest to mine b) in greatest demand
c) most plentiful d) deepest

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51
10.
Alfred Bernhard Nobel (1833-96) was a Swedish chemist who invented dynamite
and some other chemicals. He became very wealthy and in his will set up a large
fund to pay annual awards in the five fields of physics, chemistry, physiology of
medicine, literature, and international peace. The prizes average about $40,000, and
aside from this it is a great honour to receive _______________.

a) $40,000 b) such a legacy
c) the Nobel professorship d) a Nobel prize

11.
Of all the lawbreakers in the thirties, only about 15 percent were ever arrested, 2
percent convicted, and 1 percent actually punished. One of the most pressing social
problems was _______________.

a) lax law enforcement b) overcrowded prisons
c) ambiguous laws d) prohibition violators

12.
The total volume of long-distance trade during the Middle Ages was relatively small.
Most areas where people lived were self-sufficient in the matter of the necessities of
life. Transport was expensive and slow, whether by land or by sea. Goods that were
carried in international trade were, for the most part, _______________.

a) breadstuffs b) luxury items
c) woollen cloth d) oriental imports

13.
It is an obvious and familiar fact that the younger a child, the less individually
differentiated he is. Physically, all newborn children are _______________.

a) extremely active b) difficult to manage
c) very much like their parents d) very much alike

14.
The climate in equatorial regions is uniform throughout the year. There is nothing
that can be called _______________.

a) a tropical climate b) a change of season
c) the beginning of the year d) the heat of the noonday

15.
Clothes keep us warm by keeping heat from escaping from the body. Wool keeps us
especially warm because its fibers hold a layer of still air that is an excellent
_______________.

a) source of heat b) cooling system for the body
c) conductor of heat d) shield against heat loss

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52
16.
Scientists are constantly working to refine man's accuracy in the measurement of
time. The most accurate method so far is a cesium clock that is accurate to two parts
in a billion. Your watch would not be more than one second off 330 years from now
if it ran with this accuracy. Polaris submarines and satellites in orbit many miles
above the earth are dependent upon accuracy in estimating their location. This in
turn depends upon _______________.

a) discovery of new metals b) rapid calculations
c) ultimate accuracy in timing d) skilled navigation

17.
During the last half of the nineteenth century, the United States and Germany made
rapid progress in industrialization. Their deposits of coal and iron - essential factors
in developing industry - aided them in becoming _______________.

a) self-sufficient b) cultural centers
c) manufacturing centers d) democracies

18.
Zoos spend a lot of money duplicating natural conditions for the keeping of captive
animals. Much success has been achieved in this area, as exemplified by the case of
three magpies. A storm blew open the door to the magpie cage and three of the blue
Himalayan birds escaped. Reports from all over the big city told of the birds roosting
on buildings, statues, and so forth. The day after the escape the magpies returned to
their cage at the zoo, indicating that they _______________.

a) feared harm b) relished harm
b) felt at home d) disliked captivity

19.
The stimulus given to us by challenging tasks is necessary for the survival of our
civilization. When we are no longer forced by necessity to work, unless we stir
ourselves to activity we will perish. Deterioration began in the civilizations of
Greece and Rome when the people became _______________.

a) barbaric b) participators
c) spectators d) professionals

20.
One generation often finds itself trying to protect its laws against the next generation,
which would change the laws. Youth often thinks the previous generation resists
change, and the older generation sometimes criticizes youth as being too
_______________.

a) conforming b) indifferent
c) energetic d) rebellious

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

53
21.
Elephant hunting may not be so dangerous as some men have thought. A herd of
elephants will usually flee from a hunter but, if the hunter comes upon a herd of
elephants at close range, they may charge. Since the elephant has very poor eyes, the
hunter's best protection is to get out range of the elephant's _______________.

a) tusks b) hearing
c) herd d) vision

22.
One of the pleasantest things in the world is going on a journey, but I like to go by
myself. I can enjoy society in a room; but outdoors, nature is _______________.

a) best when seen by a friend b) company enough for me
c) best enjoyed by a group d) not as pleasant as a book

23.
Aristotle, a philosopher of ancient Greece was the first person we know of to write
down descriptions of animals. His observations and classifications are extremely
accurate to have been written over two thousand years ago. Aristotle is often credited
with being the first _______________.

a) zoologist b) anthropologist
c) philosopher d) botanist

24.
An ocean-bottom seismograph has been designed to record natural earth tremors and
remote nuclear explosions at a great distance under the surface of the ocean. The
device operates unattended. It senses, gathers, and stores information on magnetic
tape for later recovery and _______________.

a) construction b) defence
c) interpretation d) recording

25.
Rome and Carthage were great rivals for many years. For more than a century these
two powers _______________.

a) traded with smaller powers b) struggled for supremacy
c) protected each other d) lived peacefully together

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

54
26.
Researchers are studying a popular Japanese rose that can be cultivated into a matted
hedge. When a car runs off the road into a large tree, the shock of the impact is
absorbed by the tree abruptly, endangering the car's occupants. In contrast, a hedge
of these roses absorbs the shock of a collision gently. It is thought that this Japanese
rose, planted in hedges along highways, could reduce _______________.

a) destruction of trees b) driving speeds
c) traffic deaths d) careless driving

27.
Although broken-down rock provides the basic material from which soil is formed, it
is not soil. True soil in which plants will grow contains organic matter, that is,
decayed animal and vegetable matter. Without this organic matter, broken rock, no
matter how finely-broken it may be, is still only _______________.

a) organic rock b) top soil
c) mountain soil d) rock

28.
For many years the Chinese carefully guarded the secret of their method of raising
silkworms and making silk. Anyone caught carrying silk worms or their eggs out of
China was _______________.

a) considered a foreigner b) rewarded by the government
c) punished by death d) automatically made a prince

29.
The "cow war" occurred in 1934 between Minnesota and the Dakotas. A severe
drought had dried up all grazing land in the area except for a small part of north-
western Minnesota. Farmers from North and South Dakota drove their cattle to this
small area to graze. The governor of Minnesota, fearing that Minnesota cattle would
not have enough grazing land, instructed National Guardsmen to prevent any Dakota
cattle from crossing the line into Minnesota. The states involved, however, remained
on friendly terms throughout the incident. Actually the "cow war"
_______________.

a) involved no cows b) was not a war
c) created ill feelings d) attracted more cows

30.
The people of the Netherlands, popularly called Hollanders or Dutch, have increased
the land area of their country for cultivation by building dikes around a lake, marsh,
or sea area to keep it from flooding. The water within the diked area is drained off
into canals. The newly drained, dike-protected land is called a polder. Most of the
land in the western part of the Netherlands is reclaimed land. This land is flat and
_______________.

a) is of little use b) is flooded during ocean storms
c) is good fishing ground d) lies below sea level

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

55
Altrma 2 Bu blme kadar sunulan bilgilere gre, aadaki paragraflarda koyu yazl blmleri
Trkeye aktarn.

1.
In childhood, showing-off takes simple direct forms. A child asking you to look at
him as he stands on his head expects (and usually gets) immediate praise. As we
grow older we seem to get more cunning in our efforts to draw the attention of
others to ourselves. Only a professional acrobat has to go to the lengths of
standing on his head to win a round of applause. Adults are capable of the
subtlest forms of self-dispraise when they want to boast their achievements.

2.
Today young people seem to be anxious to acquire useful knowledge to the
exclusion of everything else. They seek knowledge not for its own sake, but so
that they will learn how to do a job. But knowledge and education are not one and
the same thing. A man may be in command of any number of facts and be
brilliant at his job without necessarily being an educated person. Those who
measure knowledge solely in terms of its usefulness often deliberately ignore the
immense cultural heritage of the past when they regard the study of Latin and
Greek as a "waste of time".

3.
Nothing worth having is free in the sense that it can be had without effort. If we
wish to acquire something, something else must be given in exchange for it. What
we give cannot be always measured in terms of money. It can take many forms
like time, effort, hard work, or concentration, for only by giving is it possible to
receive. In fact, it is doubtful whether anything which appears to be "free" is
really worth having.

4.
It is not difficult to understand why an eclipse of the sun or moon instilled
terror into the hearts of primitive peoples. Natural phenomena like rain, storms,
and wind were once inexplicable, and god-like powers were attributed to them.
Under such conditions, the blotting-out of the sun, the giver of light, the sudden
fall of darkness at noon, could only be interpreted as the most evil of omens.
Thousands of years passed before it proved possible to explain why such things
happened. But even though science has taken the magic (and fortunately, the
terror) out of eclipses, they still figure among the most impressive of all natural
occurrences.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

56

5.
It took nothing less than two world wars for women to prove conclusively that
they are capable of doing any kind of job, from serving as Minister of Health to
driving steam-roller. Yet men are reluctant to acknowledge that women are as
capable as they are, and not a few must wish that they had never been given the
vote at all. It is fortunate for women, these days, that they do not have to chain
themselves to lamp-posts or starve themselves to death to prove a simple point.
If they go about the right way, they might even beat men to the moon.

6.
The critic, then, has a twofold function: he must illuminate and evaluate. The first of
these is quite straightforward. Acting as an intermediary between the artist and
the public, a critic should be able to explain the intentions behind a book, a
film, a play, or whatever it is he is criticizing. If the critic is reliable we should
be better equipped to enjoy, say, a new novel, after we have read what he has to
say. The second is far more difficult. When attempting to evaluate a work of
art, the critic should be able to see it in relation to all that has gone before and
to give his readers some indication of its possible worth. What he gives us, in
effect, is his opinion; and more often than not, there are as many opinions as
critics.

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57
3. ve 4. konularda ilenen notlar u ekilde zetlenebilir:

ZCK ve terimlerle ilgili
sorunlara ynelik olarak
yaplmas gereken alma:

Szlk almas Szlk kullanarak szcklerin Trkesini bulun.
Deinme szckleri Metin iindeki kullanmlarn anlam ve eviri asndan inceleyin.

LBLGS ile ilgili sorunlara
ynelik olarak yaplmas
gereken alma:

As, for, since, yet Ne anlam tadklarn saptayn.
That,gerund,past participle Ne anlam tadklarn saptayn.
Basit-Bileik Tmce Tmce trn saptayn.
Clause Marker Bileik tmcede balant yapsn bulun.
Ana-Yan Tmce // iaretini kullann.
+Y+N Tmcenin unsurlarn belirleyin.

NLAM ile ilgili sorunlara ynelik
olarak yaplmas gereken
alma

Balam Tmceyi, metnin btnnn anlamna gre Trkeye aktarn.
Taslak eviri Bu aamada, evirinizin Trkesi konusunda fazla titizlenmeyin.

TNLK ile ilgili sorunlara
ynelik olarak yaplmas
gereken alma

Trke evirinizi, ngilizce metni hi kullanmadan okuyup dzeltin.

S
D
A
B
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58
5
Metin Analizi ve evirisi

Giri ................................................................................................................. 60
Sunu ................................................................................................................. 60
leme-retme-Snama ................................................................................... 64
eviri iin 50 metin
1. Heart ........................................................................................................ 69
2. Growing vegetables ................................................................................. 72
3. Grounds for divorce ................................................................................. 75
4. Galaxy ..................................................................................................... 78
5. Language ................................................................................................ 82
6. Man's future ............................................................................................. 87
7. Ifs of history ............................................................................................. 92
8. Lake Turkana .......................................................................................... 97
9. Garbology ................................................................................................ 101
10. Explain ................................................................................................... 104
11. The 800
th
life .......................................................................................... 107
12. Desertification ........................................................................................ 112
13. Women .................................................................................................. 115
14. Who's afraid of the silicon chip .............................................................. 118
15. Education .............................................................................................. 123
16. The secret few people could guess ....................................................... 126
17. United Nations ....................................................................................... 129
18. The fountain and the water-jar .............................................................. 132
19. Lightning ................................................................................................ 135
20. The way up to heaven ........................................................................... 138
21. Political parties ...................................................................................... 143
22. Women and space ................................................................................ 145
23. Common sense about smoking ............................................................ 147
24. Intelligence ............................................................................................ 149
25. The sacred rac ...................................................................................... 151
26. Amber .................................................................................................... 155
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59
27. Levophobia ............................................................................................ 157
28. Self-confidence ..................................................................................... 159
29. Magnetism ............................................................................................. 160
30. The death penalty .................................................................................. 161
31. Slipper animalcule ................................................................................. 165
32. Tighten you belt ..................................................................................... 167
33. Arranged marriages: an alternative to love marriages .......................... 172
34. Nuclear energy ...................................................................................... 175
35. Lie detector ........................................................................................... 178
36. Barter .................................................................................................... 181
37. Art .......................................................................................................... 184
38. New policy debate ................................................................................. 186
39. Investment ............................................................................................. 189
40. Modern constitutions ............................................................................. 193
41. Television .............................................................................................. 197
42. Economics and history .......................................................................... 199
43. The Rolling Stones ................................................................................ 201
44. Pioneer 10 pushes forward beyond goals, into the unknown ................. 204
45. California's germinal brains bank .......................................................... 205
46. The manager's authority ....................................................................... 208
47. Ethical and legal considerations of public relations practice ................. 211
48. Human behaviour and social practice ................................................. 213
49. Democracy and adult education in Tanzania ....................................... 215
50. The twelve bottles of whisky .................................................................. 217


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

60
Giri
Genel eviri 2 kitabnn beinci konusunda, metin analizi ve evirisi konusu ele
alnmakta.

Bu konuda, eitli metinler eviri amac ile incelenmekte. Metin analizinin aamalarn
tantabilmek iin her bir metin iin eitli okuma ve eviri altrmalar verilmekte. Kullanlan
simge ve ksaltmalarn anlamlar ayrca sayfa 6'da bulunabilir.

Konunun bu ilk sayfalarnda, metin analizi ve evirisi konusunda mevcut bilginiz llmekte.
Bunun ardndan, konularna ve sunduklar eviri sorunlarna gre snflandrlm metinler ve
bunlara ait altrmalar verilmekte.

Sunu
Aada, metin analizinin aamalar rneklerle anlatlmakta. ncelikle metnin tmn okuyun.





5




10
The Germany of today has two very different recent pasts. In the
aftermath of World War II, the victorious Allies divided up the defeated,
devastated country and took away its sovereignty. What happened
thereafter reads like a fairy tale in which the west was blessed and the
east was cursed. Certainly, the rags-to-riches story of the German
Federal Republic is in sharp contrast to the exploitation, repression and
corruption story of the German Democratic Republic. Fairy stories have
happy endings ... and so it was that after 40 years of sun in the west and
darkness in the east, the twain finally met - on the sunny side, of course -
and became one.

Meet United Germany: Perspectives (1992: 24)

1. Szck dzeyinde

Bu blmde, sol stunda szckler metindeki haliyle verilmekte ve sizden bu szcklerin metin
iindeki anlamlarn bulmanz istenmekte. Aadaki tablo rnek vermek amac ile tamamland.
Parantez iindeki say satr numarasn gstermekte.

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
recent (1) recent sfat yakn zamana ait
aftermath (1) aftermath ad sonras
victorious (2) victorious sfat zafer kazanm, galip
Allies (2) Allies oul ad Mttefikler
defeated (2) defeated sfat yenik
devastated (2) devastated sfat yklm, harap
sovereignty (3) sovereignty ad hkmranlk
thereafter (3) thereafter zarf ondan sonra
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

61

fairy (4) fairy ad, sfat peri
blessed (4) bless yklem kutsamak
Tmcede blessed szc the west was blessed olarak edilgen biimde
kullanlmakta. Blessed (kutsanm) szcn kullanmak da bu balam
iinde mmkn.

cursed (4) curse yklem lanetlemek
Bless eyleminde olduu gibi, burada da bir edilgen yap sz konusu.

rags-to-riches (5) rags-to-riches sfat yoksulluktan varslla
sharp (6) sharp sfat keskin
contrast (6) contrast ad ztlk
exploitation (6) exploitation ad smr
repression (6) repression ad gerileme
corruption (6) corruption ad rme, bozulma
twain (9) twain ad ikili

Ayrca 3. tmcedeki read yklemine dikkat etmek gerekecek. Bunun nedenini aadaki
aamalar esnasnda farkedeceksiniz.

2. Dilbilgisi dzeyinde

Bu aamada, eitli altrmalar yolu ile, metinde dikkat edilmesi gereken dilbilgisi yaplarna
dikkatinizi ekmek amalanmakta. leri aamalarda, altrmalar seyreklemekte.

Aada, rnek metnin her bir tmcesinin analizini bulabilirsiniz.

The Germany of today has two very different recent pasts.
Y N

In the aftermath of World War I, the victorious Allies divided up the defeated,
(Zaman anlatan yap) Y N

devastated country and (the victorious Allies) took away its sovereignty.
Y N

What happened
thereafter
reads like a fairy tale in which the west was blessed
Y N (=) Y


which szc a fairy tale'i
nitelendirmekte.

and the east was cursed.
Y
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62

Certainly, the rags-to-riches story of the German Federal Republic is in sharp contrast to
Y

the exploitation, repression and corruption story of the German Democratic Republic.
N

Fairy stories have happy endings ...
Y N

and so it was that after 40 years of sun in the west and darkness in the
east,
yle oldu (=) Yan Tmce

So it is / So it was
tr yaplar
szlklerde
verilmekte.
that szc, was yklemini aklayan blme girii yapan bir :
grevi yapmakta. (Noun Clause yap)

the twain finally met [-on the sunny side, of course-] and (they) became one.
Y Y N

3. Anlam dzeyinde

rnek metnin tmcelerinin Trkeye aktarmn aada bulabilirsiniz.

The Germany of today has two very different recent pasts.
Bugnn Almanyas iki ok farkl yakn gemie sahiptir.

In the aftermath of World War II, the victorious Allies divided up the
defeated, devastated country and took away its sovereignty.
kinci Dnya Sava'nn sonrasnda, galip Mttefikler yenilmi, yklm lkeyi
bldler ve hkmranln elinden aldlar.

What happened thereafter reads like a fairy tale in which the west was
blessed and the east was cursed.
Bundan sonra nelerin olduu, bir peri hikayesi gibi okunur; bu hikayede bat
kutsanmakta ve dou lanetlenmekteydi.

Certainly, the rags-to-riches story of the German Federal Republic is in
sharp contrast to the exploitation, repression and corruption story of
the German Democratic Republic.
Elbette, Federal Almanya Cumhuriyeti'nin yoksulluktan varslla uzanan hikayesi
Demokratik Cumhuriyeti'nin smrlme, gerileme ve bozuma hikayesi ile keskin
bir tezat oluturur.

Fairy stories have happy endings ...
Peri hikayelerinin mutlu sonu vardr.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

63

and so it was that after 40 years of sun in the west and darkness in the
east, the twain finally met - on the sunny side, of course - and became
one.
ve yle oldu ki batda gneli ve douda karanlk geen 40 yln ardndan bu ikili
sonunda birleti - elbette gneli tarafta - ve bir oldu.

4. Btnlk dzeyinde

Bu aamada, tmcelerin hem yapsal hem de anlamsal olarak bir btn oluturmasna zen
gstermek gerekmektedir. Sizden istenilen, metnin orijinaline bakmadan, evirinizi anlam ve
Trkeye uygunluk asndan kontrol etmeniz.

Bugnn Almanyas iki ok farkl yakn gemie sahiptir.

Gnmz Almanya'snn iki ok farkl yakn gemii vardr.

kinci Dnya Sava'nn sonrasnda, galip Mttefikler yenilmi, yklm
lkeyi bldler ve hkmranln elinden aldlar.

kinci Dnya Sava'nn sonrasnda galip Mttefik lkeler yenilmi ve yaklm
lkeyi ikiye bldler ve hkmranln elinden aldlar.

Bundan sonra nelerin olduu, bir peri hikayesi gibi okunur; bu
hikayede bat kutsanmakta ve dou lanetlenmekteydi.

Bunun ardndan gerekleenler, bat Almanya'nn kutsand ve dou Almanya'nn da
lanetlendii bir peri hikayesine benzer.

Elbette, Federal Almanya Cumhuriyeti'nin yoksulluktan varslla uzanan
hikayesi Demokratik Cumhuriyeti'nin smrlme, gerileme ve bozuma
hikayesi ile keskin bir tezat oluturur.

Peri hikayelerinin mutlu sonu vardr.

Peri hikayeleri mutlu sonla biter;

ve yle oldu ki batda gneli ve douda karanlk geen 40 yln
ardndan bu ikili sonunda birleti - elbette gneli tarafta - ve bir oldu.

bu hikayede de batda gneli ve douda karanlk geen 40 yln ardndan bu ikili
sonunda birleti - elbette gneli tarafta - ve tek bir devlet oldu.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

64

leme-retme-Snama
Altrma Bu blmde ele alnan metnin incelenmesi esnasnda, anlamn kavranmasnda genelden
ayrntya doru bir sralama izlenmekte. Ardndan, tmcelerin analizini yapmanz ve
Trkeye aktarmanz gerekiyor.

YOU AND YOUR BODY
The imagery that we use for reconstructing our own insides seems to vary from country
to country. For example, the French seem to have an obsession with the liver, while in
Germany, they explain all their peculiar feelings in terms of an organ which they call
"the circulation" - whatever that is. I remember, when I was producing an opera in
Frankfurt about six months ago, that whenever singers arrived late for rehearsal they
would apologize for it by saying they had had "ze circulation collapse" which had
somehow reduced their efficiency.
It is very easy to get the impression that everyone outside the English-speaking world is
a hypochondriacal loony, or a visceral fantasist. This is not altogether so, because,
although I have not been able to find, so far, an American "national organ" among the
British, the last four feet of the intestine seem to loom larger than they ought to. The
word "constipation" is used so often that it is very hard to know what is being referred to
- regularity of the bowel, headaches or lassitude. A vast laxative industry is based on our
national fantasy, and even the medical profession has sometimes fallen victim to the
same obsession. In the early 1900s, there was a surgical craze for removing yards and
yards of intestine at the slightest excuse.
220 Szck

Metnin tmn okuyun ve anlamn bilmediiniz szcklerin altn tek izgi
ile, dilbilgisi yaplarnn altn ise ift izgi ile izin. Szcklerin anlam ile
ilgili sorunlar zerken 3. konuda verilen notlardan yararlann.

Metinde koyu yazl olarak verilen szcklerin metin iinde hangi szck ve
yaplarn yerine getiklerini ve Trkeye nasl aktarlmalar gerektiini
saptayn.

Szck dzeyinde sorunlarla ilgilenirken aadaki tabloyu kullanabilirsiniz.

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
















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65
Metindeki her bir tmcenin dilbilgisi asndan incelemesini yapn. Tmce analizini
3. konuda verilen notlara gre gerekletirin. Size yardmc olmas amac ile birinci
tmce rnek olarak incelenmekte.

The imagery that we use for reconstructing our own insides
(Relative Clause)

seems to vary Y

from country to country N

For example, the French seem to have an obsession with the liver, while in Germany,
they explain all their peculiar feelings in terms of an organ which they call "the
circulation" - whatever that is.

I remember, when I was producing an opera in Frankfurt about six months ago, that
whenever singers arrived late for rehearsal they would apologize for it by saying they
had had "ze circulation collapse" which had somehow reduced their efficiency.

It is very easy to get the impression that everyone outside the English-speaking world is
a hypochondriacal loony, or a visceral fantasist.

This is not altogether so, because, although I have not been able to find, so far, an
American "national organ" among the British, the last four feet of the intestine seem to
loom larger than they ought to.

The word "constipation" is used so often that it is very hard to know what is being
referred to - regularity of the bowel, headaches or lassitude.

A vast laxative industry is based on our national fantasy, and even the medical
profession has sometimes fallen victim to the same obsession.

In the early 1900s, there was a surgical craze for removing yards and yards of intestine
at the slightest excuse.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

66
Metnin anlamn anladnzdan emin olmak iin, aadaki altrmay tamamlayn. Bu
altrmada, metinden alnan tmceyi izleyen ifadenin doru olup olmadn saptamanz
gerekiyor.

The imagery that we use for reconstructing our own insides seems to vary from
country to country.

Each country has its own way of describing internal organs.

..., while in Germany, they explain all their peculiar feelings in terms of an organ
which they call "the circulation" - whatever that is.

According to the writer, it is not at all definite what is meant by "the circulation".

I remember, when I was producing an opera in Frankfurt about six months ago,
that whenever singers arrived late for rehearsal they would apologize for it by
saying they had had "ze circulation collapse" which had somehow reduced their
efficiency.

The singers' complaint is that rehearsals reduce their efficiency.

It is very easy to get the impression that everyone outside the English-speaking
world is a hypochondriacal loony, or a visceral fantasist. This is not altogether so,
because, although I have not been able to find, so far, an American "national
organ" among the British, the last four feet of the intestine seem to loom larger
than they ought to.

According to the writer, anyone except those living in those countries where
English is spoken has an obsession related to their internal organs.
Because of unknown reasons, American people have intestine that is longer than
that of other people.

The word "constipation" is used so often that it is very hard to know what is being
referred to - regularity of the bowel, headaches or lassitude.

"Constipation" may mean very different things.

A vast laxative industry is based on our national fantasy, and even the medical
profession has sometimes fallen victim to the same obsession.

Every obsessed individual has been a victim of the medical profession.

In the early 1900s, there was a surgical craze for removing yards and yards of
intestine at the slightest excuse.

In the early 1900s, surgeons removed a large part of the intestine without getting
people's permission.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

67
Verilen seeneklerde, doru olduuna inandnz tmceyi sein ve tmcenin geri
kalann evirin.

The imagery that we use for reconstructing our own insides seems to vary from
country to country.

a) Kendi ilerimizi yeniden yaplandrmak iin kullandmz imaj _______.
b) Kendi i organlarmz gzmzde canlandrrken kullandmz imge ______.
c) Kendi grnr iimizi yeniden oluturmada kullanlan bu imge ______.
d) Kendi iimizin grnen yeniden oluumunda kullandmz bu imaj ______.

... in Germany, they explain all their peculiar feelings in terms of an organ which
they call "the circulation" - whatever that is.

a) Almanya'da, tm garip duygular "dolam" olarak adlandrdklar ______.
b) Almanya'da tm garip duygularn terimleri "dolam" adn verdikleri ______.
c) Almanya'da onlar kendilerinin tm garip duygularn onlarn "dolam" olarak
adlandrd ______.
d) Almanya'da tm garip duygular "dolam" terimiyle adlandrdklar ______.

I remember, when I was producing an opera in Frankfurt about six months ago,
that whenever singers arrived late for rehearsal they would apologize for it by
saying they had had "ze circulation collapse" which had somehow reduced their
efficiency.

a) ______ sanatlar ne zaman provaya ge kalsalar, verimliliklerini naslsa azaltm
olan "dolam" bozukluu" ektiklerini syleyerek zr dilerlerdi.
b) ______ provaya ge kalan sanatlar provann verimliliklerini nasl da azalttn ve
"dolam bozukluu" ektikleri iin ge kaldklarn syleyip zr dilerlerdi.
c) ______ verimliliklerini naslsa azaltan "dolam bozukluu" ektiklerini syleyip
zr dileyen sanatlar provaya ge kalrlard.
d) ______ sanatlar ne zaman provaya ge kalsalar, verimliliklerini naslsa azaltm
olan "dolam bozukluu" iin zr dilerlerdi.

Dier tmceleri ayrntl olarak analiz edin ve ardndan eviri ilemini gerekletirin.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

68




Bunu izleyen sayfalarda, analiz ve eviri amac ile verilmi eitli
metinler bulunmakta.

Metinleri verilen sralamada incelemenizi neririm.

Verilen metinleri,

1. Szck dzeyinde sorunlar
2. Dilbilgisi dzeyinde sorunlar
3. Anlam dzeyinde sorunlar
4. Btnlk dzeyinde sorunlar

ile ilgili altrmalarn ardndan Trkeye aktarn.







GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

69
1. Heart






5





10


The heart has long been considered to be where feelings of love dwell. In love
songs throughout the ages love almost always goes together with the heart. The
heart has continually been viewed as the place where love begins and grows. Even
the Bible gives numerous references to love and the heart.

The role of the heart in love must come from what happens to it when a person
feels strongly attracted to someone else. The strong feelings for the other person,
especially in the early stages of relationship, have the results that the heart starts
beating faster and breathing starts speeding up.

According to psychologists, a love relationship is a situation that involves a lot of
stress and the body reacts to this by getting ready to face the unknown. This has
been called the "fight or flight" reaction, meeting danger by battling it or running
away. So, with love, the heart accelerates and breathing becomes quick.


as = ?


it =?





this =?
it =?

Macmillan
158 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metnin sa kenarndaki szckleri inceleyin. Daha sonra, metinden alnm aadaki
szcklerin tmce iinde Trkeye nasl aktarlmalar gerektiini inceleyin.

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
long
dwell
viewed
numerous
references
attracted
stages
beating
flight
reaction
battling

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

70
B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Basit tmceleri ve bileik tmcelerdeki ana tmceleri rneklere gre saptayn.

Y N where = place where
The heart has long been considered to be where feelings of love dwell.

Y N
In love songs throughout the ages love almost always goes together with the heart.


Y N Relative Clause
The heart has continually been viewed as the place where love begins and grows.

Even the Bible gives numerous references to love and the heart.

The role of the heart in love must come from what happens to it when a person
feels strongly attracted to someone else.

The strong feelings for the other person, especially in the early stages of
relationship, have the results that the heart starts beating faster and breathing
starts speeding up.

According to psychologists, a love relationship is a situation that involves a lot of
stress and the body reacts to this by getting ready to face the unknown.

This has been called the "fight or flight" reaction, meeting danger by battling it or
running away.

So, with love, the heart accelerates and breathing becomes quick.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

71
C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Braklan boluklar tamamlayn.


Kalbin ____________________________________ dnlmtr. alar boyunca
________________. Kalp srekli olarak ___________________________. ncil bile
__________________________________.

Kalbin aktaki rol _________________________. Dier kiiye ynelik gl
duygular, _____________________________________________________.

Psikologlara gre _____________________________________________________
Buna "______________________________" _______________________. Bylece,
____________________________ hzlanr.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

ngilizce metne bakmadan evirinizi okuyun ve dzgn bir Trke kullanp kullanmadnz
saptayn.



BYLES DE VAR!
An 18-year-old girl accused of stealing vanishing cream has since
disappeared, Huddersfield Magistrates were told yesterday. (What the
Papers Say)


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

72
2. Growing Vegetables





5






10





15

If you grow your own vegetables, they are bound to be fresher than those you
buy in the shops; and the chances are that you will find they taste better, too.
You can also grow things it is difficult to find in the shops. And you may save
money - a family of four could have saved around 70 last year by growing all
their vegetables. All of this, by doing something that many people regard as a
healthy leisure activity.

In the first part of this report, we tell you what is involved in growing your own
vegetables and how to plan a vegetable garden. In the second, we tell you how to
get the best value for money when buying seeds and plants.

Much of the report is based on the experiences of our members - nearly 1,500
filled in a mammoth questionnaire. We are very grateful indeed for the help they
gave us.

One thing is clear from our members' experience: growing vegetables can be
hard work. Routine jobs like weeding and clearing take up a lot of time, quite
apart from the exhausting chore of digging. However, nearly all our vegetable-
growing members thought the results were definitely worth all the effort.
those =?
they =?


this =?






1,500 ___
they =?




203 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

a) Aadaki szcklerin ve metin iindeki bilmediiniz dier szcklerin tmce iindeki
Trke karlklarn szlk yardm ile inceleyin.

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
chances
healthy
leisure
involved
value
seeds
mammoth
questionnaire
grateful

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

73

weeding
exhausting
chore

b) Metnin sa kenarnda verilen szckleri inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
As, for, since, yet
That, gerund, past participle
Basit-Bileik Tmce
Clause Marker
Ana-Yan Tmce
+Y+N

a) Metinden alnan aadaki tmcelerde birer relative clause yap mevcut. Tmcede hangi
szckler arasnda gizli bir which bulunduunu saptayn.

If you grow your own vegetables, they are bound to be fresher than those you
buy in the shops; and the chances are that you will find they taste better, too.

You can also grow things it is difficult to find in the shops.

We are very grateful indeed for the help they gave us.

b) Aadaki tmcelerde bir noun clause yap bulunmakta. Bu tmcelerde de hangi
szckler arasnda gizli bir that (birinci tmcedeki "the chances are that" blmne ek
olarak) bulunduunu inceleyin.

If you grow your own vegetables, they are bound to be fresher than those you
buy in the shops; and the chances are that you will find they taste better, too.

However, nearly all our vegetable-growing members thought the results were
definitely worth all the effort.

c) Metnin bir tmcesinde esas yklem bulunmamakta. Hangi tmce?

d) Bu metinde relative clause ve noun clause yaplar sk olarak kullanlmakta. Bu yaplara
dikkat ederek tmcelerin analizini tamamlayn.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

ncelikle aadaki blmleri zmleyerek, metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

74
Birinci paragrafta ...

..... and the chances are ...

..... it is difficult to find in the shops.

