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PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.

GGASHRAERadiantEnergySeminar 1
Center for the Built Environment October 2013 1
Center for the Built Environment October 2013
Radiant Cooling Design:
Performance Prediction and
Modeling Methods
Jingjuan (Dove) Feng, PhD Candidate
Center for the Built Environment
University of California Berkeley
Center for the Built Environment October 2013 2
Agenda
Background
Cooling load prediction methods and tools
Whats available and whats been used?
Are they accurate?
Investigation by experiment and simulation
Design recommendations
Cooling load prediction method
Modeling tool selection
Implications for sizing
Modeling for code compliance and LEED
Cooling
load
analysis
Cooling
load
analysis
Radiant
system
sizing
Radiant
system
sizing
Modeling
tools
Modeling
tools
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
GGASHRAERadiantEnergySeminar 2
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Backgrounds: Air systems vs. Radiant systems
Air systems
Ventilation + space
conditioning
Design to meet a single peak
cooling load value
Remove heat using
convection
Radiant systems
Decoupled ventilation and
space conditioning
Allow pre-conditioning the
radiant layer
Remove heat using
convection + radiation
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1. Is the cooling load the same for radiant
systems as for air systems?
2. Can we use the same method to size radiant
system as air system?
3. Which modeling tools can be used to assist
design?
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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What methods and tools are available and being used ?
Literature review
ASHRAE HOF (2013)
ISO 11855 (2012)
RHVEA Guidebook
Price Engineer's HVAC Handbook
(2011)
Case studies + Survey
5 case studies
11 responses from designers from
Europe and North America
1)ASHRAEHOF;2)ISO11855(2012)
Casestudybuildinglist
Buildingnames
BankokAirport
DavidBrowerCenter
Walmartatsacramento
ManitobaHydro
NRELResearchSupportFacility
WilliamJeffersonClinton
PresidentialLibrary
LobbyofHearstheadquarters
SMUDbuildingofficearea
StMeinradArchabbeychurch
applications Loadfeatures Radsystemtype
Lobby/atrium solar+stratification radiantfloor
office Typical radiantceilingslab
retailwithskylight Typical radiantfloorcooling
office Typical TABSceiling
office Typical radiantslabceiling
Lobby/atrium
Typical
load+stratification radiantfloor
Lobby/atrium solar+stratification radiantfloor
office Typical radiantceilingslab
Church
Typical
load+stratification radiantfloor
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Available cooling load prediction methods/tools
Method Tools
#1 Heat gain Ignorethermalmasseffect Spreadsheet
#2 Simplified
methods
RTS,CLTD/CLF/SCL,weighting
factormethod, etc.
(airsystemonly)
TRACE,DOE2,
eQUEST,etc.
#3 HB method Radiantsystemsimulated
with dynamicsimulationtool
EnergyPlus,IESVE,
TRNSYS,etc.
#4 Non
traditional
Usedmostlyfor applications
withintensivesolarand
stratification
Solar simulation
tools,CFD
#5 ISO11855
(2012)
Diagrambasedondesign
dayenergygain,operation
hour,andetc. (TABSonly)
Proprietarytools
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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Thermal load analysis method/tool in practice
13 out of 16 designers we interviewed assume the same cooling load
for radiant systems as air systems
Radiant cooled surfaces were not directly modeled
Directlyuseheat
gain
37%
Simplified
method(Trane
Trace)
38%
ISO11855
method
0%
Dynamic
simula on
tool
19%
Nontradi onal
method(CFD,
etc)
6%
Typicaldesign
N=16
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Differences between Heat gain and cooling load
Thermalmasseffectforconvectionbased(air)system
(source:ASHRAEFundamental2013)
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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Space cooling load definition
All-air systems
Cooling load
Heat gain removed by convection only
Maintain fixed setpoint temperature
Radiant heat gain
Absorbed by non-active thermal mass
Released as convective heat gain after time delay
Radiant systems
Cooling load
Heat gain removed by radiation and convection at
active chilled surface
Maintain operative temperature within comfort
zone
Radiant heat gain
Becomes cooling load instantly
What is the difference in cooling load for radiant vs. air systems?
