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# The Earth Rotation On Its Axis

Earth's rotation is the rotation of the solid Earth around its own axis. The axis is a fixed line
through the center of the Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole. The Earth rotates from
the west towards the east. As viewed from the North Star or polestar Polaris, the Earth turns
counter-clockwise. One complete rotation of the Earth on its axis is equal to one day or about 24
hours.
The Earths rotation on its axis causes day and night. As it rotates, not all places on the Earths
surface can receive light from the Sun at the same time. Only the part of the Earth that faces the
Sun gets lighted. In that part of the Earth it is daytime. Places that do not face the Sun are dark.
In these places it is nighttime.

The Earth Revolution around the Sun
The Earth rotates on its axis and at the same time it revolves around the Sun. It revolves around
the Sun in an elliptical path called the orbit. One complete revolution of the Earth around the
Sun is equal to one year or 365 days. It revolves around the Sun in a clockwise direction.
As the Earth revolves around the Sun, it rotates on its axis about 365.25 times. That is about a
quarter of a day more than the 365 days that makes up a year. It takes about four years until an
extra rotation makes up one whole day. We call the year with this extra day in the month of
February a leap year.

The Moons Revolution around the Earth
The moon is the satellite of the Earth. It can easily be seen in the sky. It shines by the Suns
reflected light. It takes 29 days for the moon to revolve around Earth from west to east.
As the Earth revolves around the Sun, it is also rotates on its axis. The moon also revolves
around the Earth so the same side of the moon faces the Earth all the time.

The Phases of the Moon
The diagram below shows the different positions of the moon around the Earth with reference to
the Sun. Note the lighted part in each position of the moon.
Just like the Earth, the moon does not have its own light. It reflects light from the Sun. The
shape of the moon you see depends on its position in relation to the Sun and the Earth. The
shape of the moon that you see is called its phase.
When the moon is between the Sun and the Earth, the side that faces the Earth is not lighted so
we do not see it. This phase is called new moon. The shape of the moon does not change. As it
revolves around the Earth we see more of its lighted part. Then we see less and less of its
lighted part. That is why its shape appears to change. This is what we call phases of the moon.

Solar Eclipse

Penumbra - is the region in which only a portion of the light source is obscured by the occluding
body. An observer in the penumbra experiences a partial eclipse.
Umbra - is the innermost and darkest part of a shadow, where the light source is completely
blocked by the occluding body. An observer in the umbra experiences a total eclipse.

Casting of a shadow by one heavenly body upon another is called an eclipse. The eclipse of the
Sun is called Solar Eclipse and it occur when the moon passes between the Sun and the Earth.
The moon casts a shadow on the Earth.
A total solar eclipse occurs when the umbra of the moons shadow covers a region on
the surface of the Earth.

A partial solar eclipse occurs when the penumbra of the moons shadow passes over a
region on the Earths surface.

An annular solar eclipse occurs when a region on the Earths surface is in line with the
umbra but the distance is such that the tip of the umbra does not reach the Earths
surface.

Lunar Eclipse

Sun Earth moon

The eclipse of the moon is called lunar eclipse. A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the moon
passes through some portions of the Earths shadow. This can only happen when the Sun,
Earth, and moon are aligned, with Earth in the middle.
During a lunar eclipse, the moon turns dark. The Earths shadow falls on the moon. When the
moon moves through the Earths shadow or umbra, a total lunar eclipse occurs. When the moon
moves through the Earths penumbra, a partial lunar eclipse occurs.

The Earth,
Moon,
and Sun

REIGN JOY H. MALLARI