All of this, by doing something that many people regard as a healthy leisure
activity.

kinci paragrafta ...

..... how to get the best value for money ...

Drdnc paragrafta ...

One thing is clear ...

..... quite apart from the exhausting chore of digging.

D. BTNLK

E Trke

ngilizce metne bakmadan evirinizi okuyun ve dzgn bir Trke kullanp kullanmadnz
saptayn. Tmcelerin birbirleri ile zaman (= tense) ve anlam asndan uyumlu olmasn
salayn.













BYLES DE VAR!

Traffic report on Radio Wales: A cow is loose on the M5; the
police ask motorists not to use their horns.



GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

75
3. Grounds for Divorce





5




10




15
The grounds which make divorce are of two kinds. There are those due to the
defects of one partner, such as insanity, dipsomania, and crime; and there are
those based upon the relations of the husband and wife. It may happen that,
without blame to either party, it is impossible for a married couple to live
together amicably, or without some very grave sacrifice. It may happen that one
of them, without disliking the other, becomes deeply attached to some other
person, so deeply as to feel the marriage an intolerable tie. In that case, if there is
no legal redress, hatred is sure to spring up. Indeed, such cases, as everyone
knows, are quite capable of leading to murder. Where a marriage breaks down
owing to incompatibility or to an overwhelming passion on the part of one
partner for some other person, there should not be, as there is at present, a
determination to attach blame. For this reason, much the best ground of divorce
in all such cases is mutual consent. Grounds other than mutual consent ought
only to be required where the marriage has failed through some definite defect in
one partner.
those =?

those =?


them =?

as =?


as =?

Marriage and Morals Bertrand Russell

195 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

a) Metnin sa kenarnda verilen szckleri inceleyin.

b) Bu metinde, birden ok fazla anlam tadklar iin rahatlkla kartrlabilen szckler
yer almakta. Bu szckleri tmcenin anlamna gre szlk yardm ile inceleyin (Genel
eviri 1 kitabnn ikinci konusunda, bu metnin szckleri ile ilgili alma yapld).

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
grounds
party
grave
sacrifice
tie
spring up
determination

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

76
c) Szlk anlamlar rahatlkla bulunabilecek dier szckleri inceleyin.

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
insanity
dipsomania
blame
amicably
intolerable
redress
hatred
incompatibility
overwhelming
passion
mutual
consent
defect

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Birinci tmceyi yeniden yaplandrn.

The grounds which make divorce are of two kinds.
There are ____________________________________

b) Tmcelerde imdilik [ ] iine alnabilecek blmleri saptayn.

It may happen that, without blame to either party, it is impossible for a married
couple to live together amicably, or without some very grave sacrifice.

It may happen that one of them, without disliking the other, becomes deeply
attached to some other person, so deeply as to feel the marriage an intolerable
tie.

Indeed, such cases, as everyone knows, are quite capable of leading to murder.

Where a marriage breaks down owing to incompatibility or to an overwhelming
passion on the part of one partner for some other person, there should not be,
as there is at present, a determination to attach blame.

b) Tmcenin "or to an overwhelming ..." blmndeki to tmce iinde hangi szce
balanabilir?

Where a marriage breaks down owing to incompatibility or to an overwhelming
passion on the part of one partner for some other person, there should not be,
as there is at present, a determination to attach blame.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

77
c) Tmcedeki through yerine hangi clause marker kullanlabilir?
I) despite II) due to III) while

Grounds other than mutual consent ought only to be required where the
marriage has failed through some definite defect in one partner.

d) Tm tmcelerin analizini yapn.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

a) Metnin sa kenarnda verilen szcklerin Trkeye nasl aktarlmalarnn daha iyi
olacana karar verin.
b) Birinci tmcedeki make yklemi Trkeye nasl aktarlmal?
c) Yedinci tmcedeki on the part of one partner blm Trkeye nasl aktarlmal?
d) Sekizinci tmcedeki much the best ground blm Trkeye nasl aktarlmal?
e) Dokuzuncu tmcedeki other than yaps Trkeye nasl aktarlmal?
f) Tm tmceleri Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

ngilizce metne bakmadan evirinizi okuyun ve dzgn bir Trke kullanp kullanmadnz
saptayn. Tmcelerin birbirleri ile zaman (= tense) ve anlam asndan uyumlu olmasn
salayn.



















BYLES DE VAR!
Microsoft Windows 3.1 Trke program iinde, ekran duvar kad
olarak nerilen ekillerden biri "Msr"dr ve eklin msr bitkisi ile
uzaktan yakndan alakas yoktur. ngilizce Windows 3.1'de bu duvar
kad "Maze" olarak gemekte.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

78
4. Galaxy

Galaxy is a vast ensemble of hundreds or thousands of
millions of stars, all gravitationally interacting, and
orbiting about a common centre. All the stars visible to the
unaided eye from earth belong to the earth's galaxy, the
Milky Way. The sun with its associated planets is just one
star in this galaxy.

For centuries man believed the Earth to
be the centre of Creation. The true picture is far more awe-
inspiring. We live on a small planet revolving round a star
of only average size, which is itself revolving, with thousands of millions of other stars, in one galaxy among
millions in a Universe that may well be boundless.

Scientific observation has so far probed only a fraction of it. Yet to travel to the frontiers of that observed
fraction, even at 186,300 miles per second (the speed of light) would take 6,000 million years, about 20,000
times the total period that human life is estimated to have existed on Earth. The different bodies and
structures in the universe, all of which appear to be receding from us, range from single galaxies to mammoth
clusters containing as many as 500 galaxies.

Although the cluster of galaxies to which our galaxy belongs is comparatively small (it has only 25 members),
our galaxy itself, the Milky Way System, ranks among the larger of the known stellar systems. Counting its
almost 100,000 million stars (of which the Sun with its family of planets is one) at the rate of one star a
second would take about 2,500 years.

255 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Genel eviri 1 kitabnn ikinci konusunda, bu metnin szckleri ile ilgili alma
yapld.

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
ensemble
Creation
awe-inspiring
revolving
boundless
probed
fraction
frontiers
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

79

receding
range
mammoth 2. Metin'de incelendi.
clusters
stellar

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Verilen tmceleri inceleyin.

We live on a small planet revolving round a star of only average size, which is
itself revolving, with thousands of millions of other stars, in one galaxy among
millions in a Universe that may well be boundless.

which = ?
millions ________

Scientific observation has so far probed only a fraction of it.

it = ?

Yet to travel to the frontiers of that observed fraction, even at 186,300 miles
per second (the speed of light) would take 6,000 million years, about 20,000
times the total period that human life is estimated to have existed on Earth.

Yet = ?
Tmcenin temel yklemi ne?

The different bodies and structures in the universe, all of which appear to be
receding from us, range from single galaxies to mammoth clusters containing
as many as 500 galaxies.

all of which = ?

Although the cluster of galaxies to which our galaxy belongs is comparatively
small (it has only 25 members), our galaxy itself, the Milky Way System, ranks
among the larger of the known stellar systems.

it = ?
Ana tmce-yan tmceyi belirleyin.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

80

Counting its almost 100,000 million stars (of which the Sun with its family of
planets is one) at the rate of one star a second would take about 2,500 years.

its = ?
which = ?
one = ?

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Tmceleri tamamlayn.

Galaxy is a vast ensemble of hundreds or thousands of millions of stars, all
gravitationally interacting, and orbiting about a common centre.

Galaksi, hepsi de yerekimsel olarak karlkl etkileen ve ortak bir merkezin
___________________________________________________________.

All the stars visible to the unaided eye from earth belong to the earth's
galaxy, the Milky Way.

Dnyadan arasz bakldnda grnne yldzlarn ________________________
______________________________.

The sun with its associated planets is just one star in this galaxy.

Balantl gezegenleriyle birlikte Gne ______________________________.

For centuries man believed the Earth to be the centre of Creation.

Yzyllar boyunca, insanolu dnyann ___________________________.

The true picture is far more awe-inspiring.

Gerek ____________ ok daha _________.

We live on a small planet revolving round a star of only average size, which is
itself revolving, with thousands of millions of other stars, in one galaxy
among millions in a Universe that may well be boundless.

Bizler ________ snrsz olabilecek bir evrendeki __________________ arasndaki
bir galakside, milyarlarca dier yldz ile ____________ , sadece _____________
bir yldzn evresinde _______________ ufak bir gezegen zerinde yaamaktayz.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

81

Scientific observation has so far probed only a fraction of it.

Bilimsel gzlem _________ onun sadece bir parasn _______________.

Yet to travel to the frontiers of that observed fraction, even at 186,300
miles per second (the speed of light) would take 6,000 million years,
about 20,000 times the total period that human life is estimated to have
existed on Earth.

_________, saniyede 186,000 mil (k hz) hzyla _______ bu __________
ksmn ______________________________ yolculuk etmek 6 milyar yl, yani
_______________________, alrd.

The different bodies and structures in the universe, all of which appear
to be receding from us, range from single galaxies to mammoth clusters
containing as many as 500 galaxies.

Tm de bizden _______________________ evrendeki farkl _____________
tek tek galaksilerden _____________________ kadar farkllk gsterir.

Although the cluster of galaxies to which our galaxy belongs is
comparatively small (it has only 25 members), our galaxy itself, the Milky
Way System, ranks among the larger of the known stellar systems.

Her ne kadar _________________________ olduka ufak ise de (sadece 25
yesi var), galaksimizin kendisi, _______________, bilinen
________________.

Counting its almost 100,000 million stars (of which the Sun with its
family of planets is one) at the rate of one star a second would take
about 2,500 years.

Yaklak 100 milyar yldzn (____________________________________)
________________________ aa yukar 2,500 yl ______________.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan, Trke tmce yapsna uygunluk ve akclk asndan
deerlendirin.

BYLES DE VAR!
Kalkan-Patara (Antalya) ile kumsal arasndaki dolmularn ofrleri, yol
kenarnda yryen yabanc turistleri grnce yavalayp pencereden
uzanmakta ve o ahane (!) ngilizceleriyle "Bitch?", "Bitch?" diye
sormaktalar. Turistler de her nedense "Yes, yes" dedikten sonra
dolmua binmekteler.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

82
5. Language


That language is highly complex is shown by the fact that up to now it has not proved possible to translate
mechanically from one language to another, with really satisfactory results. The best programmed computer
still cannot consistently translate from, say, Russian into English. The fault lies not in the computer but in the
failure to provide it with sufficiently accurate instructions, because we are still unable to handle this vastly
complex system. It has been calculated that if the brain used any of the known methods of computing
language, it would take several minutes to produce or to understand a single short sentence.

Secondly, language is productive. We can produce myriads of sentences that we have never heard or uttered
before. Many of the sentences in this book have been produced for the first time, yet they are intelligible to
the reader. It is clear that we have some kind of sentence-producing mechanism - that sentences are produced
anew each time and not merely imitated. One task of grammatical theory is to explain this quite remarkable
fact.

Thirdly, language is arbitrary. There is no one-to-one relation between sound and meaning. This accounts for
the fact that languages differ, and they differ most of all in their grammatical structure. But how far are these
differences only superficial, in the shape of words and their overt patterns? Some scholars would maintain
that "deep down" there are strong similarities - even "universal" characteristics - disguised by the superficial
features of sound (and perhaps of meaning). It is not clear how we can find the answer to this problem.

266 szck

A. SZCK

E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metnin tamamn okuyun ve aada sralanan szckler ile anlamn
bilmediiniz dier szckleri szlk kullanarak inceleyin.

a) Birinci paragrafta

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
proved
satisfactory
consistently
failure
sufficiently
instructions
handle
vastly
computing

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

83
b) kinci paragrafta

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
productive
myriads
uttered
intelligible
anew
merely
imitated
task
remarkable

c) nc paragrafta

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
arbitrary
differ
structure
superficial
overt
patterns
scholars
maintain
similarities
disguised
features

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Metinde relative ve noun clause sk kullanlmakta. ncelikle aada belirtilen
yaplar zmleyerek tm tmceleri inceleyin.

a) Tmcenin +Y+(N) unsurlarn saptayn.

That language is highly complex is shown by the fact that up to now it has not
proved possible to translate mechanically from one language to another, with
really satisfactory results.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

84
b) say szcnn ilevini inceleyin.

The best programmed computer still cannot consistently translate from, say,
Russian into English.

c) Yapy inceleyin ve Trkede nasl ifade edileceini saptayn.

The fault lies not in the computer but in the failure to provide it with sufficiently
accurate instructions, because we are still unable to handle this vastly complex
system.

d) yet szcne dikkat!

Many of the sentences in this book have been produced for the first time, yet
they are intelligible to the reader.

e) Ksa izgiden sonraki that nereye balanabilir?

It is clear that we have some kind of sentence-producing mechanism - that
sentences are produced anew each time and not merely imitated.

C. ANLAM

E Balam
E Taslak eviri

a) Tmcelerden sonra verilen seeneklerden hangisinin tmcenin evirisi olduunu bulun.

That language is highly complex is shown by the fact that up to now it has not
proved possible to translate mechanically from one language to another, with
really satisfactory results.

a) Bu dil olduka karmak ve bu gerek de bu gne kadar bir dilden dier bir dile
gerekten tatmin edici sonularla mekanik olarak evirinin mmkn olmamasn
kantlamakta.
b) Dilin olduka karmak olmas, bir dilden dier bir dile, gerekten tatmin edici
sonularla, mekanik olarak evirinin mmkn olduunun bu gne kadar kantlanm
olmamas gerei tarafndan gsterilmekte.
c) Bu dilin olduka karmak olduu gereini, bu gne kadar bir dilden dier bir dile
gerekten tatmin edici sonularla mekanik olarak evirinin mmkn olduunun
kantlanmamas gstermekte.

The best programmed computer still cannot consistently translate from, say,
Russian into English.

a) En iyi programlanm bilgisayarn bile hl Rusa'dan ngilizceye bile tutarl bir
biimde eviri yapamad sylenir.
b) En iyi programlanm bilgisayar bile hl, diyelim ki, Rusa'dan ngilizceye tutarl bir
biimde eviri yapamamakta.
c) En iyi programlanm bilgisayar bile hl Rusa'dan ngilizceden szl olarak tutarl
bir biimde eviri yapamamakta.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

85

It has been calculated that if the brain used any of the known methods of
computing language, it would take several minutes to produce or to understand a
single short sentence.

a) Hesaplara gre, beyin bilinen bilgi ilem yntemlerinden birini kullansa, tek bir ksa
tmceyi anlamak ya da retmek birka dakika srerdi.
b) Beyin bilinen bilgi ilem yntemlerinden herhangi birini kullansa, tek bir ksa tmceyi
anlamas ve retmesi birka dakikada hesaplanmtr.
c) Beynin bilinen bilgi ilem yntemlerinden herhangi birini kullanmas hesaplandnda,
tek bir ksa tmcenin anlalmas ya da retilmesi birka dakika alrd.

The fault lies not in the computer but in the failure to provide it with sufficiently
accurate instructions, because we are still unable to handle this vastly complex
system.

a) Bilgisayar hata yapmamakta fakat bize yeterince dzgn bilgi salayamamaktadr;
zira, hl bu karmak bilgisayar sistemini zebilmi deiliz.
b) Hata bilgisayarda yatmamakta, biz bilgisayara yeterince bilgi salayamamaktayz;
nk, hl bu karmak bilgisayar sistemini zebilmi deiliz.
c) Hata bilgisayarda deil, bizim ona yeterince dzgn bilgi salayamamzda yatmakta;
zira, hl dil denen bu karmak sistemi zebilmi deiliz.

We can produce myriads of sentences that we have never heard or uttered
before.

a) Daha nce rettiimiz birok tmce duyulmam ya da sylenmemi olabilir.
b) Duyduumuz ya da sylediimiz birok tmceyi daha nce hi retmemi olabiliriz.
c) Daha nce hi duymadmz ya da sylemediimiz birok tmceyi retebiliriz.

Many of the sentences in this book have been produced for the first time, yet they
are intelligible to the reader.

a) Bu kitaptaki tmcelerden ou ilk kez olarak retilmitir; okuyucu bunlar hl
anlayabilmektedir.
b) Bu kitaptaki tmcelerden ou ilk kez olarak retilmitir; yine de, bu tmceler
okuyucu tarafndan anlalabilir.
c) Bu kitaptaki tmcelerden ou ilk kez olarak retilmitir; yine de okuyucu bunlar
anlayabilecek kadar aklldr.

It is clear that we have some kind of sentence-producing mechanism - that
sentences are produced anew each time and not merely imitated.

a) Bir tr tmce retme mekanizmasna sahip olduumuz, tmcelerin basite taklit
edilmeyip her seferinde yeniden retildikleri aktr.
b) Bir tr tmce retme mekanizmasna sahip olduumuz aktr; bu tmceler her bir
seferinde yeniden retilirler ve yalnzca taklit edilmezler.
c) uras aktr ki bir tmce retme mekanizmasna sahibiz; bu tmceler her bir
seferinde sadece taklit edilmeyip yeniden retilmekteler.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

86

This accounts for the fact that languages differ, and they differ most of all in their
grammatical structure.

a) Bu, dillerin birbirlerinden farkllklar iin hesaplanmaktadr ve diller en ok dilbilgisi
asndan birbirinden farkldr.
b) Bu dillerin birbirinden farkllklarn hesaplamaktadr ve diller en ok dilbilgisi
asndan birbirinden farkldr.
c) Bu, dillerin birbirinden farkl olmalar ve hereyden nce dilbilgisi yaplar asndan
farkl olmalar gereini aklar.

But how far are these differences only superficial, in the shape of words and their
overt patterns?

a) Fakat bu farkllklar nereye kadar yzeyseldir - szcklerin eklinde ve grnr
yapsnda?
b) Fakat bu farkllklarn yzeysellii szcklerin ekli ve grnr yaps iinde ne kadar
uzaktr?
c) Fakat bu farkllklar, szcklerin ekli ve grnr yaps asndan ne lde
yzeyseldir?

Some scholars would maintain that "deep down" there are strong similarities -
even "universal" characteristics - disguised by the superficial features of sound
(and perhaps of meaning). It is not clear how we can find the answer to this
problem.

a) Baz bilimadamlar "derinlerde" sesin (ve belki de anlamn) yzeysel zelliklerinin
gizledii gl benzerlikler - hatta "evrensel" zellikler - bulunduunu ne srerler.
b) Baz bilimadamlar sesin (ve belki de anlamn) yzeysel zelliklerin ekline brnm
gl benzerlikler - hatta "evrensel" kiilikler - olduunu ileri srerler.
c) Baz bilimadamlar gl benzerlikler - hatta "evrensel" nitelikler - olduunu ileri
srp sesin (ve belki de anlamn) yzeysel zelliklerini gizlemilerdir.

b) Dier tmceleri Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK

E Trke

Tmceleri daha dzgn bir Trke ile ifade ederek bir btnlk oluturmaya
aln.




BYLES DE VAR!
One day at lunch we saw a cat with something in its mouth climb over
the wall. The cat was carrying a kitchen.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

87
6. Man's Future

A pessimist might argue: why seek to preserve the human species? Should we not rather rejoice in the
prospect of an end to the immense load of suffering and hate and fear which has hitherto darkened the life of
Man? Should we not contemplate with rejoicing a new future for our planet, peaceful at last, sleeping quietly
at last after coming to an end of the long nightmare of pain and horror?

To any student of history contemplating the dreadful record of folly and cruelty and misery that has
constituted most of human life hitherto, such questions must come in moments of imaginative sympathy.
Perhaps our survey may tempt us to acquiesce in an end, however tragic and however final, to a species so
incapable of joy.

But the pessimist has only half the truth, and to my mind the less important half. Man has not only the
correlative capacities for cruelty and suffering, but also potentialities of greatness and splendour, realized, as
yet, very partially, but showing what life might be in a freer and happier world. If Man will allow himself to
grow to his full stature, what he may achieve is beyond our present capacity to imagine. Poverty, illness, and
loneliness could become rare misfortunes. Reasonable expectation of happiness could dispel the night of fear
in which too many now wander lost. And with the progress of evolution, what is now the shining genius of an
eminent few might become a common possession of the many. All this is possible, indeed, probable, in the
thousands of centuries that lie before us, if we do not rashly and madly destroy ourselves before we have
reached the maturity that should be our goal. No, let us not listen to the pessimist, for, if we do, we are traitors
to Man's future.


Has Man a Future (1961) Bertrand Russell

302 szck.

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
seek
preserve
species
rejoice
prospect
immense
load
hitherto
contemplate
nightmare
dreadful
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

88
folly
cruelty
misery
constituted
tempt
acquiesce
correlative
splendour
stature
misfortunes
dispel
wander
eminent
rashly
maturity
traitors

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmcede seek ykleminin znesinin ne olabileceini aratrn.

A pessimist might argue: why seek to preserve the human species?

b) Peaceful olan ne?

Should we not contemplate with rejoicing a new future for our planet, peaceful
at last, sleeping quietly at last after coming to an end of the long nightmare of
pain and horror?

c) Koyu yazl blmn tmcenin geri kalan ile olan ilikisini inceleyin.

To any student of history contemplating the dreadful record of folly and
cruelty and misery that has constituted most of human life hitherto, such
questions must come in moments of imaginative sympathy.

d) Koyu yazl blm inceleyin.

Perhaps our survey may tempt us to acquiesce in an end, however tragic and
however final, to a species so incapable of joy.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

89
e) Tmcede realize ve showyklemleri koyu olarak iaretlendi. Bu yklemlerin znesinin ne
olduunu bulun.

Man has not only the correlative capacities for cruelty and suffering, but also
potentialities of greatness and splendour, realized, as yet, very partially, but
showing what life might be in a freer and happier world.

f) First Conditional yaplarda yan tmcede will kullanlmamaktadr. Aada verilen tmcede
yazarn neden will kullanm olabileceini inceleyin.

If Man will allow himself to grow to his full stature, what he may achieve is
beyond our present capacity to imagine.

g) Tmcedeki relative clause yapy inceleyin; too many szckleri ile neyin/kimin
kastedildiini bulun.

Reasonable expectation of happiness could dispel the night of fear in which
too many now wander lost.

h) Tmcede what szcn eviri asndan inceleyin; an eminent few szckleri ve the
many szckleri ile neyin/kimin kastedildiini bulun.

And with the progress of evolution, what is now the shining genius of an
eminent few might become a common possession of the many.

i) Tmcedeki relative clause yaplar inceleyin.

All this is possible, indeed, probable, in the thousands of centuries that lie
before us, if we do not rashly and madly destroy ourselves before we have
reached the maturity that should be our goal.

j) Koyu yazl szc inceleyin.

No, let us not listen to the pessimist, for, if we do, we are traitors to Man's
future.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

A pessimist might argue: why seek to preserve the human species?
Karamsar biri _________________________: ne diye ________________________?
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

90

Should we not rather rejoice in the prospect of an end to the immense
load of suffering and hate and fear which has hitherto darkened the life
of Man?
nsann yaamn u ana kadar karartan ___________________________________
__________________________________________ gerekmez mi?

Should we not contemplate with rejoicing a new future for our planet,
peaceful at last, sleeping quietly at last after coming to an end of the
long nightmare of pain and horror?
O uzun ac ve korku kabusunun sonuna geliinin ardndan
_________________________________________________________________
___________________________ gerekmez mi?

To any student of history contemplating the dreadful record of folly and
cruelty and misery that has constituted most of human life hitherto, such
questions must come in moments of imaginative sympathy.
____________________________________________________________________,
bu trden sorular _____________________________________________________
____________________________.

Perhaps our survey may tempt us to acquiesce in an end, however tragic
and however final, to a species so incapable of joy.
Belki de aratrmamz bizi _______________________________________________
__________________________________________.

But the pessimist has only half the truth, and to my mind the less
important half.
Fakat karamsar kii gerein sadece yarsna sahip, ___________________________.

Man has not only the correlative capacities for cruelty and suffering, but
also potentialities of greatness and splendour, realized, as yet, very
partially, but showing what life might be in a freer and happier world.
nsan hem zalimlik ve ac ekme kapasitesine hem de _________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________.

If Man will allow himself to grow to his full stature, what he may achieve
is beyond our present capacity to imagine.
nsanolu kendi kendisinin _____________________, _________________________
_________________.

Poverty, illness, and loneliness could become rare misfortunes.
Yoksulluk, hastalk ve yalnzlk _________________________________________.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

91

Reasonable expectation of happiness could dispel the night of fear in
which too many now wander lost.
Makul llerde mutluluk beklentisinin ____________________________________
______________________________.

And with the progress of evolution, what is now the shining genius of an
eminent few might become a common possession of the many.
Ve, evrimin ilerleyii ile, ______________________________________________
_________________________________________.

All this is possible, indeed, probable, in the thousands of centuries that
lie before us, if we do not rashly and madly destroy ourselves before we
have reached the maturity that should be our goal.
__________________________________________ iinde tm bunlar olas, ______
______________________________________________________________.

No, let us not listen to the pessimist, for, if we do, we are traitors to
Man's future.
Hayr, karamsar dinlemeyelim, ___________________________________________
_____________________________________.

D. BTNLK

E Trke

evirinizi ngilizce metne bakmadan kontrol edin.











BYLES DE VAR!
A very enjoyable affair was the Children's Hallowe'en Party. Added
to the beauty of it all was the fact that few of the children could be
recognised as they all wore masks.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

92
7. Ifs of History

Speculating "what if ...?" is always enticing. What if Alexander Fleming's dishes of infected jelly had been
tidied up and thrown out as they should have been then - would we now be without penicillin? If James Watt
had dropped off to sleep before his kettle boiled, would there never have been any trains? When it comes to
invention or discovery, the chances are that if scientist A is hit by a falling roof-tile, scientist B will get there
pretty soon all the same; for both would have been building on the same state of previous knowledge - like the
test-tube doctors. Stephenson also invented the Davy lamp; a chap called Reis very nearly invented the
telephone just before Bell; there were several other maniacs attempting powered flight just as doggedly as the
Wright brothers.

What's far more problematic is the follow-up. What happens after a discovery may indeed depend on the
crucial presence of one man. If Darwin had died on the voyage [to Galapagos], then Wallace would have been
the father of evolution - but without Darwin's brilliant tenacity in proving and presenting the thing, would the
impact have been as great?

"What if ...?" in history is even more fun. In the eighth century the Moors in Spain sent out a reconnaissance
party along the Roman road into France, got ambushed, and decided that France was no go. There's a theory
that if they'd had stirrups, they could have ridden down the ambush (without stirrups, you can too readily be
pushed off your horse by anyone with a pike). Then the Moors might have gone ahead and invaded France.

Here's another. When Leo Szilard, Weizman and Polyani were experimenting with chain reaction in Britain in
the thirties, they tried to raise 2,000 to continue the work; they failed, and so took the research to America.
Szilard was convinced that if they had succeeded in doing their work in Britain, German intelligence would
certainly have got hold of it; he may well have been right, for when they offered one of their patents to the
War Office, they were told "there appears to be no reason to keep the specification secret so far as the War
Department is concerned." And why were they so certain that they must keep such stuff secret? Because
Szilard had read H. G. Wells's The World Set Free and could thus envisage atomic war - you might almost
say that H. G. Wells won the war.

To my mind, you have to believe that things might all have been different - or simply believe in
predestination, which is boring. "It will be all the same in 100 years" is the most dispiriting consolation I
know; but it is not, fortunately, true.

456 szck

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

93
A. SZCK

E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

a) Metnin tmn okuyun ve anlamn bilmediiniz szcklerin altn izin. Daha sonra, szlk
yardm ile bu szcklerin tmceye uygun anlamlarn bulun.

b) Metinde eitli szckler yerine kullanlmakta olan it, that, this gibi deinme szcklerini
saptayn ve nelerin yerine kullanldklarn belirleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Daha nceki konularda, tmcenin analizi esnasnda as, for, since ve yet yaplarna zellikle
dikkat edilmesi gerektii belirtildi. Buna gre, aada verilen blmleri inceleyin.

Birinci paragrafta:

What if Alexander Fleming's dishes of infected jelly had been tidied up and thrown
out as they should have been - would we now be without penicillin?

When it comes to invention or discovery, the chances are that if scientist A is hit
by a falling roof-tile, scientist B will get there pretty soon all the same; for both
would have been building on the same state of previous knowledge - like the test-
tube doctors.

Stephenson also invented the Davy lamp; a chap called Reis very nearly invented
the telephone just before Bell; there were several other maniacs attempting
powered flight just as doggedly as the Wright brothers.

kinci paragrafta:

If Darwin had died on the voyage [to Galapagos], then Wallace would have been
the father of evolution - but without Darwin's brilliant tenacity in proving and
presenting the thing, would the impact have been as great?

Drdnc paragrafta:

Szilard was convinced that if they had succeeded in doing their work in Britain,
German intelligence would certainly have got hold of it; he may well have been
right, for when they offered one of their patents to the War Office, they were told
"there appears to be no reason to keep the specification secret so far as the War
Department is concerned."

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

94
b) Metnin zellii, ou tmcenin olaslk ifadeleri iermesi. Tmcelerde hangi conditional
(First, Second, Third) yapnn kullanldn saptayn (bu yaplar Genel eviri 1 kitabnda
ele alnmakta).

c) Metnin tm tmcelerini analiz ettikten sonra, aadaki altrmaya gein. Burada, metinden
sonra verilen ifadenin doru olup olmadn bulmanz isteniyor.

What if Alexander Fleming's dishes of infected jelly had been tidied up and thrown
out as they should have been - would we now be without penicillin?

Alexander Fleming'in muhtemelen jle kabn atmas gerekti.

When it comes to invention or discovery, the chances are that if scientist A is hit
by a falling roof-tile, scientist B will get there pretty soon all the same; for both
would have been building on the same state of previous knowledge. Stephenson
also invented the Davy lamp; a chap called Reis very nearly invented the
telephone just before Bell; there were several other maniacs attempting powered
flight just as doggedly as the Wright brothers.

Bu tmcelere gre, btn bilimadamlarnn (Bilimadam A) zerinde altklar
projeyi tamamlayacak bir ortaklar (Bilimadam B) bulunmakta.
Yazar, dolayl olarak, Wright kardeler iin "manyak" szcn kullanmakta.

What's far more problematic is the follow-up. What happens after a discovery
may indeed depend on the crucial presence of one man. If Darwin had died on
the voyage [to Galapagos], then Wallace would have been the father of evolution -
but without Darwin's brilliant tenacity in proving and presenting the thing, would
the impact have been as great ?

cad izleyen sre, icadn kendisinden daha nemli.
Byk olaslkla, Wallace evrim teorisini asla bu kadar nl yapamazd.

In the eighth century the Moors in Spain sent out a reconnaissance party along
the Roman road into France, got ambushed, and decided that France was no go.

Araplar Fransa'ya bar getirmek istedilerse de insanlar onlara gvenmediler.

There's a theory that if they'd had stirrups, they could have ridden down the
ambush (without stirrups, you can too readily be pushed off your horse by anyone
with a pike). Then the Moors might have gone ahead and invaded France.

Araplar ok ar mzraklar olduu iin atlarndan dtler. Bu nedenle de Fransa'y
istilay baaramadlar.

And why were they so certain that they must keep such stuff secret? Because
Szilard had read H. G. Wells's The World Set Free and could thus envisage
atomic war - you might almost say that H. G. Wells won the war.

Szilard kitab okumam olsayd, Almanya kinci Dnya Sava'n kazanabilirdi.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

95

To my mind, you have to believe that things might all have been different - or
simply believe in predestination, which is boring. "It will be all the same in 100
years" is the most dispiriting consolation I know; but it is not, fortunately, true.

Yazara gre, gemi konusunda "yle olsayd" trnden fikirler yrtmek hi de
fena olmaz.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

a) Aada verilen altrmay tamamlayn.

When it comes to invention or discovery, the chances are that if scientist A is hit
by a falling roof-tile, scientist B will get there (nereye?) pretty soon (pretty soon?)
all the same (all the same?); for both (her iki ne?) would have been building on the
same state of previous knowledge - like the test-tube doctors.

If Darwin had died on the voyage [to Galapagos], then Wallace would have been
the father of evolution - but without Darwin's brilliant tenacity in proving and
presenting the thing (kastedilen ne?), would the impact have been as great?

In the eighth century the Moors in Spain sent out a reconnaissance party along
the Roman road into France, (zne?) got ambushed, and (zne?) decided that
France was no go.

Here's another (bir dier ne?). When Leo Szilard, Weizman and Polyani were
experimenting with chain reaction in Britain in the Thirties, they tried to raise
2,000 to continue the work; they failed (baaramadklar ne?), and so took the
research to America. ... And why were they so certain that they must keep such
stuff (kastedilen ne?) secret?

