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DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL

ENGINEERING

Lab Manual
Of
U4AEA14, Aircraft Manufacturing
Technology Lab

Prepared by
M. Amala Justus Selvam
Professor, VTU.


VEL TECH Dr. RR & Dr.SR TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

U4AEA14 AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
LAB

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Step and Taper turning
2. Thread cutting.
3. Making of a Groove and Key way.
4. Drilling 4 or 6 holes at a given pitch circle on a plate
5. Plain Milling Exercises
6. Cylindrical Grinding Exercises
7. Fabrication of Airfoil






Aircraft components









SAFTY PRECAUTIONS IN LATHE WORKSHOP
While working in lathe machine, the following safety precautions should be followed
1. A full understanding of the nature of all risks involved in the machine and operation is
essential.
2. The correct setting up of the lathe driving mechanism is essential.
3. The use and correct adjustment of all guards are necessary for safe operations.
4. No tools should be left on the way of movement of slides, carriage, ect.
5. Work holding and tool holding methods are reviewed before making cut.
6. The machine power should be in off position, while removing the job from work holding
device and removing the chuck or face plate from spindle.
7. No attempt should be made to adjust the tool or for measurement when the machine is
running.
8. Gear should be never changed, when the machine is running.
9. Strips of sand paper should never be used for polishing work in lathe.
10. Chuck key, tool post or other tools should be removed from the chuck before switching on
machine.
11. All stock bars must be adequately arranged for the whole of their length.
12. The correct location and working of the feed rod and its attachment should be ensured.
13. Adequate clearance should be checked and ways kept clear of materials and tools.
14. While changing the belt drive, take more care.
15. Wear proper cloth, shoe and goggles.
16. Check the earth connection before switching ON the machine tool.
17. Whenever there is power failure, put-off the power supply to the lathe, in order to prevent
spontaneous recovery.
18. Provide proper ventilation.
19. The floor must de dry.
20. The hand tools should be clear and sharp.


1. STEP TURNING AND TAPER TURNING

AIM
To perform facing, plain turning step turning and tapper turning on a cylindrical work
piece.
TOOLS REQUIRED
Lathe, chuck key, vernier caliper, box spanner, grooving tool, and single point cutting
tool
WORKPIECE REQUIRED
Mild Steel Rod
PROCEDURE (Step Turning)
1. First, loosen the jaws in the chuck using the chuck key to position the work
piece and then tighten the jaws.
2. Fix the cutting tool in the tool post.
3. Switch on the lathe and move the carriage near the work piece and give a small
cross- feed, and then move the carriage longitudinally to the required length
slowly
4. Bring the carriage to the original position, give a small cross feed, and move the
carriage longitudinally. Repeat this step until the required diameter is obtained. It
is good practice to check the diameter of the work piece regularly using a vernier
caliper.
5. To get smooth surface, give very small feed when the diameter is nearing the
required value.
6. To face the end surface of the work piece, move the carriage to make the tool
touch the end surface of the work piece.
7. Give a small feed in longitudinal direction, and then move the tool towards the
axis of the work piece using the cross-slide to complete facing.


PROCEDURE (Tapper Turning)
1. First, loosen the jaw in the chuck using the chuck key to position the work piece and then
tighten the jaws.
2. Fix the cutting tool in the tool post.
3. Perform the facing and turning operation to get the required larger diameter (D)
and the required length (L).
4. Do grooving operation with grooving tool as per the figure.
5. After grooving switch off the machine and swivel the compound rest base after
loosening the nuts using box spanner. Set the swiveling angle , of compound rest
using the formula,
Taper angle, = tan
-1
(D d) / 2L
Where, D = Larger diameter of taper in mm
d = Smaller diameter of taper in mm
L = Taper length in mm
6. Perform taper turning operation by given a small feed then move the tool using
the cross slide. Repeat this step to complete the taper.


RESULT
Thus in the given work piece facing, plain turning step turning and tapper tauring
are performed for given dimensions.