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Are they the same?
Cooling load
RADIANT
Cooling load
AIR
Laboratory testing and simulation study will compare the
following:
Instantaneous cooling rate
peak cooling rate
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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Laboratory testing: Cooling load comparison
Objectives
Verify that cooling loads for radiant system are different from air system
Experimental approach
Concrete blocks (thermal mass) on floor with heating mats on top
(internal heat gain)
Conduct 12-hour tests with heaters on for 6 hours and off for 6 hours
Radiant chilled ceiling panels
Overhead air system
Maintain the same operative temperature
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Test chamber configurations
Feng,J.Bauman,F.andSchiavon,S.(2013)Experimentalcomparisonofzonecoolingloadbetweenradiant
andairsystems,TobesubmittedtoEnergyandBuilding.
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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Experimental results: Operative temperature
Maintain the same thermal comfort level
Control to the same operative temperature at 24C (75.2 F )
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Experimental results: Instantaneous cooling rate
Radiant system has a higher cooling rate than the air system
18% higher during hour 6 (peak cooling load)
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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Radiant system removes heat faster during heater-on period
Radiant system removes 82%
of total heat gain
Air system removes 63.3%
of total heat gain
Experimental results: Total energy removal
Heateronperiod
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Simulation study of different design cases
Radiant system types
Radiant panel/Lightweight radiant
slab/Heavyweight radiant slab
Parameters studied
Thermal insulation
Building mass
Radiative/convective
split of internal load
Solar heat gain
Active ceiling/floor
Cooling design day simulation
Window Window
BC: adiabatic
Window Window
BC: adiabatic
BC: adiabatic
hw_r2: R=2.20 (m2-K/W)
hw_r1: R=1.20 (m2-K/W)
BC: adiabatic
Wall: L1: Concrete block
L2: Foaminsulation
L1: Concrete slab
L2: Insulation
L3: Wood siding
Flr:
hw_r2: heavyweight Lw_r2: lightweight
Wall: L1: Plaster board
L2: Fiberglass quilt
L1: Timber flooring
L2: Insulation
L3: Wood siding
Flr:
BC: adiabatic
rad0: 0%radiant
BC: adiabatic
rad0.6: 60%radiant
rad0.3: 30%radiant
rad1.0: 100%radiant
BC: environment
G1: insulation G2: building mass
G3 :Int. heat gain G4 :ceiling with solar
cl_noshade: No shade cl_shade:Exterior shade
flr_noshade: No shade flr_shade:Exterior shade
G5 :floor with solar
Real Window
BC: adiabatic
G6 :typical
cl_shade_rad0.6
Feng,J., Schiavon,S.andBauman,F.(2013)Coolingloaddifferencesbetweenradiantandairsystems,
EnergyandBuildings,65,310321.
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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Results: Peak cooling load
Higher peak cooling load for studied cases:
Interior space: 7-27%
Perimeter space without solar: 12-35%
Perimeter space with solar: 48-85%
Implications
Minimize solar load for design
Especially effective for removing solar load
High peak load high energy consumption!
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Why are they different?
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AirSystem
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PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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Comparison of cooling load profiles
Caseexample:Internalloadonly_radiative fraction=0.6
AirSystem
RadiantSystem
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What about cooling load
prediction methods and
modeling tools?
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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ASHRAE cooling load prediction methods
Heat balance (HB) method
Based on first principles
EnergyPlus 8.0
Radiant time series (RTS) method/weighting factor method
Convective heat gain instantaneous cooling load
Radiative heat gain convective cooling load with delay
CTF/RTF Generator and excel (or TRACE )
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Quote: ASHRAE HOF chapter 19
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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Measured vs. Prediction based on HB method
EnergyPlus v8.0 model was developed to apply the HB method
Match well with air system cooling load
Radiant system cooling load: heat removed by the radiant ceiling panels
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Measured vs. Prediction based on RTS method
RTS method cannot predict cooling load correctly for the test
chamber configuration
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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Modeling tool selection
Tools Modeling method Capabilityto capturethe
radiantdynamic
IES (VE) HBmethod
TRNSYS HBmethod
EnergyPlus HB method
ESPr HBmethod
DOE2 Weighting factormethod
eQUEST Weighting factormethod
TRACE RTSmethod orTFmethod
Makesureto:1)Modeltheradiantsourceasaroomsurface;
2)Definecoolingloadcorrectly
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Design radiant floor cooling systems with solar load
Applications
Spaces with large glazed surfaces,
such as atria, perimeter areas, etc.