To my mind, you have to believe that things (Trkeye nasl aktarlmal?) might all
have been different - or simply believe in predestination, which is boring.

b) ncelikle aada koyu yazl verilen yaplar inceleyerek metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

Baln tm:

IFS OF HISTORY

Birinci paragrafta:

Speculating "what if ...?" is always enticing. What if Alexander Fleming's dishes
of infected jelly had been tidied up and thrown out as they should have been -
would we now be without penicillin?
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

96

When it comes to invention or discovery, the chances are that if scientist A is
hit by a falling roof-tile, scientist B will get there pretty soon all the same; for both
would have been building on the same state of previous knowledge - like the
test-tube doctors.

nc paragrafta:

"What if ...?" in history is even more fun. In the eighth century the Moors in Spain
sent out a reconnaissance party along the Roman road into France, got
ambushed, and decided that France was no go. There's a theory that if they'd
had stirrups, they could have ridden down the ambush (without stirrups, you can
too readily be pushed off your horse by anyone with a pike). Then the Moors
might have gone ahead and invaded France.

Drdnc paragrafta

Here's another. When Leo Szilard, Weizman and Polyani were experimenting with
chain reaction in Britain in the Thirties, they tried to raise 2,000 to continue the
work; they failed, and so took the research to America.

Because Szilard had read H. G. Wells's The World Set Free and could thus
envisage atomic war - you might almost say that H. G. Wells won the war.

Beinci paragrafta

To my mind, you have to believe that things might all have been different - or
simply believe in predestination, which is boring.

D. BTNLK

E Trke

Condition clause yaplarn Trkeye aktarmnda titiz davranmak gerekmekte. Zaman belirten
taknn yanl seilmesi second condition ile third condition yapnn kartrlmasna neden
olabilir. Bu konuda zellikle dikkatli olun.

evirinizi ngilizce metne bakmadan kontrol edin ve akc ve doru bir Trke ierecek ekilde
dzenleyin.



BYLES DE VAR!
WANTED: Zinc bath, for adult with strong bottom.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

97
8. Lake Turkana





5





10




15




Suppose now, we are back on the eastern shores of Lake Turkana 2 million years
ago. Standing by the shores we would be aware of crocodiles basking in the
tropical heat on sand-spits pointing finger-like into the shallow water. A little more
than five miles away to the east savannah-covered hills rise up from the lake basin,
sliced here and there by forest-filled valleys. At one point the hills are breached by
what is obviously a large river that snakes its way down from the Ethiopian
mountains. Where the river reaches the flood-plain of the lake it shatters into a
delta of countless streams, some small, some large, but each fringed by a line of
trees and bushes.

As we walk up one of the stream beds - dry now because there has been no rain for
months - we might hear the rustle of a pig in search of roots and vegetation in the
undergrowth. As the tree-cover thickens we catch a glimpse of a colobus monkey
retreating through the tree tops. Lower down, mangobeys feed on ripening figs. In
the seclusion of the surrounding bushes small groups of impala and water-buck
move cautiously. From the top of a tree we could see out into the open, where
herds of gazelle graze.

After going about a mile up the stream we come across a scene that is strangely
familiar. Before us is a group of eight creatures - definitely human-like, but
definitely not truly human - some on the stream bed and some on its sandy bank.






it=?
some =?
some =?










some =?
some =?
its =?

R. Leakey ve R. Lewin, People of the Lake

260 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

a) Szckleri inceleyin

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
basking
sand-spits
shallow
basin
sliced
breached
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

98
flood-plain
shatter
countless
fringed
rustle
glimpse
colobus monkey
retreating
mangobeys
ripening
figs
seclusion
water-buck
cautiously
herds
gazelle
graze

b) Metnin sa kenarndaki szckleri inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Tmceleri analiz edin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Aada verilen tmce evirilerinin her birinde hata bulunmakta. Bu hatalar dzeltin. Birinci
tmcedeki hata rnek olarak gsterilmekte.

Suppose now, we are back on the eastern shores of Lake Turkana 2 million
years ago.

imdi 2 milyon yl nce, Turkana Gl'nn dou kylarnn arkasnda olduumuzu
varsayalm.
( ... kylarna geri dndmz varsayalm.)

Standing by the shores we would be aware of crocodiles basking in the tropical
heat on sand-spits pointing finger-like into the shallow water.

Kyda dikildiimizde, kumluklarda, tropik scakta s suya parmak gibi uzanp
timsahlarn farkna varrz.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

99

A little more than five miles away to the east savannah-covered hills rise up from
the lake basin, sliced here and there by forest-filled valleys.

Savan rtsyle kapl tepelerin dousunda, be milden biraz daha tede, orada ve burada
ormanla rtl vadiler gl tabanndan ykselmekte.

At one point the hills are breached by what is obviously a large river that snakes
its way down from the Ethiopian mountains.

Bir noktada, tepeler Etopya dalarndan aa kvrlarak akan geni bir rmak tarafndan
grnr bir ekilde blnmekteler.

Where the river reaches the flood-plain of the lake it shatters into a delta of
countless streams, some small, some large, but each fringed by a line of trees
and bushes.

Gln kenarna eritiinde nehir, herbiri irili ufakl aa ve allarla sral saysz dereler
halinde bir delta oluturmakta.

As we walk up one of the stream beds - dry now because there has been no rain
for months - we might hear the rustle of a pig in search of roots and vegetation in
the undergrowth.

Aylardr yamur yamad iin imdi kuru olan dere yataklarndan birinde yukar doru
yryp bitki rtsnde gelimemi kkleri ve bitkileri ararken, bir domuzun hrtsn
duyabiliriz.

As the tree-cover thickens we catch a glimpse of a colobus monkey retreating
through the tree tops.

Aa rts kalnlat iin, aa tepelerine doru kaan bir kolobus maymunu gzmze
arpar.

Lower down, mangobeys feed on ripening figs.

Onun biraz altnda, mangolar olgunlaan incirlerle beslenmekte.

In the seclusion of the surrounding bushes small groups of impala and water-buck
move cautiously.

Kk impala ve geyik gruplar dikkatli dolaarak tenha allar evrelemekteler.

From the top of a tree we could see out into the open, where herds of gazelle
graze.

Bir aacn tepesinden, gazel srlerinin otlad yerler aka grlebilir.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

100

After going about a mile up the stream we come across a scene that is strangely
familiar.

Dere boyunca bir mil kadar yukar gidince, garip ve yabanc olmayan bir yere geliriz.

Before us is a group of eight creatures - definitely human-like, but definitely not
truly human - some on the stream bed and some on its sandy bank.

Bizden nce baz dere yataklarnda ve baz kumlu kylarnda sekiz yaratktan oluan bir
grup var - kesinlikle insan benzeri, ama kesinlikle tam olarak insan deil.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

Yaptnz dzeltmeleri, zgn metne bakmadan, Trke tmce yapsna uygunluk ve akclk
asndan deerlendirin.



























BYLES DE VAR!
On the evening of May 13th, at about 7 o'clock, travelling north and
giving off a roaring sound, my husband and I both saw clearly some
silver coloured objects in the sky.



GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

101
9. Garbology





5





10

A professor of anthropology at the University of Tuscon has created an entirely
new field of science called garbology. William Rathje and his students have been
studying the garbage left for collection in front of Tuscon homes since 1973. With
the help of the local sanitation company, they have inspected and categorized some
120 tons of garbage and have arrived at some interesting conclusions.

One result is that middle-income families waste more food than lower- or upper-
income families. Another fact is that poor families pay more for their food and
household items than wealthy families because they cannot afford to buy it in bulk.
Finally, the overall waste figure is down to 15 percent, about half the figure from
the first quarter of this century. This can be attributed to modern methods of
refrigeration, transportation, processing, and packaging.



they =?




it =?

This =?


138 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Tabloda, szcklerden bazlar verilmekte. Szcklerin anlamlarn szlk kullanarak bulun.
Bunu yaparken de, szcn metin iinde tek bana m yoksa baka szcklerle terim
oluturarak m kullanldna dikkat edin.

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
Garbology
entirely
sanitation
inspected
conclusions
household
bulk
overall
attributed
refrigeration
processing

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

102
Tmceleri analiz edin.

A professor of anthropology at the University of Tuscon has created an entirely
new field of science called garbology.

William Rathje and his students have been studying the garbage left for collection
in front of Tuscon homes since 1973.

With the help of the local sanitation company, they have inspected and
categorized some 120 tons of garbage and have arrived at some interesting
conclusions.

One result is that middle-income families waste more food than lower- or upper-
income families.

Another fact is that poor families pay more for their food and household items
than wealthy families because they cannot afford to buy it in bulk.

Finally, the overall waste figure is down to 15 percent, about half the figure from
the first quarter of this century.

This can be attributed to modern methods of refrigeration, transportation,
processing, and packaging.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Trke tmceleri tamamlayn.

A professor of anthropology at the University of Tuscon has created an entirely
new field of science called garbology.

Tuscon niversitesi'nde bir antropoloji profesr _____________________________
___________________________________________________.

William Rathje and his students have been studying the garbage left for collection
in front of Tuscon homes since 1973.

William Rathje ve rencileri ______________________________________________
__________________________________________.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

103

With the help of the local sanitation company, they have inspected and
categorized some 120 tons of garbage and have arrived at some interesting
conclusions.

Yerel temizlik irketinin yardm ile, _______________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________.

One result is that middle-income families waste more food than lower- or upper-
income families.

Sonulardan biri, _______________________________________________________
_______________________.

Another fact is that poor families pay more for their food and household items
than wealthy families because they cannot afford to buy it in bulk.

Bir dier gerek ________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________.

Finally, the overall waste figure is down to 15 percent, about half the figure from
the first quarter of this century.

Sonuta, toplam israf miktar ______________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________.

This can be attributed to modern methods of refrigeration, transportation,
processing, and packaging.

Bu, ________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi metnin aslna bakmadan, yap ve anlam asndan denetleyin.




BYLES DE VAR!
Temel dzey ngilizce dersinde bir rencinin ev devi metninden bir
tmce:

I take an aspirin when I have an ararat.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

104
10. Explain





5




10




15



In science the meaning of the word "explain" suffers with civilization's every step
in search of reality. Science cannot really explain electricity, magnetism, and
gravitation; their effects can be measured and predicted, but of their nature no more
is known to the modern scientist than to Thales who first speculated on the
electrification of amber. Most contemporary physicists reject the notion that man
can ever discover what these mysterious forces "really" are. Electricity, Bertrand
Russell says, "is not a thing, like the St. Paul's Cathedral; it is a way in which
things behave. When we have told how things behave when they are electrified, we
have told all there is to tell." Until recently scientists would have disapproved of
such an idea. Aristotle, for example, whose natural science dominated Western
thought for two thousand years, believed that man could arrive at an understanding
of reality by reasoning from self-evident principles. He felt, for example, that it is a
self-evident principle that everything in the universe has its proper place, hence one
can deduce that objects fall to the ground because that's where they belong, and
smoke goes up because that's where it belongs. The goal of Aristotelian science
was to explain why things happen. Modern science was born when Galileo began
trying to explain how things happen and thus originated the method of controlled
experiment which now forms the basis of scientific investigation.






it =?






that =?



233 szck

Metinle ilgili eviri almalarna balamadan nce, aadaki sorular yantlayn.

1. The aim of controlled scientific experiments is to __________

a) explain why things happen.
b) explain how things happen.
c) describe self-evident principles.
d) support Aristotelian science.

2. What principles most influenced scientific thought for two thousand years?

a) The speculations of Thales.
b) The forces of electricity, magnetism, and gravity.
c) Aristotle's natural science.
d) Galileo's discoveries.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

105
3. Bertrand Russell's notion about electricity is __________

a) disapproved of by most modern scientists.
b) in agreement with Aristotle's theory of self-evident principles.
c) in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward "how" things happen.
d) in agreement with scientific investigation directed toward "why" things happen.

4. The passage says that until recently scientists disagreed with the idea that __________

a) there are mysterious forces in the universe.
b) man cannot discover what forces "really" are.
c) there are self-evident principles.
d) we can discover why things behave as they do.

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
gravitation
amber
reject
notion
dominated
reasoning
hence

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Tmcelerde koyu yazl blmleri inceleyin.

Science cannot really explain electricity, magnetism, and gravitation; their effects
can be measured and predicted, but of their nature no more is known to the
modern scientist than to Thales who first speculated on the electrification of
amber.

When we have told how things behave when they are electrified, we have told all
there is to tell."

Until recently scientists would have disapproved of such an idea.

Aristotle, for example, whose natural science dominated Western thought for two
thousand years, believed that man could arrive at an understanding of reality by
reasoning from self-evident principles.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

106
He felt, for example, that it is a self-evident principle that everything in the
universe has its proper place, hence one can deduce that objects fall to the
ground because that's where belong, and smoke goes up because that's where it
belongs.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Tmcelerde koyu yazl blmlerin Trkeye nasl aktarlabileceini inceleyin.

In science the meaning of the word "explain" suffers with civilization's every step
in search of reality.

Most contemporary physicists reject the notion that man can ever discover what
these mysterious forces "really" are.

Electricity, Bertrand Russell says, "is not a thing, like the St. Paul's Cathedral; it is
a way in which things behave.

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi anlam ve btnlk asndan, zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.















BYLES DE VAR!
James Jackson wishes to thank the 600 odd people who voted for him
in the recent Urban District Council Election.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

107
11. The 800th Life





5





10




15





20





25
In the time between now and the twenty-first century, millions of ordinary,
psychologically normal people will face a sudden confrontation with the future.
Many of the citizens of the world's richest and most technologically advanced
nations will find it increasingly painful to keep up with incessant demand for
change that is a characteristic of our time. For them, the future will have arrived
too soon. This book is about change and how we adapt to it. It is about those
who seem to thrive on change, as well as those multitudes of others who resist it
or seek flight from it. It is about our capacity to adapt. It is about the future and
the shock that its arrival brings.

Western society for the past 300 years has been caught up in a storm of change.
This storm, far from abating, now appears to be gathering force. Change moves
through the highly industrialized countries with waves of ever-accelerating speed
and unprecedented impact. It brings with it all sorts of curious social phenomena
- from psychedelic churches and "free universities" to science cities in the Arctic
and wife-swap clubs in California.

It breeds odd personalities, too: children who are at twelve are no longer
children; adults who are at fifty are children of twelve. There are rich men who
playact poverty, computer programmers who turn on with LSD. There are
married priests and atheist ministers and Jewish Zen Buddhists. A strange new
society is apparently developing in our midst. Is there a way to understand it, to
shape its development?

Much that now seems incomprehensible would be far less so if we took a fresh
look at today's rapid rate of change, for the acceleration of change does not
merely affect industries or nations. It is a force that reaches deep into one's
personal life, compels him to act out new roles, and confronts him with the
danger of a new and powerfully upsetting psychological disease. This new
disease can be called "future shock", and a knowledge of its sources and
symptoms helps explain many things that otherwise resist rational analysis.




them =?
It =?
it =?










It =?



it =?


so =?

It =?


347 szck

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

108
A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
confrontation
incessant
thrive
multitudes
seek 6. Metin'de ilendi.
abating
ever-accelerating
unprecedented
impact
phenomena
psychedelic
wife-swap
breeds
playact
priests
midst
incomprehensible
acceleration
merely
5. Metin'de ilendi.
compels
confronts
symptoms
rational

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmcenin analizini yapn:

Many of the citizens of the world's richest and most technologically advanced
nations will find it increasingly painful to keep up with incessant demand for
change that is a characteristic of our time.

b) Tmcede those szckleri ile neyin/kimin kasdedildiini inceleyin:

It is about those who seem to thrive on change, as well as those multitudes of
others who resist it or seek flight from it.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

109
c) Tmcede from ... to yapsn inceleyin:

It brings with it all sorts of curious social phenomena - from psychedelic
churches and "free universities" to science cities in the Arctic and wife-swap
clubs in California.

d) Tmcede koyu yazl blmleri inceleyin:

It breeds odd personalities, too: children who are at twelve are no longer
children; adults who at fifty are children of twelve.

e) Tmcede koyu yazl Much that blmn dikkatle inceleyin; for szcn inceleyin:

Much that now seems incomprehensible would be far less so if we took a
fresh look at today's rapid rate of change, for the acceleration of change does
not merely affect industries or nations.

f) Tmcede compel ve confront yklemlerinin nereye bal olduunu inceleyin:

It is a force that reaches deep into one's personal life, compels him to act out
new roles, and confronts him with the danger of a new and powerfully
upsetting psychological disease.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

In the time between now and the twenty-first century, millions of ordinary,
psychologically normal people will face a sudden confrontation with the future.

Gnmz ile yirmibirinci yzyl arasnda, ___________________________________
________________________________________.

Many of the citizens of the world's richest and most technologically advanced
nations will find it increasingly painful to keep up with incessant demand for
change that is a characteristic of our time.

Dnyann en zengin ve teknolojik adan gelimi lkelerinin vatandalarnn pek ou
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
__________________.

For them, the future will have arrived too soon.

Onlar iin, ____________________________________________.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

110

This book is about change and how we adapt to it.

Bu kitap _______________________________________________.

It is about those who seem to thrive on change, as well as those multitudes of
others who resist it or seek flight from it.

Kitap ________________________________________________________________
____________________________________.

It is about our capacity to adapt. It is about the future and the shock that its
arrival brings.

Kitap ________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________.

Western society for the past 300 years has been caught up in a storm of
change.

Son 300 yldr bat toplumu _____________________________________________.

This storm, far from abating, now appears to be gathering force.

Bu frtna ________________________________________________________.

Change moves through the highly industrialized countries with waves of ever-
accelerating speed and unprecedented impact.

Deiiklik ___________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
_______________________.

It brings with it all sorts of curious social phenomena - from psychedelic
churches and "free universities" to science cities in the Arctic and wife-swap
clubs in California.

Beraberinde her trden garip toplumsal olguyu getirmektedir - ___________________
____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________.

It breeds odd personalities, too: children who at twelve are no longer children;
adults who at fifty are children of twelve.

lgin kiilikler de tretmekte: ___________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

111

Much that now seems incomprehensible would be far less so if we took a fresh
look at today's rapid rate of change, for the acceleration of change does not
merely affect industries or nations.

Gnmzde kavranamaz grnen _________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________.

It is a force that reaches deep into one's personal life, compels him to act out
new roles, and confronts him with the danger of a new and powerfully
upsetting psychological disease.

Bu, insann kiisel yaamnn derinlerine ileyen, _____________________________
____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________.

This new disease can be called "future shock", and a knowledge of its sources
and symptoms helps explain many things that otherwise resist rational
analysis.

Bu yeni hastalk _______________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizin Trkesini zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.














BYLES DE VAR!
Deaths: Edgeworth. On March 16
th
, Margaret, mother of Tom (by
accident). Funeral 3.30 pm Thursday.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

112
12. Desertification





5




10
Desertification, the loss of the soil's biological productivity, occurs naturally to a
limited extent. The pace at which the process has spread recently, however, is
largely man's own doing. This fact was highlighted by the great Sahel drought of
1968-73. The worst effects of this drought were caused by nomadic peoples who
had earlier been forced by national governments to adopt agricultural and
grazing practices that were not in accord with their traditions. In common with
those of other nomads around the world, such traditions involved never staying
in one place so long as to exhaust the earth that provided them with sustenance.
When these people were not allowed to follow this tradition, the process of
desertification moved ahead quickly.





those =?

them =?

120 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Aadaki tabloda, metindeki szcklerden bazlar verilmekte. Bu szcklerin anlamlarn
szlk kullanarak bulun. Bunu yaparken de, szcn metin iinde tek bana m yoksa baka
szcklerle terim oluturarak m kullanldna dikkat edin.

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
Desertification
pace
process 9. Metin'de baka bir anlam ilendi.
spread
highlighted
Sahel
drought
nomadic
adopt
grazing 8. Metin'de ilendi.
accord
exhaust
sustenance

Metnin sa kenarnda verilen szcklerin metin iinde hangi szcn/szcklerin yerine
kullanldn bulun.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

113
B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Tmcelerin herbirinin +Y+(N) gibi temel unsurlarn, bileik tmcelerin de ana tmcesi ile
yan tmcesini belirleyin.

Desertification, the loss of the soil's biological productivity, occurs naturally to a
limited extent.

The pace at which the process has spread recently, however, is largely man's
own doing.

This fact was highlighted by the great Sahel drought of 1968-73.

The worst effects of this drought were caused by nomadic peoples who had
earlier been forced by national governments to adopt agricultural and grazing
practices that were not in accord with their traditions.

In common with those of other nomads around the world, such traditions
involved never staying in one place so long as to exhaust the earth that
provided them with sustenance.

When these people were not allowed to follow this tradition, the process of
desertification moved ahead quickly.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Bu aamada metnin evirisini yapmaya balayabilirsiniz.

Desertification, the loss of the soil's biological productivity, occurs naturally to a
limited extent.

Topran biyolojik retkenliinin
__________________________________________.

The pace at which the process has spread recently, however, is largely man's
own doing.

Ancak, yakn zamanlarda ________________________________________________
________________.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

114

This fact was highlighted by the great Sahel drought of 1968-73.

Bu gerek _________________________________________________________.

The worst effects of this drought were caused by nomadic peoples who had
earlier been forced by national governments to adopt agricultural and grazing
practices that were not in accord with their traditions.

Kurakln en kt etkileri ______________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________.

In common with those of other nomads around the world, such traditions
involved never staying in one place so long as to exhaust the earth that
provided them with sustenance.

Dnyadaki dier gebelerin _____________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________.

When these people were not allowed to follow this tradition, the process of
desertification moved ahead quickly.

Bu insanlarn geleneklerini ____________________________________________
___________________________________________________________.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi metnin aslna bakmadan, yap ve anlam asndan denetleyin.












BYLES DE VAR!
There will be a procession next Saturday afternoon in the grounds
of the Monastery; but if it rains in the afternoon, the procession will
take place in the morning.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

115
13. Women





5





10




15




20

It is not often realized that women held a high place in southern European societies
in the 10
th
and 11
th
centuries. As a wife, the woman was protected by the setting up
of a dowry or decimum. Admittedly, the purpose of this was to protect her against
the risk of desertion, but in reality its function in the social and family life of the
time was much more important. The decimum was the wife's right to receive a
tenth of her husband's property. The wife had the right to withhold consent, in all
transactions the husband would make. And more than just a right: the documents
show that she enjoyed a real power of decision, equal to that of her husband. In no
case do the documents indicate any degree of difference in the legal status of
husband and wife.

The wife shared in the management of her husband's personal property, but the
opposite was not always true. Women seemed perfectly prepared to defend their
own inheritance against husbands who tried to exceed their rights, and on occasion
they showed a fine fighting spirit. A case in point is that of Mara Vivas, a Catalan
woman of Barcelona. Having agreed with her husband to sell a field she had
inherited, for the needs of the household, she insisted on compensation. None
being offered, she succeeded in dragging her husband to the scribe to have a
contract duly drawn up assigning her a piece of land from Mir's personal
inheritance. The unfortunate husband was obliged to agree, as the contract says,
"for the sake of peace". Either through dowry or through being hot-tempered, the
Catalan wife knew how to win herself, within the context of the family, a powerful
economic position.







that =?





they =?
that =?

None =?



290 szck

Metinle ilgili eviri altrmalarna balamadan nce, aadaki altrmay tamamlayn.

1. A decimum was __________

a) the wife's inheritance from her father.
b) a gift of money to the new husband.
c) a written contract.
d) the wife's right to receive one-tenth of her husband's property.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

116
2. In the society described in the passage, the legal standing of the wife in marriage was
__________

a) higher that that of her husband. b) lower than that of her husband.
c) the same as that of her husband. d) higher than that of a single woman.

3. What compensation did Mara Vivas get for the field?

a) Some of the land Mir had inherited.
b) A tenth of Mir's land.
c) Money for household expenses.
d) Money for Mir's inheritance.

4. Could a husband sell his wife's inheritance?

a) No, under no circumstances.
b) Yes, whenever he wished to.
c) Yes, if she agreed.
d) Yes, if his father-in-law agreed.

5. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an effect of the dowry system?

a) The husband had to share the power of decision in marriage.
b) The wife was protected from desertion.
c) The wife gained a powerful economic position.
d) The husband was given control over his wife's property.

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
dowry
desertion
withhold
consent 3. Metin'de ilendi
transactions
inheritance
exceed
household 9. Metin'de ilendi.
compensation
scribe
duly
assigning

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Metindeki tmceleri dilbilgisi asndan inceleyin.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

117
C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

a) Koyu yazl blmn Trkeye nasl aktarlacan inceleyin.

And more than just a right: the documents show that she enjoyed a real
power of decision, equal to that of her husband.

b) Devrik yapya dikkat edin.

In no case do the documents indicate any degree of difference in the legal
status of husband and wife.

c) Koyu yazl blmlerin Trkeye nasl aktarlacan inceleyin.

Women seemed perfectly prepared to defend their own inheritance against
husbands who tried to exceed their rights, and on occasion they showed a
fine fighting spirit.

d) Koyu yazl blm inceleyin.

A case in point is that of Mara Vivas, a Catalan woman of Barcelona.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi anlam ve btnlk asndan, zgn metne bakmadan inceleyin.
















BYLES DE VAR!
Mr. and Mrs. John Beverlin are rejoicing over an eight-pound
daughter, their sixth child since last Saturday.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

118
14. Who's Afraid of The Silicon Chip

The one thing that got talked about non-stop throughout 1990s is about as big as this .

For the electro-technologically minded, it's a miracle of micro-processing wizardry with the mind-boggling
potential to revolutionise the whole of life. For the uninitiated, it's a source of bafflement, unease, and a
vaguely sci-fi fascination. It represents the major challenge of the past century's last twenty years, so all the
expert futurologists claim, yet sounds to most of us like some newly-fanged substitute for fried potato.

It's the silicon chip.

Not surprisingly, most non-scientists find that the effort of trying to grasp what a silicon is turns out to be just
as bewildering as the struggle to comprehend what a silicon chip does.

Forty years ago, the world's first electronic digital computers weighed about thirty tons and filled a room.
Today silicon chip equivalent weighs a fraction of gramme and would disappear on your fingernail. Once
designed, a silicon chip can be ludicrously cheap to manufacture in bulk. That is why everyone can now buy
for peanuts such sophisticated gadgets as pocket calculators or complex TV games. Desk-top computers are
as familiar as desk-top typewriters .

Not only is the silicon chip small and ever more inexpensive, it is also reliable and immensely versatile.
Already the world market is estimated at 3 billion a year. By the mid-2010s, one chip-maker predicts, every
person in the world may need to own at least one microprocessing toy just to have an outlet for the industry's
burgeoning supply.

Such talk is typical of the increasingly extravagant claims being made on behalf of the silicon chip. It has
been called the most significant invention since wheel. A single chip can far outstrip the mathematical speed
and capacity of any man. Multi-chip computers can perform a million error-free calculations in the time it
takes to blink and they're getting faster all the time. All that is holding them back is the speed at which data
can be programmed in, or applications for them found.

More and more small firms take advantage of small, purpose-programmed computers to keep the books.
Instrumentation on cars gets neater and more comprehensive. Telephones have increased international
capability, telephone and television-linked information systems are more comprehensive and more wide-
spread. Cameras get smaller and more automated, fun toys like talking calculators and programmable video
gadgets fight for the home entertainment market. Money continues to give way to computerised accounting
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

119
and debiting systems, all kinds of security systems are rapidly advanced. Shops keep track of their stock with
micro-processing systems, all kinds of traffic control has become more efficient, less energy is wasted by
better power systems.

Mid-1990s, in short, certainly saw a gathering pace in the applied use of silicon ships but there is not the
remotest chance that applications will keep pace with theoretical development. The long-term effects of the
micro-processing revolution are incalculable - even for a silicon chip. The most talked-about social
implication is, of course, the effect of ever more sophisticated automation on employment. Here, too, there
has been a marked tendency to take off into scare mongering with exaggerated claims that silicon chips will
cause overnight disruption, making millions redundant. A study by the UK Central Policy Review Staff is
characteristically sober: "Reports suggesting large-scale loss of jobs from micro-processing applications
overestimate the speed at which these applications could be introduced and underestimate the new markets
created in the process."


568 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
wizardy
mind-boggling
uninitiated
bafflement
newly-fanged
ludicrous
gadgets
versatile
outlet
burgeoning
extravagant
outstrip
blink
debiting
incalculable
scare
mongering
disruption
redundant
sober
overestimate
underestimate

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

120
B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker;
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmcede esas yklemi bulun.

The one thing that got talked about non-stop throughout mid 1990s is about as
big as this .

b) Koyu yazl blmleri dikkatle inceleyin.

For the electro-technologically minded, it's a miracle of micro-processing
wizardry with the mind-boggling potential to revolutionise the whole of life. For
the uninitiated, it's a source of bafflement, unease, and a vaguely sci-fi
fascination.

c) Koyu yazl blm inceleyin.

It represents the major challenge of the past century's last twenty years, so all
the expert futurologists claim, yet sounds to most of us like some newly-
fanged substitute for fried potato.

d) Tmcedeki noun clause ve comparative clause yaplar saptayn.

Not surprisingly, most non-scientists find that the effort of trying to grasp what
a silicon is turns out to be just as bewildering as the struggle to comprehend
what a silicon chip does.

e) Tmcedeki devrik yapya dikkat edin.

Not only is the silicon chip small and ever more inexpensive, it is also reliable
and immensely versatile.

f) Tmcedeki -ing yapy inceleyin.

Here, too, there has been a marked tendency to take off into scare mongering
with exaggerated claims that silicon chips will cause overnight disruption,
making millions redundant.

g) Tmcede ana yklemi saptayn.

"Reports suggesting large-scale loss of jobs from micro-processing
applications overestimate the speed at which these applications could be
introduced and underestimate the new markets created in the process."

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

121
C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Tmcelerde koyu yazl blmleri eviri asndan inceleyin. Sonra metnin tmn Trkeye
aktarn.

For the electro-technologically minded, it's a miracle of micro-processing
wizardry with the mind-boggling potential to revolutionise the whole of
life.

It represents the major challenge of the past century's last twenty years, so all
the expert futurologists claim, yet sounds to most of us like some newly-
fanged substitute for fried potato.

That is why everyone can now buy for peanuts such sophisticated gadgets
as pocket calculators or complex TV games.

Such talk is typical of the increasingly extravagant claims being made on
behalf of the silicon chip.

Multi-chip computers can perform a million error-free calculations in the time
it takes to blink and they're getting faster all the time.

All that is holding them back is the speed at which data can be
programmed in, or applications for them found.

More and more small firms take advantage of small, purpose-programmed
computers to keep the books.

Cameras get smaller and more automated, fun toys like talking calculators
and programmable video gadgets fight for the home entertainment
market.

Money continues to give way to computerised accounting and debiting
systems, all kinds of security systems are rapidly advanced.

The long-term effects of the micro-processing revolution are incalculable -
even for a silicon chip.

Here, too, there has been a marked tendency to take off into scare
mongering with exaggerated claims that silicon chips will cause
overnight disruption, making millions redundant.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

122

A study by the UK Central Policy Review Staff is characteristically sober:
"Reports suggesting large-scale loss of jobs from micro-processing
applications overestimate the speed at which these applications could be
introduced and underestimate the new markets created in the process."

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizin Trkesini zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.




































BYLES DE VAR!
Would any friendly older couple with hours to spare like to help bury
family in house and garden?
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

123
15. Education


Albert Einstein once attributed the creativity of a famous scientist to the fact that he "never went to school,
and therefore preserved the rare gift of thinking freely." There is undoubtedly truth in Einstein's observation;
many artists and geniuses seem to view their schooling as a disadvantage. But such a truth is not a criticism of
schools. It is the function of schools to civilize, not to train explorers. The explorer is always a lonely
individual whether his or her pioneering be in art, music, science, or technology. The creative explorer of
unmapped lands shares with the genius what William James described as the "faculty of perceiving in an
unhabitual way." Insofar as schools teach perceptual patterns they tend to destroy creativity and genius. But if
schools could somehow exist solely to cultivate genius, then society would break down. For the social order
demands unity and widespread agreement, both traits that are destructive to creativity. There will always be
conflict between the demands of society and the impulses of creativity and genius.


172 szck

Metnin ana fikrini ifade eden tmceyi bulun.

a) Albert Einstein and other geniuses and artists have said that schools limit creativity and
genius.
b) Schools should be designed to encourage creativity.
c) Explorers can be compared to geniuses because both groups look at the world differently
from the way most people do.
d) Schools can never satisfy the needs of both geniuses and society as a whole.

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
attributed 9. Metin'de ilendi.
gift
civilize
pioneering
faculty
perceiving
perceptual
patterns 5. Metin'de ilendi.
solely
cultivate
widespread
traits
conflict
impulses

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

124
Aadaki tmcelerde koyu yazl blmleri ayrca inceleyin.

Albert Einstein once attributed the creativity of a famous scientist to the fact that
he "never went to school, ...

he
a) Einstein
b) a famous scientist

The creative explorer of unmapped lands shares with the genius what William
James described as the "faculty of perceiving in an unhabitual way."

The creative explorer of unmapped lands
a) yalnzca gezginler kastedilmekte
b) tm mucitler kastedilmekte
what
a) Trkeye olan ey olarak aktarlabilir
b) Trkeye neolarak aktarlabilir

Insofar as schools teach perceptual patterns they tend to destroy creativity and
genius.

they
a) schools
b) perceptual patterns

For the social order demands unity and widespread agreement, both traits that
are destructive to creativity.