STEP TURNING
30 10 40
3
0
1
8
Chamfer 45 x 2
M 25.4 x 3.75


STEP AND TAPER TURNING



ALL DIMENSTIONS ARE IN mm



2. THREAD CUTTING
AIM :
To turn and make single and multi-start V thread & to make diamonded knurl on the
given work piece.
TOOLS REQUIRED:
Lathe, chuck key, vernier caliper, box spanner, grooving tool, single point cutting tool and
thread cutting tool.
WORKPIECE REQUIRED:
Mild Steel Rod
PROCEDURE:
1. First, loosen the jaw in the chuck using the chuck key to position the work piece and
then tighten the jaws.
2. Perform facing, turning and chamfering operations to get the required diameters for
knurling and thread cutting operations.
3. Replace the turning tool by thread cutting tool in the tool post.
4. Calculate the depth for thread and pitch required.
Pitch = 1/N. where N= No. of Teeth per unit area.
5. Change the gears to obtain required speed for thread cutting using the back gear
mechanism.
6. Switch on the lathe, move the carriage near the work piece, and give a small cross feed.
7. Move the carriage outward and the move it longitudinally, and give a small cross feed.
Repeat this step until thread cutting of required length is obtained.
8. Use the half-nut engaging lever for automatic speed.
9. Give small cross feed and repeat step 7 to complete the threading for required depth.
10. Now replace the thread cutting tool with knurling tool
11. Disengage half nut lever and change the gears.
12. Switch on the lathe, move the carriage near the work piece, and give a small cross feed.
13. Move the carriage outward, and then move it longitudinally, and give a small cross feed.
Repeat this step until Knurling of required length is obtained.

RESULT:
Thus, thread cutting and knurling is performed in the given work piece.

















EXTERNAL SINGLE STRAT V THREAD

ALL DIMENSTIONS ARE IN mm














Lathe Machine






3. MAKING OF A GROOVE AND KEY WAY

AIM:
To make groove and key way in the given mild steel work piece as per given dimensions
by using shaping and slotting machines.
TOOLS REQUIRED:
1. Round nose tool
2. Parting tool
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Tri square
5. Punch
6. Hammer
7. Vernier Caliper
PROCEDURE FOR KEYWAY BY USING SLOTTER MACHINE:
1. The given work piece dimensions are measured. By knowing the machining allowances,
marking is carried out using vernier caliper.
2. To identify the marking, the marked lines are punched.
3. The work piece is hold in the machine table using self centering three jaw chuck.
4. The tool is hold in the tool head in correct position.
5. The stroke length and initial cutting positions are corrected by adjusting ram and table
manually.
6. The slotter machine is switched on. Tool moves inside the work piece. The material is
removed from the work piece by the tool cutting force.
7. By giving cross feed movement to the table, the total length of the work is machined.
8. After completion of groove key way machining work the work piece is removed from the
chuck.
9. Again the work piece is clamped in the chuck. Correct feed and depth of cut are selected.
10. Both sides are machined by altering the tool position.
11. After machining the slot, the work piece is removed from the table, cleaned and an
inspection is carried out.
PROCEDURE FOR GROOVING BY USING SHAPER MACHINE:
1. The given work piece dimensions are measured. By knowing the groove machining
allowances, marking is carried out using vernier caliper.
2. To identify the marking, the marked lines are punched.
3. The work piece is hold in the machine table using self centering three jaw chuck.
4. The tool is hold in the machine table using machine vice.
5. The stroke length and initial cutting positions are corrected by adjusting ram and table
manually.
6. The shaper machine is switched on. Tool moves over the work piece.
7. By giving depth of cut to the tool post and cross feed movement to the table.
8. The material is removed from the work piece by the tool cutting force.
9. After completion of groove machining work the work piece is removed from the chuck.

RESULT:
The groove and key way are machined in the given work piece as per given drawing.












GROOVE CUTTING BY USING SHAPER

X

ALL DIMENSTIONS ARE IN mm











INTERNAL KEYWAY BY USING SLOTTER


X

ALL DIMENSTIONS ARE IN mm














Shaper Machine


















Slotter Machine



4. DRILLING 4 OR 6 HOLES AT A GIVEN PITCH CIRCLE ON
A PLATE

AIM:
To make 4 or 6 holes at a given pitch circle on a plate by using drilling machine.
TOOLS REQUARED:
1. Drill bit
2. Coolant
3. Steel Rule
4. Compass
5. Punch
6. Divider
7. Vernier Caliper
FORMULA USED:
Pitch Distance = 2 R / N
N = Number of holes
R = Radius of pitch circle
PROCEDURE:
1. Based on the diameter of the given pitch circle, a center is chosen on the given work
piece to accommodate pitch circle.
2. Based on the number of holes (4 or 6) to be drilled on the circumference of the pitch
circle of the work piece required pitch distance between each drill centre has been
chosen.
3. By using compass, pitch circle has been drawn with the given dimensions.
4. By using pitch, centre of holes (4 or 6) that has to be drilled on the circumference of
pitch circle has been marked according to the above calculated pitch distance.
5. Drill bit of required diameter is hold to the drilling machine.
6. Work piece is adjusted on the work table of drilling machine and drilling has been
performed in the places of punch marks.