Guidance is limited with solar
Maximum cooling capacity in
standard: 42 W/m
2
(13 Btu/h.ft
2
)
With solar: 100 W/m
2
(32 Btu/h.ft
2
)
Akronartmuseum,OH
B.Olesen,ASHRAEJournal(2008).
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Simulated capacity vs. standard without solar
Simulated capacity matches well with standard capacity curve
without solar
Standard capac|ty curue
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Simulated capacity vs. standard with solar
Cooling capacity can reach 130 W/m
2
(42 Btu/h.ft
2
)
Standard capac|ty curue
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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Air system size: Simulated: 20 W/m
2
(6.4 Btu/h.ft
2
)
Guideline: 86 W/m
2
(27.5 Btu/h.ft
2
)
Impact on air system sizing
Coolingcapacityhighlimitwithoutsolar42W/m
2
peakcoolingload:128W/m
2
(41Btu/h.ft
2
)
Radiantcoolingcapacity:108W/m
2
(34.5Btu/h.ft
2
)
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Modeling for code compliance
and beyond code program
PerformancePredictionandModeling JingjuanFeng,PhDCand.
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Title 24 (2013): Radiant floor cooling system
Modeling requirements for compliance evaluation
EnergyPlus will be available for code compliance (CBECC-Com) , Jan 2014,
http://www.bees.archenergy.com
Items ModelingInputRestrictions
Temperaturecontrol Meanairtemperature
Hydronic TubingInsideDiameter
Betweenaminimumof1/2anda
maximumof
TemperatureControl
FixedatMeanAirTemperaturefor
compliancecalculations
CondensationControlDewpoint
Offset
Minimumcoldwatersupply
Temperaturefixedat2Fabovedewpoint
CoolingLowWaterTemperature 55F
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LEED
LEED topics
Possible
points
Energy& Atmosphere
Credit1:Optimizeenergyperformance
Credit 3:Enhancedcommissioning
Credit4:Enhancedrefrigerantmanagement
Credit5:Measurement&verification
26
IndoorEnvironmentalQuality
Credit1:Outdoorairdeliveringmonitoring
Credit2:Increasedventilation
Credit3:ConstructionIAQplan
Credit6.2:Controllabilityofsystems thermalcomfort
Credit7:Thermalcomfort Design&Verification
6
Innovationindesign 5
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Key takeaway
Cooling load prediction and modeling method for radiant systems
Use design tools based on heat balance approach
Define cooling load as heat removed by actively cooled surface(s),i.e. , radiant
source should be modeled
RTS or weighting factor method, may lead to incorrect results
Peak cooling loads may be higher than air systems, but
Radiant systems are known to be more energy efficient
Under some operating strategies radiant systems will have lower peak
cooling loads (e.g., nighttime pre-cooling).
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Acknowledgments
California Energy Commission (CEC) Public Interest Energy
Research (PIER) Buildings Program.
Center for the Built Environment, University of California, Berkeley
(www.cbe.berkeley.edu).
Julian Rimmer, Brad Tully, and Tom Epp of Price Industries for the
use of their Hydronic Test Chamber in Winnipeg.
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Radiant system building project
Link to the map: http://bit.ly/RadiantBuildingsCBE
Link to the form: http://bit.ly/RadiantFormCBE
Contact: Caroline Karmann, ckarmann@berkeley.edu
Fred Baumann, fbauman@berkeley.edu
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Questions?
Jingjuan (Dove) Feng
jjfeng@berkeley.edu
Fred Bauman
fbauman@berkeley.edu
Stefano Schiavon
sschiavon@berkeley.edu