For
a) - den dolay
b) - den beri
c) iin
both traits
a) 1= social order, 2= unity and widespread agreement
b) 1= unity, 2= widespread agreement

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Albert Einstein once attributed the creativity of a famous scientist to the fact that
he "never went to school, ... ."

to hangi yklem ya da sfata bal?
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

125

It is the function of schools to civilize, not to train explorers.

Tmceyi yeniden oluturun:
The function _______________________________.

The explorer is always a lonely individual whether his or her pioneering be in art,
music, science, or technology.

Asl yklem olan be neden is olarak deil de yaln olarak kullanlmakta? Bunun eviriye
bir etkisi olur mu?

The creative explorer of unmapped lands shares with the genius what William
James described as the "faculty of perceiving in an unhabitual way."

Tmcede esas yklem share. Buna gre:
Kim paylamakta?
Kiminle paylamakta?
Neyi paylamakta?

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Szck ve dilbilgisi altrmalarn gznnde bulundurarak metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

Yaptnz eviriyi, zgn metne bakmadan, Trke tmce yapsna uygunluk ve akclk
asndan deerlendirin.










BYLES DE VAR!
The American Women's Club of Brussels invites donations of clean
undamaged babies and pre-school children's clothing.



GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

126
16. The Secret Few People Could Guess





5




10





15




20





25
Brenda Linson never goes anywhere without an empty spectacles case. It is as
vital to her as her purse. Yet, she doesn't wear glasses. The reason she can't do
without it is because she can't read and she can't write. If ever she gets into any
situation where she might be expected to do either of these things, she fishes in
her bag for the specs case, finds it empty, and asks the person concerned to do
the reading for her. Brenda is now in her late thirties. She's capable and articulate
and until a few months ago hardly anybody knew she was illiterate. Her husband
didn't know and her children didn't know. Her children still don't.

She had any number of tactics for concealing her difficulty - for example, never
lingering near a phone at work, in case she had to answer it and might be
required to write something down. But, in fact, it is easier for illiterates to
conceal the truth than the rest of us might imagine. Literacy is taken so much
for granted that people simply don't spot the give-away signs.

It has never occurred to the children that their mother cannot read. She doesn't read
them stories, but then their father doesn't either, so they find nothing surprising in
the fact. Similarly they just accept that Dad is the one who writes sick notes and
reads the school reports. Now that the elder boy Tom is a quite proficient
reader, Brenda can skilfully get him to read any notes brought home from school
simply by asking, "What's that all about, then?"

Brenda's husband never guessed the truth in 10 years of marriage. For one thing he
insists on handling all domestic correspondence and bills himself. An importer of
Persian carpets, he travels a great deal and so is not around so much to spot the
truth. While he's away Brenda copes with any situations by explaining that she
can't do anything until she's discussed it with her husband.

Brenda was very successful in her job until very recently. For the last five years
she had worked as a waitress at an exclusive private club, and had eventually
been promoted to head waitress. She kept the thing a secret there too, and got
over the practical difficulties somehow.
It =?
Yet =?
it =?
these things =?
it =?


don't ___



the truth =?




doesn't __
they =?






the truth =?

it =?



the thing =?

382 szck

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

127
A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metnin tmn okuyun ve bilmediiniz szcklerin altn izin. kimi szckler tmce iinde
kendi balarna deil de baka szckler ile kullanlyor olabilirler. Bu nedenle, szlkte o
szc incelerken, szcn tm kullanmlarn inceleyin ve tmcedeki kullanm ile
kyaslayn.

Bunun ardndan, metnin sa yannda verilen szckleri inceleyin ve metin iindeki ilevlerini
saptayn. Ayrca, bu metinde, szck ve dilbilgisi dzeyinde, sk kullanlan any yaplarnn
ayrca incelenmesi ve Trkeye nasl aktarlacaklarnn saptanmas gerekir.

anywhere Birinci paragrafta
hardly anybody Birinci paragrafta
any number kinci paragrafta
any notes nc paragrafta
any situations Drdnc paragrafta
anything Drdnc paragrafta

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Tmcelerin basit mi yoksa bileik mi olduklarn saptadktan ve +Y+N yaplarn belirledikten
sonra, aada verilen yaplar belirtilen paragraflarda bulun.

a) Birinci paragrafta

as __________ as
The reason (why) __________ because

b) kinci paragrafta

Comparison clause
so __________ that

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

128
c) nc paragrafta

Reason clause

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Tmceleri Trkeye aktarn. nce kolay olan tmcelerle balayn. Bylece zor tmcelerin
anlamn karmanz kolaylaacaktr. Bu aamada, eviriyi yaparken bileik tmceleri imdilik
karmak bir yap halinde aktarmanz gerekmemekte.

rnein, nc paragrafn birinci tmcesi

It has never occurred to the children that their mother cannot read.

bu aamada Trkeye

ocuklar asla farkna varmadlar, annelerinin okuyamadnn

eklinde aktarlabilir.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

Tmceleri dzgn bir Trke ile oluturun

ocuklar annelerinin okuyamadnn farkna asla varmadlar

ve tmcelerin anlamlarnn birbirleri ile ve metnin tmnn anlam ile uyumluluunu kontrol
edin.












BYLES DE VAR!
The many friends of Mrs. Barrett will be sorry to learn that she injured
her foot on Sunday. It will probably be six weeks before the fool can be
released from a plaster cast.




GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

129
17. United Nations
In one very long sentence, the introduction to the UN Charter expresses the ideals and the common aims of all
the peoples whose governments joined together to form the UN.

"We the peoples of the UN determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which
twice in our lifetime has brought untold suffering to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental
rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of
nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations
arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social
progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, and for these ends, to practice tolerance and
live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain peace
and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed
force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the
promotion of economic and social advancement of all peoples, have resolved to combine our efforts to
accomplish these aims."

The name United Nations is accredited to UN President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the first group of
representatives of member states met and signed a declaration of common intent on New Year's Day in 1942.
Representatives of five powers worked together to draw up proposals, completed at Dumbarton Oaks in 1944.
These proposals, modified after deliberation at the conference on International Organization in San Francisco
which began in April 1945, were finally agreed on and signed as the UN Charter by 50 countries on 26 June
1945. Poland, not represented at the conference, signed the Charter later and was added to the list of original
members. It was not until that autumn, however, after the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the
U.S.S.R., the UK. and the UN and by a majority of the other participants that the UN officially came into
existence. The date was 24 October, now universally celebrated as United Nations day.

The essential functions of the UN are to maintain peace and security, to develop friendly relations among
nations, to co-operate internationally economic, social, cultural and human problems, promoting respect for
human rights and fundamental freedoms and to be centre for co-ordinating the actions of nations in attaining
these common ends.

No country takes precedence over another in the UN Each member's rights and obligations are the same. All
must contribute to the peaceful settlement of international disputes, and members have pledged to refrain
from the threat or use of force against other states. Though the UN has no right to intervene any state's
internal affairs, it tries to ensure that non-member states act according to its principles of international peace
and security. UN members must offer every assistance in an approved UN action and in no way assist states
against which the UN is taking preventive or enforcement action.
508 szck
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

130

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
Charter
succeeding
scourge
untold
suffering
reaffirm
faith
fundamental
dignity
obligations
treaties
maintained 5. Metin'de farkl anlam ilendi.
promote
ensure
machinery
resolved
accomplish
accredited
intent
proposals
deliberation
ratified
participants
precedence
contribute
settlement
disputes
pledged
refrain
threat
intervene
approved
preventive
enforcement

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

kinci paragraf bir tek tmce oluturmakta. Bu tmcenin esas yklemini saptayn. Bunu
yaparken, ikinci paragrafn bir zeti niteliinde olan drdnc paragraf incelemeniz yararl
olabilir.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

131
The essential functions of the UN are to maintain peace and security, to develop friendly
relations among nations, to co-operate internationally economic, social, cultural and
human problems, promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and to be
centre for co-ordinating the actions of nations in attaining these common ends.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metni Trkeye aktarn. kinci paragraf Trkeye aktarrken, aada verilen emadan
yararlanabilirsiniz.

We the peoples of the UN (who are) determined ...
[A] to _______________________________________,
and [B] to _____________ [a] in _________________,
[b] in __________________________________,
[c] in ______________ [1] of ________________
and [2] of _______________,
and [C] to __________________________________________________,
and [D] to __________________________________________________,
and for these ends,
[E] to __________________
and [F] (to) _________________________________________________,
and [G] to __________________________________________________,
and [H] to ______, ____________, _____________, ________________,
and [I] to ___________________________________________________,
... have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims (A-I).

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizin Trkesini kontrol edin.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

132
18. The Fountain and The Water-Jar








5




10








15





20
He who can go to the fountain does not go to the water-jar.
Leonardo da Vinci, Notebooks

Leonardo da Vinci was talking, of course, of composition. His advice to painters
was "go to the objects of nature rather than those which are imitated from nature":
paint from life, not from a copy of life.

The translator, if he is honest with himself, knows that his readers are those who
cannot go to the fountain. Those who are free to choose, will prefer the original;
those who are not, will "make do" with the translation. This is hard for the
translator to admit, for it implies that translation is always second-best; but second-
best does not necessarily imply second-rate. Translation need not be a poor
substitute for the original.

Translation does, certainly, have a bad reputation with the general public:

Torture and translation are, in fact, amongst the
few fates that can be worse than death. Strictly
speaking, translation is a subtle form of torture.
(The Spectator, 24 September 1977)

even though the words above may be more extreme than most people would care to
use.

It is unfortunate that translation is perhaps more often criticized for its defects than
praised for its merits. The faults of a bad translation are immediately apparent, the
virtues of a good one may easily pass unnoticed. The reader, generally, cannot
compare: his "original" is the translation; this is what he judges. And in his
judgement, he has only his own native ear to go by, for what he is reacting to is a
piece of writing in his own language. It is not surprising, then, that one of the
vaguest - but commonest - criticisms of translation should be "it sounds wrong".





those =?


those =?
Those =?

it =?












one =?
this =?



25



What the reader means when he says "it sounds wrong" is that although the words
may be familiar to him, they are combined in an unfamiliar way. He may
understand the face value of these words, he may see no evident flaw in the
structure of the sentence, he may find nothing wrong with the punctuation or word-
order, with the idioms or figures of speech - yet still he may feel uneasy.

they =?



Translation
355 szck
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

133
A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

a) Szckleri inceleyin

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
Fountain
Water-jar
imitated
make do
second-best
substitute
reputation
Torture
fates
subtle
defects
praised
merits
virtues
vaguest
evident
flaw
punctuation

b) Metnin sa kenarnda verilen szckleri inceleyin.
c) Koyu verilen yaplarn nasl aktarlacan inceleyin.

Leonardo da Vinci was talking, of course, of composition

The translator, if he is honest with himself, knows that his readers are those
who cannot go to the fountain.

Those who are free to choose, will prefer the original; those who are not, will
"make do" with the translation.

This is hard for the translator to admit, for it implies that translation is always
second-best; but second-best does not necessarily imply second-rate.

And in his judgement, he has only his own native ear to go by, for what he is
reacting to is a piece of writing in his own language.

It is not surprising, then, that one of the vaguest - but commonest - criticisms of
translation should be "it sounds wrong".

He may understand the face value of these words, he may see no evident flaw in
the structure of the sentence, he may find nothing wrong with the punctuation or
word-order, with the idioms or figures of speech - yet still he may feel uneasy.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

134
B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Tmcelerin dilbilgisi asndan analizini yapn. 6. tmcedeki ve 12. tmcedeki for szcklerine
ve 15. tmcedeki yet szcne dikkat edin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Tmceleri Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

ngilizce metne bakmadan evirinizi okuyun ve Trkesini dzeltin.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

135
19. Lightning

The phenomenon of lightning has been a source of danger and mystery through the centuries, and only
recently have scientists begun to understand its true nature. We know now that lightning is a huge electrical
spark caused by the interaction of electrically charged particles in the atmosphere. During a thunderstorm,
heavy particles holding a positive charge rise to the top. Lightning results when energy flows between the two
types of charges.

What is still not understood is the process by which particles become electrically charged. Most scientists
believe that a cloud's light, rising moisture and tiny pieces of ice collide with hail and other heavy, falling
particles. The collision may cause these elements to take on either a positive or negative charge.

The most feared form of lightning is that which strikes the ground in one or more electrical discharges called
strokes. Any one of these strokes is capable of causing death, destroying property, or igniting fires. It is
interesting to note that the bright flash of light produced by a stroke actually occurs as the discharge returns to
the sky and not as it descends towards the ground. This return stroke heats surrounding air and causes it to
expand, thus producing a wave of pressure called thunder.


208 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
Lightning
phenomenon
source
mystery
spark
interaction
charged
particles
thunderstorm
flows
process 12. Metin'de ilendi.
moisture
tiny
collide
collision
feared
strikes
discharges
strokes
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

136
property
igniting
flash
occurs
descends
surrounding
expand
wave
pressure
thunder

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Metinden alnan aadaki tmcelerin her birinde birer -ing relative clause ya da past
participle relative clause yap bulunmakta. Bu yaplar saptayn. (Her iki yap da Genel
eviri 1 kitabnn 8. konusunda ele alnmakta:
I like the girl sitting over there. [= who is sitting]
I like macaroni flavoured with Italian sauce. [=which is flavoured])

We know now that lightning is a huge electrical spark caused by the interaction of
electrically charged particles in the atmosphere.

During a thunderstorm, heavy particles holding a positive charge rise to the top.

The most feared form of lightning is that which strikes the ground in one or more
electrical discharges called strokes.

It is interesting to note that the bright flash of light produced by a stroke actually
occurs as the discharge returns to the sky and not as it descends towards the
ground.

This return stroke heats surrounding air and causes it to expand, thus producing a
wave of pressure called thunder.

b) Aadaki tmcede, and szcnden sonra gelen tmcenin yapsn inceleyin ve znesini
bulun.

The phenomenon of lightning has been a source of danger and mystery through
the centuries, and only recently have scientists begun to understand its true
nature.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

137
c) Aada verilen tmcede

Most scientists believe that a cloud's light, rising moisture and tiny pieces of ice
collide with hail and other heavy, falling particles.

bir noun clause yer almakta.

Most scientists believe that ...

Bu durumda da

a cloud's light, rising moisture and tiny pieces of ice collide with hail and other
heavy, falling particles.

blm kendi iinde bir tmce zellii tamakta. Bu blmn zne, yklem ve nesnesini
saptayn.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Tmceleri Trkeye aktarn. zellikle

Most scientists believe that a cloud's light, rising moisture and tiny pieces of ice
collide with hail and other heavy, falling particles

tmcesinde hem isim hem de sfat olarak kullanlan baz szckler yer ald iin yanl eviri
yapma olaslnz bulunmakta. Bu tmceyi Trkeye aktardktan sonra Trke anlamn kendi
iinde ve dier tmcelerin anlam ile tutarl olup olmadn inceleyin.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

ngilizce metne bakmadan evirinizi okuyun. ngilizce metni hi okumam biri, evirinizi
kullanarak imek olgusunu, sizin "yani demek istiyorum ki ..." eklindeki szl
aklamalarnza gerek olmadan, anlayabilir mi?
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

138
20. The Way Up To Heaven






5




10





15




20




25


All her life, Mrs. Foster had had an almost pathological fear of missing a train, a
plane, a boat, or even a theatre curtain. In other respects, she was not a
particularly nervous woman, but the mere thought of being late on occasions like
these would throw her into such a state of nerves that she would begin to twitch.
It was nothing much - just a tiny vellicating muscle in the corner of the left eye,
like a secret wink - but the annoying thing was that it refused to disappear until
an hour or so after the train or plane or whatever it was had been safely caught. It
was really extraordinary how in some people a simple apprehension about a
thing like catching a train can grow into a serious obsession. At least half an hour
before it was time to leave the house for the station, Mrs. Foster would step out
of the elevator all ready to go, with hat and coat, gloves, and then, being quite
unable to sit down, she would flutter and fidget about from room to room until
her husband, who must have been well aware of her state, finally emerged from
his privacy and suggested in a cool dry voice that perhaps they had better get
going now, had they not?

Mr. Foster may possibly have had a right to be irritated by this foolishness of his
wife's, but he could have had no excuse for increasing her misery by keeping her
waiting unnecessarily. Mind you, it is by no means certain that this is what
he did, yet whenever they were to go somewhere, his timing was so accurate -
just a minute or two late, you understand - and his manner so bland that it was
hard to believe he wasn't purposefully inflicting a nasty little torture of his own
on the unhappy woman. And one thing he must have known - that she would
never dare to call out and tell him to hurry. He had disciplined her too well for
that. He must also have known that if he was prepared to wait even beyond the
last moment of safety, he could drive her nearly into hysterics. On one or two
special occasions in the later years of their married life, it seemed almost as
though he had wanted to miss the train simply in order to intensify the poor
woman's suffering.



these =?
It =?













this ?
yet =?


that =?




GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

139




30



Assuming (though one cannot be sure) that the husband was guilty, what made
his attitude doubly unreasonable was the fact that, with the exception of this one
small irrepressible foible, Mrs. Foster was and always had been a good and
loving wife. For over thirty years, she had served him loyally and well. There
was no doubt about this. Even she, a very modest woman, was aware of it, and
although she had for years refused to let herself believe that Mr. Foster would
ever consciously torment her, there had been times recently when she had caught
herself beginning to wonder.




it = ?

Roald Dahl: Kiss Kiss

501 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
mere
nerves
twitch
vellicating
wink
apprehension
obsession
flutter
fidget
emerged
bland
inflicting
torture 18. Metin'de ilendi.
intensify
doubly
irrepressible
foible
loyally
torment

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Metnin tmn dilbilgisi asndan inceleyin.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

140
C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

eviri altrmalarna gemeden nce, aadaki altrmay tamamlayn. Metinden alnan
tmcenin ardndan verilen ifadenin doru olup olmadn saptayn.

All her life, Mrs. Foster had had an almost pathological fear of missing a train, a
plane, a boat, or even a theatre curtain.

Bu tmceye gre Mrs. Foster bir tiyatro oyuncusu.

It was nothing much - just a tiny vellicating muscle in the corner of the left eye, like
a secret wink - but the annoying thing was that it refused to disappear until an
hour or so after the train or plane or whatever it was had been safely caught.

Mrs. Foster tren vs.ye yetitikten sonra bile gzndeki tik bir sre devam etmekte.

At least half an hour before it was time to leave the house for the station, Mrs.
Foster would step out of the elevator all ready to go, with hat and coat, gloves,
and then, being quite unable to sit down, she would flutter and fidget about from
room to room until her husband, who must have been well aware of her state,
finally emerged from his privacy and suggested in a cool dry voice that perhaps
they had better get going now, had they not?

Mrs. Foster kocasn caddede beklemekte.
Tmcedeki "who must have been well aware of her state" blm Mr. Foster'n
bilerek oyalandn gstermekte.

Mr. Foster may possibly have had a right to be irritated by this foolishness of his
wife's, but he could have had no excuse for increasing her misery by keeping her
waiting unnecessarily. Mind you, it is by no means certain that this is what he did,
yet whenever they were to go somewhere, his timing was so accurate - just a
minute or two late, you understand - and his manner so bland that it was hard to
believe he wasn't purposefully inflicting a nasty little torture of his own on the
unhappy woman.

Mr. Foster'n karsna bilerek ikence yaptna ilikin kesin deliller var.
Tmcedeki "just a minute or two late, you understand" blm Mr. Foster'n bir-iki
dakika ge kaldn gstermekte.

He must also have known that if he was prepared to wait even beyond the last
moment of safety, he could drive her nearly into hysterics.

Mr. Foster ou zaman en son ann da gemesini beklemekte.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

141

Assuming (though one cannot be sure) that the husband was guilty, what made
his attitude doubly unreasonable was the fact that, with the exception of this one
small irrepressible foible, Mrs. Foster was and always had been a good and loving
wife. For over thirty years, she had served him loyally and well. There was no
doubt about this.

Mrs. Foster iyi bir e olmasna ramen kt bir saplants olduu iin, Mr. Foster
affedilebilir.

Even she, a very modest woman, was aware of it, and although she had for years
had refused to let herself believe that Mr. Foster would ever consciously torment
her, there had been times recently when she had caught herself beginning to
wonder.

Mrs. Foster, ara sra, kocasnn kendisine bilerek ikence yaptn dnmekte.

Metni Trkeye aktarn. zellikle de aada ele alnan tmcelerdeki koyu blmleri ok
dikkatle inceleyerek.

At least half an hour before it was time to leave the house for the station, Mrs.
Foster would step out of the elevator all ready to go, with hat and coat,
gloves, and then, being quite unable to sit down, she would flutter and fidget
about from room to room until her husband, who must have been well aware of
her state, finally emerged from his privacy and suggested in a cool dry voice
that perhaps they had better get going now, had they not?

Mind you, it is by no means certain that this is what he did, yet whenever
they were to go somewhere, his timing was so accurate - just a minute or
two late, you understand - and his manner so bland that it was hard to
believe he wasn't purposefully inflicting a nasty little torture of his own on the
unhappy woman. And one thing he must have known - that she would never
dare to call out and tell him to hurry.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin. Metin ksa hikaye tr olduu iin,
kullandnz Trkenin de buna uygun olmasna zen gstermeniz gerekmekte.




BYLES DE VAR!
The Fitzgeralds came to South Africa in the sixties. At that time he
was forty and she was twenty-seven. He is now fifty and she is
twenty-nine.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

142
21. Political Parties





5





10





15


In countries having democratic forms of government, political parties compete in
open elections for the right to run the government. The primary functions of
parties include nominating suitable candidates for public office, selecting issues
for public debate and persuading persons who have registered to vote to elect its
slate. Party leaders are also responsible for raising money to finance costly
political campaigns.

Once elected, party officials try to implement the policies of their party in the
operation of government. If the party has just taken over control of the
government, smooth operation of the system and implementation of policy might
take months to achieve. In the case of a party that retains its hold on the
government through re-election, the clear mandate of the people normally results
in a flurry of new laws that can influence the social and economic climate of a
country for years.

The primary function of the party or parties not elected is to question the policies
of the party in control. The minority parties publicize what they consider
deficiencies in the majority party's program and offer voters an alternative. This
healthy opposition serves as a check against the excesses of power seen in one-
party systems.



its =?












what =?

200 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
compete
primary
nominating
candidates
issues
debate
persuading
slate
costly
implement
smooth
achieve
retains
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

143
mandate
flurry
minority
publicize
deficiencies
majority
opposition
excesses

Bu metinde, ilk anlamndan farkl anlamlar tayan baz szckler de bulunmakta. Bu adan
eviri esnasnda anlam asndan oturmayan her yapy szlk yardm ile inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Verilen tmcelerde gerund ( -ing) yaplar inceleyin.

In countries having democratic forms of government, political parties compete
in open elections for the right to run the government.


The primary functions of parties include nominating suitable candidates for
public office, selecting issues for public debate and persuading persons who
have registered to vote to elect its slate.


Party leaders are also responsible for raising money to finance costly political
campaigns.

b) Verilen tmcelerde infinitive (to +yuklem) yaplar inceleyin.

If the party has just taken over control of the government, smooth operation of
the system and implementation of policy might take months to achieve.


The primary function of the party or parties not elected is to question the
policies of the party in control.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

144
c) Tmcede koyu yazl olarak verilen to yaplarndan hangisinin persuading yklemi ile ilikili
olduunu saptayn.

The primary functions of parties include nominating suitable candidates for
public office, selecting issues for public debate and persuading persons who
have registered to vote to elect its slate.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Tmceleri Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi btnlk asndan inceleyin.





























BYLES DE VAR!
Mr. Andreotti [former Italian Prime-minister] said his goats were to
reduce Italy's 7% unemployment and its 13% inflation.



GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

145
22. Women and Space


Between 1977 and 1981, three groups of American women, numbering 27 in all, between the ages of 35 and
65, were given month-long tests to determine how they would respond to conditions resembling those aboard
the space shuttle. Though carefully selected from among many applicants, the women were volunteers and
pay was barely above minimum wage. They were not allowed to smoke or drink alcohol during the tests, and
they were expected to tolerate each others' company at close quarters for the entire period. Among other
things, they had to stand pressure three times the force of gravity and carry out both physical and mental tasks
while exhausted from strenuous physical exercise. At the end of ten days, they had to spend a further twenty
days absolutely confined to bed, during which time they suffered backaches and other discomforts, and when
they were finally allowed up, the more physically active women were especially subject to pains due to a
slight calcium loss.

Results of the tests suggest that women will have significant advantages over men in space. They need less
food and less oxygen and they stand up to radiation better. Men's advantages in terms of strength and stamina,
meanwhile, are virtually wiped out by the zero-gravity condition in space.


210 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
shuttle
volunteers
gravity
strenuous
confined
stamina
virtually

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

146
a) Tmcedeki -ing yaplar inceleyin.

Between 1977 and 1981, three groups of American women, numbering 27 in
all, between the ages of 35 and 65, were given month-long tests to determine
how they would respond to conditions resembling those aboard the space
shuttle.

b) Koyu yazl blm inceleyin.

Among other things, they had to stand pressure three times the force of
gravity and carry out both physical and mental tasks while exhausted from
strenuous physical exercise.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Koyu yazl blmlerin anlamn ve Trkeye nasl aktarlmalar gerektiini inceleyin.

They were not allowed to smoke or drink alcohol during the tests, and they
were expected to tolerate each others' company at close quarters for the
entire period.

At the end of ten days, they had to spend a further twenty days absolutely
confined to bed, during which time they suffered backaches and other
discomforts, and when they were finally allowed up, the more physically
active women were especially subject to pains due to a slight calcium loss.

Metnin tmn Trkeye evirin.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizin Trkesini zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

147
23. Common Sense About Smoking





5




10




15




20


It is often said, "I know all about the risk to my health, but I think the risk is worth
it." When this statement is true it should be accepted. Everyone has the right to
choose what risks they take, however great they may be. However, often the
statement really means, "I have a nasty feeling that smoking is bad for my health,
but I would rather not think about it." With some people the bluff can be called and
they can be asked to explain what they think the risk to their health is. When this is
done few get very far in personal terms. The bare fact that 23,000 people died of
lung cancer last year in Great Britain often fails to impress an individual. When it
is explained that this is the equivalent of one every twenty-five minutes or is four
times as many as those killed on the roads, the significance is more apparent. The
one-in-eight risk of dying of lung cancer for the man who smokes twenty-five or
more cigarettes a day may be better appreciated if an analogy is used. If, when you
boarded a plane, the girl at the top of the steps were to welcome you aboard with
the greeting, "I am pleased that you are coming with us - only one in eight of our
planes crashes," how many would think again, and make other arrangements?
Alternatively, the analogy of Russian roulette may appeal. The man smoking
twenty-five or more a day runs the same risk between the ages of thirty and sixty as
another who buys a revolver with 250 chambers and inserts a live bullet and on
each of his birthdays spins the chamber, points the revolver at his head, and pulls
the trigger. One of the difficulties in impressing these facts on people, is that,
despite the current epidemic of lung cancer, because it is a disease which kills
relatively quickly, there are many who have as yet no experience of it among their
family or friends.


they =?

it =?

few ___

this =?
one =?
those =?



many ___


another =?



many =? it =?
Christopher Wood
337 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

a) Szckleri inceleyin
Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
statement
nasty
bluff
bare
lung
impress
equivalent
significance
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

148
appreciated
analogy
boarded
appeal
revolver
chamber
insert
live bullet
spin
trigger
epidemic

b) Metnin sa kenarnda verilen szckleri inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) rnee bakarak, verilen tmcelerde esas yklemi bulun.

It is often said, "I know all about the risk to my health, but I think the risk is worth it."

The one-in-eight risk of dying of lung cancer for the man who smokes twenty-five or
more cigarettes a day may be better appreciated if an analogy is used.

The man smoking twenty-five or more a day runs the same risk between the ages of
thirty and sixty as another who buys a revolver with 250 chambers and inserts a live
bullet and on each of his birthdays spins the chamber, points the revolver at his
head, and pulls the trigger.

One of the difficulties in impressing these facts on people, is that, despite the current
epidemic of lung cancer, because it is a disease which kills relatively quickly, there
are many who have as yet no experience of it among their family or friends.

b) Dier tmceleri de analiz edin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Tmceleri Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke
ngilizce metne bakmadan evirinizi okuyun.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

149
24. Intelligence





5




10
Recent research into whether people who are good at solving brain twisters are
more intelligent than those who are not suggests that the "experts" make use of
a special type of insight. However, not only do they appear to be good at this
(choosing which elements to process, to combine, or to compare from the
information given), but they are also clever at making use of "general" or prior
knowledge and at monitoring their own progress with a particular problem. In
addition, they appear capable of adopting appropriate cognitive style consisting
of a combination of impulse and reflection. Just what this combination is still
mystifies the researchers, and so does the original question, to which their
answer is a somewhat frustrating possibly.

those =? not __
they =?





does ___
which =?
their =?

123 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Szcklerin metin iindeki anlamn inceleyin.

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
twisters
insight
prior
monitoring
appropriate
cognitive
impulse
reflection
mystifies
frustrating

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

150
a) aretli olan szcklerden hangisinin tmcenin esas yklemi olduunu bulun.

Recent research into whether people who are [1] good at solving brain twisters
are [2] more intelligent than those who are [3] not suggests [4] that the
"experts" make [5] use of a special type of insight.

b) Tmcede not only ... but yapsna dikkat edin.

However, not only do they appear to be good at this (choosing which
elements to process, to combine, or to compare from the information given),
but they are also clever at making use of "general" or prior knowledge and at
monitoring their own progress with a particular problem.

c) Consist yklemini inceleyin ve nereye bal olduunu bulun.

In addition, they appear capable of adopting as appropriate cognitive style
consisting of a combination of impulse and reflection.

d) Bu tmceye dikkat! zellikle de tmcenin sonundaki possibly szcne. Bu szcn bir
adjective (possible) deil adverb olduuna dikkatinizi ekerim.

Just what this combination is still mystifies the researchers, and so does the
original question, to which their answer is a somewhat frustrating possibly.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn. Bunu yaparken de metnin sonundaki possibly szcn
doru olarak yorumlayp yorumlayamadnz ortaya kacaktr.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

Metnin evirisini zgn metne bakmadan anlam ve yap bakmndan inceleyin.









BYLES DE VAR!
PARKINS - to the memory of Mr Parkins, passed away September
10th. Peace at last. From all the neighbours of Princes Avenue.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

151
25. The Sacred Rac

An Indian anthropologist, Chandra Thapar, made a study of foreign cultures which had customs similar to
those of his native land. One culture in particular fascinated him because it reveres one animal as sacred,
much as the people in India revere the cow.

The tribe Dr. Thapar studied is called the Asu and is found on the American continent north of the
Tarahumara of Mexico. Though it seems to be a highly developed society of its type, it has an overwhelming
preoccupation with the care and feeding of the rac - an animal much like a bull in size, strength and
temperament. In the Asu tribe, it is almost a social obligation to own at least one if not more racs. Anyone not
possessing at least one is held in low esteem by the community because he is too poor to maintain one of
these beasts properly. Some members of the tribe, to display their wealth and social prestige, even own herds
of racs.

Unfortunately the rac breed is not very healthy and usually does not live more than five to seven years. Each
family invests large sums of money each year to keep its rac healthy and shod, for it has a tendency to throw
its shoes often. There are rac specialists in each community, perhaps more than one if the community is
particularly wealthy. These specialists, however, due to the long period of ritual training they must undergo
and to the difficulty of obtaining the right selection of charms to treat the rac, demand costly offerings
whenever a tribesman must treat his ailing rac.

At the age of sixteen in many Asu communities, many youths undergo a puberty rite in which the rac figures
prominently. The youth must petition a high priest in a grand temple. He is then initiated into the ceremonies
that surround the care of the rac and is permitted to keep a rac.

Although the rac may be used as a beast of burden, it has many habits which would be considered by other
cultures as detrimental to the life of the society. In the first place the rac breed is increasing at a very high rate
and the Asu tribesmen have given no thought to curbing the rac population. As a consequence the Asu must
build more and more paths for the rac to travel on since its delicate health and its love of racing other racs at
high speeds necessitates that special areas be set aside for its use. The cost of smoothing the earth is too
costly for any one individual to undertake; so it has become a community project and each tribesmen must
pay an annual tax to build new paths and maintain the old. There are so many paths needed that some people
move their homes because the rac paths must be as straight as possible to keep the animal from injuring itself.
Dr. Thapar also noted that unlike the cow, which many people in his country hold sacred, the excrement of
the rac cannot be used as either fuel or fertilizer. On the contrary, its excrement is exceptionally foul and
totally useless. Worst of all, the rac is prone to rampages in which it runs down anything in its path, much like
stampeding cattle. Estimates are that the rac kills thousands of the Asu in a year.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

152
Despite the high cost of upkeep, the damage it does to the land, and its habit of destructive rampages, the Asu
still regard it as being essential to the survival of their culture.