RESULT:
The work piece with the given dimensions of pitch circle and holes has been done.






















PITCH CIRCLE DRILLING


ALL DIMENSTIONS ARE IN mm










ALL DIMENSTIONS ARE IN mm



















RADIAL DRILLING MACHINE


PILLER DRILLING MACHINE






5. PLAIN MILLING MACHINE
AIM :

To machine a given hexagonal surface in a given work piece using milling machine.

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:

Milling Machine, Vernier caliper, Steel rule, Adaptor type end mill, Compass, Divider,
Center punch.

PROCEDURE :

1. The given work piece is checked for its dimensions.

2. The width across the flat is first determined ( Across flat = 1.5 S + 3 mm )

3. A universal dividing head is mounted on the table with its spindle swiveled to the horizontal
position.

4. The work piece is mounted at the nose of the dividing head spindle by the help of a suitable
chuck.

5. The work piece is centered below the cutter and the first cut is taken.

6. The work piece is rotated through one sixth of a revolution by using the indexing mechanism
and then the second cut is taken. It is to be repeated for six number of times to finish six
faces of the work piece.




FORMULA USED:
Pitch Distance = 2 R / N
N = Number of Side
R = Radius of cylindrical work piece

RESULT :

Thus the required hexagonal surface is machined using the milling machine to the
given dimensions.


















HEXAGONAL PLAIN MILLING











ALL DIMENSTIONS ARE IN mm
S
=
2
0





























6. CYLINDRICAL GRINDING MACHINE


AIM:

To grind the cylindrical surface work piece to the required dimensions using
cylindrical grinding machine.

MATERIALS REQUIRED:
Mild steel iron rod
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:

1. Cylindrical Grinding machine.
2. Micrometer.
3. Turning tool.
4. Grinding wheel.
5. Center drill bit.
6. Vernier caliper.
PROCEDURE:

1. The given work piece is checked for its initial dimensions.
2. Initially facing and turning is done on the work piece in lathe machine.
3. The permanent magnet worktable is cleaned thoroughly.
4. Keep the work piece over the worktable and push the lever to ON position to hold
the work piece.
5. The required depth of cut is adjusted and feed is given to the work piece by two hand
motion.
6. The reciprocating and cross feed is given to grind the required length and width of the
work piece respectively.
7. The friction developed between the work piece and grinding wheel is reduced by
using the coolant.
8. Finally, the finished work piece is checked for the given dimensions.



RESULT:

Thus the given cylindrical work piece is grind to the required dimension using
cylindrical grinding machine.















70
5
0
70
5
0
10 90.01





















Plane Surface machine







7. FABRICATION OF AEROFOIL
AIM:
To make aircraft wing with aerofoil shape by using Aluminum sheet.

TOOLS REQUIRED:

1. Aluminum Sheet
2. Scriber
3. Pencil
4. 2.5 mm blind rivets
5. 3mm drill bit
6. Hand drill machine
7. Mallet
8. Smooth files
9. Hand shear cutter

THEORY
Airfoil Nomenclature

1. C- chord length length from the LE to the TE of a wing cross section that is parallel
to the vertical axis of symmetry
2. MCL - Mean camber line line halfway between the upper and lower surfaces
3. LE -leading edge is the front most point on the mean camber line, trailing edge (TE)
is the most rearward point on mean camber line.
4. CB - camber maximum distance between the mean camber line and the chord line,
measured perpendicular to the chord line.
5. UCB - camber or uncambered means the airfoil is symmetric above and below the
chord line
6. T- thickness distance between upper surface and lower surface measured
perpendicular to the mean camber line












PROCEDURE:
1. Auto Cad drawing of aero foil with the given coordinates in three numbers are taken on
white paper and pasted to the no 1 Aluminum sheet which are having 6mm thickness.
2. By using the scriber markings are made on the aluminum sheet with respect to the shape of
the aero foils.
3. By using the hand shear cutter, aluminum sheets are cut in the shape of aero foils ( two web
plates and one scroll plate).
4. By using the scriber and dot punch marking the pitch dimensions around the edges of the
aero foil web plate and scroll plates.
5. All the marked pitch distances are drilled with 4mm diameter drill bit.
6. The scroll plate is wrapped around the web plates by using mallet.
7. Now the blind riveting is done on the scroll and web plates and to form as wing shape.
RESULT:
The aircraft wings aero foil has been made with given dimensions.




















AEROFOIL SCROLL PLATE LAYOUT



ALL DIMENSTIONS ARE IN mm









AEROFOIL WEB PLATE LAYOUT


ALL DIMENSTIONS ARE IN mm