593 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
reveres
sacred
tribe
overwhelming
preoccupation
temperament
esteem
beasts
display
herds
breed
shod
ritual
undergo
charms
treat
offerings
ailing
puberty
rite
prominently
petition
initiated
burden
detrimental
curbing
undertake
excrement
foul
prone
rampages
stampeding

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

153
a) Tmcedeki much as yapsn inceleyin.

One culture in particular fascinated him because it reveres one animal as
sacred, much as the people in India revere the cow.

b) Tmcenin unsurlarn - zellikle de asl tmcenin yklemini - saptayn.

Anyone not possessing at least one is held in low esteem by the community
because he is too poor to maintain one of these beasts properly.

c) Tmcenin yklemini saptayn.

Some members of the tribe, to display their wealth and social prestige, even
own herds of racs.

d) Tmcedeki for yapsna dikkat edin.

Each family invests large sums of money each year to keep its rac healthy and
shod, for it has a tendency to throw its shoes often.

e) Tmcenin unsurlarn saptayn.

These specialists, however, due to the long period of ritual training they must
undergo and to the difficulty of obtaining the right selection of charms to treat
the rac, demand costly offerings whenever a tribesman must treat his ailing
rac.

f) Her zaman olduu gibi, tmcedeki as, for ve since yaplarna dikkat edin.

As a consequence the Asu must build more and more paths for the rac to
travel on since its delicate health and its love of racing other racs at high
speeds necessitates that special areas be set aside for its use.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarmadan nce aadaki tmceleri inceleyin.

Tmcelerde koyu yazl ksmlar Trkeye nasl aktarlabilir?

Each family invests large sums of money each year to keep its rac healthy and
shod, for it has a tendency to throw its shoes often.

The youth must petition a high priest in a grand temple.

He is then initiated into the ceremonies that surround the care of the rac and
is permitted to keep a rac.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

154

Although the rac may be used as a beast of burden, it has many habits which
would be considered by other cultures as detrimental to the life of the society.

In the first place the rac breed is increasing at a very rate and the Asu
tribesmen have given no thought to curbing the rac population.

There are so many paths needed that some people move their homes
because the rac paths must be as straight as possible to keep the animal
from injuring itself.


D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan okuyarak kontrol edin.





























BYLES DE VAR!
The millinery department will be on the second floor, and the
proprietor states that their aim will be always to have the latest and
last word to women's hats at appalling prices.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

155
26. Amber





5





10
Amber is fossil resin or gum exuded from various, now-extinct coniferous trees.
Amber is created when the resins produced by certain trees in tropical or
subtropical climates undergo a transformation process that usually takes millions of
years, and which is still not fully understood. The Baltic Sea area, now a
temperature zone, probably holds the best-known and most highly-prized supply of
amber, which is used in jewelry. In addition, in earlier centuries, magical properties
were attributed to amber because of the electricity it acquires when rubbed.

The substance is also of great interest to scientists since it has been the means of
preserving fossils, especially of insects, as much as 40 million years old. Amber
varies greatly according to the place where it is formed, the amber in each location
having its characteristic color, hardness, and even odor. Transparent to translucent,
amber is usually golden-yellow or yellow-brown in colour, although green, red, and
black varieties have been found.






it =?

The substance =?
since =?

159 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Aadaki tabloda, metindeki szcklerden bazlar verilmekte. Bu szcklerin
anlamlarn szlk kullanarak bulun. Bunu yaparken de, szcn metin iinde
tek bana m yoksa baka szcklerle terim oluturarak m kullanldna
dikkat edin.


Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
Amber
exuded
coniferous
resins
undergo 25. Metin'de ilendi.
zone
highly-prized
supply
jewelry
magical
properties
attributed 9. ve 15. Metin'de ilendi
acquires
rubbed
translucent
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

156
Ayrca

The Baltic Sea area, now a temperature zone, ...

blmne dikkat edin! Baltk Denizi'nin Kuzey Kutbu blgesine ok yakn
olduunu gznnde bulundurarak.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Tmceleri analiz edin.

Amber is created when the resins produced by certain trees in tropical or
subtropical climates undergo a transformation process that usually takes
millions of years, and which is still not fully understood.

The Baltic Sea area, now a temperature zone, probably holds the best-known
and most highly-prized supply of amber, which is used in jewelry.

In addition, in earlier centuries, magical properties were attributed to amber
because of the electricity it acquires when rubbed.

The substance is also of great interest to scientists since it has been the means
of preserving fossils, especially of insects, as much as 40 million years old.

Amber varies greatly according to the place where it is formed, the amber in
each location having its characteristic color, hardness, and even odor.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan anlam ve yap asndan inceleyin.
BYLES DE VAR!
YOUNG PEOPLE'S SOCIETY
Everyone is invited. Tea and social Hour at 6.15. Mrs. Smith will sin.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

157
27. Levophobia

Handedness is a preference for the use of either the right hand or the left hand. Although most animals have
a preferred paw or hand, only humans have a species-typical preference for the right hand. Approximately
75 per cent of the human population is strongly right-handed, and
approximately 90 per cent is predominantly right-handed. Among the
remaining 10 per cent, a great deal of variability exists. Some people are
strongly left-handed, and others, called ambidextrous, are left-handed for
some activities and right-handed for others.
The fact that some naturally left-handed children are forced into becoming
right-handed may even result in levophobia, an irrational fear of the left. Sufferers from this rare condition
find their hearts pound as if a heart attack were coming on a result of their brains releasing adrenaline at the
mere prospect of a left-oriented maneuver. They refuse to stand on the left side of an elevator, make left-hand
turns when driving, sometimes even to look to the left.

Psychologists believe levophobia will only disappear entirely when left-handed children - a minority in all
known societies - are fully accepted.

184 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Aadaki tabloda, metindeki szcklerden bazlar verilmekte. Bu szcklerin
anlamlarn szlk kullanarak bulun. Bunu yaparken de, szcn metin iinde
tek bana m yoksa baka szcklerle terim oluturarak m kullanldna
dikkat edin.

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
Levophobia
ambidextrous
irrational
Sufferers
pound
releasing
mere
prospect
left-oriented
maneuver
elevator

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

158
B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Tmceleri analiz edin.

Handedness is a preference for the use of either the right hand or the left hand.

Although most animals have a preferred paw or hand, only humans have a species-
typical preference for the right hand.

Approximately 75 per cent of the human population is strongly right-handed, and
approximately 90 per cent is predominantly right-handed.

Among the remaining 10 per cent, a great deal of variability exists.

Some people are strongly left-handed, and others, called ambidextrous, are left-
handed for some activities and right-handed for others.

The fact that some naturally left-handed children are forced into becoming right-
handed may even result in levophobia, an irrational fear of the left.

Sufferers from this rare condition find their hearts pound as if a heart attack were
coming on a result of their brains releasing adrenaline at the mere prospect of a
left-oriented maneuver.

They refuse to stand on the left side of an elevator, make left-hand turns when
driving, sometimes even to look to the left.

Psychologists believe levophobia will only disappear entirely when left-handed
children - a minority in all known societies - are fully accepted.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trke'ye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan anlam ve yap asndan inceleyin.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

159
28. Self-Confidence

Often people who hold higher positions in a given group overestimate their performance, while people in the
lowest levels of the group underestimate theirs. While this may not always be true, it does not indicate that
often the actual position in the group has much to do with the feeling of personal confidence a person may
have. Thus, if a member holds a high position in a group or if he feels that he has an important part in the
group, he will probably have more confidence in his own performance.

91 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metindeki yeni szckleri ve deinme szcklerini inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Tmceleri analiz edin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi anlam ve yap asndan inceleyin.





BYLES DE VAR!
Wanted, maid for mousework, two in the family.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

160
+
-
29. Magnetism

An aspect of electromagnetism, magnetism is one of the fundamental forces of nature.

Magnetism is an
important force of nature acting between objects called magnets. Magnets are most commonly known for
their ability to attract metallic substances. The Earth itself behaves as if a large magnet runs through its
center, with the strongest areas being at the north and south poles. Surprisingly, the magnetic field
surrounding the Earth is a million times weaker than the field surrounding an atom, yet it is a million times
stronger than that surrounding our own galaxy. Magnetism plays an essential role in creating large amounts
of electricity, without which complex industrial techniques would be infeasible. In more recent times, the
development of new magnetic materials has been important in the computer
revolution.

127 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metindeki yeni szckleri ve deinme szcklerini inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Tmceleri analiz edin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi anlam ve yap asndan inceleyin.

BYLES DE VAR!
Yzde yz ampiyon olacaz bir terslik olmazsa.
Beikta futbol takmnn kazand bir matan sonra bir yneticinin
szleri. 24 Mart 2002


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

161
30. The Death Penalty

I want to organize under five simple verbs my own reasons for thinking that the death penalty is a bad thing.
If we catch a man who has committed a murder, try him and convict him, we have to do something
more with him than punish him, because, although he must be punished, there are several other
things that ought to happen to him. I think that the whole theory of what ought to be done to a
convicted murderer can be summed up in the five verbs: prevent, reform, research, deter and
avenge. Let me take these five things in turn and see how the death penalty now looks as a means of
achieving them.
The first is "prevent". By this I mean preventing the same man from doing it again, to check him in his career
- though, of course, nobody makes a career of being a murderer, except the insane, who are not at issue in the
question of the death penalty. I believe that I am right in saying that in the course of a century there is only
one doubtful case of a convicted murderer, after his release at the end of a normal life sentence, committing
another murder. I think that that means, statistically, that the released murderer is no more likely to murder
again than anybody else is. The question of long sentences comes in here. If the sane convicted murderer is
not to be hanged, should he be imprisoned, and should the length of his service be determined in a way not
the usual one for the actual sentence served? I think this question can be answered only by looking at the
statistics of how likely a man is to do it again. In other words, how likely a prison sentence for a given
number of years, 15, 20 or 30 years, is to prevent him from doing it again. There is a wealth of statistics
available to us on that. I do not think they suggest that the convicted murderer who is not hanged should have
his prison sentence dealt with in any way differently from that in which prison sentences are usually dealt
with.
To turn to the second verb on my list, "reform". That is rather a nineteenth century word, and perhaps we
should now say "rehabilitate", stressing more the helping of a man with his social functions rather than
adjusting his internal character; but that is a minor point. It is clear that, whatever we may think about what is
able to be achieved in our prison system by treatment in the reformatory and rehabilitatory way - and it is
open to criticism for lack of funds and so on - it is obvious that less can be achieved if you hang a man. One
man who is utterly unreformable is a corpse; and hanging is out of the question, because you cannot achieve
any form of reform or rehabilitation by it.
The next word is "research". This is not part of the traditional idea of what to do with a convicted murderer. It
is rather a new notion that it may be an appropriate purpose in detaining a criminal and inflicting punishment
and other thing on him so that research should be conducted into the criminal personality and the causes of
the crime. At the moment we hang only the sanest criminals.
We can get all the research we want into the motives, characters and personality structures of those with
diminished responsibility, the insane and those under an age to be hanged. But the one we cannot research
into is the man who is sane and who commits capital murder in cold blood on purpose. It might be that if we

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

162
were to keep this man alive and turn psychiatrists and other qualified persons on to talking to him for twenty
years during his prison sentence we should find things that would enable us to take measures which should
reduce the murder rate and save the lives of the victims. But in hanging these men we cut ourselves off from
this possible source of knowledge of help to the victims of murder.
The fourth word, "deter", is the crux of the whole thing. Abolitionists, as we all know, have held for many
years that evidence from abroad has for long been conclusive that the capital penalty is not a uniquely
effective deterrent against murder. Retentionists of the death penalty have been saying for years that we are
not like those abroad: we are a different country economically: our national temperament is different; and
there is this and that about us which is not so about those in Italy, Norway or certain States of United States,
New Zealand, India, or wherever it may be. Now we have this remarkable pamphlet
*
which in effect closes
that gap in the abolitionists' argument. It shows within mortal certitude that we are exactly like those abroad,
and that in this country the death penalty is not a uniquely effective deterrent against murder.
The last on the list of my five verbs is "avenge". Here the death penalty is uniquely effective. If a man has
taken life, the most effective, obvious and satisfying form of avenge is to take his life. I have no argument
against that. I think it is true that if one accepts vengeance as a purpose for the State in its handling of
convicted criminals, then the death penalty should stay for the convicted murderers. For myself - and it is only
a personal matter - I utterly reject the idea that vengeance is a proper motive for the State in dealing with
convicted criminals; and I hope that, from the date of publication of this pamphlet onwards, those who wish to
retain the death penalty will admit that its merit is precisely that of vengeance.

Lord Kennet
Lordlar Kamaras
9 Kasm 1961.
1002 szck

Metnin tmn okurken u sorulara yant bulmaya aln:

1. Bu metnin yazar olan Lord Kennet idam cezasna kar m yoksa taraftar m?
2. Lord Kennet grlerini be temel balk altnda sunmakta. Bunlar neler?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3. Lord Kennet bu be unsurdan her birini ayr birer paragrafta ele almakta. Bu
paragraflarda, tartmann sonucunu belirleyen tmcenin altn izin.

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metinde anlamn bilmediiniz szcklerin anlamn aratrn. Metinde geen
terimlerden pek ou hukuk terimi olduu iin, yanl anlam almamaya
zellikle dikkat edin.

*
Bakanlk tarafndan, Lord Kennett'in konumasn yapt sralarda yaynlanm bir rapor.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

163

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Tmcelerin unsurlarn belirleyin. Bunu yaparken, zellikle aadaki tmcelere dikkat edin.

PARAGRAF 1

If we catch a man who has committed a murder, try him and convict him, we
have to do something more with him than punish him, because, although he
must be punished, there are several other things that ought to happen to him.

I think that the whole theory of what ought to be done to a convicted murderer
can be summed up in the five verbs ... .

PARAGRAF 2

By this I mean preventing the same man from doing it again, to check him in
his career - though, of course, nobody makes a career of being a murderer,
except the insane, who are not at issue in the question of the death penalty.

I believe that I am right in saying that in the course of a century there is only
one doubtful case of a convicted murderer, after his release at the end of a
normal life sentence, committing another murder.

I think that that means, statistically, that the released murderer is no more
likely to murder again than anybody else is.

I do not think they suggest that the convicted murderer who is not hanged
should have his prison sentence dealt with in any way differently from that in
which prison sentences are usually dealt with.

PARAGRAF 3

It is clear that, whatever we may think about what is able to be achieved in our
prison system by treatment in the reformatory and rehabilitatory way - and it is
open to criticism for lack of funds and so on - it is obvious that less can be
achieved if you hang a man.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

164
PARAGRAF 4

It is rather a new notion that it may be an appropriate purpose in detaining a
criminal and inflicting punishment and other thing on him that research should
be conducted into the criminal personality and the causes of the crime.

It might be that if we were to keep this man alive and turn psychiatrists and
other qualified persons on to talking to him for twenty years during his prison
sentence we should find things that would enable us to take measures which
should reduce the murder rate and save the lives of the victims.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye evirin.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

ngilizce metne bakmadan evirinizi okuyun ve dzgn bir Trke kullanp
kullanmadnz saptayn. Tmcelerin birbirleri ile zaman (= tense) ve anlam
asndan uyumlu olmasn salayn.
























BYLES DE VAR!
"Heavens, I am thirty!" she said. "Please get me a drink."

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

165
31. Slipper Animalcule





5





10

Paramecia are single-celled organisms usually less than 0.25 mm in length. The
miniscule paramecium is another well-known member of the protozoan family.
This one-celled animal, which is hardly detectable without the aid of a
microscope, thrives in bodies of fresh water. Like the amoeba, it is composed of
a watery substance called protoplasm, which is clear on the surface and granular
in the interior.

The term "slipper animalcule" is often used to describe the paramecium because its
shape resembles that of a shoe. Fine hairs called cilia cover its surface, adding to
the appearance of a slipper. The paramecium moves rapidly through water by
beating its cilia. An interesting feature of the paramecium is its method of
reproduction. It divides in two at the middle of its body, and the nucleus in each
section divides as well. It then separates into two animals, which may later come
together to exchange parts of the nuclei. This process of conjugation demonstrates
the beginning stages of sexual reproduction.








that =? its =?







165 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
Slipper Animalcule
miniscule paramecium
protozoan
one-celled
detectable
aid
thrives
amoeba
watery
substance
protoplasm
granular
interior
cilia
beating
reproduction
nucleus
nuclei
conjugation

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

166
B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmcelerde relative clause yaplar inceleyin.

Paramecia are single-celled organisms usually less than 0.25 mm in length.

This one-celled animal, which is hardly detectable without the aid of a
microscope, thrives in bodies of fresh water.

Like the amoeba, it is composed of a watery substance called protoplasm,
which is clear on the surface and granular in the interior.

It then separates into two animals, which may later come together to exchange
parts of the nuclei.

b) Tmcede gerund yaplar inceleyin.

Fine hairs called cilia cover its surface, adding to the appearance of a slipper.

The paramecium moves rapidly through water by beating its cilia.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trke'ye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

ngilizce metne bakmadan evirinizi kontrol edin.



BYLES DE VAR!
Arthur Kitchener was seriously burned Saturday afternoon when he
came into contact with a high voltage wife.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

167
32. Tighten Your Belt

The fact is that the energy crisis, which has suddenly been officially announced, has been with us for a long
time now, and will be with us for an even longer time. Whether Arab oil flows freely or not, it is clear to
everyone that world industry cannot be allowed to depend on so fragile a base. The supply of oil can be shut
off at whim at any time, and in any case, the oil wells will all run dry in thirty years or so at the present rate
of use. New sources of energy must be found, and this will take time, but it is not likely to result in any
situation that will ever restore that sense of cheap and copious energy we have had in the times past. To
make the situation worse, there is as yet no sign that any slowing of the world's population is in sight. The
food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this, which means that we are heading into a crisis in the
matter of producing and marketing food.

Taking all this into account, what might we reasonably estimate supermarkets to be like in the year 2001? To
begin with, the world food supply is going to become steadily tighter over the next thirty years. This means,
for one thing, that we can look forward to an end to the "natural food" trend. It is not a wave of the future.
All the "unnatural" things we do to food are required to produce more of the food in the first place, and to
make it last longer afterward. It is for that reason that we need and use chemical fertilizer and pesticides while
the food is growing, and add preservatives afterward. In fact, as food items will tend to decline in quality and
decrease in variety, there is very likely to be increasing use of flavouring additives. Until such time as
mankind has the sense to lower its population to the point where the planet can provide a comfortable support
for all, people will have to accept more artificiality. Then, too, there will be a steady trend toward
vegetarianism. A given quantity of ground can provide plant food for man or it can provide plant food for
animals which are then slaughtered for meat. Yet, land devoted to plant food will support ten times as many
human beings as land devoted to animal food. It is this (far more than food preferences or religious dictates)
that forces overcrowded populations into vegetarianism. This will come about because our herds will
decrease as the food demand causes more and more pasture land to be turned to farmland, and as land
producing corn and other animal fodder is diverted to providing food directly for man.

Another point is that it is not only energy that is in short supply. A shortage of oil means a shortage of
plastics; a shortage of electricity means a shortage of aluminium. We are also experiencing a shortage of
paper and most other raw materials.

This means that, for one thing, our generosity in wrapping, bagging and packaging will have to recede. There
will have to be at least a partial return in supermarkets to the old days where goods were supplied in bulk
and ladled out in bags to order.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

168
A decline in per-capita energy use will make it necessary to resort to human muscle again, so that the delivery
man will make a comeback (his price added to that of the food, of course). Since energy shortages will cause
unemployment in many sectors of the economy, there will be idle hands to do the manual work that will
become necessary.

To be sure, it will not be retrogression. Even assuming that Earth is in a desperate battle of survival through a
crisis of still-rising population and dwindling energy reserves, there should still continue to be technological
advances in those directions that don't depend on wasteful bulk-use of energy. There will be continuing
advances in the direction of "sophistication", in other words. Most noticeably, this will mean a continuing
computerization and, where possible, automation of the economy.


The Beginning and The End Isaac Asimov

691 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
fragile
whim
copious
trend
fertilizer
pesticides
flavouring
artificiality
slaughtered
devoted
dictates
pasture
fodder
recede
ladled
resort
idle
retrogression
dwindling

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet;
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

169
Koyu yazl yaplar dilbilgisi asndan inceleyin; bunlardan bir ksm
reference word.

Whether Arab oil flows freely or not, it is clear to everyone that world industry
cannot be allowed to depend on so fragile a base.

New sources of energy must be found, and this will take time, but it is not
likely to result in any situation that will ever restore that sense of cheap and
copious energy we have had in the times past.

To make the situation worse, there is as yet no sign that any slowing of the
world's population is in sight.

The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this, which means
that we are heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing
food.

It is not a wave of the future.

In fact, as food items will tend to decline in quality and decrease in variety,
there is very likely to be increasing use of flavouring additives.

Until such time as mankind has the sense to lower its population to the point
where the planet can provide a comfortable support for all, people will have to
accept more artificiality.

Yet, land devoted to plant food will support ten times as many human beings
as land devoted to animal food.

It is this (far more than food preferences or religious dictates) that forces
overcrowded populations into vegetarianism.

This will come about because our herds will decrease as the food demand
causes more and more pasture land to be turned to farmland, and as land
producing corn and other animal fodder is diverted to providing food directly for
man.

A decline in per-capita energy use will make it necessary to resort to human
muscle again, so that the delivery man will make a comeback (his price added
to that of the food, of course).

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

170
ncelikle koyu yazl blmleri gznnde bulundurarak tmceleri Trkeye
aktarn.

The fact is that the energy crisis, which has suddenly been officially
announced, has been with us for a long time now, and will be with us for an
even longer time.

Whether Arab oil flows freely or not, it is clear to everyone that world industry
cannot be allowed to depend on so fragile a base.

The supply of oil can be shut off at whim at any time, and in any case, the oil
wells will all run dry in thirty years or so at the present rate of use.

New sources of energy must be found, and this will take time, but it is not
likely to result in any situation that will ever restore that sense of cheap
and copious energy we have had in the times past.

To make the situation worse, there is as yet no sign that any slowing of
the world's population is in sight.

The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this, which means
that we are heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing
food.

Taking all this into account, what might we reasonably estimate
supermarkets to be like in the year 2001?

All the "unnatural" things we do to food are required to produce more of the
food in the first place, and to make it last longer afterward.

Until such time as mankind has the sense to lower its population to the
point where the planet can provide a comfortable support for all, people
will have to accept more artificiality.

A given quantity of ground can provide plant food for man or it can provide
plant food for animals which are then slaughtered for meat.

It is this (far more than food preferences or religious dictates) that forces
overcrowded populations into vegetarianism.

This will come about because our herds will decrease as the food demand
causes more and more pasture land to be turned to farmland, and as
land producing corn and other animal fodder is diverted to providing
food directly for man.

Another point is that it is not only energy that is in short supply.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

171

This means that, for one thing, our generosity in wrapping, bagging and
packaging will have to recede.

There will have to be at least a partial return in supermarkets to the old days
where goods were supplied in bulk and ladled out in bags to order.

A decline in per-capita energy use will make it necessary to resort to human
muscle again, so that the delivery man will make a comeback (his price
added to that of the food, of course).

Even assuming that Earth is in a desperate battle of survival through a crisis
of still-rising population and dwindling energy reserves, there should still
continue to be technological advances in those directions that don't
depend on wasteful bulk-use of energy.

Most noticeably, this will mean a continuing computerization and, where
possible, automation of the economy.

Metnin dier tmcelerini de Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizin Trkesini zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.


















BYLES DE VAR!
Domestic help wanted: 2 adults, boy at school; modern flat; own
bedroom; centrally heated foreign girl not objected to.



GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

172
33. Arranged Marriages: An Alternative to Love Marriages



Based on Hindu scriptures, the system of arranged marriage in India was well established during the Vedic
period (4000-1000 B.C.) and has been closely adhered to by the vast majority of the population since that
period. Marriage is seen as an indispensable event in the life of a Hindu and the unmarried person is viewed
as incomplete and ineligible for participation in certain social and religious activities. (Rao & Rao, 1977)

The practice of arranged marriage cuts across all caste lines, regional boundaries and language barriers in
India. Marriage is treated as an alliance between the two families rather than two individuals. In the common
joint family agreement where several families are living together, the prospective bride is evaluated on her
suitability as part on the entire family environment rather than only as a wife to her husband. Love is not
viewed as an important element in mate selection nor is courtship thought to be necessary for testing the
relationship. In fact, romantic love is regarded as an uncontrollable and explosive emotion which interferes
with the use of reason and logic in decision making. Love is thought to be a disruptive element since it
implies a transference of loyalty from the family of orientation to another individual. Thus, mate selection by
self-choice is seen as endangering the stability of the entire joint family since it could lead to the selection of
a mate of unsuitable temperament or background. Gupta (1976) has estimated that Indian marriages based on
love occur among less than one percent of the population. Critical life decisions, such as choosing a mate, are
generally determined by responsible members of the family or kin group, thus reflecting the cultural emphasis
of familism as opposed to freedom of the individual and pursuance of personal goals. However, it is
anticipated that close ties and feelings of affection will develop between the couple following marriage
(Gupta, 1976; Rao & Rao, 1977; Ross, 1961).

In urban areas of India, newspaper ads have become a convenient and acceptable method of finding a suitable
spouse. In 1960 Cormack noted that the practice of using matrimonial advertisements was growing in most
Indian cities. Eleven years later, Kurian (1977) observed that it had become an established "go between" for
arranging marriages. These advertisements typically list the characteristics of the young men and women that
are considered desirable. Studies by Kurian (1974) and Ross (1961) show strong sex differences in preferred
qualities for males and females. In the Indian culture, a male is highly valued for the social and economic
status of his family, his educational level and potential earning power. Personal qualities such as appearance
and personality are not considered very important. In women the following qualities are emphasized: moral
character, beauty, ability to cook well and manage a home, and education.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

173
Most recent research on modern family life in India suggests that there has been little change in the views of
Indians toward marriage. However in their 1976 study of college students, Rao and Rao found that an
increasing number of young adults in India wish to have more choice in the selection of their future mate,
although they still prefer their parents to arrange their marriages. Cormack (1961) also states that the custom
of prohibiting a prospective couple from seeing each other until their wedding is becoming obsolete in most
urban areas and among college-educated youth.

559 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Genel eviri 1 kitabnn nc konusunda bu metnin szckleri ile ilgili alma yapld.

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
scriptures
adhered
indispensable
ineligible
caste
prospective
courtship
interferes
transference
loyalty
orientation
kin
pursuance
spouse
matrimonial
obsolete

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Aadaki tmcelerin tmnde as szc kullanlmakta. Bu tmceleri inceleyin.

Marriage is seen as an indispensable event in the life of a Hindu and the
unmarried person is viewed as incomplete and ineligible for participation in
certain social and religious activities.

Marriage is treated as an alliance between the two families rather than two
individuals.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

174
In the common joint family agreement where several families are living
together, the prospective bride is evaluated on her suitability as part on the
entire family environment rather than only as a wife to her husband.

Love is not viewed as an important element in mate selection nor is courtship
thought to be necessary for testing the relationship.

In fact, romantic love is regarded as an uncontrollable and explosive emotion
which interferes with the use of reason and logic in decision making.

Thus, mate selection by self-choice is seen as endangering the stability of the
entire joint family since it could lead to the selection of a mate of unsuitable
temperament or background.

Critical life decisions, such as choosing a mate, are generally determined by
responsible members of the family or kin group, thus reflecting the cultural
emphasis of familism as opposed to freedom of the individual and pursuance
of personal goals.

Personal qualities such as appearance and personality are not considered
very important.

b) Metnin dier tmcelerini de inceleyin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.








BYLES DE VAR!
The greatest objection to the schemes of both the socialists and the
liberals was that they involved increases in the cost of loving.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

175
34. Nuclear Energy

Of all the changes introduced by man into the household of nature, large-scale nuclear fission is undoubtedly
the most dangerous and profound. As a result, ionising radiation has become the most serious agent of
pollution of the environment and the greatest threat to man's survival on earth. The attention of the
layman, not surprisingly, has been captured by the atom bomb, although there is at least a chance that it may
never be used again. The danger to humanity created by the so-called peaceful uses of atomic energy may be
much greater. There could indeed be no clearer example of the prevailing dictatorship of economics. Whether
to build conventional power stations, based on coal or oil, or nuclear stations, is being decided on economic
grounds, with perhaps a small element of regard for the "social consequences" that might arise from the
over-speedy curtailment of the coal industry. But that nuclear fission represents an incredible, incomparable,
and unique hazard for human life does not enter any calculation and is never mentioned. People whose
business it is to judge hazards, the insurance companies, are reluctant to insure nuclear power stations
anywhere in the world for third party risk, with the result that special legislation has had to be passed
whereby the State accepts big liabilities. Yet, insured or not, the hazard remains, and such is the thraldom of
the religion of economics that the only question that appears to interest either governments or the public is
whether "it pays".

The most massive wastes are, of course, the nuclear reactors themselves after they have become
unserviceable. There is a lot of discussion on the trivial economic question of whether they will last for
twenty, twenty-five, or thirty years. No-one discusses the humanly vital point that they cannot be dismantled
and cannot be shifted but have to be left standing where they are, probably for centuries, perhaps for
thousands of years, an active menace to life, silently leaking radioactivity into air, water, and soil. No-one has
considered the number and location of these satanic mills which will relentlessly accumulate. Earthquakes, of
course, are not supposed to happen, nor wars, nor civil disturbances, nor riots like those that infested
American cities. Disused nuclear power stations will stand as unsightly monuments to unquiet man's
assumption that nothing but tranquillity, from now on, stretches before him, or else - that the future counts as
nothing compared with the slightest economic gain now.


404 szck

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

176
A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
fission
profound
layman
prevailing
curtailment
unique
hazard
reluctant
legislation
liabilities
thraldom
dismantled
menace
satanic
relentlessly
riots
unsightly
unquiet
tranquillity

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Tmcelerin dilbilgisi yapsn inceleyin. zellikle aadaki tmcelere dikkat
edin.

a) the most dangerous and profound _______?

Of all the changes introduced by man into the household of nature, large-scale
nuclear fission is undoubtedly the most dangerous and profound.

b) Tmcenin yklemini bulun.

Whether to build conventional power stations, based on coal or oil, or nuclear
stations, is being decided on economic grounds, with perhaps a small
element of regard for the "social consequences" that might arise from the
over-speedy curtailment of the coal industry.

c) Tmcenin yklemini bulun.

But that nuclear fission represents an incredible, incomparable, and unique
hazard for human life does not enter any calculation and is never mentioned.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

177
d) Ana tmceyi ve yan tmceyi saptayn.

People whose business it is to judge hazards, the insurance companies, are
reluctant to insure nuclear power stations anywhere in the world for third
party risk, with the result that special legislation has had to be passed
whereby the State accepts big liabilities.

e) insured or not yapsn inceleyin; whether "it pays" blmn incelerken, yapnn soru halini
("________ pay?") dnn ve mutlaka iyi bir szlk kullanarak bu yapnn Trke
karln saptayn.

Yet, insured or not, the hazard remains, and such is the thraldom of the
religion of economics that the only question that appears to interest either
governments or the public is whether "it pays".

f) Srekli "Kim?/Ne?" sorusuna yant arayn.

No-one discusses the humanly vital point that they cannot be dismantled and
cannot be shifted but have to be left standing where they are, probably for
centuries, perhaps for thousands of years, an active menace to life, silently
leaking radioactivity into air, water, and soil.

g) Tmcede ncelikle before szcne dikkat! Ardndan noun clause yaplar zmleyin.

Disused nuclear power stations will stand as unsightly monuments to unquiet
man's assumption that nothing but tranquillity, from now on, stretches before
him, or else - that the future counts as nothing compared with the slightest
economic gain now.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.



BYLES DE VAR!
Well-built modern house in 2 excellent self-contained flats. An
opportunity not to be missed. Bath vacant in the early spring.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

178
35. Lie Detector

On February morning in 1966 Cleve Backster made a discovery that changed his life and could have far-
reaching effects on ours. Backster was at that time an interrogation specialist who left the CIA to operate a
New York school for training policemen in the techniques of using the polygraph, or "lie detector". This
instrument normally measures the electrical resistance of the human skin, but on that morning he extended its
possibilities. Immediately after watering an office plant, he wondered if it would be possible to measure the
rate at which water rose in the plant from the root to the leaf by recording the increase in leaf-moisture
content on a polygraph tape. Backster placed the two pscyhogalvanic-reflex (PGR) electrodes on either side
of a leaf of Dracaena massangeana, a potted rubber plant, and balanced the leaf into the circuitry before
watering the plant again. There was no marked reaction to this stimulus, so Backster decided to try what he
calls "the threat-to-well-being principle, a well-established method of triggering emotionality in humans." In
other words he decided to torture the plant.

First he dipped one of its leaves into a cup of hot coffee, but there was no reaction, so he decided to get a
match and burn the leaf properly. "At the instant of this decision, at 13 minutes and 55 seconds of chart time,
there was a dramatic change in the PGR tracing pattern in the form of an abrupt and prolonged upward sweep
of the recording pen. I had not moved, or touched the plant, so the timing of the PGR pen activity suggested
to me that the tracing might have been triggered by the mere thought of the harm I intended to inflict on the
plant."

Backster went on to explore the possibility of such perception in the plant by bringing some live brine shrimp
into his office and dropping them one by one into boiling water. Every time he killed a shrimp, the polygraph
recording needle attached to the plant jumped violently. To eliminate the possibility of his own emotions
producing this reaction, he completely automated the whole experiment so that an electronic randomizer
chose odd moments to dump the shrimp into hot water when no human was in the laboratory at all. The plant
continued to respond in sympathy to the death of every shrimp and failed to register any change when the
machine dropped already dead shrimp into the water.

406 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
far-reaching
interrogation
leaf-moisture
stimulus
triggering
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

179
emotionality
dipped
abrupt
prolonged
sweep
inflict 20. Metin'de ilendi.
perception
brine shrimp
randomizer


B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmcede time clause, noun clause ve relative clause yap bulunmakta. Tmceyi dikkatle
inceleyin.

Immediately after watering an office plant, he wondered if it would be possible
to measure the rate at which water rose in the plant from the root to the leaf by
recording the increase in leaf-moisture content on a polygraph tape.

b) Relative clause yapy inceleyin.

There was no marked reaction to this stimulus, so Backster decided to try what
he calls "the threat-to-well-being principle, a well-established method of
triggering emotionality in humans."

c) Tmcede iki virgl arasnda verilen blm neyi aklamakta?

"At the instant of this decision, at 13 minutes and 55 seconds of chart time,
there was a dramatic change in the PGR tracing pattern in the form of an
abrupt and prolonged upward sweep of the recording pen.

d) Relative clause yapy saptayn.

I had not moved, or touched the plant, so the timing of the PGR pen activity
suggested to me that the tracing might have been triggered by the mere
thought of the harm I intended to inflict on the plant."

e) Tmcenin analizini ayrntl olarak yapn.

To eliminate the possibility of his own emotions producing this reaction, he
completely automated the whole experiment so that an electronic randomizer
chose odd moments to dump the shrimp into hot water when no human was in
the laboratory at all.

f) Dier tmcelerin dilbilgisi yapsn inceleyin.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

180

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.




























BYLES DE VAR!
Uzay Yolu (Startrek) dizisi. Bir gezegenin yzeyinde kaybolan
personeline, tm gereleri bozulduu iin yardm edemeyen Kaptan
Kirk sitem etmekte:

We are helpless up here.

Trke seslendirme:

Burada yardmsz kaldk.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

181
36. Barter

The existence of pure barter does not necessarily indicate a very primitive form of civilization. Often the
system survives long after the community has progressed considerably in other respects. This may be due to
conservatism, since primitive peoples are reluctant to change their trading methods, even though they be
sufficiently intelligent and advanced to adopt more convenient methods. In some cases there is prejudice
against the adaptation of a monetary economy, though such prejudice is usually directed against the use of
coins rather than primitive money. In many cases barter continues to be the principal method of trading long
after the adoption of some form of money, for the simple reason that there is not enough money to go round.
And a decline in the supply of money often causes a relapse into barter. Distrust in money has been
responsible for reversion to the barter system; such distrust may have been caused by debasement or inflation.

In the light of the stock phrases used by many economists about the inconvenience of barter it may appeal
puzzling to the student that any community which was sufficiently advanced to realize the possibilities of a
monetary system should continue to practise such an inconvenient method. The explanation is that in a
primitive community barter is not nearly as inconvenient as it appears through modern eyes. Economists are
inclined to exaggerate its inconvenience because they look at it from the point of view of modern man. The
instances - real or imaginary - they quote are calculated to make the readers wonder how any community
could possibly have existed under barter except in extremely primitive conditions. Some of them seek to
demonstrate the absurdity of barter by describing the difficulties that would arise if our modern communities
were to attempt to practise it. It is, of course, easy for a lecturer to earn the laughter of his audience by telling
them about the pathetic efforts of some gardener who has to find a barber in need of radishes before he can
have his hair cut. What the lecturer and his audience do not realize is that in a primitive community the
grower of radishes usually cuts his own hair, or has it cut by a member of his family or household; and that
even in primitive communities with barbers as an independent profession the barber and the gardener have a
fair idea about each other's requirements, and have no difficulty in suiting each other. If the barber does not
happen to require to-day any of the products the gardener is in a position to offer, he simply performs his
service in turn for the future delivery of products he is expected to need sooner or later.

Even the genuine instances quoted by economists to illustrate the absurdity of barter are apt to be misleading
in their implication. There is, for instance, the well-known experience of Mlle. Zelie, singer at the Theatre
Lyrique in Paris, who, in the course of a tour round the world, gave a concert on one of the Society Islands,
and received the fee of three pigs, five thousand coconuts and considerable quantities of bananas, lemons and
oranges, representing one-third of the box office takings.

In a letter published by Wolowski and quoted to boredom by economists ever since, she says that, although
this amount of livestock and vegetables would have been worth for about four thousand francs in Paris, in the
Society Islands it was very little use to her. Another much-quoted experience is that of Cameron in
Tanganyika, when in order to buy an urgently needed boat he first had to swap brass against cloth, then cloth
against ivory and finally ivory against the boat. What the economists quoting these and other similar instances
do not appear to realize is that the difficulties complained of are not inherent in the system of barter. They are
largely anomalies arising from sudden contact between two different civilizations. A native singer in the
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

182
Society Islands would not have been embarrassed at receiving payment in kind, since she would have known
ways in which to dispose of her takings, or store them for future use. Nor would a native of Tanganyika have
found the system of barter prevailing there at the time of Cameron's visit nearly so difficult as Cameron did.
Knowing local conditions, he would have been prepared for the difficulties, and, before embarking on a
major capital transaction such as the purchase of a boat, he would have made arrangements accordingly. In
any case, the fact that the goods required could not be obtained by a single transaction would not have
worried him unduly. The majority of primitive peoples enjoy bartering and bargaining, and the time lost in
putting through three transactions instead of one would not matter to them nearly as much as to modern man
living at high speed, especially to an explorer in a hurry to proceed on his journey. And while Cameron must
have suffered a loss in each of the three transactions, a local man with adequate time at his disposal and with a
thorough knowledge of his market would have chosen the right moment for effecting the necessary exchanges
on terms reasonably advantageous to him.

Paul Heinzig. Primitive Money
869 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
prejudice
relapse
Distrust
reversion
debasement
puzzling
inconvenience
pathetic
radishes
genuine
quoted
livestock
swap
brass
inherent
dispose
transaction
unduly
B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

183
a) ncelikle aadaki tmceleri inceleyin.

This may be due to conservatism, since primitive peoples are reluctant to
change their trading methods, even though they be sufficiently intelligent and
advanced to adopt more convenient methods.

In the light of the stock phrases used by many economists about the
inconvenience of barter it may appeal puzzling to the student that any
community which was sufficiently advanced to realize the possibilities of a
monetary system should continue to practise such an inconvenient method.

The instances - real or imaginary - they quote are calculated to make the
readers wonder how any community could possibly have existed under barter
except in extremely primitive conditions.

What the lecturer and his audience do not realize is that in a primitive
community the grower of radishes usually cuts his own hair, or has it cut by a
member of his family or household; and that even in primitive communities
with barbers as an independent profession the barber and the gardener have a
fair idea about each other's requirements, and have no difficulty in suiting each
other.

In a letter published by Wolowski and quoted to boredom by economists ever
since, she says that, although this amount of livestock and vegetables would
have been worth for about four thousand francs in Paris, in the Society Islands
it was very little use to her.

In any case, the fact that the goods required could not be obtained by a single
transaction would not have worried him unduly.

And while Cameron must have suffered a loss in each of the three
transactions, a local man with adequate time at his disposal and with a
thorough knowledge of his market would have chosen the right moment for
effecting the necessary exchanges on terms reasonably advantageous to him.

b) Dier tmcelerin dilbilgisi yapsn inceleyin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

184
37. Art

There is no denying that in the last hundred years the condition of civilised man has changed more radically
than at any previous time. Inventions and discoveries, from the steam engine to internal combustion engine,
from electricity to atomic power, have led to the mechanisation of industry, which in turn has basically
affected the social, economic and political structure of our society. A society of the masses has come into
existence and is being buttressed by such mass means as the press, the cinema, radio and - latterly - television.

It is hardly surprising that these rapidly changing circumstances should have had their effect on the arts, too.
Art has always been a highly sensitive instrument for registering any changes in the social order or in the
ideas, beliefs and activities of man. One might ask whether it is possible for the creative faculty to exist at all
in a mass-society, whether our mechanised world is the proper place for the production and enjoyment of a
work of art. If it is true that calm contemplation is vital to the artist, does it not also follow that his whole
being will protest most violently against an epoch in which machine sets the pace, a pace which, in its ruthless
precision, is the very opposite of that rhythm of life out of which art has hitherto grown?

The Picture encyclopaedia of art, Thames and Hudson
224 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
combustion
masses
buttressed
latterly
contemplation
vital
epoch
ruthless
precision
hitherto

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That,gerund,past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

185
a) ncelikle aadaki tmceleri inceleyin.

Inventions and discoveries, from the steam engine to internal combustion
engine, from electricity to atomic power, have led to the mechanisation of
industry, which in turn has basically affected the social, economic and political
structure of our society.

One might ask whether it is possible for the creative faculty to exist at all in a
mass-society, whether our mechanised world is the proper place for the
production and enjoyment of a work of art.

If it is true that calm contemplation is vital to the artist, does it not also follow
that his whole being will protest most violently against an epoch in which
machine sets the pace, a pace which, in its ruthless precision, is the very
opposite of that rhythm of life out of which art has hitherto grown ?

b) Dier tmceleri dilbilgisi asndan inceleyin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.

















BYLES DE VAR!
If you want my booklet on "How To Improve Your Memory", send a
self-addressed envelope, plus a dame.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

186
38. New Policy Debate


For nearly two decades technical and financial assistance to third World population and family planning
programs has been an important component of foreign aid programs. Support for these activities by the
United States and other industrialized donors has been justified in part by the long-standing belief that rapid
population growth in the developing world dilutes and in some cases impedes economic development.

But in the last several years this contention has been sharply challenged by a small group of Western
economists who argue that population growth is often the driving force behind economic expansion and
technological change. Citing historical precedents in Western countries and post-war economic successes in
Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea and elsewhere, they make three general points: first, that population growth
is the natural result of improvements in the human condition, especially improved health; second, that an
expanding labor force, an expanding market, and other consequences of population spur economic growth;
and third, that economic progress, in and of itself, will lead to population stabilization through changes in
desired family size. Direct interventions to reduce birth-rates are unnecessary or even counterproductive.

In the United States this "anti-Malthusian" view, as it is called by its proponents, has recently gained support
in some government circles and among political pressure groups (most prominently anti-abortion groups) who
oppose assistance to population programs on other grounds. Their attack on US. population assistance peaked
in the summer of 1984, during preparations for US. participation in the UN. International Population
Conference. It precipitated the first major public debate in the 20-year history of US. foreign aid for family
planning. Although public and media attention declined after the Conference, the policy debate has continued.

At the heart of the debate is a singularly important but highly complex question. In today's less developed
countries, where 90 per cent of world population growth is occurring, does the need to adapt to population
pressures contribute to greater economic innovation, increased investment, and more efficient exploitation of
natural and human resources? Or do population pressures more often overload fragile economic and political
institutions, impede capital formation just when more is needed, add to a pool of unproductive or unemployed
labor, and contribute to the over-exploitation of scarce natural resources? Do demographic trends (up or
down) influence economic performance in positive ways, in negative ways or not at all?

389 szck

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

187
A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
component
donors
justified
dilutes
impedes
contention
challenged
Citing
precedents
consequences
spur
interventions
counterproductive
proponents
prominently 25. Metin'de ilendi.
anti-abortion
peaked
precipitated
debate 21. Metin'de ilendi.
innovation
exploitation
fragile 32. Metin'de ilendi.
impede
scarce

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) ncelikle aadaki tmceleri inceleyin.

Support for these activities by the United States and other industrialized
donors has been justified in part by the long-standing belief that rapid
population growth in the developing world dilutes and in some cases impedes
economic development.

Citing historical precedents in Western countries and post-war economic
successes in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea and elsewhere, they make
three general points: first, that population growth is the natural result of
improvements in the human condition, especially improved health; second,
that an expanding labor force, an expanding market, and other consequences
of population spur economic growth; and third, that economic progress, in and
of itself, will lead to population stabilization through changes in desired family
size.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

188

In today's less developed countries, where 90 per cent of world population
growth is occurring, does the need to adapt to population pressures contribute
to greater economic innovation, increased investment, and more efficient
exploitation of natural and human resources?

Or do population pressures more often overload fragile economic and political
institutions, impede capital formation just when more is needed, add to a pool
of unproductive or unemployed labor, and contribute to the over-exploitation of
scarce natural resources?

b) Dier tmcelerin dilbilgisi yapsn inceleyin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.






















BYLES DE VAR!
I think the words "never" or "ever" should be avoided by politicians,
because you can never foresee what's going to happen. (Bu tmce bir
politikac tarafndan sylenmitir.)

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

189
39. Investment

Of the various purposes which money serves, some essentially depend upon the assumption that its real value
is really constant over a period of time. The chief of these are those connected, in a wide sense, with contracts
for the investment of money.

Such contracts - namely those which provide for the payment of fixed sums of money over a long period of
time - are the characteristics of what it is convenient to call the Investment System, as distinct from the
property system generally.

Under this phase of capitalism, as developed during the nineteenth century, many arrangements were devised
for separating the management of property from its ownership. These managements were of three leading
types: (1) those in which the proprietor, while parting with the management of his property, retained his
ownership of it - i.e. of the actual land, buildings, and machinery, or of whatever else it consisted in, this
mode of tenure being typified by a holding of ordinary shares in joint-stock company; (2) those in which he
parted with the property temporarily, receiving a fixed sum of money annually in the meantime, but regained
his property eventually, as typified by a lease; and (3) those in which he parted with his real property
permanently, in return either for a perpetual annuity fixed in terms of money, or for a terminable annuity and
the repayment of the principal money at the end of the term, as typified by mortgages, bonds, debentures, and
preference shares. This third type represents the full development of Investment.

Contrasts to receive fixed sums of money at future dates (made without provision for possible changes in the
real value of money at those dates) must have existed as long as money has been lent and borrowed. In the
form of leases and mortgages, and also of permanent loans to Governments and to a few private bodies, such
as the East India Company, they were already frequent in the eighteenth century. But during the nineteenth
century they developed a new and increasing importance, and had, by the beginning of the twentieth, divided
the propertied classes into two groups - the "business men" and the "investors" - with partly divergent
interests. The division was not sharp as between individuals; for business men might be investors also,
investors might hold ordinary shares; but the division was nevertheless real, and not the less important
because it was seldom noticed.

By the aid of this system the active business class could call to the aid of their enterprises not only their own
wealth but the savings of the whole community; and the professional and propertied classes, on the other
hand, could find an employment for their resources, which involved them in little trouble, no responsibility,
and (it was believed) small risk.

For a hundred years the system worked, throughout Europe, with an extraordinary success and facilitated the
growth of wealth on an unprecedented scale. To save and to invest became at once the duty and the delight of
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

190
a large class. The savings were seldom drawn on, and, accumulating at compound interest, made possible the
material triumphs which we now all take for granted. The morals, the politics, the literature, and the religion
of the age joined in the grand conspiracy for the promotion of savings. God and Mammon were reconciled.
Peace on earth to men of good means. A rich man could, after all, enter into the Kingdom of Heaven - if
only he saved. A new harmony sounded from the celestial spheres. It is curious to observe how, through the
wise and beneficent arrangement of Providence, "men thus do the greatest service to the public, when they are
thinking of nothing but their own gain": so sang the angels.

The atmosphere thus created well harmonized the demands of expanding business and the needs of an
expanding population with the growth of a comfortable non-business class. But amidst the general enjoyment
of ease and progress, the extent to which the system depended on the stability of the money to which the
investing classes had committed their fortunes was generally overlooked; and an unquestioning confidence
was apparently felt that this matter would look after itself. Investments spread and multiplied, until, for the
middle classes of the world, the gilt-edged bond came to typify all that was most permanent and most secure.
So rooted in our day has been the conventional belief in the stability and safety of a money contract that,
according to English law, trustees have been encouraged to embark their trust funds exclusively in such
transactions, and are indeed forbidden, except in the case of real estate (an exception which is itself a survival
of the conditions of an earlier age) to employ them otherwise.

As in other respects, so also in this, the nineteenth century relied on the future permanence of its own happy
experiences and disregarded the warning of the past misfortunes. It chose to forget that there is no historical
warrant for expecting money to be represented even by constant quality of a particular metal, far less by a
constant purchasing power. Yet Money is simply that which the State declares from time to time to be a good
legal discharge of money contracts. In 1914 gold had not been the English standard for a century or the sole
standard of any other country for half a century. There is no record of a prolonged war or a great social
upheaval which has not been accompanied by a change in the legal tender, but an almost unbroken chronicle
in every country which has a history, back to the earliest dawn of economic record, of a progressive
deterioration in the real value of the successive legal tenders which have represented money.

J. M. Keynes A Tract on Monetary Reform
957 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
distinct
proprietor
retained 21. Metin'de ilendi.
tenure
typified
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

191
joint-stock
lease
annuity
terminable
debentures
provision
divergent
facilitated
compound
triumphs
conspiracy
Mammon
reconciled
celestial
overlooked
gilt-edged
trustees
embark
exclusively
prolonged 35. Metin'de ilendi.
tender
deterioration

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmcede koyu yazl blm inceleyin.

Such contracts - namely those which provide for the payment of fixed sums of
money over a long period of time - are the characteristics of what it is
convenient to call the Investment System, as distinct from the property
system generally.

b) Koyu yazl blm inceleyin.

(1) those in which the proprietor, while parting with the management of his
property, retained his ownership of it - i.e. of the actual land, buildings, and
machinery, or of whatever else it consisted in, this mode of tenure being
typified by a holding of ordinary shares in joint-stock company;

c) Tmcede koyu yazl blm inceleyin.

The division was not sharp as between individuals; for business men might be
investors also, investors might hold ordinary shares; but the division was
nevertheless real, and not the less important because it was seldom
noticed.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

192
d) Yklemi bulun.

The atmosphere thus created well harmonized the demands of expanding
business and the needs of an expanding population with the growth of a
comfortable non-business class.

e) Tmceyi inceleyin.

But amidst the general enjoyment of ease and progress, the extent to which
the system depended on the stability of the money to which the investing
classes had committed their fortunes was generally overlooked; and an
unquestioning confidence was apparently felt that this matter would look after
itself.

f) Tmcede koyu yazl blm inceleyin.

Yet Money is simply that which the State declares from time to time to be a
good legal discharge of money contracts.

g) Metnin dier tmcelerini inceleyin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

193
40. Modern Constitutions

It is natural to ask, in the light of this discussion, why it is that countries have Constitutions, and why most of
them make the constitution superior to the ordinary law. If we investigate the origins of modern Constitutions,
we find that, practically without exception, they were drawn up and adopted because people wished to make a
fresh start, so far as the statement of their system of government was concerned. The desire or need for a
fresh start arose either because, as in the United States, some neighbouring communities wished to unite
together under a new government, or because, as in Austria or Hungary or Czechoslovakia after 1918,
communities had been released from an empire as the result of a war and were now free to govern themselves;
or because, as in France in 1789 or the U.S.S.R. in 1917, a revolution had made a break with the past and a
new form of government on new principles was desired; or because, as in Germany after 1918 or in France
1875 or in 1946, defeat in war had broken the continuity of government and a fresh start was needed after the
war. The circumstances in which a break with the past and the need for a fresh start come about vary from
country to country, but in almost every case in modern times, countries have a Constitution for a very simple
and elementary reason that they wanted, for some reason, to begin again and so they put down in writing the
main outline, at least, of their proposed system of government. This has been the practice certainly since 1781
when the American constitution was drafted, and as the years passed no doubt imitation and the force of
example have led all countries to think it necessary to have a Constitution.

This does not explain, however, why many countries think it necessary to give the Constitution a higher status
in law than other rules of law. The short explanation of this phenomenon is that in many countries a
Constitution is thought of as an instrument by which government can be controlled. Constitutions spring from
a belief in limited government. Countries differ however in the extent to which they wish to impose
limitations. Sometimes the Constitution limits the executive or subordinate local bodies; sometimes it limits
the legislature also, but only so far as amendment of the Constitution itself is concerned; and sometimes it
imposes restrictions upon the legislature which go far beyond this point and forbid it to make laws upon
certain subjects or in a certain way or with certain effects. Whatever the nature and the extent of the
restrictions, however, they are based upon a belief in limited government and in the use of a Constitution to
impose these limitations.

The nature of the limitations to be imposed on a government, and therefore the degree to which a Constitution
will be supreme over a government, depends upon the objects which the framers of the Constitution wish to
safeguard. In the first place they may want to do no more than ensure that the Constitution is not altered
casually or carelessly or by subterfuge or by implication; they may want to secure that this important
document is not lightly tampered with, but solemnly, with due notice and deliberation, consciously amended.
In that case it is legitimate to require some special process of constitutional amendment to say, that the
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

194
legislature may amend the Constitution only by a two/thirds majority or after a general election or perhaps
upon three months notice.

The framers of Constitutions have more than this in mind. They may feel that a certain kind of relationship
between legislature and the executive is important, or that the judicature should have a certain guaranteed
degree of independence of the legislature and executive. They may feel that there are certain rights which
citizens have and which the legislature or the executive must not invade or remove. They may feel that
certain laws should not be made at all. The framers of the American Constitution, for example, forbade
Congress to pass any ex-post facto law, that is, a law made after the occurrence of the action or the situation
which it seeks to regulate - a type of law which may render a man guilty of an offence through an action
which, when he committed it, was innocent. The framers of the Irish Constitution of 1937 forbade the
legislature to pass any law permitting divorce.

Further safeguards may be called for when distinct and different communities decide to join together under a
common government but are anxious to retain certain rights for themselves. If these communities differ in
language, race, and religion, safeguards may be needed to guarantee to them a free exercise of these national
characteristics. Those who framed the Swiss, the Canadian, and the South African Constitutions, to name a
few only, had to consider these questions. Even when communities do not differ in language, race, or religion,
they may still be unwilling to unite unless they are guaranteed a measure of independence inside the nation.
To meet this demand the Constitution must not only divide powers between the government of the Union and
the governments of the individual, component parts, but it must also be supreme in so far at any rate as it
enshrines and safeguards this division of powers.

In some countries only one of the considerations mentioned above may operate, in others some, and in some,
all. Thus, in the Irish Constitution, the framers were anxious that amendment should be a deliberate process,
that the right of citizens should be safeguarded and that certain types of laws should not be passed at all, and
therefore they made the Constitution supreme and imposed restrictions upon the legislature to achieve these
ends. The framers of the American Constitution also had these objects in mind, but on top of that they had to
provide for the desire of the thirteen colonies to be united for some purposes only and to remain independent
for others. This was an additional reason for giving supremacy to the Constitution and for introducing certain
extra safeguards into it.


K. C. Wheare. Modern Constitutions.
1024 szck.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

195
A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
released
defeat
drafted
subordinate
legislature
amendment
supreme
safeguard
altered
casually
subterfuge
implication
tampered
solemnly
deliberation
amended
judicature
invade
render
retain 21 ve 39. Metin'de ilendi.
enshrines

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmce uzun olduu iin dikkatle incelenerek toparlanmas gerekebilir.

The desire or need for a fresh start arose either because, as in the United
States, some neighbouring communities wished to unite together under a new
government, or because, as in Austria or Hungary or Czechoslovakia after
1918, communities had been released from an empire as the result of a war
and were now free to govern themselves; or because, as in France in 1789 or
the U.S.S.R. in 1917, a revolution had made a break with the past and a new
form of government on new principles was desired; or because, as in Germany
after 1918 or in France 1875 or in 1946, defeat in war had broken the
continuity of government and a fresh start was needed after the war.

b) Yan tmceyi inceleyin.

Whatever the nature and the extent of the restrictions, however, they are
based upon a belief in limited government and in the use of a Constitution to
impose these limitations.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

196
c) Tmcenin yklemini bulun.

The nature of the limitations to be imposed on a government, and therefore the
degree to which a Constitution will be supreme over a government, depends
upon the objects which the framers of the Constitution wish to safeguard.

d) Koyu yazl blm analiz edin.

In the first place they may want to do no more than ensure that the
Constitution is not altered casually or carelessly or by subterfuge or by
implication; they may want to secure that this important document is not
lightly tampered with, but solemnly, with due notice and deliberation,
consciously amended.

e) Koyu yazl blm inceleyin.

To meet this demand the Constitution must not only divide powers between
the government of the Union and the governments of the individual,
component parts, but it must also be supreme in so far at any rate as it
enshrines and safeguards this division of powers.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.













BYLES DE VAR!
As I strolled through the car park I was depressed by the condition of
the vehicles. Some of the owners did not appear to have washed their
ears for weeks.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

197
41. Television

A continuous commentary of mirror of "real" life had been created on television. To switch on the set when
the day's viewing started, with one's mind slightly turned down, or in a bit of a fever, or very tired, and to
watch, steadily, through the hours, as little dressed figures, diminished people, dressed up like cowboys or
like bus drivers or like Victorians, with this or that accent, in this or that setting, sometimes a hospital,
sometimes an office or an aircraft, sometimes "real" or sometimes imaginary (that is to say, the product of
somebody's, or some team's, imagination), it was exactly like what could be seen when one turned one's
vision outwards again towards life: it was as if an extreme of variety had created a sameness, a nothingness,
as if humanity had said yes to becoming a meaningless flicker of people dressed in varying kinds of clothes
to kill each other ("real" or imaginary) or play various kinds of sport, or discuss art, love, sex, ethics (in
"plays" or in "life") for after an hour or so, it was impossible to tell the difference between news, plays,
reality, imagination, truth, falsehood. If someone - from a year's exile in a place without television, let alone
a visitor from Mars - had dropped in for an evening's "viewing", then he might well have believed that this
steady stream of little pictures, all so consistent in tone or feel, were part of some continuous single
programme written or at least "devised" by some boss director who had arranged, to break monotony, slight
variations in costume, or setting (office, park, ballet, school, aircraft, war), and with a limited team of actors
- for the same people had to play dozens of different roles. It was all as bland and meaningless as steamed
white bread; yet composed of the extremes of nastiness in a frenzy of dislocation, as if one stood on a street
corner and watched half a dozen variations of human animal pass in a dozen different styles of dress and
face.

339 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metin iinde Yaln hali Szck tr Anlam
fever
steadily
diminished
setting
vision
flicker
exile
consistent
devised
bland 20. Metinde ilendi.
nastiness
frenzy
dislocation

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

198
B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Bu noktaya kadar olan metinlerdeki tmcelerden ok daha zor olan
aadaki tmceyi ok dikkatli bir ekilde inceleyin.

To switch on the set when the day's viewing started, with one's mind slightly turned
down, or in a bit of a fever, or very tired, and to watch, steadily, through the hours, as
little dressed figures, diminished people, dressed up like cowboys or like bus drivers
or like Victorians, with this or that accent, in this or that setting, sometimes a
hospital, sometimes an office or an aircraft, sometimes "real" or sometimes imaginary
(that is to say, the product of somebody's, or some team's, imagination), it was exactly
like what could be seen when one turned one's vision outwards again towards life: it
was as if an extreme of variety had created a sameness, a nothingness, as if humanity
had said yes to becoming a meaningless flicker of people dressed in varying kinds of
clothes to kill each other ("real" or imaginary) or play various kinds of sport, or
discuss art, love, sex, ethics (in "plays" or in "life") for after an hour or so, it was
impossible to tell the difference between news, plays, reality, imagination, truth,
falsehood.

b) En az yukardaki tmce kadar zor olan dier tmceyi inceleyin.

If someone - from a year's exile in a place without television, let alone a visitor
from Mars - had dropped in for an evening's "viewing", then he might well have
believed that this steady stream of little pictures, all so consistent in tone or
feel, were part of some continuous single programme written or at least
"devised" by some boss director who had arranged, to break monotony, slight
variations in costume, or setting (office, park, ballet, school, aircraft, war), and
with a limited team of actors - for the same people had to play dozens of
different roles.

c) Tmcede composed ykleminin znesi ne olabilir?

It was all as bland and meaningless as steamed white bread; yet composed of
the extremes of nastiness in a frenzy of dislocation, as if one stood on a street
corner and watched half a dozen variations of human animal pass in a dozen
different styles of dress and face.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trke'ye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

199
42. Economics and History





5





10

The relationship of economics to history is rather different from that of the other
social sciences; curious as it may sound, this relationship in many respects comes
close to that between history and literature. Economics, after all, is the science
(in the broad meaning of the term) of something which men actually do: even if
the science did not exist, men would still make economic decisions, economic
predictions and participate in the various forms of economic organization which,
in part, it is the economist's function to describe.

Similarly the disciplined study of literature is concerned with something which
men would also do anyway even if the disciplined study did not exist: compose
poems, act out dramas, write novels and read them. Political science, or the
discipline of politics, has, it is true, many similarities to economics, particularly
where it is concerned with generalization about political structures.
that =?

that =?









it =?

146 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metnin szcklerini ve sa kenarda verilen szckleri inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmcede koyu yazl blm inceleyin.

The relationship of economics to history is rather different from that of the
other social sciences; curious as it may sound, this relationship in many
respects comes close to that between history and literature.

b) Tmcede koyu yazl blm inceleyin.

Economics, after all, is the science (in the broad meaning of the term) of
something which men actually do: even if the science did not exist, men would
still make economic decisions, economic predictions and participate in the
various forms of economic organization which, in part, it is the
economist's function to describe.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

200

c) Tmcede koyu yazl blm inceleyin.

Political science, or the discipline of politics, has, it is true, many similarities to
economics, particularly where it is concerned with generalization about
political structures.

d) Dier tmcelerin dilbilgisi yapsn inceleyin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

201
43. The Rolling Stones

The Rolling Stones made their first record only a few months after being discovered playing to
overflow teenage audiences at an obscure rhythm and blues club in Richmond. Their story is typical of
that of many contemporary groups.

Mick Jagger (the singer) and Keith Richard (lead-guitar) met in 1961, whilst they were both studying in
the Dartford area. They discovered they had common interests in music, and began listening records
together, an activity that soon developed into live music-making. Brian Jones (harmonica and guitar)
met Keith and Mick in a Soho pub called the Bricklayer's Arms. Mick had come to the London
School of Economics, Keith was an advertising designer, and Brian a destitute wanderer who
had not long returned from tramping round the Continent. Their now notorious hair was already
long and, becoming aware of certain shared preoccupations and ambitions, they began meeting
regularly and working out their own versions of Muddy Waters, Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley
numbers. They began visiting the rhythm and blues clubs in Ealing, and the Marquee in
Wardour Street, where the resident group was led by Alexis Korner, then the most respected
artist on the British rhythm and blues scene. Brian, Keith and Mick sent some tapes of their
music to Alexis, who was sufficiently impressed to allow them to sit in occasionally at his sessions.

Playing with Alexis at this time was Charlie Watts, who was later to become the Stones' drummer. Charlie
had a successful full-time job in an advertising agency, and as his friendship with the other Stones developed,
his income helped to supplement their living allowance. The only other source of finance was the grant Mick
received towards his studies at the L.S.E. Mick and Keith occasionally did odd jobs, but were frequently
sacked because of their appearance. All of them at this time were becoming progressively more involved with
their music, and more determined to put rhythm and blues on popular music map. They were also, because of
their reluctance to settle in any extra-musical careers, living off chips, stolen eggs, and occasional meat-pies
from a stall by the Embarkment.

Their original strategy was to infiltrate not the commercial pop scene but the traditional jazz scene. Many
jazz clubs were losing members, and were in any case manned by older musicians. This latter fact was to
prove a significant barrier to the Stones' progress, for the older jazz musicians shared not only the widespread
prejudice against the Stones' appearance, but also a professional resentment against the efforts of these
teenage novices to push their raucous music into the sanctums of jazz. In spite of this opposition, the Rolling
Stones were soon invited to stand in for Alexis Korner at the Marquee.

453 szck


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

202
Metni Trkeye aktarmadan nce, aadaki sorular yantlayn.

1. The Rolling Stones were discovered playing to _________.

a) a few young people at a famous club.
b) many young people at a little-known club.
c) many older people at a little-known club.
d) a few young people at a dark club.
e) many young people at a famous club.

2. Brian Jones ________________________ .

a) had more money than Richard and Jagger.
b) had no interest in studying.
c) had a pub in Soho.
d) had just returned from Britain
e) had almost no money.

3. Jagger, Richard and Jones realized ______________ .

a) they should grow hair to be famous.
b) they had many problems.
c) they had things in common.
d) they had to find work.
e) they could play famous pieces.

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metnin szcklerini inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmcelerde koyu yazl blmleri inceleyin.

They discovered they had common interests in music, and began
listening records together, an activity that soon developed into live
music-making.

Mick had come to the London School of Economics, Keith was an
advertising designer, and Brian a destitute wanderer who had not long
returned from tramping round the Continent.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

203

They began visiting the rhythm and blues clubs in Ealing, and the
Marquee in Wardour Street, where the resident group was led by Alexis
Korner, then the most respected artist on the British rhythm and
blues scene.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.























BYLES DE VAR!
eviri dersinde verilen ngilizce metinden bir tmce:

The Queen Mary was so fast that almost all American businessmen
liked to be on her.

renci evirisi:

Kralie Mary o kadar hzlyd ki Amerikal iadamlarnn neredeyse tm
onun tepesinde olmaktan holanrd.

ng. Okutman lknur Akntrk tarafndan salanmtr.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

204
44. Pioneer 10 pushes beyond goals, into the unknown
Out there, far, far away where the Earth is a mere pinpoint of light and the Sun is a pale disk of diminishing
consequence, a hardy little aircraft cruises on and on into the unexplored. No machine of human design has
ever gone so far. Pioneer 10 was the first deep-space probe, launched on March 10, 1972 by the United
States.
Pioneer 10 has traveled to the reaches of Pluto, a distance it achieved April 25, and is advancing toward the
edge of the solar system.
From out there, now 2.7 billion miles away, Pioneer's eight-watt radio transmitter sends faint messages back
to Earth every day.
Scientists with the patience to extract the signals out of the background noise and to decipher their messages
are learning for the first time what it is like in outermost solar system.

145 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Metnin szcklerini inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmcenin yklemini saptayn..

Scientists with the patience to extract the signals out of the background noise and
to decipher their messages are learning for the first time what it is like in
outermost solar system.

b) Dier tmceleri inceleyin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri
Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke
evirinizi zgn metne bakmadan kontrol edin.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

205
45. California's Germinal Brains Bank



The project to breed a race of intellectual giants out of a lead-lined box in California need not fill mankind
with any very extreme hopes or fears. The idea forms an obvious starting-point for a variety of science fiction
fantasies, but in practice it is unlikely to add greatly to the world supply of brain-power, nor shed much light
on the vexed question of intellectual inheritance. Most Nobel prizewinners and their equivalents already make
their own private arrangements for passing their genes to posterity, and since like tends to attract like in such
matters, they must often choose partners of high intelligence. But the mechanism of inheritance is such that
their offspring are likely on average to be less intelligent their parents, though more so than the average. The
same rules will apply to the Nobel mothers too.

The appearance of really exceptional powers remains unpredictable and highly improbable in any given
instance. The successful application of such powers to the advancement of human knowledge or welfare is
even more a matter of chance and temperament. It is possible to cite extraordinary cases of talent being
passed from generation to generation (the Bach family is one), but easy to cite many other instances where it
has not.

It would be pleasing if we could look to the experiment to illuminate the old "nature versus nurture"
controversy, but so many imponderable factors creep in that the conclusions are never likely to be at all clear.
Even strong proponents of the "nature" doctrine usually concede that environmental factors can affect
measured intelligence by as much as one-fifth - and 20 or 30 points on the IQ scale span the difference
between genius and mediocrity.

But if the scheme affords no promise of a team of infant sages to solve the world's problems, it appears, on
the information so far made public, to present no special ethical problems. Genetics is a field where academic
passions run high, but it would be wrong to oppose the procedure out of opposition to the views on heredity
of some of those associated with it. The scheme is freely entered into by participants who know what they are
doing. The expectant mothers are married and able to offer their children the benefits of a secure home.

The plan does raise some questions, however, which do not apply to artificial insemination by donor
generally. Success in the Nobel stakes is as closely associated with advancing years as it is with
intellectual eminence, and this may involve a very slight extra risk of miscarriage or congenital abnormality -
a point which should be made in preliminary counselling. The children would represent an interesting object
of study, and care would be taken to ensure they did not become afflicted with a sense of obligation to
succeed, and cry with Aldous Huxley, "Shame on you, Homunculus!"

It seems that the mothers in this case have not been told the identities of the donors, though they know some
details about them. That is right: it would be distasteful if a market - especially a commercial one - ever
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

206
established itself in the genes of famous individuals (pop stars, perhaps, as well as professors). Not one donor
should be used too often, however eminent, because of the risk of marriages between unwitting half-brothers
and sisters. AID today is widely practices and causes little controversy, because there is reason to suppose
that the medical profession handles it responsibly. The California experiment, though not seriously
objectionable in itself, indicates the kind of developments which might lead to increased concern and
demands for regulation by law.

600 szck
Bu yaz, The Times'da yer alan, Nobel sahibi insanlardan yararlanarak sperm bankas
oluturmaya ynelik bir alma hakkndaki yaznn ardndan yaynlanmtr.

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Anlamn bilmediiniz ve eviri esnasnda sorun karabileceinizi
dndnz tm szckleri inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmcelerde koyu yazl blmleri inceleyin.

Most Nobel prizewinners and their equivalents already make their own private
arrangements for passing their genes to posterity, and since like tends to
attract like in such matters, they must often choose partners of high
intelligence.

But the mechanism of inheritance is such that their offspring are likely on
average to be less intelligent their parents, though more so than the
average.

It is possible to cite extraordinary cases of talent being passed from generation
to generation (the Bach family is one), but easy to cite many other
instances where it has not.

Even strong proponents of the "nature" doctrine usually concede that
environmental factors can affect measured intelligence by as much as one-fifth
- and 20 or 30 points on the IQ scale span the difference between genius
and mediocrity.

Genetics is a field where academic passions run high, but it would be
wrong to oppose the procedure out of opposition to the views on heredity of
some of those associated with it.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

207

Success in the Nobel stakes is as closely associated with
advancing years as it is with intellectual eminence, and this may involve
a very slight extra risk of miscarriage or congenital abnormality - a point which
should be mad in preliminary counselling.

Not one donor should be used too often, however eminent, because of the
risk of marriages between unwitting half-brothers and sisters.

b) Dier tmceleri de inceleyin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi anlam ve yap asndan inceleyin.













BYLES DE VAR!
FOR SALE
KUADASI

The triplex house that is in Kuadas Soucak area 450 sqm private swimming
pool, car garage, sea view not completed DM 200.000
0.256.XXX XX XX

The Turkish Daily News 20 ubat 2000, s. 5


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

208
46. The Manager's Authority



That each manager's job be given the broadest possible scope and authority is nothing but a rephrasing of the
rule that decisions be pushed down the line as far as possible and be taken as close as possible to the action to
which they apply. In its effects, however, this requirement leads to sharp deviations from the traditional
concept of delegation from above.

What activities and tasks the enterprise requires is worked out at the top. The analysis begins with the desired
end product: the objectives of business performance and business results. From these the analysis determines
step by step what work has to be performed.

But in organizing the managers job we have to work from bottom up. We have to begin with the activities on
the firing-line - the jobs responsible for the actual output of goods and services, for the final sale to the
customer, for the production of blueprints and engineering drawings.

The managers on the firing line have the basic management jobs - the ones on whose performance everything
else ultimately rests. Seen this way, the jobs of higher management are derivative, are, in the last analysis,
aimed at helping the firing-line manager do his job. Viewed structurally and organically, it is the firing-line
manager in whom all authority and responsibility center; only what he cannot do himself passes up to higher
management. He is, so to speak, the gene of organization in which all higher organs are prefigured and out of
which they are developed.

Quite obviously there are real limits to the decisions the firing-line manager can or should make, and to the
authority and responsibility he should have.

He is limited as to the extent of his authority. A production foreman has no business changing a salesmans
compensation. A regional sales manager has no authority in somebody elses region, etc.. A manager is also
limited with respect to the kind of decision he can make. Clearly, he should not make decisions that affect
other managers. He should not alone make decisions that affect the whole business and its spirit. It is only
elementary prudence, for instance, not to allow any manager to make by himself and without review a
decision on the career and future of one of his subordinates.

The firing-line manager should not be expected to make decisions he cannot make. A man responsible for
immediate performance does not have the time, for instance, to make long-range decisions. A production man
lacks the knowledge and competence to work out a pension plan or a medical program. These decisions
certainly affect him and his operations; he should know them, understand them, indeed participate as much as
is humanly possible in their operations and formulation. But he cannot make them. Hence he cannot have the
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

209
authority and responsibility for them; for authority and responsibility should always be task-focused. This
applies all through the management hierarchy up to the chief executive himself.

There is one simple rule for setting limitations on the decisions a manager is authorized to make. The
management charter of General Electric Lamp Division, in paraphrasing the U.S. Constitution, expresses it by
saying: All authority not expressly and in writing reserved to higher management is granted to lower
management.

This is the opposite of the old Prussian idea of a citizens rights: Everything that is not expressly ordered is
forbidden. In other words, the decisions which a manager is not entitled to make within the extent of his task
should always be spelled out; for all others he should be supposed to have authority and responsibility.

597 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Anlamn bilmediiniz ve eviri esnasnda sorun karabileceinizi
dndnz tm szckleri inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That,gerund,past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmceleri inceleyin.

That each managers job be given the broadest possible scope and authority is
nothing but a rephrasing of the rule that decisions be pushed down the line as
far as possible and be taken as close as possible to the action to which they
apply.


What activities and tasks the enterprise requires is worked out at the top.


Seen this way, the jobs of higher management are derivative, are, in the last
analysis, aimed at helping the firing-line manager do his job.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

210

There is one simple rule for setting limitations on the decisions a manager is
authorized to make.

b) Dier tmceleri de inceleyin.

C. ANLAM

E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi anlam ve yap asndan inceleyin.
























BYLES DE VAR!
eviri derslerinden bir tmce:

Elinde olana olmayanlar bir araya gelerek mallarn sebze halinden
ehre tarlar.

renci evirisi:

Those who do not have possibilities ...


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

211
47. Ethical and Legal Considerations of Public Relations
Practice



The contribution of public relations to decision making is constrained by ethical and legal as well as tactical
considerations. Professional standards of public relations, and legal matters pertaining to sensitive aspects of
the communication process, affect the practitioners role and counsel.

Ethics

Ethics is an area of particular concern for public relations for three reasons: practitioners are aware that public
relations has a reputation for unethical behaviour; practitioners have struggled to create a suitable code of
ethics for themselves; and public relations is often considered a source of ethical standards within an
organization.

Public relations practitioners are very sensitive, even defensive, about allegations of unethical behavior. The
term public relations is sometimes used as a synonym for lying, distortion, selective disclosure, or cover-ups.
A recent Wall Street Journal article points to the ethical shortcomings of public relations, quoting the former
public relations vice president for United Brands. The more I thought about it, and the more I looked at
events around me, the more certain I became that PR was helping to screw up the world, he said. I could
see the hand of the PR man pulling the strings, making things happen, covering things up. Everywhere I
looked it seemed as if image and style had taken the place of substance.

212 szck

Bu metin 30 Ocak 1995 tarihinde Ankara niversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstits, Halkla
likiler ve Tantm Anabilim Dal, Doktora Yabanc Dil Snav olarak kullanlmtr. Snav
sresi iki saat olarak belirtilmi ve ngilizceden ngilizceye szlk kullanlmasna izin
verilmitir.

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Anlamn bilmediiniz ve eviri esnasnda sorun karabileceinizi
dndnz tm szckleri inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

212
a) Tmcenin yklemini saptayn.

Professional standards of public relations, and legal matters pertaining to
sensitive aspects of the communication process, affect the practitioners role
and counsel.

b) Dier tmceleri de inceleyin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi anlam ve yap asndan inceleyin.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

213
48. Human behaviour and social practice



In itself a material object is inanimate. What breathes life into an object by giving it certain properties are
human beings, in that the work which is their lifes activity forces a particular relationship with it, a process
which starts with the act of classifying it as an object - and as a specific type of object - through the operation
of their own sentient human activity (Marx, first thesis on Feuerbach; see also Perlini 1974). Note that
already implicit in this Marxist notion are both the biological dimension (sentient) and the socio-historical
one (human activity). We will make a brief reference to the first component later, but it is obviously on the
second one that we must focus our attention. If we leave out of account or underestimate the degree to which
human beings determine the nature of the object - it is always worth spelling out the error involved in this
alternative, given the tenacity of the philosophical myth which sustains it - then the object becomes imbued
with specific social properties in its own right dating from before the dawn of human history. In this way,
history would turn into the mysterious uncovering of the properties of the material world by their biological
make-up. There would already exist, before the beginning of history, on the one hand a natural world entirely
adapted to conform to the social needs of human beings, and on the other a homo sapiens already fully
formed as a social-historical product: at this point history would completely lose its essential character as the
progressive self-construction of our species.

265 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Anlamn bilmediiniz ve eviri esnasnda sorun karabileceinizi
dndnz tm szckleri inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

a) Tmceleri inceleyin.

What breathes life into an object by giving it certain properties are human
beings, in that the work which is their lifes activity forces a particular
relationship with it, a process which starts with the act of classifying it as an
object - and as a specific type of object - through the operation of their own
sentient human activity (Marx, first thesis on Feuerbach; see also Perlini
1974).
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

214

If we leave out of account or underestimate the degree to which human beings
determine the nature of the object - it is always worth spelling out the error
involved in this alternative, given the tenacity of the philosophical myth which
sustains it - then the object becomes imbued with specific social properties in
its own right dating from before the dawn of human history.

There would already exist, before the beginning of history, on the one hand a
natural world entirely adapted to conform to the social needs of human beings,
and on the other a homo sapiens already fully formed as a social-historical
product: at this point history would completely lose its essential character as
the progressive self-construction of our species.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi anlam ve yap asndan inceleyin.














BYLES DE VAR!
Televizyonda (Kanal D) Balk Kral (The Fisher King)
filminde video kaset kiralanan bir dkkan ileten bayan
oyuncunun (Whoopi Goldberg) bir mteriye nerdii
kaset:

Kremci Kremciye Kar

Filmin zgn ad:

Kramer versus Kramer



GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

215
49. Democracy and adult education in Tanzania

Introduction
After independence, the Tanzanian leadership rejected the idea of multi-party democracy for a number of
reasons. First, a new society required the combined effort of all the people in building a unified nation. Multi-
party systems were described as artificial "luxuries" which sought to disrupt such efforts and encouraged class
divisions. Second, opposition parties were considered unnecessary, since "opposition" implied
"disagreement" on how to do things; such disagreements could be expressed through a one-party system
provided a broad two-way channel of ideas and education was maintained through the party, between the
people and the government. The establishment and the maintenance of this channel was seen as the real
challenge of democracy and not the establishment of an opposition party.

Although the party leadership under Julius Nyerere rejected the idea of multi-party democracy in the 1960s, it
made it plain, that opposition parties might grow in the country in the future if the one-party democracy
failed. After almost two and a half decades of one-party democracy, Nyerere, the former party chairman now
seems to be in favour of multi-party democracy. In his message to the people about the need for multi-party
democracy in 1990, Nyerere called upon the people to think seriously in terms of multi-party democracy
because the time was now ripe. In his opinion, the people should not find themselves in a position where
forming an opposition party was considered as an act of treason. His main criticisms against the ruling party
(CCM) in 1990 was that it was too bureaucratic and protective and in the absence of an opposition party it
tended to move very slowly in its development programmes and alienate itself from the people in the process.
Coupled with the demand for multi-party democracy within the country and political changes taking place the
world over, Tanzania became a multi-party state in 1992. More than 10 opposition parties have been
established with policies differing from those of the ruling party (CCM).

The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to analyse the role played by adult education in facilitating one-party
democracy in Tanzania along with its potential limitations; and on the basis of this, delineate the new role that
adult education should play to meet challenges of multi-party democracy in the country.

Adult education and one-party democracy
In the mid-1960s, Tanzania became a one-party state and "socialism" her strategy of development. One of the
essential features of this strategy was democracy. This was thought to be necessary for "socialism" could not
be achieved without consensus and moreover, it involved people living together and working together on a
cooperative basis. Democracy was therefore seen as an integral part of "socialism" and a means by which the
people could carry out the affairs of the one-party state and control their own development initiatives.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

216
Clearly, this involved people's participation in policy and political discussions, making and executing
decisions which were of concern to them and taking part in electing a government. It was wrong for the
leaders and experts to usurp the people's right to participate in these activities simply because they had
"expert" knowledge. In fact, the political role of the leaders was defined in educational terms; they were
required to educate, lead and guide the people in all these activities, the idea being to sharpen their
consciousness and to increase their capacity to deal with them. As stated earlier, this was seen as the real
problem of democracy under the one-party state as it involved a lot of adult education initiative to create a
two-way communication channel between the leadership and the people.

An active adult education system was considered necessary not only to enable the people to exercise their
power and to protect their rights but also to be aware of those people who were against the one-party
policies. Various programmes such as functional literacy, mass education campaign and workers' education
were introduced, the objective being to help people to think for themselves.

Adult Education and Development, Herbert Hinzen, 1994
"Democracy and adult education in Tanzania" Philemon A. K. Mushi
(Burada koyu yazl szckler zgn metinde de koyu olarak verilmektedir.)
656 szck.

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Anlamn bilmediiniz ve eviri esnasnda sorun karabileceinizi
dndnz tm szckleri inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Metnin btnn dilbilgisi asndan inceleyin.

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi anlam ve yap asndan inceleyin.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

217
50. The Twelve Bottles of Whisky

I had twelve bottles of whisky in my cellar and my wife told me to empty the contents of every bottle
down the sink - or else! So I said I would, and proceeded with the unpleasant task. I withdrew the cork
from the first bottle and poured the contents down the sink, with the exception of one glass, which I
drank. I extracted the cork from the second bottle and did likewise, with the exception of one glass, which I
drank. I withdrew the cork from the third bottle and emptied the good old booze down the sink, except a glass
which I drank. I pulled the cork from the fourth sink and poured the bottle down the glass, which I drank. I
pulled the bottle from the cork of the next and drank one sink out of it and poured the rest down the glass. I
pulled the sink out of the next glass and poured the cork down the bottle. I pulled the next cork out of my
throat, poured the sink down the bottle and drank the glass, then I corked the sink in the glass, bottled the sink
and drank the pour.

When I had emptied everything I steadied the house with one hand and counted the bottles and corks and
glasses with the other, which were twenty-nine. To make sure I counted them again, when they came to
seventy-four. And as the house came by, and finally I had all the bottles and corks and glasses counted, except
one house and one cork, which I drank.


261 szck

A. SZCK
E Szlk almas
E Deinme szckleri

Anlamn bilmediiniz ve eviri esnasnda sorun karabileceinizi
dndnz tm szckleri inceleyin.

B. DLBLGS
E As, for, since, yet
E That, gerund, past participle
E Basit-Bileik Tmce
E Clause Marker
E Ana-Yan Tmce
E +Y+N

Metnin btnn dilbilgisi asndan inceleyin. Metnin anlamn tam olarak
kavradnzdan emin olmak iin aadaki altrmay tamamlayn.

Verilen ifade doru mu yanl m?

[ ] 1. This man is afraid of his wife.
[ ] 2. He is a whisky-lover.
[ ] 3. He lives in a house that is quite unbalanced.
[ ] 4. After a while, he stopped drinking.
[ ] 5. When he is emptying the bottles, he is happy with what he is doing.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

218
Sorular yantlayn.

1. What does the man use the expression or else!?

2. What does would refer to in "So I said I would"?

3. What does did likewise refer to in "I extracted the cork from the second bottle and did
likewise"?

4. Which words does the man use instead of "whisky"?

5. Why did the number of bottles change between the first and second counts?

C. ANLAM
E Balam
E Taslak eviri

Metnin tmn Trkeye aktarn. zellikle yklem olmad halde yklem gibi
kullanlan szcklere ve aada koyu yazl blme dikkat edin.

When I had emptied everything I steadied the house with one hand and
counted the bottles and corks and glasses with the other, which were twenty-nine.

D. BTNLK
E Trke

evirinizi anlam ve yap asndan inceleyin.












BYLES DE VAR!
eviri dersinde verilen Trke metinden bir tmce:

Bu durumda u nden sz edebiliriz: yarg, yasama ve yrtme.

renci evirisi:

In this case, we can mention the following three forces: jurisdiction,
legislature and stealing.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

219
6
eviri Snavlarna Hazrlk ve Son
Dzeltmeler


Giri ................................................................................................................. 220
Sunu ................................................................................................................ 221
leme .............................................................................................................. 222
retme ............................................................................................................. 224
Snama ............................................................................................................. 225
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

220

Giri
Bu ve bunu izleyen konuda, eviri snavlarna hazrlk ve bu snavlarda baar iin
neriler verilmekte.


Aada verilen tmce evirilerinin her birinde hata(lar) bulunmakta. Sz konusu hata ya da
hatalar

a) szcklerin yanl aktarlmas
b) dilbilgisi yapsnn yanl aktarlmas
c) tmcenin Trkesinin hatal olmas

gibi nedenlerden kaynaklanmakta.

Trke tmceleri inceleyerek eviri hatalarn saptamaya ve bu hatalarn anlamn aktarlmasn
ne lde etkilediini incelemeye aln.

1.
Only in colleges where teaching is the dominant concern of the faculty is one
likely to find a large number of professors making a sustained effort to connect
different field of learning.

Yalnzca retim yelerinin daha ok eitimle uratklar kolejlerde deiik
retim alanlarn birletirme abas iinde bulunan profesrler bulunmaktadr.

2.
In a world of "multiple and conflicting perspectives", better that students come
from the widest range of backgrounds and bring the greatest variety of
experiences with them so that they have more to share with each other.

"oul ve atan perspektifler" dnyasnda, iyi renciler en geni geri plandan
gelmektedir ve beraberlerinde de ok farkl deneyimler getirdikleri iin paylaacak
daha ok eyleri vardr.

3.
Such a policy will not interest the faculty, let alone the abler students, and hence
will not encourage a broad-based effort to enhance the quality of education.

Byle bir politika retim yelerinin dikkatini ekmez, yetenekli rencileri yalnz
brakr ve eitimin niteliini ykseltmek iin geni lekli abalar desteklemez.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

221
4.
Although the larger schools have been slow to follow the suit, Harvard has now
introduced a radically new pilot program following proposals recently made by a
blue-ribbon panel of experts convened by the Association of American Medical
Colleges.

Daha byk okullar takm izlemekte yava hareket etmektelerse de bugn
Harvard, Amerikan Tp Kolejleri Dernei tarafndan bir araya getirilen uzmanlar
mavi kurdeleli panelde yaptklar son nerileri izleyen radikal bir yeni pilot
program hazrlad.

5.
Measured against the need of their profession, however, performance fails
noticeably short of the ideal, even after due allowance is made for the effects of
cost constraints and intellectual barriers.

Yine de meslein gereksinimleri ile lldnde, maliyet snrllklarnn ve
zihinsel engellerin etkileri gidermek iin yaplan tahsislerden sonra dahi, baar
idealin ok gerisinde kalmaktadr.

6.
The decade of the 1960s produced dramatic changes in the feeling of
Americans toward their government and what it could accomplish.

1960larda balayan on yl Amerikallarn duygularnda hkmet ve onun
baarabilecekleri konusunda dramatik deiimler yaratt.

Sunu
Genelde, dil ve eviri snavlarnda u not sistemi kullanlmakta.

ZAYIF
ORTA
Y
OK Y

Ancak, verilen notlarda bir birliin salanabilmesi iin, elimizde bir lt olmas gerekir. Bir
dil kurumunun snav komitesinde grev aldnz varsayn. ltleriniz ne olurdu? 100
zerinden not verilen bir snavda, yukarda verilen ORTA, Y ve OK Y kavramlarndan her
biri iin not dilimini nasl belirlerdiniz? Birinci lt rnek olarak verilen aadaki listeyi bu
sorulara gre tamamlamaya aln.

1. Szck seimi______ __ puan
2. _________________ __ puan
3. _________________ __ puan
4. _________________ __ puan
5. _________________ __ puan
Toplam 100 puan

eviri snavlar iin bizim saptadmz lt, aadaki leme blmnde verilmekte.
Dilerseniz kendi saptadnz liste ile kyaslayabilirsiniz.
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222

leme
Bu blmde eviri snavlarnda kullandm bir metin ve bir rencinin snav kad
verilmekte. Snavda sre olarak 3 saat verildi ve ngilizce-ngilizce szlk kullanmak serbestti.

rencinin kadnn hemen ardndan, bizim saptadmz snav deerlendirme lt tablosu
gelmekte. Bu listeyi ya da yukarda hazrladnz kendi lt tablonuzu kullanarak bu renci
kadn deerlendirin.

ngilizce metin eviriden sonra verilmekte.

Baz profesyonel evirmenler, evirinin hereyden nce yetenek, pratik ve genel bilgiyi ieren
bir sanat olduunu savunurlar. Onlar, eviri yeteneinin bir tanr vergisi olduunu sylerler. Ya
o yetenee sahipsinizdir ya da deilsinizdir, ve (hemen hemen baz eviri evrelerinde iyi bir
kelime olarak alglanmaz) bundan dolay teoride bir eviri almasnn yaplmas gereksizdir.

ou evirmen almalarnda (ilerinde) bir profesyonel olarak dnlmeyi (anlmay) tercih
ederler ve dier insanlarn kendilerinin yar becerikli veya baarl igrenler olarak
grmelerinden (tannmaktan) ok kendilerinin bir profesyonel olarak grlmesini (muamele
edilmesini) isterler. Ancak bunu baarmalar iin, evirmenlerin kabiliyetlerini gelitirmek iin
direnmeleri ihtiyac ve ne yapmak istediklerini ifade edebilmeleri gerekmektedir (ihtiyalar
vardr). Tpk doktorlar ve mhendisler gibi, Onlarn kendi kendilerini ispatlama gereklilii
vardr, ayrca, yaptklar iin ne olduunun kontroln yapmaldrlar; Onlar sadece iyi eviri
yapmazlar nk eviri iin bir yetenee sahiptirler, ancak daha nemlisi, dier profesyoneller
gibi, onlarn (evirmenler) mesleklerinin deiik ynlerini anlamak iin bilinli bir aba
sarfetmeleri gerekecektir.

Tp ve mhendisliin tersine, eviri akademik ynden olduka yeni bir bilim daldr. eviri,
kendi dorularyla birlikte alma konusu olarak daha yeni ortaya kmtr (balamtr), ancak
sadece bu deil (kendi iinde deil), ayrca dnyann her tarafndaki kolej ve niversitelerin
yeliinde saylar fazlalamaktadr (evirmenlerin saylar). Herhangi bir yeni disiplin gibi,
kendi metodlarna biim vermek ve gelitirmek iin ilgili disiplinlerin teorileri ve bulgularndan
yararlanmak ihtiyalar vardr; Ancak evirinin hangi ilgili disiplinlerle doal olarak ve verimli
olarak bal olduu hala bir tartma konusudur. Hemen hemen genel olarak hayatn her
ynnde ve belirli dil topluluklar arasndaki etkileimlerin eviriye olan etkisi (ilgisi)
dnlmelidir; eitli kltrel oluumlarn iindeki eitli insan topluluklar arasnda ve iinde
meydana gelmektedir bu disiplin. Bu, aratrma yapmak iin bir seferde yaplamayacak kadar
byk bir alandr. Dolaysyla, sadece sze balamak istersek, eer eviri kelimenin tam
anlamyla bir meslek haline gelecekse, evirmenler dierlerinden daha ok sezgiye ve ne
yapacaklar ve onu (eviriyi) nasl yapacaklarna dair bir yetenei mmkn klabilmek iin
(elde edebilmek iin) pratik yapmaya ihtiya duyacaktr. Onlarn hereyden nce almalarnda
ileriyle ilgili hammadde hakknda bilgi elde etmeye ihtiyalar olacaktr: Dilin ne olduunu
anlamak ve fonksiyonlarnn ne anlama geldiini anlamaya ihtiyalar vardr.

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223

Some professional translators suggest that translation is an art which requires aptitude, practice
and general knowledge - nothing more. The ability to translate is a gift, they say: you either
have it or you do not, and theory (almost a dirty word in some translation circles) is therefore
irrelevant to the work of a translation.

Most translators prefer to think of their work as a profession and would like to see others treat
them as professional rather than as skilled or semi-skilled workers. But to achieve this,
translators need to develop an ability to stand back and reflect on what they do and how they do
it. Like doctors and engineers, they have to prove themselves as well as others that they are in
control of what they do; that they do not just translate well because they have a "flair" for
translation, but rather because, like other professionals, they have made a conscious effort to
understand various aspects of their work.

Unlike medicine and engineering, translation is a very young discipline in academic terms. It is
only just starting to feature as a subject of study in its own right, not yet in all but in an
increasing number of universities and colleges around the world. Like any young discipline, it
needs to draw on the findings and theories of other related disciplines in order to develop and
formalize its own methods; but which disciplines it can naturally and fruitfully related to is still
a matter of some controversy. Almost every aspect of life in general and of the interaction
between speech communities in particular can be considered relevant to translation, a discipline
which has to concern itself with how meaning is generated within and between various groups
of people in various cultural settings. This is clearly too big an area to investigate in one go. So,
let us just start by saying that, if translation is ever to become a profession in full sense of the
word, translators will need something other than the current mixture of intuition and practice to
enable them to reflect on what they do and how they do it. They will need, above all, to acquire
a sound knowledge of the raw material with which the work: to understand what language is
and how it comes to function for its users.

Verilen snavn ardndan kullanlan lt ise:

Szck seimi (Uygun Trke szcklerin seimi) 25
Anlamn kavranmas ve aktarlmas (ngilizce tmcenin anlamnn anlalmas) 20
evirinin dzgnl (Sayfa dzeni, yazm hatalar) 10
Hedef dilde yeniden yaplandrma (Tmcenin Trke tmce yaplanma
kurallarna uygun oluturulmas) 25
Akclk/Btnlk (Tmceler aras balant) 20

TOPLAM 100
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224
retme
Metinlerin her birini belirtilen sre iinde Trkeye aktarn. ngilizceden-ngilizceye szlk
kullanabilirsiniz. Sre bittiinde evirinizi bir kenara brakn.

A. (40 dakika)
Clock

Our passion for erecting huge clocks in public places is one expression of our slavery to
the idea of punctuality. Immense clocks embedded in the towers of town halls and
churches frown down on a hurrying populace perpetually reminding them that they must
be on time. It is said that the nearer man gets to the equator, the less inclination he has to
be punctual. If one can judge from the comparative dearth of public clocks in warm
countries, this statement must be true. In these places, the world goes by in a leisurely
way: there is no unseen enemy lurking in the background, timing the lives of the
inhabitants with a stop-watch.
113 szck

B. (45 dakika)

Mountaineering

Only in fairly recent times has the idea of climbing a mountain for its own sake become
general. In the past, mountains were regarded as nothing but ugly, disordered heaps of
stone which it would be folly to climb. The successful and dramatic ascent of the
Matterhorn in the nineteenth century, did much to change this attitude. Equipped with
huge stores of food and barrels of wine to sustain them on their arduous journey, early
climbers scaled a great number of peaks in the Alps. Modern mountaineering gear is less
bulky but far more complicated. The need for wind-proof clothing, pressure cookers,
vacuum packed foods, medical supplies, and nylon ropes has made climbing a
formidable undertaking. This often tempts people to ask mountaineers why they go to all
this trouble just to climb mountains. Mallory's famous answer, "Because they're there,"
leaves them more puzzled than before.
146 szck

Bu metinlerin evirileri 240. sayfada verilmekte. Kendi evirinizi bunlarla karlatrn
ve yaptnz evirilere not verin. En ok hatay hangi lt zerinden yaptnz
saptamaya aln.

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225
Snama
Verilen her bir metni belirtilen srede, szlk kullanarak Trkeye aktarn. eviriyi
tamamladktan sonra bir sre dinlenin pay ayrn. Daha sonra, 240-241. sayfalardaki
evirilerle karlatrarak kendi evirilerinize not verin.

1.
Let loose in a supermarket, the bewildered housewife must find it impossible to choose
wisely. If she sets out to buy a packet of soap-powder she is faced with an astonishing
range of makes and brand-names. One announces that a free gift-voucher goes with each
packet; another that there is a free gift inside; another that the buyer is offered a twenty-
per-cent discount if she buys three packets at once; another declares that a new "easy-to-
pour" gadget is attached to the packet. Words, too, do not always mean what they say.
Who would guess that "giant size" often means the smallest size available, or that
"super-economy size" the largest? The way things are at present, it is becoming
increasingly impossible for the housewife to assess whether she is getting true value for
money.

2.
Money also acts as a common measure of value. If we had to rely on the barter system,
it would be impossible, for instance, to calculate how many loaves of bread we should
have to offer our dentist for taking care of our teeth. Furthermore, payment in kind does
not allow freedom of choice: the dentist would be obliged to accept far more bread than
he could use. Money enables us to buy exactly what we need and acts as a measure for
quantity and quality.

3.
Though people are much less superstitious than they used to be, they do sometimes give
way to illogical fears. The desire to believe in the supernatural lurks in the background
and occasionally breaks to the surface. Because superstition is infectious, popular
imagination, once fired, needs little encouragement to turn fancy into fact. Some time
ago, people claimed to have seen saucer-shaped objects which were supposed to have
come from outer space. One writer went so far as to claim that one of these objects
landed in a field and that he was able to communicate with diminutive "people" people
from Venus. In time, so any of these "saucers" were seen, that one was led to believe
that the earth was threatened with imminent invasion.
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226
4.
Islanders are used to living in small, compact communities where self-sufficiency and
isolation are valued. The risk of being cut off from the mainland for weeks at a time, is
one they are willing to take. They become as much a part of the islands on which they
live as the surrounding sea. Just as the wind carves fissures in the rocks, it cuts deep
lines in their faces and hardens their features. A stranger, alien to their way of life, is
often viewed with suspicion; but once accepted, friendship is lasting.

5.
In this way, mass-production has brought with it a sharp division between work and
pleasure. The modern worker cannot, like the craftsman before him, enjoy what he is
doing. On the other hand, shorter working-hours coupled with secure employment, leave
him an amount of free time that his predecessors never enjoyed. And modern industry
has so revolutionized methods of transport and entertainment, that it provides the worker
with numerous activities he can devote his leisure time to. If he uses his spare time
wisely and not just as a means for "letting off steam" after a dull day's work, he can be
more than compensated for this dissociation of work and pleasure.

6.
The cultivation of a hobby not only allows us to relax properly, but it gives us a true
sense of proportion. People in quite minor positions, as well as those who have many
responsibilities to bear, often have an exaggerated idea of their own importance and
consider themselves to be indispensable. They regard anything unconnected with their
work with suspicion and are afraid even to take a holiday. "Who will take care of things
when I'm gone?" they ask, unaware that things will go on just the same when they have
really gone for good and there will always be someone else to take care of them.
Hobbies redress the balance by helping us to understand how full life is. The man who
really works well is he who can completely forget his work in the intervening hours
when he is left to himself.


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227
7
eviri snavlarnda baar

Giri ................................................................................................................. 228
Sunu ................................................................................................................ 228
leme .............................................................................................................. 230
retme ............................................................................................................. 230
Snama ............................................................................................................. 231
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228
Giri

Bir metni verilen srede Trkeye aktarmanz istense, aadaki sorulara
yantlarnz neler olurdu?

1. Kurunkalem mi tkenmez kalem mi kullanrdnz?
2. Msvedde yapar mydnz?
3. Metnin tmn okumadan nce szck almas yapar mydnz?
4. Toplam srenin yzde kan metnin analizi, kan metnin evirisi ve kan
evirinin son kontrolu iin ayrrdnz?

Sunu

A Textbook of Translation adl kitabnda Newmark (1988: 221-223) rnein 3
saatlik bir eviri snavnda, 15 dakikann analiz, 2 saat 10 dakikann eviri ve
35 dakikann yaplan evirinin kontrol edilmesi iin gerektiini
savunmakta.Yani:

ANALZ: %10
EVR: %70
KONTROL: %20
TOPLAM: %100


Bu sreleri yukarda Giri blmnde 4. soruya verdiiniz yantla karlatrn.
ki listeden tek bir liste oluturmaya aln.

Newmark (1988: 221-223) ayrca eviri snavlar iin nerilerde de
bulunmakta. Bu neriler aada zetlenmekte; bu nerilere uyup uymamak
elbette size kalm (zellikle de 2. ve 16. maddelere):

1. ift aralk yazn ve paragraflar arasnda boluklar brakn. Metin ok zor olmad
srece msvedde yapmayn.

2. Szlkten kontrol etmeyi dndnz btn szcklerin altn izin. Hepsine bir
anda bakn.

3. Aina olmadnz szcklerin tmn szlkten kontrol edin.

4. Anlamn karamadnz szcklerle ar zaman harcamayn. Balam iinde en
mantkl anlam verecek ekilde szc yuvarlayn.

5. nce kolay tmceleri ve paragraflar, zellikle de - mmknse - son paragraf
evirin. Kadn evirinin yars tamamlanmam olarak vermeyin.

6. Doru olarak zme ansnzn daha yksek olduunu dndnz tmceler
zerinde biraz daha fazla zaman harcayn.

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229
7. Metnin hiciv ierdii ya da bilerek aklcl olmayan bir dil tad durumlar dnda,
evirinizin bir mantksal btnsellik tamasna, ya da en azndan sama
grnmemesine zen gsterin.

8. Tmcelerin anlam nceki ve sonraki tmcelerin anlamlar ile, daha sonra
paragrafn anlam, daha sonra da metnin anlam ile bir btnlk oluturmal.

9. Verilen srenin tmn kullann.

10. Yaptnz eviriyi zgn metne bakmadan okuyun.

11. Szck, tmce ya da paragraf atlamadnzdan emin olmak iin eviriniz ile zgn
metni dikkatlice karlatrn.

12. Dzgn ve akc yazn.

13. Tm boluklar doldurun. Parantezler iinde alternatif eviriler yazmayn.

14. Normalde, sadece u durumlarda dipnot ekleyin: (a) metinde gereklere aykr bir
bilgi varsa ve eviri esnasnda dzelttiyseniz (b) metnin anlamnda belirsizlik varsa.

15. Kolay (grnen) metinler karsnda zellikle dikkatli ve kukucu olun.

16. nce kurunkalem kullann, sonra zerinden tkenmez kalemle gidin.

17. Zor bir metnin doru, kusursuz ya da ideal evirisi bir ey yoktur. Cesur olun.

Ve benden birka neri:

eviri snavlarnda herkes kendi alma, eviri ve malzemesinden
sorumludur. Szlk, kalem, silgi ve bilgi gibi size ait olan eyleri dier
snava girenlerle paylamayn. Byk lde zaman kaybedersiniz.

Snavda oturduunuz alan akllca deerlendirin. Szlk sol (solak
iseniz sa) elinizin altnda, eviriyi yazmakta olduunuz kat ile ayn
hizada olmal. Szlnz kucanza ya da uzanarak bakmanz
gerekecek bir yere koymayn.

Snava kendi szlnz deil de daha iyi olduuna inanarak yeni
satn ya da dn aldnz bir szl gtrecekseniz, o szl
snavdan nceki birka gn iinde mutlaka eviriler yaparak kullann.
Kullanmaya alk olmadnz bir szlk zaman yitirmenize neden
olabilir.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

230
leme
Aada verilen metnin evirisini yapmanz iin herhangi bir zaman snrlamas
getirilmemekte. Ancak, metni sanki bir snavda eviri yapyormu gibi ele aln
ve her bir aamann sonunda (analiz, eviri ve kontrol) o aamay ka dakikada
tamamladnz kaydedin. Daha sonra, bu srelerin toplam sreye gre
yzdelerini hesaplayn. Bylece kendi eviri yapma hznz saptam
olacaksnz. Dileiniz szl kullanabilirsiniz.


Surveys reveal that most adults consider themselves "well informed about the
affairs of the nation and the world." Yet a regularly taken Roper poll that asks,
"From where do you obtain most of your information about the world ?" has
found the percentage of people who reply, "Television" has been increasing
steadily over the past decade. The latest questionnaire found that well over 60
percent of the respondents chose television over other media as their major
source of information. These two facts are difficult to reconcile since even a
casual study of television news reveals that it is only a headline service and not a
source of information enabling one to shape a world view.
Reader's Choice

Yaptnz evirinin doruluunu kitabn 242. sayfasnda verilen eviriye
bakarak inceleyin ve evirinize bir nceki konudaki ltlere gre bir not verin.

retme
Bu blmde verilen metni 60 dakika iinde Trkeye aktarmanz isteniyor. Bir
nceki leme aamasnda kendi eviri hznz saptamtnz. Orada
belirlediiniz zaman dilimlerine gre, analiz, eviri ve kontrol ilemlerine ne
kadar sre ayrmanz gerektiini hesaplayarak aadaki tabloya yazn.


Toplam 60 dakika
Analiz __ dakika
eviri __ dakika
Kontrol __ dakika


Metnin evirisine balayn. Her bir aamann bitiminde sreyi kaydederek
yukardaki tablodaki srelere uyup uyamadnz belirleyin. Dilediiniz
szl kullanabilirsiniz.
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

231

How divided twins grew up alike

The odds across the human race of producing identical twins are 20 to one
against. John Stroud is a social worker who deals in still longer odds: finding
pairs of twins separated at birth or soon after and re-uniting them in middle age,
often to the earth-shaking astonishment of at least one of the parties concerned.
Since 1960 Stroud has, by patient and painstaking detective work, reunited 26
pairs of twins, and in many cases one of the parties had not the faintest idea they
were one of a pair. The discovery has usually, but not always, been a joy.
Framework for Proficiency
106 szck

Ayn almay aadaki metin iin de yapn.

No self-respecting newspaper these days contents itself with the mere
presentation of news. For a small amount of money each day, we are not simply
informed of affairs of national and international importance. We are given
photographs of people and places; the famous and notorious unfold their best-
kept secrets, side by side with the not-so-famous who, for one reason or another,
have "hit the headlines". This is not all we get for our money. There is always
plenty of advice about what plays or films to see; what books to read; how we
should dress; what we should eat; and where we should spend our holidays. And
in case we have nothing better to do, we are provided with the most effective
time-killers: quizzes and crossword-puzzles.
Essay and Letter Writing

Snama
Verilen metni, dileiniz szl kullanarak, 2 saat iinde Trkeye aktarn.
Newmark'n verdii srelere gre analiz iin 12 dakika, eviri iin 84 dakika,
kontrol iin de 24 dakika ayrmanz gerekir. Bu sreleri kendi eviri hznza
gre dzenleyin ve evirinizi yapn.

What is translation? Often, though not by any means always, it is rendering the
meaning of a text into another language in the way the author intended the text.
Common sense tells us that this ought to be simple, as one ought to be able to say
something as well in one language as in another. On the other hand, you may see
it as complicated, artificial and fraudulent, since by using another language you
are pretending to be someone you are not. Hence in many types of text (legal,
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

232
administrative, dialect, local, cultural) the temptation is to transfer as many SL
(Source Language) words to the TL (Target Language) as possible. The pity is,
as Mounin wrote, that the translation cannot simply reproduce, or be, the original.
And since this is so, the first business of the translator is to translate. ...

Danila Seleskovitch, a brilliant interpreter and translator, has said: "Everything
said in one language can be expressed in another - on condition that the two
languages belong to the cultures that have reached a comparable degree of
development." The condition she makes is false and misleading. Translation is an
instrument of education as well as of truth precisely because it has to reach
readers whose cultural and educational level is different from, and often "lower"
or earlier than, that of the readers of the original ... . "Foreign" communities have
their own language structures and their own cultures, "foreign" individuals have
their own way of thinking and therefore of expressing themselves, but all these
can be explained, and as a last resort the explanation is translation. No language,
no culture is so "primitive" that it cannot embrace the terms and concepts of, say,
computer technology or plainsong. But such a translation is a longer process if it
is in a language whose culture does not include computer technology. If it is to
cover all the points in the source language text, it requires greater space in the
target language text. Therefore, whilst translation is always possible, it may for
various reasons not have the same impact as the original. ...

That translation is not merely a transmitter of culture, but also of truth, a force of
progress, could be instanced by following the course of resistance to Bible
translation and preservation of Latin as a superior language of the elect ... .
A Textbook of Translation

Yaptnz eviriyi 242. sayfada verilen eviri ile karlatrn ve ne kadar
baarl olduunuzu saptayn.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

233
Noktalama mleri
. , : ; ? ! ' - - - / ( ) [ ]

Noktalama imlerinin ngilizcede ve Trkede kimi zaman farkl biimde
kullanlmalar, ngilizce bir metnin okunmas esnasnda zorluk karabilmektedir.
Bu blmde, noktalama imlerinin bazlarnn ngilizcede kullanmlar rneklerle
verilmektedir.
Nokta .
1. Bir tmceyi sona erdirmek iin.

I am a teacher.

2. Baz ksaltmalarda.

a.m.

3. Bir saynn ksurlu blm iin.



6.30 %
(Virgl kullanmak da olas : 6,30 %)

4. Saatlerde.

06.30
(Ayrca: 06:30 <AmE>)

5. Tarihlerde.

14.3.1995
14.iii.1995
(Ayrca: 14/3/95 ya da 14-3-95 ya da 14:3:95)
Virgl ,
1. Tmce iinde yakndan ilikili tmcecikleri ayrr. Bir "coordinator" tarafndan balanmayan
bamsz tmcecikleri normalde virgl ayrmaz.

Schoolchildren have adopted the fund as one of their favourite
charities, and their small contributions have enabled the fund to
reach its target.

Schoolchildren have adopted the fund as one of their favourite
charities; their small ...


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

234
2. Ardarda sralanan unsurlar arasnda virgl gelebilir.

He walked with long, slow strides.
long and slow strides.

3. Bir seri unsur sralanrken "and" ya da "or" en sondakinden nce yerletirilir.

Dogs, cats(,) and other animals can recognize friends by smell alone.
He wrote down 73, 12, 44, 9, 7(,) and 13, and added them up.

4. Alntda.

"I heard 'Keep out' being shouted," he said.

5. "Non-defining relative clause" ve benzeri kullanmlarda, "-" yerine.

Captain Madison, a company commander, assembled his men and
announced their mission.

6. Mektuplarn balangcnda.

Dear Mr Wilson,

7. Seslenme durumunda.

John, I think you're right.
Soru areti ?

1. Soruda.

What can be done to help these people?
(Ayrca: Would the gentleman who left a silk scarf on the manager's desk care to retrieve it
from the porters' office.)

2. Soru nitelii tayan tmcede.

You are leaving already?
nlem areti !

1. Duygu.

How silly they are!
Aren't they tall!

2. Emir

Get out!
GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

235
ki Nokta :

1. Tmcecikleri, virglden daha keskin biimde ayrr.

I've just had some good news: I've been offered a job in a law firm.
2. "For example, eg, namely, ie, as follows" ya da "the like" yerine.

There remained one thing she wanted above all else: a room of her
own; but she didn't acquire her own room until she was eighteen.
Please send the stipulated items(, namely):
(i) birth certificate
(ii) passport
(iii) correct fee

3. Mektuplarn balangcnda.

Dear Mr Wilson: <AmE>
(Ayrca: Dear Mr Wilson, <BrE> <resmi olmayan AmE>)
Noktal Virgl ;

1. +Y+N; (and) (then) +Y+N yapsnda.

Taylor was, as usual, a consummate actor; with a few telling
strokes he characterized King Lear magnificently.

2. Resmi kullanmda, zaten birka virgl kullanlmsa ve tmce karmaksa.

I had been aware that they sometimes disagreed violently,
particularly over how to raise their children, and that there were
also periods when they would not speak to each other; but I had not
realized that they were seriously contemplating divorce.

3. "That is, namely", vs. ncesinde.

In one respect, government policy has been firmly decided; that is,
there will be no conscription.
Kesme areti '

1. yelik durumunda.

the girl's
the girls'

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236
2. Yklem ksaltmada

I'm, He's, won't, ...

3. Ender olarak, baz ksaltmalarda.

'flu (= influenza)

4. Saatte.

o'clock (= of the clock)

5. iirde ksaltmalarda.

e'er (= ever)
o'er (= over)

6. Standart d dilde.

goin' (= going)
'cause (= because)

7. Seneyi gsteren saynn ksaltmasnda.

'95

8. Yanl anlamay nlemek amac ile.

There are three i's in that word.
Ksa izgi -

1. Satr sonunda blnme durumunda

Schoolchildren have adopted the
fund as one
of their favourite charities, and
small contribut-
ions have enabled the fund to
reach its target.

2. Bileik szcklerde.

a) Ad - Belirte

runner-up
break-in

b) Sfat - Ad+-ed

cold-blooded
brown-eyed

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

237
c) Sfat-Ad + -ing/-ed

far-fetched
habit-forming

d) Sfat yerine geen ksaltmalar

Russian-English [dictionary]
student-teacher [interaction]

e) Saylar

twenty-five
three-fifths

f) Byk harf - Ad

U-turn
H-bomb

g) -in-law(s) ile bitenler

mother-in-law

h) great ile balayanlar

great-uncle
great-grandchildren

i) Byk harfle balayan bir kkten nceki takda kullanlabilir.

un-French

j) ex-, half-, quasi-, self-, post- gibi yaplarda

post-1990

k) Dierleri

on-the-spot
face-to-face
up-to-date
do-it-yourself

3. Ortada ya da sonda belirtilen, ilintili birim iin.

The other man - David Johnson - refused to make a statement.
= (David Johnson) refused to ...

4. Kesintiyi gstermek iin.

"I hoped that you -" His voice broke.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

238
5. Bir ismi ya da kfr gizlemek iin.

Mr B-
F- off

6. Kekeleme

"P-p-p-please t-t-try," his teeth chattered through fear and cold.
"He-e-elp!" she cried.

7. ki saynn aras iin.

pages 15-36

Parantez ( )
1. Referans numaras ve doum-lm tarihleri iin.

We shall see below (p. 63) that Eleanor's first love was William
Bevan (1812-73).

2. Tmce iinde, bamsz bir tmcecik iin.

Enterprising businessmen sell earthworms and their castings (they
are one of the best soil conditioners) in hundreds of retail stores
across the US and Canada.

3. Dipnot nitelii tayan blmlerde.

They decided that it was impossible to recreate Vietnam battle
scenes, since the war was still on and they felt that the Philippines
were an unacceptable substitute. (Apocalypse Now, made in the
Philippines, did not change their feeling.) So they set on to work on
a home front drama.

Keli Parantez [ ]
1. Parantez iinde parantez.

... the other man (David Johnson [alias Wilson])

2. Yazar ya da yaymcnn form zerinde yorumu.

He said that Thursday was his normal visiting day [italics mine].

3. Aklamada.
Martin Luther claimed that she [the Prime Minister] was chiefly
responsible for the crisis.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

239
4. Alntlarda, atlanm blmlerin yerine.

The author claims that "[Jonathan Swift] advocated the
establishment of a Language Academy to purity the English
language and prevent its further deterioration."
Ayrma areti /

1. Altbirimleri gstermek iin.

the academic year 1994/5
c/o (adreslerde, care of [eliyle] anlamnda)
Rule A/32

2. Alternatif

students and/or staff

Trnak

1. Alntda.

I heard 'Keep out' being shouted," he said.

2. Belirlemek iin.

He couldn't spell "mnemonic", and therefore failed to reach the
finals.

3. Hikaye/Makale/Blm ad iin.

He felt that the report's third chapter, "The Critical Need for
Additional Personnel", overstated the problem.


GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

240
eviriler

Bu blmde, 6. ve 7. konudaki baz metinlerin evirileri verilmekte.


Konu 6

"retme" blmndeki metinlerin evirisi (sayfa 224)

Saat
Halka ak yerlere dev saatler dikmemiz, dakiklik fikrine olan kleliimizin bir
ifadesidir. Belediye meclisi binalarnn ve kiliselerin kulelerine gml devasa saatler
aadaki telal kalabala dik dik bakarak onlara vaktinde olmalar gerektiini
hatrlatrlar. Ekvatora yaklatka dakik olma eiliminin azald sylenir. Ilman
lkelerde meydan saatlerinin nispeten az olmasndan yola karsak, bu yorumun doru
olmas gerekir. Bu yerlerde yaam sakin bir biimde geer; akra planda gizlenen,
insanlarn yaamn bir kronometre ile hesaplayan grnmeyen bir dman
bulunmamaktadr.

Daclk
Srf trmanm olmak iin daa trmanma fikrinin yaygnlk gstermesi ok yakn
zamanlara rastlar. Gemite dalar yalnzca trmanmann aptallk olaca irkin,
dzensiz ta ynlar olarak grlrlerdi. Ondokuzuncu yzyldaki baarl ve esiz
Matterhorn trman bu tutumun deimesine byk katkda bulundu. Zor yolculuklar
esnasnda kendilerini besleyecek olan byk miktarda gda ve flarca arap ile
donanm olan ilk daclar Alplerde pek ok zirveyi fethettiler. Modern daclk
malzemesi daha az ykl ama daha karmak. Rzgar geirmez giysilere, basnl gaz
stclara, havas alnarak paketlenmi yiyeceklere, tp malzemelerine ve naylon
halatlara olan gereksinim trmanmay zor bir ura haline getirdi. Bu da sk sk insanlar
dalara trmanmak iin bunca zahmete neden katlandklarn sormaya yneltir.
Mallory'nin "nk onlar oradalar" eklindeki nl yant kafalarn ncekinden de ok
kartrr.

"Snama" blmndeki metinlerin evirisi (sayfa 225)

1.
Spermarkete dalan ev kadnnn, akllca seim yapmay olanaksz buluyor olmas
gerekir. Eer bir paket sabun tozu almaya kalkrsa artc sayda marka ve eitle
karlar. Paketlerden biri her bir pakette bir bedava hediye eki olduunu anlatrken bir
dieri de iinde bedava hediye olduunu anlatr; bir dieri de paket birden
alndnda yzde yirmilik bir indirim olacan; baka biri, pakete "dkmeyi
kolaylatran gere" eklendiini. Szckler de syledikleri anlam tamayabilir. "Dev
boyut"un genelde mevcut en kk paket olacan ya da "sper ekonomi boyut"un en
byk paket olacan kim tahmin edebilir? Durum byle olunca, ev kadnnn parasnn
tam karln alp almadn deerlendirmek gitgide glemekte.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

241
2.
Para ayrca ortak bir deer lt grevini de yapmaktadr. Takas sistemine gvenmek
zorunda kalsaydk, rnein diimize dilerimize bakt iin ka somun ekmek
vereceimizi hesaplamak olanaksz olurdu. Dahas, bu trden bir deme seme
zgrl tanmaz: dii, kullanabileceinden ok daha fazla ekmei kabul etmek
zorunda kalrd. Para istediimizin tam kendisini satn almamz salar ve bir nitelik ve
nitelik lt grevi stlenir.

3.
nsanlar, eskiye oranla daha az batl inanl olmalarna karn, bazan akld korkulara
kaplrlar. Doast olana inanma istei geride saklanr ve arasra yzeye kar. Batl
inan bulac olduu iin, ortak hayal gc bir kez atelendi mi hayali geree
dntrmek iin pek az cesaretlendirmeye gerek gsterir. Bir sre nce, insanlar
uzaydan geldiine inanlan tabak ekilli nesneler grdklerini iddia ettiler. Bir yazar, bu
nesnelerin bir tarlaya indiini ve kendisinin Vens'ten gelen minicik "insan"larla iletiim
kurabildiini ileri srecek kadar ileri gitti. Zamanla bu "tabak"lardan o kadar fazlas
grld ki insan dnyann yaklaan bir istila tehdidinde olduuna inanr hale geldi.

4.
Adallar, kendi kendine yeterliliin ve yalnzln deerli olduu kk, kapal
toplumlarda yaamaya alkndr. Anakaradan haftalarca ayr kalma riski, almak
isteyecekleri bir risktir. stnde yaadklar adann, en az aday evreleyen deniz kadar
paras haline gelirler. Nasl ki rzgar kayalarda yarklar aarsa, adallarn yzlerinde de
derin izgiler oluturur ve ehrelerini sertletirir. Onlarn yaam ekillerini bilmeyen bir
yabanc ou kez kukuyla karlanr; ama bir kez kabullenildi mi dostluk kalcdr.

5.
Bu ekilde, toplu retim i ile elence arasnda keskin bir ayrm da getirdi. Modern ii
yapmakta olduu iten kendisinden nceki iiler gibi tat alamaz. Dier yandan, gvenli
istihdam ile birleen daha ksa alma saatleri alan kiiye kendisinden ncekilerin hi
sahip olamadklar miktarda bo vakit brakmakta. Ve modern endstrinin ylesine
evrimlemi ulam ve elence yntemleri bulunmakta ki alan kiiye bo zamann
adayabilecei saysz aktivite salamakta. Bo vaktini srf bir "rahatlama" yolu olarak
deil de akllca kullanrsa, alan kii i ile elenceyi birbirinden ayrmasnn
karln fazlasyla alabilir.

6.
Bir hobi gelitirmek yalnzca iyice dinlenmemize izin vermekle kalmaz, ayn zamanda
bizlere gerek bir oranlama hissi de verir. Tayacak pek ok sorumluluklar olanlarn
yansra ufak konumlarda olanlar da kendi nemleri konusunda abartl bir fikre
sahiptirler ve kendilerini yeri doldurulamaz olarak grrler. le ilikili olmayan hereyi
kukuyla karlarlar ve tatile kmaya bile korkarlar. "Ben gidince ilerle kim
ilgilenecek?" diye sorarken gerekten de dnmemek zere gittiklerinde ilerin ayn
biimde sreceinden ve ilerle ilgilenecek birilerinin mutlaka olacandan
habersizdirler. Hobiler, yaamn ne kadar dolu olduunu anlamamza yardmc olarak
dengeyi salarlar. Gerekten de iyi alabilen kii, kendi bana kald bo vakitlerde
iini unutabilen kiidir.

GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

242
Konu 7

"leme" blmndeki metnin evirisi (sayfa 230)

Aratrmalar, ou yetikinin kendilerini "lke ve dnya olaylar hakknda iyi bilgili"
grdklerini ortaya koymakta. Ancak, dzenli olarak yaplan Roper aratrmas, "Dnya
hakkndaki bilgilerinizin ounu nereden alyorsunuz?" sorusuna "Televizyon" yantn
verenlerin saysnn son on yl iinde dzenli bir biimde artmakta olduunu bulmutur.
En son yaplan anket, katlmclarn yzde altmtan fazlasnn temel bilgi kayna olarak
televizyonu dier yayn organlarna setiini bulmutur. Bu iki gerei badatrmak
g, zira, televizyon konusunda yaplan sradan bir aratrma bile onun kiinin bir dnya
gr oluturmasn salayacak bir bilgi kayna olmayp yalnzca bir haber bal
hizmeti olduunu gstermekte.

"Snama" blmndeki metnin evirisi (sayfa 231-232)

eviri nedir? Her zaman olmasa da ou zaman, bir metnin anlamn yazarn kasdettii
ekilde bir baka dile aktarmaktr. Saduyu bize bunun basit olmas gerektiini
sylemekte, zira, insann bir dilde syleyebildiini dier dilde de syleyebilmesi gerekir.
Dier yandan, dier bir dili kullanarak olmadnz gibi davrandnz iin eviriyi
karmak, yapay ve iki yzllk olarak grebilirsiniz. Bundan tr, pek ok metin
trnde (yasal, idari, diyalekt, yerel, kltrel) gerekli grlen olabildiince fazla kaynak
dil szc hedef dile aktarmaktr. Ne yazk ki, Mounin'in dedii gibi, eviri basite
orijinali kopyalayamaz ya da orijinalin kendi olamaz. Durum byle olunca da,
evirmenin ilk grevi eviri yapmaktr.

yi bir szl ve yazl evirmen olan Danila Seleskovitch "Her iki dilin de kyaslanabilir
bir gelime dzeyine ulam kltrlere ait olmas koulu ile, bir dilde sylenen herey
bir dier dilde ifade edilebilir" demitir. leri srd koul yanl ve yanltc. Kltrel
ve eitsel dzeyleri orijinal metnin okuyucularnn kltrel ve eitsel seviyesinden daha
farkl ve genelde daha "dk" ya da erken dnemde olan okuyuculara ulamak zorunda
olduu iin, eviri hem gerei hem de eitimi iletmenin bir yoludur. ... "Yabanc"
toplumlarn kendi dil yaplar ve kendi kltrleri vardr, "yabanc" fertlerin kendi
dnme yollar ve buna bal olarak da kendilerini ifade etme yollar vardr; fakat
bunlarn tm de aklanabilir ve en son are aklama aresi de eviridir. Hibir dil,
hibir kltr rnein bilgisayar teknolojisinin ya da arknn terim ya da kavramlarn
ieremeyecek kadar "ilkel" deildir. Ancak, eer bilgisayar teknolojisini iermeyen bir
dilde ise, byle bir eviri daha uzun bir sretir. Hedef dildeki metindeki tm noktalar
ierecekse hedef dildeki metinde daha geni yer gerekecektir. Bu nedenle, her ne kadar
eviri her zaman mmknse de, eitli nedenlerle orijinal ile ayn etkiye sahip
olmayabilir. ...

evirinin yalnzca kltr deil ayn zamanda gerei de aktard ve gelimenin bir
gc olduuna, ncil evirisine olan diren ve Latincenin stn snfn stn bir dili
olarak korunma tarihi rnek olarak gsterilebilir.


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243
Yararlanlan Kaynaklar
Abbott, J. 1984. Meet the Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Alexander, L. G. 1979. Essay and Letter Writing. London: Longman.
Allemano, J. 1986. Framework for Proficiency. London: Hodder and
Stoughton.
Baker, M. 1992. In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. London
and New York: Routledge.
Barr, P. et al. 1983. Advanced Reading Skills. Hong Kong: Longman.
Baudoin, E.M., et al., 1982. Reader's Choice: A Reading Skills
Textbook for Students of English as a Second Language. Michigan: The
University of Michigan.
Bell, J., et al. 1985. Variety. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Broukal, M., ve Nolan-Woods, E. 1991. Macmillan Preparation for
TOEFL. Singapore: Macmillan.
Chamberlin, D., ve White, G. 1975. English for Translation.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chamberlin, D., ve White, G. 1978. Advanced English For
Translation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clarke, D. F. 1984. Inroads: A Reading and Writing Course for
Intermediate Students. Hong Kong: Heinemann.
Duff, A. 1984. The Third Language. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Duff, A. 1990. Translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Eken, A. N. 1992. Cope With First Certificate. Ankara: Ajans Trk
Matbaas.
Ellis, M., ve Ellis, P. 1987. Shades of Meaning. Hong Kong: Nelson.
Feare, R.E. 1989. Key to Success on the TOEFL. Hong Kong: Oxford
University Press.
Grellet, F. 1981. Developing Reading Skills. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Hamp-Lyons, L. ve Heasley, B. 1988. Study Writing. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Imhoof, M., ve Herman, H. 1980. From Paragraph to Essay. London:
Longman.
Jordan, R.R. 1986. Academic Writing Course. London and Glasgow:
Collins.
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244
King, C., ve Stanley, N. 1989. Building Skills for the TOEFL. (kinci
basm) Hong Kong: Nelson.
Kingsbury, R., ve Spratt, M. 1985. Longman Proficiency Skills.
Hong Kong: Longman.
Land, G. 1984. What the Papers Say. Hong Kong: Longman.
Lewis, J. E. (yay. haz.) 1997. The Giant Book of the Western. London:
Magpie.
Maley, A., ve Duff, A. 1976. Beyond Words: Certificate Reading and
Listening Skills. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Matthews, A., ve Read, C. 1988. Themes. London: Collins.
Mosback, G., ve Mosback M. 1976. Practical Faster Reading.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Newmark, P. 1988. A Textbook of Translation. New York: Prentice Hall.
Ray, S. ve Nardiello, P. 1986. The Real Thing. New York: Macmillan.
Smith, L. C. ve Mare N. N. 1990. Issues for Today. New York:
Newbury House Publishers.
Stanley, N. 1988. The Best TOEFL Test Book. Massachusetts: Addison
Wesley.
Stern, S. (yay. haz.) 1992. Meet United Germany: Perspectives. FRG:
Atlantik-Brcke.
Swan, M. 1980. Spectrum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Swan, M. 1982. Kaleidoscope. London: Cambridge University Press.
Swan, M., 1976. Understanding Ideas: Advanced Reading Skills.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ttofi, C. ve Creed, T. S. 1974. English In Mind. London: Macmillan.



GENEL EVR 2 Hakan Gr dildersleri.gen.tr

245


Genel eviri
Genel eviri
eviri retim Yaklam
Denenmi, bilimsel tabanl, sistemli.
eviri Metinleri
Her biri eitli eviri sorunlarn rnekleyen, farkl konularda ve eitli
uzunluklarda metinler.
Altrmalar
Zengin eitlilikte, yalnzca verilen metnin evirisine deil, eviri srasnda belirgin
becerilerin kazanlmasna da ynelik altrma trleri.
eviri Snavlar
eviri snavlarna ynelik alanlar iin kapsaml ve yararl notlar ve altrmalar.
Btnlk
eviri konusunda dilbilgisi eksikliklerini tamamladna inanan ve eviri olay ile
uramak isteyenler iin, kendi iinde bir btnlk tayan ideal kaynak. Her
ynyle eviri almas amalayanlar iin, Genel eviri 1 kitab ile
kullanldnda kusursuz bir seri.

NGLZCE-TRKE
2
RENC
KTABI